Sample records for radioactively contaminated materials

  1. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  2. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  3. IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

  4. Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř-R-462 Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory after Core-melt Accidents at the Barsebäck;#12;RIS0-R-462 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF DANISH TERRITORY AFTER CORE-MELT ACCIDENTS AT THE BARSEBACK. An assessment is made of the radioactive contamination of Danish territory in the event of a core-melt accident

  5. Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    » & Risř-R-462 Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory after Core-melt Accidents 1982 Risř National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark #12;RISŘ-R-462 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION contamination of Danish territory in the event of a core-melt accident at the Barseback nuclear power plant

  6. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  7. Radioactive Materials License Commitments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive Materials License Commitments for The University of Texas at Austin May 2009 July 2009 in the use of radioactive materials. In July 1963, the State of Texas granted The University of Texas at Austin a broad radioactive materials license for research, development and instruction. While this means

  8. RESRAD-BUILD: A computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.J.; Jones, L.G. [and others

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The transport of radioactive material inside the building from one compartment to another is calculated with an indoor air quality model. The air quality model considers the transport of radioactive dust particulates and radon progeny due to air exchange, deposition and resuspension, and radioactive decay and ingrowth. A single run of the RESRAD-BUILD code can model a building with up to: three compartments, 10 distinct source geometries, and 10 receptor locations. A shielding material can be specified between each source-receptor pair for external gamma dose calculations. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure to materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces of the building compartments. 4 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Researchers at Montana State University and Idaho National Lab have developed a process to effectively and efficiently clean natural and man-made porous material of radioactive contamination. The system eliminates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    to effectively and efficiently clean natural and man-made porous material of radioactive contamination. The system eliminates the practice of full demolition and removal of contaminated objects and can address contaminated substrate. Thus, building walls (interior or exterior), floors and ceilings can be remediated

  10. Radiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    · Check all incoming radioactive packages for contamination · Survey all radioactive materials labs) · Sealed sources ­ Nickel-63 (Gas chromatograph) ­ Cesium-137 (Liquid Scintillation Counter) ­ Neutron · CONTAMINATION CONTROL IS THE KEY · Should not leave room until surveyed by ORS #12;Protective Measures ·· Time

  11. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  12. RESRAD Computer Code- Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989.

  13. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Cancels DOE M 460.2-1.

  14. Management of Transuranic Contaminated Material

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish guidelines for the generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) contaminated material.

  15. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  16. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  17. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  18. Surface Contamination Surface contamination from radioactive isotopes is a source of background in the Borex-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 5 Surface Contamination Surface contamination from radioactive isotopes is a source of background in the Borex- ino detector. Surface contaminants can be in the form of macroscopic dust particles contamination is primarily a problem because the radioactive contaminants can be trans- ferred from the surfaces

  19. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  20. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  1. Radioactive Samples / Materials at the APS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Radioactive Samples Materials at the APS The use of radioactive samples requires additional information for review and approval. All proposed experiments involving...

  2. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  3. Radioactive Materials Manual Scope and Applicability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    material. Radioactive material covered includes all sealed and unsealed sources. Sealed sources of radioactive material contained within machinery such as liquid scintillation counters, gas chromatographs radioactive material, such as x-ray equipment, electron microscopes, lasers, and radio-frequency generators

  4. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Contamination surveys for release of material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, J.S.; Johnson, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes, and presents the technical basis for, a methodology for performing instrument surveys to release material from radiological control, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology is based on a fast scan survey, a large-area wipe survey, and a series of statistical, fixed measurements. The methodology meets the requirements of the US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for release of material in less time than is required by a conventional scan survey. Implementation of the proposed methodology with a confidence interval of 67% will meet the material release requirements. The material evaluation process will allow material that has not been exposed to contamination to be released from radiological control without a survey. For potential radioactive contaminants that are not reserved in DOE Order 5400.5, the methodology will allow material to be released from radiological control. For other radionuclides, with the exception of some difficult-to-detect radionuclides, material may be released for controlled use. Compared with current techniques, the proposed methodology will reduce the amount of time required to perform surveys.

  6. Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, J.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

  7. Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

  8. Radiation Machines and Radioactive Materials (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These chapters describe general provisions and regulatory requirements; registration, licensure, and transportation of radioactive materials; and exposure standards for radiation protection.

  9. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Belli; R. Bernabei; F. Cappella; R. Cerulli; F. A. Danevich; A. M. Dubovik; S. d'Angelo; E. N. Galashov; B. V. Grinyov; A. Incicchitti; V. V. Kobychev; M. Laubenstein; L. L. Nagornaya; F. Nozzoli; D. V. Poda; R. B. Podviyanuk; O. G. Polischuk; D. Prosperi; V. N. Shlegel; V. I. Tretyak; I. A. Tupitsyna; Ya. V. Vasiliev; Yu. Ya. Vostretsov

    2010-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 -- 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopurity level of the ZnWO4 crystal scintillators is briefly addressed.

  10. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Dubovik, A M; d'Angelo, S; Galashov, E N; Grinyov, B V; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagornaya, L L; Nozzoli, F; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Prosperi, D; Shlegel, V N; Tretyak, V I; Tupitsyna, I A; Vasiliev, Ya V; Vostretsov, Yu Ya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 â?? 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopur...

  11. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to! We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these radionuclides. We will then review some of the industrial sectors affected by TENORM, followed by a brief discussion on regulatory aspects of the issue.

  12. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  13. Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dispersible radioactive material must be placed in rigid, leak- tight inner containers (e.g., durable screw-top sample jars). Non-dispersible radioactive material may...

  14. Central Storage for Unsealed Radioactive Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Central Storage for Unsealed Radioactive Materials Radiation Safety Form PERMIT HOLDER NAME:______________________________ PHONE #: ____________________________ ADDRESS/DEPT.: _______________________________ Storage Location: Refrigerator Freezer Dry Storage List each item being transferred to storage separately: EH&S LAB WIPE SURVEY

  15. Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belmonte, Mark S. (Irwin, PA); Davis, James H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Williams, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

  16. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  17. Measurement of residual radioactive surface contamination by 2-D laser heated TLD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.C.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of applying and adapting a two-dimensional laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry system to the problem of surveying for radioactive surface contamination was studied. The system consists of a CO{sub 2} laser-based reader and monolithic arrays of thin dosimeter elements. The arrays consist of 10,201 thermoluminescent phosphor elements of 40 micron thickness, covering a 900 cm{sup 2} area. Array substrates are 125 micron thick polyimide sheets, enabling them to easily conform to regular surface shapes, especially for survey of surfaces that are inaccessible for standard survey instruments. The passive, integrating radiation detectors are sensitive to alpha and beta radiation at contamination levels below release guideline limits. Required contact times with potentially contaminated surfaces are under one hour to achieve detection of transuranic alpha emission at 100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Positional information obtained from array evaluation is useful for locating contamination zones. Unique capabilities of this system for survey of sites, facilities and material include measurement inside pipes and other geometrical configurations that prevent standard surveys, and below-surface measurement of alpha and beta emitters in contaminated soils. These applications imply a reduction of material that must be classified as radioactive waste by virtue of its possibility of contamination, and cost savings in soil sampling at contaminated sites.

  18. Radioactive contamination of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belli, P; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Galenin, E; Gektin, A; Incicchitti, A; Isaienko, V; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Podviyanuk, R B; Tkachenko, S; Tretyak, V I

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI2(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to characterisation that included relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for gamma quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both in scintillation mode and by using ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI2(Eu) detector to alpha particles (alpha/beta ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the 226Ra trace contamination internal to the crystal. We have found alpha/beta=0.55 and no difference in scintillation decay for alpha particles and gamma quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in 84Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity T_1/2 \\sim 10^15-10^16 yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation appli...

  19. 'Supergel' System Cleans Radioactively Contaminated Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials

  20. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  1. Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

  2. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  3. RADTRAN3. Radioactive Material Transport Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, M.M.; Taylor, J.M.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Reardon, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RADTRAN3 is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, ingestion, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN3 can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  4. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, Donald G. (Bayport, NY); Davis, Mary S. (Wading River, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  5. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  6. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  7. Cask for radioactive material and method for preventing release of neutrons from radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaffney, M.F.; Shaffer, P.T.

    1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A cask for radioactive material, such as nuclear reactor fuel or spent nuclear reactor fuel, includes a plurality of associated walled internal compartments for containing such radioactive material, with neutron absorbing material present to absorb neutrons emitted by the radioactive material, and a plurality of thermally conductive members, such as longitudinal copper or aluminum castings, about the compartment and in thermal contact with the compartment walls and with other such thermally conductive members and having thermal contact surfaces between such members extending, preferably radially, from the compartment walls to external surfaces of the thermally conductive members, which surfaces are preferably in the form of a cylinder. The ends of the shipping cask also preferably include a neutron absorber and a conductive metal covering to dissipate heat released by decay of the radioactive material. A preferred neutron absorber utilized is boron carbide, preferably as plasma sprayed with metal powder or as particles in a matrix of phenolic polymer, and the compartment walls are preferably of stainless steel, copper or other corrosion resistant and heat conductive metal or alloy. The invention also relates to shipping casks, storage casks and other containers for radioactive materials in which a plurality of internal compartments for such material, e.g., nuclear reactor fuel rods, are joined together, preferably in modular construction with surrounding heat conductive metal members, and the modules are joined together to form a major part of a finished shipping cask, which is preferably of cylindrical shape. Also within the invention are methods of safely storing radioactive materials which emit neutrons, while dissipating the heat thereof, and of manufacturing the present shipping casks.

  8. RECLAMATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive material packages are withdrawn from use for various reasons; loss of mission, decertification, damage, replacement, etc. While the packages themselves may be decertified, various components may still be able to perform to their required standards and find useful service. The Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems group of the Savannah River National Laboratory has been reducing the cost of producing new Type B Packagings by reclaiming, refurbishing, and returning to service the containment vessels from older decertified packagings. The program and its benefits are presented.

  9. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

  10. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

  11. A preliminary evaluation of the economic risk for cleanup of nuclear material licensee contamination incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostmeyer, R.M.; Skinner, D.J.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents an analysis of the economic risks from nuclear material licensee contamination incidents. The results of the analyses are intended to provide a technical basis for an NRC rulemaking which would require nuclear material licensees to demonstrate adequate financial means to cover the cleanup costs for accidental or inadvertant release of radioactive materials. The important products of this effort include (1) a method for categorizing licensees according to the potential cost and frequency of contamination incidents, (2) a model for ranking the categories of licensees according to potential incident costs, and (3) estimates of contamination risk for the licensee categories.

  12. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julianne J. Miller, Steve A. Mizell, Greg McCurdy, and Scott A. Campbell

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Management’s Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, CAU 370, suggest that radioactive material may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Although DRI initially looked at the CAU 370 site, given that it could not be confirmed that migration of contamination into the channel was natural, an alternate study site was selected at CAU 550. Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radioactivity may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). Figure 1 shows the results of a low-elevation aerial survey (Colton, 1999) in Area 8. The numbered markers in Figure 1 identify ground zero for three safety experiments conducted in 1958 [Oberon (number 1), Ceres (number 2), and Titania (number 4)] and a weapons effects test conducted in 1964, Mudpack (number 3). This survey suggests contaminants may be migrating down the ephemeral channels that traverse CAU 550. Note particularly the lobe of higher concentration extending southeastward at the south end of the high concentration area marked as number 3 in Figure 1. CAU 550 in Area 8 of the NNSS was selected for the study because the aerial survey indicates that a channel mapped on the United States Geological Survey topographic map of the area traverses the south end of the area of surface contamination; this channel lies south of the point marked number 3 in Figure 1, and anecdotal information indicates that sediment has been deposited on the road bordering the southeast boundary of the CAU from an adjacent channel (Traynor, J, personal communication, 2011). Because contamination is particularly close to the boundary of CAU 550, Smoky CA, it is important to know if contaminants are moving, what meteorological conditions result in movement of contaminated soils, and what particle size fractions associated with contamination are involved. Closure plans are being developed for the CAUs on the NNSS. The closure plans may include post-closure monitoring for possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of contaminated soils under ambient climatic conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  13. DOE/NNSA Recovers One Millionth Curie of Radioactive Material...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    were part of DOENNSA's global campaign to prevent terrorists from acquiring nuclear and radiological material. The radioactive source that achieved the millionth curie milestone...

  14. Base Technology for Radioactive Material Transportation Packaging Systems

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) policies and responsibilities for coordinating and planning base technology for radioactive material transportation packaging systems.

  15. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada)] [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  16. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

  17. Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near surface waste-storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986 to 1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5 to 15 km from the NPP site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100-years service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste management at the reactor site and in the Exclusion Zone, and especially for high-level and long-lived waste, has not been developed.

  18. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Removal Program and OSRP mission includes removal and disposal of excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national...

  19. Transporting radioactive materials: Q & A to your questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 2 million packages of radioactive materials are shipped each year in the United States. These shipments are carried by trucks, trains, ships, and airplanes every day just like other commodities. Compliance with Federal regulations ensures that radioactive materials are transported safely. Proper packaging is the key to safe shipment. Package designs for radioactive materials must protect the public and the environment even in case of an accident. As the level of radioactivity increases, packaging design requirements become more stringent. Radioactive materials have been shipped in this country for more than 40 years. As with other commodities, vehicles carrying these materials have been involved in accidents. However, no deaths or serious injuries have resulted from exposure to the radioactive contents of these shipments. People are concerned about how radioactive shipments might affect them and the environment. This booklet briefly answers some of the commonly asked questions about the transport of radioactive materials. More detailed information is available from the sources listed at the end of this booklet.

  20. Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

  1. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

  2. Packaging, Transportation, and Disposal Logistics for Large Radioactively Contaminated Reactor Decommissioning Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mark S. [EnergySolutions: 140 Stoneridge Drive, Columbia, SC 29210 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The packaging, transportation and disposal of large, retired reactor components from operating or decommissioning nuclear plants pose unique challenges from a technical as well as regulatory compliance standpoint. In addition to the routine considerations associated with any radioactive waste disposition activity, such as characterization, ALARA, and manifesting, the technical challenges for large radioactively contaminated components, such as access, segmentation, removal, packaging, rigging, lifting, mode of transportation, conveyance compatibility, and load securing require significant planning and execution. In addition, the current regulatory framework, domestically in Titles 49 and 10 and internationally in TS-R-1, does not lend itself to the transport of these large radioactively contaminated components, such as reactor vessels, steam generators, reactor pressure vessel heads, and pressurizers, without application for a special permit or arrangement. This paper addresses the methods of overcoming the technical and regulatory challenges. The challenges and disposition decisions do differ during decommissioning versus component replacement during an outage at an operating plant. During decommissioning, there is less concern about critical path for restart and more concern about volume reduction and waste minimization. Segmentation on-site is an available option during decommissioning, since labor and equipment will be readily available and decontamination activities are routine. The reactor building removal path is also of less concern and there are more rigging/lifting options available. Radionuclide assessment is necessary for transportation and disposal characterization. Characterization will dictate the packaging methodology, transportation mode, need for intermediate processing, and the disposal location or availability. Characterization will also assist in determining if the large component can be transported in full compliance with the transportation and disposal regulations and criteria or if special authorizations must be granted to transport and/or dispose. The U.S. DOT routinely issues special permits for large components where compliance with regulatory or acceptance criteria is impractical or impossible to meet. Transportation and disposal safety must be maintained even under special permits or authorizations. For example, if transported un-packaged, performance analysis must still be performed to assess the ability of the large component's outer steel shell to contain the internal radioactive contamination under normal transportation conditions and possibly incidence normal to transportation. The dimensions and weight of a large component must be considered when determining the possible modes of transportation (rail, water, or highway). At some locations, rail and/or barge access is unavailable. Many locations that once had an active rail spur to deliver new construction materials and components have let the spur deteriorate to the point that repair and upgrade of the spur is no longer economically feasible. Barge slips that have not been used since new plant construction require significant repair and/or dredging. Short on-site haul routes must be assessed for surface and subsurface conditions, as well as longer off-site routes. Off-site routes require clearance approvals from the regulatory authorities or, in the case of rail transport, the rail lines. Significant engineering planning and analysis must be performed during the pre-mobilization. In conclusion, the packaging, transportation, and disposal of large, oversized radioactively contaminated components removed during plant decommissioning is complex. However, over the last 15 years, a 100 or more components have been safely and compliantly packaged and transported for processing and/or disposal.

  3. Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT) [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  4. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  5. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose from both Immediate Releases and Continued Exposures to Contaminated Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, is discussed based upon a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from the damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and NPP decommissioning.

  7. EIS-0084: Incineration Facility for Radioactively Contaminated PCBs and Other Wastes, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Uranium Enrichment and Assessment prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the proposed Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, an incineration facility to dispose of radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biophenyls, as well as combustible waste from the Paducah, Portsmouth and Oak Ridge facilities.

  8. Spatial Data Analysis and Modeling of Radioactively-Contaminated Territories: Lessons Learned from Chernobyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernobyl M. Kanevski1 , L. Bolshov2 , V. Demyanov3 , E. Savelieva4 , V. Timonin5 , S. Chernov6 Abstract territories after the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl accident resulted in radioactive contamination, concerning environmental spatial data analysis. The spatial patterns of the Chernobyl fallout are very

  9. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  10. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  11. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  12. EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S.ContaminationJuly 2011D APPENDIX D9 STAT.BPA's10Y-12 Steam Plant Life 230-kVEast

  13. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  14. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  15. Working with Radioactive Materials in Clinical Areas -Documentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Working with Radioactive Materials in Clinical Areas - Documentation Procedure: 7.54 Created: 2008 ­ Documentation A. Purpose This SOP summarizes records that must be maintained as required by the Rules. Responsibility Authorized User, approved technologist or lab manager ­ maintain records of receipt, use, spill

  16. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  17. Radioactive Materials Emergencies Course Presentation | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy Small Team OversightDepartmentofEnergy 5/13/11Energy Materials

  18. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantut, L; Dougan, A; Hemberger, P; Kravenchenko, Gromov, A; Martin, D; Pohl, B; Richardson, J H; Williams, H; York, R; Zaitsev, E

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program.

  19. Use of inelastic design for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinstein, M.W.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is much interest within the radioactive material transportation container design community in the use of inelastic analysis. In other industries where inelastic analysis is used in design there is typically an improved knowledge of the capacity of the structure and a more efficient use of material. This report describes the results of a program in which the incentives for inelastic analysis for radioactive material transport container design were investigated to determine if there are similar benefits. Detailed are the elastic and inelastic analyses of two containers subjected to impacts onto a rigid target following a thirty-foot free fall in end-on, side-on, and center-of-gravity- over-corner orientations.

  20. Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 157-8550 (Japan); Jinbo, Y. [CDM Cosulting Co.Ltd., 1-13-13 Tsukiji Chuo-ku Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Ishido, A. [Radwaste and Decommissioning Center, 1-7-6 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

  1. Concluding Remarks In this work, we have explored in depth many types of radioactive contamination that are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concluding Remarks In this work, we have explored in depth many types of radioactive contamination!) of 14C per gram of carbon. Sensitivities to uranium and thorium in a 5-kg sample, assuming secular

  2. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  3. Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. O'Keeffe; T. H. Burritt; B. T. Cleveland; G. Doucas; N. Gagnon; N. A. Jelley; C. Kraus; I. T. Lawson; S. Majerus; S. R. McGee; A. W. Myers; A. W. P. Poon; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; R. C. Rosten; L. C. Stonehill; B. A. VanDevender; T. D. Van Wechel

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two `hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the He-3 proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

  4. Benchmarking of finite element codes for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increased power of computers and computer codes makes the use of nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses attractive for use as a tool used in the design and certification of radioactive material transportation packages. For this analysis technique to be acceptable it must be demonstrated. The technique has the ability to accurately capture the response of the packages to accident environments required by the regulations. The best method of demonstrating this ability is via a series of benchmark analyses. In this paper three benchmark problems involving significant inelastic deformations will be discussed. One of the problems has been analyzed using many different finite element codes. The other two problems involve comparison of finite element calculations to the results form physical tests. The ability of the finite element method to accurately capture the response in these three problems indicates the method should be acceptable for radioactive material transportation package design and certification.

  5. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  6. August 1999 Radiation Safety Manual Section 12 Shipment of Radioactive Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    August 1999 Radiation Safety Manual Section 12 ­ Shipment of Radioactive Materials UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 12-1 Section 12 Shipment of Radioactive Materials Contents A. Shipping Regulations regulations for the safe transportation of radioactive materials. These regulations are adopted from those

  7. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  8. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  9. DEMONSTRATION SOLIDIFICATION TESTS CONDUCTED ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED ORGANIC LIQUIDS AT THE AECL WHITESHELL LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryz, R. A.; Brunkow, W. G.; Govers, R.; Campbell, D.; Krause, D.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The AECL, Whiteshell Laboratory (WL) near Pinawa Manitoba, Canada, was established in the early 1960's to carry out AECL research and development activities for higher temperature versions of the CANDU{reg_sign} reactor. The initial focus of the research program was the Whiteshell Reactor-1 (WR-1) Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR) that began operation in 1965. The OCR program was discontinued in the early 1970's in favor of the successful heavy-water-cooled CANDU system. WR-1 continued to operate until 1985 in support of AECL nuclear research programs. A consequence of the Federal government's recent program review process was AECL's business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at the Whiteshell Laboratories and to consolidate its' activities at the Chalk River Laboratories. As a result, AECL received government concurrence in 1998 to proceed to plan actions to achieve closure of WL. The planning actions now in progress address the need to safely and effectively transition the WL site from an operational state, in support of AECL's business, to a shutdown and decommissioned state that meets the regulatory requirements for a licensed nuclear site. The decommissioning program that will be required at WL is unique within AECL and Canada since it will need to address the entire research site rather than individual facilities declared redundant. Accordingly, the site nuclear facilities are being systematically placed in a safe shutdown state and planning for the decommissioning work to place the facilities in a secure monitoring and surveillance state is in progress. One aspect of the shutdown activities is to deal with the legacy of radioactively contaminated organic liquid wastes. Use of a polymer powder to solidify these organic wastes was identified as one possibility for improved interim storage of this material pending final disposition.

  10. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  11. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon CCDs of the DAMIC experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Bertou, X; Bole, D; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Vázquez, A Castańeda; Chavarria, A E; Neto, J R T de Mello; Dixon, S; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Moroni, G Fernandez; Torres, K P Hernández; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Liao, J; López, M; Molina, J; Moreno-Granados, G; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Sarkis, Y; Scarpine, V; Schwarz, T; Haro, M Sofo; Tiffenberg, J; Machado, D Torres; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through $\\alpha$ spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the $^{238}$U ($^{232}$Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from $^{32}$Si-$^{32}$P or $^{210}$Pb-$^{210}$Bi sequences of $\\beta$ decays. The decay rate of $^{32}$Si was found to be $80^{+110}_{-65}$ kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CI). An upper limit of $\\sim$35 kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CL) on the $^{210}$Pb decay rate was obtained independently by $\\alpha$ spectroscopy and the $\\beta$ decay sequence search. These levels of radioactive contamination are su...

  12. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  13. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass both physical security (hardware and engineering) and administrative procedures. Security regimes for these devices and materials typically use a defense-in-depth- or layered-security approach to eliminate single points of failure. The Department of Energy, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the American Society of Industrial Security (ASIS), the Security Industry Association (SIA) and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) all rovide design guidance and hardware specifications. With a graded approach, a physical-security specialist can tailor an integrated security-management system in the most appropriate cost-effective manner to meet the regulatory and non-regulatory requirements of the licensee or client.

  14. The Radioactivity Characteristics of the NPP Charcoal Sample Contaminated by Carbon-14 - 13531

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactivity of {sup 14}C-contaminated charcoal sample was analyzed by using a high temperature oxidation and liquid scintillation counting method. The radioactivity of the sample was monotonically increased according to the increase of the combustion time at each temperature where the experimental uncertainty was calculated in the 95 % confidence level. It showed that the {sup 14}C radioactivity was not completely extracted from the sample by simply increasing the combustion time unless the combustion temperature was high enough. The higher the combustion temperature was, the higher the recovery during the first 30 minutes was. The first 30 minute recoveries were 100 % at a temperature equal to or greater than 450 deg. C. The ratios of the recovery during the first 30 minutes to the total recovery during whole duration were more than 90 % at each experiment temperature. It was understood that the temperature was a critical factor for the complete removal of the {sup 14}C from the waste sample. (authors)

  15. Modular glovebox connector and associated good practices for control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, M.D.; Mewhinney, C.J.; Newton, G.J. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and associated good practices are described for a modular glovebox connector to improve control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials. The connector consists of an anodized aluminum circular port with a mating spacer, gaskets, and retaining rings for joining two parallel ends of commercially available or custom-manufactured glovebox enclosures. Use of the connector allows multiple gloveboxes to be quickly assembled or reconfigured in functional units. Connector dimensions can be scaled to meet operational requirements for access between gloveboxes. Options for construction materials are discussed, along with recommendations for installation of the connector in new or retrofitted systems. Associated good practices include application of surface coatings and caulking, use of disposable glovebags, and proper selection and protection of gasket and glove materials. Use of the connector at an inhalation toxicology research facility has reduced the time and expense required to reconfigure equipment for changing operational requirements, the dispersion of contamination during reconfigurations, and the need for decommissioning and disposal of contaminated enclosures.

  16. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  17. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and correct.

  18. EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA was being prepared to evaluate potential environmental impacts of a proposal to dispose of nickel scrap that is volumetrically contaminated with radioactive materials and that DOE recovered from equipment it had used in uranium enrichment. This EA is on hold.

  19. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  20. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  1. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  2. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  3. Numerical estimation on free electrons generated by shielded radioactive materials under various gaseous environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D. S. [Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. S.; So, J. H. [Agency for Defence Development (ADD), Daejeon 305-152 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, E. M. [Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report simulation results on generation of free electrons due to the presence of radioactive materials under controlled pressure and gases using a general Monte Carlo transport code (MCNPX). A radioactive material decays to lower atomic number, simultaneously producing high energy gamma rays that can generate free electrons via various scattering mechanisms. This paper shows detailed simulation works for answering how many free electrons can be generated under the existence of shielded radioactive materials as a function of pressure and types of gases.

  4. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  5. Demonstration of a computer model for residual radioactive material guidelines, RESRAD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model was developed to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This model, called RESRAD, can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputer. Seven potential exposure pathways from contaminated soil are analyzed, including external radiation exposure and internal radiation exposure from inhalation and food digestion. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to derive soil cleanup guidelines. The experience gained indicates that a comprehensive set of site-specific hydrogeologic and geochemical input parameters must be used for a realistic pathway analysis. The RESRAD code is a useful tool; it is easy to run and very user-friendly. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  7. Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    form · Separate liquid from solid · Radionuclide · Separate all but H3/C14 #12;#12;Radioactive Waste;Radioactive Waste H3/C14 solids Type B (non-incinerable) metal glass hazardous materials #12;#12;Radioactive#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to

  8. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria for radioactive material transportation containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design criteria currently used in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transportation containers are taken from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME, 1992). These load-based criteria are ideally suited for pressure vessels where the loading is quasistatic and all stresses are in equilibrium with externally applied loads. For impact events, the use of load-based criteria is less supportable. Impact events tend to be energy controlled, and thus, energy-based acceptance criteria would appear to be more appropriate. Determination of an ideal design criteria depends on what behavior is desired. Currently there is not a design criteria for inelastic analysis for RAM nation packages that is accepted by the regulatory agencies. This lack of acceptance criteria is one of the major factors in limiting the use of inelastic analysis. In this paper inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on stress and strain-energy density will be compared for two stainless steel test units subjected to impacts onto an unyielding target. Two different material models are considered for the inelastic analysis, a bilinear fit of the stress-strain curve and a power law hardening model that very closely follows the stress-strain curve. It is the purpose of this paper to stimulate discussion and research into the area of strain-energy density based inelastic analysis acceptance criteria.

  9. Characterisation of Plasma Vitrified Simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyatt, Neil C.; Morgan, Suzy; Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Scales, Charlie R. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Deegan, David [Tetronics Ltd., 5, Lechlade Road, Faringdon, Oxfordshire, SN7 8AL (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of plasma vitrification for the treatment of a simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) was investigated. It was demonstrated that the PuO{sub 2} simulant, CeO{sub 2}, could be vitrified in the amorphous calcium iron aluminosilicate component of the product slag with simultaneous destruction of the organic and polymer waste fractions. Product Consistency Tests conducted at 90 deg. C in de-ionised water and buffered pH 11 solution show the PCM slag product to be durable with respect to release of Ce. (authors)

  10. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  11. Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex The EMSL Radiochemistry Annex, located in the 3410 Material Science and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radioactive material. In order to work within 3410 facility radiological limits, potential users must provide can evaluate whether it will meet our facility limits. Note that while the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex

  12. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  13. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  14. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  15. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  16. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  17. Modeling air emissions from contaminated sediment dredged materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Thibodeaux, L.J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reible, D.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilization rates for hydrophobic organic compounds from a confined disposal facility (CDF) containing contaminated dredged material are presently unknown. The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the availability of theoretical models for the evaluation of volatile emission from a CDF. Four emission locales are identified and modeled: the sediment relocation (dredging) locale, the exposed sediment locale, the ponded sediment locale, and the vegetation-covered sediment locale. Rate expressions are derived to estimate the volatile organic chemical (VOC) emission from each locale. Emission rates (in mass of total VOCs per unit time) are primarily dependent on the chemical concentration at the source, the surface area of the source, and the degree to which the dredged material is in direct contact with air. The relative magnitude of these three parameters provides a basis upon which a tentative ranking of emission rates from the different locales can be given. Exposed sediment results in the greatest estimated emissions of volatiles followed by water with high levels of suspended sediments, such as might occur during dredging or during placement in a CDF. Expected to be lower in volatile emissions are dredged materials covered by a quiescent water column or vegetation.

  18. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF{sub 6} gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF{sub 6}-handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D D, as will the other UF{sub 6}-handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF{sub 6}. These reagents include ClF{sub 3}, F{sub 2}, and other compounds. The scope of D D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  3. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  4. Shipment of Small Quantities of Unspecified Radioactive Material in Chalfant Packagings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Allen; Abramczyk, Glenn; Nathan, Steven; Bellamy, Steve

    2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the post 6M era, radioactive materials package users are faced with the disciplined operations associated with use of Certified Type B packagings. Many DOE, commercial and academic programs have a requirement to ship and/or store small masses of poorly characterized or unspecified radioactive material. For quantities which are small enough to be fissile exempt and have low radiation levels, the materials could be transported in a package which provides the required containment level. Because their Chalfant type containment vessels meet the highest standard of containment (helium leak-tight), the 9975, 9977, and 9978 are capable of transporting any of these contents. The issues associated with certification of a high-integrity, general purpose package for shipping small quantities of unspecified radioactive material are discussed and certification of the packages for this mission is recommended.

  5. RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE 2/97 2-1 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE 2/97 2-1 CHAPTER 2 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS I. AUTHORIZATION TO USE material in research studies, must obtain approval of the Radiation Control Committee. Approval is obtained by submitting a proposal to the Committee through the Radiation Control Office describing such items as: (a

  6. Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, J.; Anderson, S. D.; Wolf, Z.; Volk, J. T.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pm Superconducting Materials Dy 165 2.33h Current leads, conductors and cavities with minimal Nd 147

  7. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  8. Ontario Hydro`s transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karmali, N. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Nuclear Operations Branch

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any exposure to the public or release to the environment. However, there have been three accidents involving Hydro`s shipments of radioactive material. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation`s ability to respond, to effectively control and contain the situation, site remediation, and to provide emergency public information in the event of a road accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes their commitment to worker safety, public safety and impact to the environment. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations in Canada.

  9. Radioactivity measurements of ITER materials using TFTR D-T neutron field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    TFTR successfully initiated trace tritium plasma experiments in mid-November 1993. During the coming year, the TFTR plasma tritium fraction is scheduled to be increased to at least 50%. The availability of larger amounts of D-T fusion neutrons in the high power D-T plasma phase of TFTR provides an useful opportunity to directly measure D-T neutron induced radioactivity in a realistic tokamak-environment in materials of vital interest to ITER. These measurements are invaluable for characterizing short and long lived radioactivity in various ITER candidate materials, for validating complex neutron transport calculations, and for meeting fusion reactor licensing requirements. The radioactivity measurements at TFTR will involve potential ITER materials that include stainless steel 316, vanadium-alloy, copper, iron, nickel, chromium, vanadium, titanium, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, niobium, zirconium, tungsten, lead, tin, silicon, etc. Small samples of these materials will be irradiated in varying neutron energy spectra at the vacuum vessel first wall. These irradiated samples will then be counted for {gamma}-radioactivity at different cooling times to get extensive information on as many {gamma}-emitting radioactive products as feasible.

  10. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James S. Durham; Stephen W.S. McKeever; Mark S. Akselrod

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 99}Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm{sup 3}) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y but is unsuitable for measuring {sup 99}Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma radiation using beta radiation from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source, and gamma radiation alone. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently attached to the longer cables. The third objective was to identify a demonstration site. The success criterion for this milestone was to obtain a written agreement from a DOE site to host the demonstration of the monitor during the third phase. Because of uncertainties in funding of the second and third phases of this effort, a written agreement was not obtained. Instead, verbal agreements were reached with both Hanford and the Nevada Test Site. It is believed that the verbal agreements meet the intent of the objective. The final objective was to prepare the Draft Phase I Topical Report. The success criterion for this milestone was to have the report accepted by NETL. It is anticipated that this objective will be met.

  11. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James S. Durham; Stephen W.S. McKeever; Mark S. Akselrod

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measureable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 99}Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm{sup 3}) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y but is unsuitable for measuring {sup 99}Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma and gamma radiation. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently attached to the longer cables. The third objective was to identify a demonstration site. The success criterion for this milestone was to obtain a written agreement from a DOE site to host the demonstration of the monitor during the third phase. Because of uncertainties in funding of the second and third phases of this effort, a written agreement was not obtained. Instead, verbal agreements were reached with both Hanford and the Nevada Test Site. It is believed that the verbal agreements meet the intent of the objective. The final objective was to prepare the Draft Phase I Topical Report. The success criterion for this milestone was to have the report accepted by NETL. It is anticipated that this objective will be met.

  12. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  13. Possibility of Contamination of Subcontractor-Owned Materials and Equipment UT-B Contracts Div Page 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Possibility of Contamination of Subcontractor-Owned Materials and Equipment UT-B Contracts Div Jul 2005 Page 1 of 1 contamination-matl-equip-ext-jul05.doc POSSIBILITY OF CONTAMINATION OF SUBCONTRACTOR-OWNED MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT AT ORNL (Jul 2005) (a) Seller's equipment may become contaminated with residual

  14. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

  15. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  16. Structural analysis in support of the waterborne transport of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety of the transportation of radioactive materials by road and rail has been well studied and documented. However, the safety of waterborne transportation has received much less attention. Recent highly visible waterborne transportation campaigns have led to DOE and IAEA to focus attention on the safety of this transportation mode. In response, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a program to establish a method to determine the safety of these shipments. As part of that program the mechanics involved in ship-to-ship collisions are being evaluated to determine the loadings imparted to radioactive material transportation packages during these collisions. This paper will report on the results of these evaluations.

  17. alpha contaminated material: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In this paper a long-term systematic study about gas purifiers, gas contaminants and detector performance is discussed. The study aims at measuring the lifetime of purifiers with...

  18. Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception & Managing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Customs Organization (WCO) · Scrap processing consultant · International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEARadioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception of monitoring requirements and procedures Standardization of monitoring of scrap metal and response to alarms

  19. Regulatory compliance in the design of packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raske, D.T.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipments of radioactive materials within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) must meet the package design requirements contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, and DOE Order 5480.3. These regulations do not provide design criteria requirements, but only detail the approval standards, structural performance criteria, and package integrity requirements that must be met during transport. The DOE recommended design criterion for high-level Category I radioactive packagings is Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. However, alternative design criteria may be used if all the design requirements are satisfied. The purpose of this paper is to review alternatives to the Code criteria and discuss their applicability to the design of containment vessels in packages for high-level radioactive materials. Issues such as design qualification by physical testing, the use of scale models, and problems encountered using a non-ASME design approach are addressed.

  20. Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2 7 ABSTRACT: The sustainable management of dredged waterway sediments requires on-site determination8 commonly used for similar applications with contaminated soil, but the high water content of dredged10

  1. Guidance for use of Radiology Devices and Radioactive Materials in Research Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puglisi, Joseph

    Guidance for use of Radiology Devices and Radioactive Materials in Research Protocols Definition preparation, handling, storage, administration, and waste disposal in sufficient detail to permit a radiological hazards evaluation of the proposal, including potential for radiation dose to other health care

  2. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  3. AGING PERFORMANCE OF VITON GLT O-RINGS IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skidmore, E; Kerry Dunn, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Elise Fox, E; Kathryn Counts, K

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive material packages used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials often contain multiple O-ring seals for containment. Packages such as the Model 9975 are also being used for interim storage of Pu-bearing materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the seal materials used in such packages is Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer. The aging behavior of containment vessel O-rings based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT at long-term containment term storage conditions is being characterized to assess its performance in such applications. This paper summarizes the program and test results to date.

  4. Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea by [sup 90]Sr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franic, Z.; Lokobauer, N.; Marovic, G. (Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia). Radiation Protection Unit)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater containing fission products from roofs and other surfaces have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr were detected again, with cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated [sup 90]Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the observed mean residence time of [sup 90]Sr in cistern waters, estimated to be 6.2 [+-] 1.9 y, was similar to that calculated for fallout. Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, observed [sup 90]Sr mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be very small, in the 1990's less than few [micro]Sv y[sup [minus]1].

  5. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  6. Uranium-238, Thorium-230, and Radium-226 are the predominant radioactive contaminents on Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Plan (FUSRAP) sites.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Uranium-238, Thorium-230, and Radium-226 are the predominant radioactive contaminents on Formerly of time. Uranium-238 decays by alpha emission into thorium-234, which itself decays by beta emission-life* thorium-234 24.1 days protactinium-234m 1.17 minutes uranium-234 244,000 years radon-222 3.82 days

  7. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  8. Contaminated Materials Treatment Program annual report for FY 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.A.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western New York Nuclear Services Center reprocessed nuclear fuel for five years until operations were terminated in 1972. Underground tanks at the site contain high-level waste (HLW) generated during the reprocessing operations. Based on original agreements, the state of New York has assumed responsibility for the wastes and the site. The Department of Energy (DOE) is assisting New York State, through the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), in processing and solidifying the HLW. The site contractor for the WVDP is West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), through the West Valley Support Project, has been supporting WVNS and DOE in establishing vitrification and waste processing technology and capability at the West Valley Site. The specific objective of the West Valley Support Project during FY 1989 were to complete designs of remote equipment, assist in characterizing the WVNS feed, sampling, ceramic melter and off-gas systems, provide chemical analysis of the radioactive wastes and testing of future processes with actual radioactive wastes, provide testing and modeling studies of the reference WV waste product, and conduct special studies, such as evaluating corrosion of the waste tanks and supporting operation of the supernatant treatment system. 13 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Radiological Survey of Contaminated Installations of Research Reactor before Dismantling in High Dose Conditions with Complex for Remote Measurements of Radioactivity - 12069

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilovich, Alexey; Ivanov, Oleg; Lemus, Alexey; Smirnov, Sergey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Volkovich, Anatoly [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the research reactors MR (Testing Reactor) and RFT (Reactor of Physics and Technology) has recently been initiated in the National Research Center (NRC) 'Kurchatov institute', Moscow. These research reactors have a long history and many installations - nine loop facilities for experiments with different kinds of fuel. When decommissioning nuclear facilities it is necessary to measure the distribution of radioactive contamination in the rooms and at the equipment at high levels of background radiation. At 'Kurchatov Institute' some special remote control measuring systems were developed and they are applied during dismantling of the reactors MR and RFT. For a survey of high-level objects a radiometric system mounted on the robotic Brokk vehicle is used. This system has two (4? and collimated) dose meters and a high resolution video camera. Maximum measured dose rate for this system is ?8.5 Sv/h. To determine the composition of contaminants, a portable spectrometric system is used. It is a remotely controlled, collimated detector for scanning the distribution of radioactive contamination. To obtain a detailed distribution of contamination a remote-controlled gamma camera is applied. For work at highly contaminated premises with non-uniform background radiation, another camera is equipped with rotating coded mask (coded aperture imaging). As a result, a new system of instruments for remote radioactivity measurements with wide range of sensitivity and angular resolution was developed. The experience and results of measurements in different areas of the reactor and at its loop installations, with emphasis on the radioactive survey of highly-contaminated samples, are presented. These activities are conducted under the Federal Program for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Russia. Adaptation of complex remote measurements of radioactivity and survey of contaminated installations of research reactor before dismantling in high dose conditions has proven successful. The radioactivity measuring devices for operation at high, non-uniform dose background were tested in the field and a new data of measurement of contamination distribution in the premises and installations were obtained. (authors)

  10. Decay radioactivity induced in plasma-facing materials by deutrium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron-induced radioactivity constitutes one of the foremost issues in fusion reactor design. Designers have been using radioactivity codes and associated nuclear data libraries for nucleonic designs of fusion reactors. However, in the past, there was hardly any experimental validation of these codes/libraries. An elaborate, experimental program was initiated in 1988 under a U.S. Department of Energy/Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute collaborative program to validate the radioactivity codes/libraries. As many as 14 neutron energy spectra were covered for a number of materials. The analyses of the isotopic activities of the irradiated materials using the activation cross-section libraries of four leading radioactivity codes, i.e., ACT4/THIDA-1, REAC-3. DKR-ICF; and RACC, have shown large discrepancies among the calculations on one hand and between the calculations and the measurements, on the other. Vanadium, Co, Ni, Zn, Zr, Mo, In, Sn, and W each count the largest number of discrepant isotopic activities. In addition to providing detailed results of the status of predictability of individual isotopic activities using the ACT4, REAC-3, DKR-ICF, and RACC activation cross-section libraries, safety factors cum quality factors characterizing each library are presented and discussed. The related issues of confidence level and associated uncertainty are also highlighted. 37 refs., 112 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. A Strategy for Quantifying Radioactive Material in a Low-Level Waste Incineration Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochel, R.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the methods proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the volume reduction and stabilization of a variety of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is incineration. Many commercial incinerators are in operation treating both non-hazardous and hazardous wastes. These can obtain volume reductions factors of 50 or more for certain wastes, and produce a waste (ash) that can be easily stabilized if necessary by vitrification or cementation. However, there are few incinerators designed to accommodate radioactive wastes. One has been recently built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC and is burning non-radioactive hazardous waste and radioactive wastes in successive campaigns. The SRS Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is RCRA permitted as a Low Chemical Hazard, Radiological facility as defined by DOE criteria (Ref. 1). Accordingly, the CIF must operate within specified chemical, radionuclide, and fissile material inventory limits (Ref. 2). The radionuclide and fissile material limits are unique to radiological or nuclear facilities, and require special measurement and removal strategies to assure compliance, and the CIF may be required to shut down periodically in order to clean out the radionuclide inventory which builds up in various parts of the facility.

  12. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the contaminant/substrate with the particular decontamination technology is also very important. Results of decontamination testing from hundreds of contaminated coupons have lead to certain conclusions about the contamination and the type of decontamination methods being deployed. A recent addition to the DARPA initiated methodology simulates the deposition of nuclear fallout. This contamination differs from previous tests in that it has been developed and validated purely to simulate a 'loose' type of contamination. This may represent the first time that a radiologically contaminated 'fallout' stimulant has been developed to reproducibly test decontamination methods. While no contaminant/methodology may serve as a complete example of all aspects that could be seen in the field, the study of this family of simulation methods provides insight into the nature of radiological contamination.

  13. Development of a computer model for calculation of radioactive materials into the atmosphere after an accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schershakov, V. [Federal Information Analytical Centre, Obinski (Russia)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary atmospheric contamination with radioactive dust and chemical species deposited on the ground and resuspended by wind occur very widely. This process is particularly pronounced in case of extensive contamination of soil and under extreme weather conditions, for example, during dust storms. The mechanism of wind dust generation consists in the following. At low wind speed U=2-3 m/s, which is most common in midlatitude, small radioactive dust particles (diameter of hundredth of a micron to 10-20 microns) are lifted from soil surface due to turbulent vortexes. Under the gravitational force the particles of 1-2 micron diameter practically do not settle. Larger dust particles cannot remain in the air for a long time: they are lifted by turbulent vortexes and settle, their motion in the wind flow is jump-wise and the interaction of particles with the flow is called saltation /I/. Saltation is the main mechanism of dust generation up to the wind velocity at which wind erosion starts. The size of dust particles can be as large as 100 pm. When dropping they can be ricocheting from ground or pass the impulse to other particles which begin rolling over and jumping up. The process of dust transport by wind can be compared to a chain reaction. At the velocity of 10 m/s large particles of about 500 pm stop skipping and roll over only, while particles of more than 1 mm remain stationary. Thus, the fine fraction is blown out from the polydispersed soil particles. The intensity of wind resuspension of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized either by a resuspension factor or a resuspension rate.

  14. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  15. Development and evaluation of measurement devices used to support testing of radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uncapher, W. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Stenberg, D.R.; Bronowski, D. R.; Arviso, M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has an ongoing program to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of radioactive material packages. Measurement devices developed in support of this activity include evaluation channels, ruggedly constructed linear variable differential transformers, and piezoresistive accelerometers with enhanced measurement capabilities. In addition to developing measurement devices, a method has been derived to evaluate accelerometers and strain gages for measurement repeatability, ruggedness, and manufacturers' calibration data under both laboratory and field conditions. The developed measurement devices and evaluation technique will be discussed and the results of the evaluation will be presented.

  16. Contaminant monitoring of biota downstream of a radioactive liquid waste treatment facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, K.D.; Biggs, J.R.; Fresquez, P.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environment, Safety, and Health Div.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Small mammals, plants, and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfall {number_sign}051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation/ingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. The pelt was separated from the carcass of each animal and both were analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for americium ({sup 241}Am), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), and total uranium (U). With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring.

  17. Romanian Experience for Enhancing Safety and Security in Transport of Radioactive Material - 12223

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieru, Gheorghe [Institute for Nuclear Research, P.O.BOX 78, 0300 PITESTI (Romania)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport of Dangerous Goods-Class no.7 Radioactive Material (RAM), is an important part of the Romanian Radioactive Material Management. The overall aim of this activity is for enhancing operational safety and security measures during the transport of the radioactive materials, in order to ensure the protection of the people and the environment. The paper will present an overall of the safety and security measures recommended and implemented during transportation of RAM in Romania. Some aspects on the potential threat environment will be also approached with special referring to the low level radioactive material (waste) and NORM transportation either by road or by rail. A special attention is given to the assessment and evaluation of the possible radiological consequences due to RAM transportation. The paper is a part of the IAEA's Vienna Scientific Research Contract on the State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework) concluded with the Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania, where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). The transport of RAM in Romania is a very sensible and complex problem taking into consideration the importance and the need of the security and safety for such activities. The Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body set up strictly regulation and procedures according to the Recommendation of the IAEA Vienna and other international organizations. There were implemented the adequate regulation and procedures in order to keep the environmental impacts and the radiological consequences at the lower possible level and to assure the effectiveness of state nuclear security regime due to possible malicious acts in carrying out these activities including transport and the disposal site at the acceptable international levels. The levels of the estimated doses and risk expectation values for transport and disposal are within the acceptable limits provided by national and international regulations and recommendations but can increase, significantly during potential malicious acts. (authors)

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. Dissolution and particle size characterization of radioactive contaminants in Hanford facilities: Criteria for methods of measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briant, J.K.; James, A.C.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to discuss experimental methods that can be applied to evaluate the rate at which an actinide material is likely to dissolve in biological fluids. Criteria are recommended for the design and conduct of meaningful experimental procedures to sample a representative size fraction of the source material, to measure the rate of radionuclide dissolution, and to apply the results to assign the material to an appropriate ICRP Publication-30 lung retention class (or mixture of classes). 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  2. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  3. Regulatory and extra-regulatory testing to demonstrate radioactive material packaging safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Packages for the transportation of radioactive material must meet performance criteria to assure safety and environmental protection. The stringency of the performance criteria is based on the degree of hazard of the material being transported. Type B packages are used for transporting large quantities of radioisotopes (in terms of A{sub 2} quantities). These packages have the most stringent performance criteria. Material with less than an A{sub 2} quantity are transported in Type A packages. These packages have less stringent performance criteria. Transportation of LSA and SCO materials must be in {open_quotes}strong-tight{close_quotes} packages. The performance requirements for the latter packages are even less stringent. All of these package types provide a high level of safety for the material being transported. In this paper, regulatory tests that are used to demonstrate this safety will be described. The responses of various packages to these tests will be shown. In addition, the response of packages to extra-regulatory tests will be discussed. The results of these tests will be used to demonstrate the high level of safety provided to workers, the public, and the environment by packages used for the transportation of radioactive material.

  4. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  5. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  6. Property Valuation and Radioactive Materials Transportation: A Legal, Economic and Public Perception Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, J. A.; Thrower, A. W.; Widmayer, D. A.; Portner, W.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The shipment of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico raised a serious socioeconomic issue - the potential devaluation of property values due to the transportation of TRU waste from generator sites to the disposal facility. In 1992, the New Mexico Supreme Court held in City of Santa Fe v. Komis that a loss in value from public perception of risk was compensable. This issue has become an extremely important one for the development of the Yucca Mountain repository in Nevada for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much research has been conducted about the potential impacts of transportation of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This paper examines the pertinent studies conducted since the Komis case. It examines how the public debate on radioactive materials transportation continues and is now focused on transportation of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Finally, the paper suggests a path forward DOE can take to address this issue.

  7. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: II. St. Louis Airport Storage Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLASS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy is considering various remedial action options for the SLASS under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This report describes the results of geochemical investigations, carried out to support the FUSRAP activities and to aid in quantifying various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples from the site were characterized, and sorption ratios for uranium and radium and apparent concentration limit values for uranium were measured in soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. The uranium and radium concentrations in soil samples were significantly above background near the old contaminated surface horizon (now at the 0.3/sup -/ to 0.9/sup -/m depth); the maximum values were 1566 ..mu..g/g and 101 pCi/g, respectively. Below about the 6/sup -/m depth, the concentrations appeared to be typical of those naturally present in soils of this area (3.8 +- 1.2 ..mu..g/g and 3.1 +- 0.6 pCi/g). Uranium sorption ratios showed stratigraphic trends but were generally moderate to high (100 to 1000 L/kg). The sorption isotherm suggested an apparent uranium concentration limit of about 200 mg/L. This relatively high solubility can probably be correlated with the carbonate content of the soil/groundwater systems. The lower sorption ratio values obtained from the sorption isotherm may have resulted from changes in the experimental procedure or the groundwater used. The SLASS appears to exhibit generally favorable behavior for the retardation of uranium solubilized from waste in the site. Parametric tests were conducted to estimate the sensitivity of uranium sorption and solubility to the pH and carbonate content of the system.

  8. CLOSURE WELDING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) responsibility for the disposition of radioactive materials has given rise to several unique welding applications. Many of these materials require packaging into containers for either Interim or long-term storage. It is not uncommon that final container fabrication, i.e., closure welding, is performed with these materials already placed into the container. Closure welding is typically performed remote to the container, and routine post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE) are often times not feasible. Fluor Hanford has packaged many such materials in recent years as park of the Site's cleanup mission. In lieu of post-weld testing and NDE, the Fluor-Hanford approach has been to establish weld quality through ''upfront'' development and qualification of welding parameters, and then ensure parameter compliance during welding. This approach requires a rigor not usually afforded to typical welding development activities, and may involve statistical analysis and extensive testing, including burst, drop, sensitive leak testing, etc. This paper provides an instructive review of the development and qualification activities associated with the closure of radioactive materials containers, including a brief report on activities for closure welding research reactor, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) overpacks at the Hanford Site.

  9. Use of a commercial ranging system in field surveys of radioactively contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worth, G.M.; Crowell, J.M.; Meddles, A.D.; Jarrett, J.D.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; Moyer, C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Now, the adaptation of a commercial ranging and tracking system interfaced to these instruments and to an advanced computer graphics system promises another major improvement to the automation of data collection. Contour maps with radiation isopleths and the x-y position of up to eight instrument operators superimposed thereon can be displayed in near real time. A bidirectional data link offers a further improvement in simulation of, and training for, field surveys since previously collected or computer simulated radiation data as a function of position can be transmitted back to the same survey instrument and displayed to the operator in a manner indistinguishable from real-time data. Additionally, simulated instrument malfunctions such as low battery, detector failure, or total failure can be commanded to occur to evaluate operator response to unusual occurrences under the stress of field conditions. This training mode will greatly improve the ability to simulate situations and to train and evaluate operations personnel while eliminating the need to use special sites and potentially hazardous contamination simulants as are used now.

  10. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  11. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  12. Characterization of the National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) Site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material(NORM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, G.J; Rood, A.S.

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 site (NPR-3) near Casper, Wyoming is being prepared for transfer to private industry. Remediation of the NPR-3 site has already begun in anticipation of this transfer. This document describes the characterization of the NPR-3 site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Data generated on radionuclide concentrations and radon emanation may be used to determine disposal options and the need for remediation at this site. A preliminary gamma survey of the NPR-3 site was conducted to identify areas of potential NORM contamination. Based on these gamma surveys, two general areas of NORM contamination were found: the North Water Flood area and the BTP-10 produced water discharge steam. A maximum surface exposure rate of 120 {micro}R h{sup -1} was observed in the North Water Flood area, with the highest readings found along the drainage channel from the area. Exposure rates dropped to background quickly with increasing distance from the center of the drainage. The maximum observed exposure rate in the BTP-10 produced water drainage was 40 {micro}R h{sup -1}. Soil and sediment sampling were concentrated in these two areas. All samples were analyzed for concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K. Maximum {sup 226}Ra concentrations observed in the samples collected were 46 pCi g{sup -1} for soil and 78 pCi g{sup -1} for sediment. Concentrations in most samples were considerably lower than these values. Radon emanation fraction was also measured for a randomly selected fraction of the samples. The mean Rn emanation fraction measured was 0.10, indicating that on average only 10 percent of the Rn produced is released from the medium. Based on the results of these analyses, NORM contamination at the NPR-3 site is minimal, and appears to be restricted to the two general areas sampled. Concentrations of NORM radionuclides found soils and sediments in these two locations do not justify remedial actions at present. However, continued discharge of NORM-contaminated produced waters from the BTP-10 area will likely result in the continued accumulation of NORM in sediment. It is therefore recommended that the sediments in the BTP-10 discharge stream be monitored periodically for NORM.

  13. THE NEED FOR A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CLOSURE WELDING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CANNELL GR; HILL BE; GRANT GJ

    2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions demand a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure welding technology (fusion welding) is not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. As such, FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, distortion due to weld shrinkage, and residual stress. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) are preserved and not degraded as can occur with 'high-heat' fusion welding processes. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with the fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials containers, the FSW process can perform final closure welding in a single pass (GTAW requires multiple passes) resulting in increased productivity. Together, the performance characteristics associated with FSW, i.e., high weld quality, simple machine-tool equipment and increased welding efficiency, are expected to reduce risk to upcoming DOE radioactive materials packaging campaigns. FSW technology requires some development/adaptation for this application, along with approval from the governing code of construction prior to production operations. This paper addresses the need for a new joining technology, a description of the FSW process and why it is well-suited for this application, and several activities required for commercialization.

  14. GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and requires updating to comply with the newer DOT regulations. Similar challenges present themselves throughout the nuclear industry in both commercial and government operations and therefore, this is not only a Hanford Site problem. Shipping radioactive wastes as either LSA or SCO rather than repacking it is significantly cheaper than other DOT radioactive materials shipping classifications particularly when the cost of packages is included. Additionally, the need to 'repackage' materials for transport can often increase worker exposure, necessitated by 'repackaging' waste materials into DOT 7 A Type A containers.

  15. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dunbar, N.W. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, with lesser amounts of {sup 6O}Co, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 239,240}Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the {sup 137}Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 239,240}Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500{degrees}C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  16. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  17. Criteria for cesium capsules to be shipped as special form radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compile all the documentation which defines the criteria for Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium capsules at the IOTECH facility and Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) to be shipped as special form radioactive material in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask. The capsules were originally approved as special form in 1975, but in 1988 the integrity of the capsules came into question. WHC developed the Pre-shipment Acceptance Test Criteria for capsules to meet in order to be shipped as special form material. The Department of Energy approved the criteria and directed WHC to ship the capsules at IOTECH and ARECO meeting this criteria to WHC as special form material.

  18. ELUCIDATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONSITE AND OFFSITE SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.

    2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal regulations stipulate how radioactive materials are transported within the United States. However, the Department of Energy, under Department of Energy Order, has the authority to operate, within the boundaries of their physical site, to other stipulations. In many cases the DOE sites have internal reviews for onsite transfers that rival reviews performed by the regulatory authorities for offsite shipments. Most of the differences are in the level or type of packaging that is required, but in some cases it may be in the amount and type of material that is allowed to be transferred. This paper will describe and discuss those differences and it will discuss ways to effectively align the onsite rules for transferring materials with those for offsite shipment.

  19. Settlement of Dredged and Contaminated Material Placement Areas. II: Primary Consolidation, Secondary Compression,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settlement of Dredged and Contaminated Material Placement Areas. II: Primary Consolidation, Secondary Compression, and Desiccation of Dredged Fill Input Parameters Timothy D. Stark 1; Hangseok Choi2, Secondary Compression, and Desiccation of Dredged Fill), which is described in a companion paper

  20. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Shpack site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Monette, F.; Jones, L.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Shpack site in Norton, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Shpack site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234 and uranium-238) at the Shpack site does not exceed the following levels: 2500 pCi/g for Scenario A (recreationist: the expected scenario); 1100 pCi/g for Scenario B (industrial worker: a plausible scenario); and 53 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using a well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234 and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr. In setting the actual uranium guidelines for the Shpack site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors, such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation.

  2. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean, D. [MDM/Lamb, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, C. [Environmental Dimensions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87109 (United States); Byrd, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

  3. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 1: Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains a summary of that workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report. An appendix contains the 8 papers presented at the conference: NRC proposed policy statement on the use of probabilistic risk assessment methods in nuclear regulatory activities; NRC proposed agency-wide implementation plan for probabilistic risk assessment; Risk evaluation of high dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy at a large research/teaching institution; The pros and cons of using human reliability analysis techniques to analyze misadministration events; Review of medical misadministration event summaries and comparison of human error modeling; Preliminary examples of the development of error influences and effects diagrams to analyze medical misadministration events; Brachytherapy risk assessment program plan; and Principles of brachytherapy quality assurance.

  4. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  5. Knowledge Management Initiatives Used to Maintain Regulatory Expertise in Transportation and Storage of Radioactive Materials - 12177

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Haile; Garcia-Santos, Norma; Saverot, Pierre; Day, Neil; Gambone Rodriguez, Kimberly; Cruz, Luis; Sotomayor-Rivera, Alexis; Vechioli, Lucieann; Vera, John; Pstrak, David [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop EBB-03D-02M, 6003 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1974 with the mission to license and regulate the civilian use of nuclear materials for commercial, industrial, academic, and medical uses in order to protect public health and safety, and the environment, and promote the common defense and security. Currently, approximately half (?49%) of the workforce at the NRC has been with the Agency for less than six years. As part of the Agency's mission, the NRC has partial responsibility for the oversight of the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. The NRC has experienced a significant level of expertise leaving the Agency due to staff attrition. Factors that contribute to this attrition include retirement of the experienced nuclear workforce and mobility of staff within or outside the Agency. Several knowledge management (KM) initiatives have been implemented within the Agency, with one of them including the formation of a Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation (SFST) KM team. The team, which was formed in the fall of 2008, facilitates capturing, transferring, and documenting regulatory knowledge for staff to effectively perform their safety oversight of transportation and storage of radioactive materials, regulated under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 71 and Part 72. In terms of KM, the SFST goal is to share critical information among the staff to reduce the impact from staff's mobility and attrition. KM strategies in place to achieve this goal are: (1) development of communities of practice (CoP) (SFST Qualification Journal and the Packaging and Storing Radioactive Material) in the on-line NRC Knowledge Center (NKC); (2) implementation of a SFST seminar program where the seminars are recorded and placed in the Agency's repository, Agency-wide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS); (3) meeting of technical discipline group programs to share knowledge within specialty areas; (4) development of written guidance to capture 'administrative and technical' knowledge (e.g., office instructions (OIs), generic communications (e.g., bulletins, generic letters, regulatory issue summary), standard review plans (SRPs), interim staff guidance (ISGs)); (5) use of mentoring strategies for experienced staff to train new staff members; (6) use of Microsoft SharePoint portals in capturing, transferring, and documenting knowledge for staff across the Division from Division management and administrative assistants to the project managers, inspectors, and technical reviewers; and (7) development and implementation of a Division KM Plan. A discussion and description of the successes and challenges of implementing these KM strategies at the NRC/SFST will be provided. (authors)

  6. Single-Pass Flow-Through Test Elucidation of Weathering Behavior and Evaluation of Contaminant Release Models for Hanford Tank Residual Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Buck, Edgar C.; Neiner, Doinita; Geiszler, Keith N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminant release models are required to evaluate and predict long-term environmental impacts of even residual amounts of high-level radioactive waste after cleanup and closure of radioactively contaminated sites such as the DOE’s Hanford Site. More realistic and representative models have been developed for release of uranium, technetium, and chromium from Hanford Site tanks C-202, C-203, and C-103 residual wastes using data collected with a single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) method. These revised models indicate that contaminant release concentrations from these residual wastes will be considerably lower than previous estimates based on batch experiments. For uranium, a thermodynamic solubility model provides an effective description of uranium release, which can account for differences in pore fluid chemistry contacting the waste that could occur through time and as a result of different closure scenarios. Under certain circumstances in the SPFT experiments various calcium rich precipitates (calcium phosphates and calcite) form on the surfaces of the waste particles, inhibiting dissolution of the underlying uranium phases in the waste. This behavior was not observed in previous batch experiments. For both technetium and chromium, empirical release models were developed. In the case of technetium, release from all three wastes was modeled using an equilibrium Kd model. For chromium release, a constant concentration model was applied for all three wastes.

  7. Method and apparatus for in-cell vacuuming of radiologically contaminated materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spadaro, Peter R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Smith, Jay E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Speer, Elmer L. (Ruffsdale, PA); Cecconi, Arnold L. (Clairton, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum air flow operated cyclone separator arrangement for collecting, handling and packaging loose contaminated material in accordance with acceptable radiological and criticality control requirements. The vacuum air flow system includes a specially designed fail-safe prefilter installed upstream of the vacuum air flow power supply. The fail-safe prefilter provides in-cell vacuum system flow visualization and automatically reduces or shuts off the vacuum air flow in the event of an upstream prefilter failure. The system is effective for collecting and handling highly contaminated radiological waste in the form of dust, dirt, fuel element fines, metal chips and similar loose material in accordance with radiological and criticality control requirements for disposal by means of shipment and burial.

  8. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J. [and others

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

  9. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Finck; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; David Chamberlain; Don Dry; George Brooks; Margaret Goldberg

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a Radioactive Response Training Range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive Br-82 isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  12. High temperature materials for radioactive waste incineration and vitrification. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D F; Ondrejcin, R S; Salley, L

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incineration or vitrification of radioactive waste subjects equipment to alkaline or acidic fluxing, oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and thermal shock. It is necessary to select appropriate materials of construction and control operating conditions to avoid rapid equipment failure. Nickel- and cobalt-based alloys with high chromium or aluminum content and aluminum oxide/chromium oxide refractories with high chromium oxide content have provided the best service in pilot-scale melter tests. Inconel 690 and Monofrax K-3 are being used for waste vitrification. Haynes 188 and high alumina refractory are undergoing pilot scale tests for incineration equipment. Laboratory tests indicate that alloys and refractories containing still higher concentrations of chromium or chromium oxide, such as Inconel 671 and Monofrax E, may provide superior resistance to attack in glass melter environments.

  13. Development on inelastic analysis acceptance criteria for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of radioactive material transportation packages to mechanical accident loadings can be more accurately characterized by non-linear dynamic analysis than by the ``Equivalent dynamic`` static elastic analysis typically used in the design of these packages. This more accurate characterization of the response can lead to improved package safety and design efficiency. For non-linear dynamic analysis to become the preferred method of package design analysis, an acceptance criterion must be established that achieves an equivalent level of safety as the currently used criterion defined in NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6 (NRC 1978). Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting a study of possible acceptance criteria to meet this requirement. In this paper non-linear dynamic analysis acceptance criteria based on stress, strain, and strain-energy-density will be discussed. An example package design will be compared for each of the design criteria, including the approach of NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6.

  14. Study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials in reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amano, Y.; Tashiro, S.; Uchiyama, G.; Abe, H.; Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Kodama, T. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., 4-108 Okitsuke, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The release and transport characteristics of radioactive materials at a boiling accident of the high active liquid waste (HALW) in a reprocessing plant have been studied for improving experimental data of source terms of the boiling accident. In the study, a heating test and a thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test were conducted. In the heating test using a simulated HALW, it was found that ruthenium was mainly released into the air in the form of gas and that non-volatile elements were released into the air in the form of mist. In the TG-DTA test, the rate constants and reaction heat of thermal decomposition of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate were obtained from TG and DTA curves. (authors)

  15. Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, a = 0.05) differences in median. 0.016 lg/L). Glass contaminates the water with Ce (19Â higher than in PET bottles), Pb (14Â), Al (7Â

  16. Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filzmoser, Peter

    Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, =0.05) differences in median. 0.016 µg/L). Glass contaminates the water with Ce (19x higher than in PET bottles), Pb (14 x), Al (7

  17. Background radioactivity of construction materials, raw substance and ready-made CaMoO4 crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busanov, O A; Gavriljuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Kazalov, V V; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Moseev, P S; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Yakimenko, S P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of measurements of natural radioactive isotopes content in different source materials of natural and enriched composition used for CaMoO4 scintillation crystal growing are presented. The crystals are to be used in the experiment to search for double neutrinoless betas-decay of Mo-100.

  18. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  19. Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima on the island. One of the most devastating results of this was the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, Fukushima INTRODUCTION On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered a devastating 9.0 Mw earthquake, now known

  20. Estuaries Vol. 21, No. 4A, p. 646-651 December 1998 Processing Contaminated Dredged Material From the Port of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Estuaries Vol. 21, No. 4A, p. 646-651 December 1998 Processing Contaminated Dredged Material From environmentaleffectscausedby ocean disposal of the dredged material. Current proposals for solutions to the problem include to produce a complete "treatment train" for processing and decontaminating dredged material is described

  1. A HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR DISPOSITION OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.; Parker, Frank L.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past 45 years, one of the most challenging scientific, engineering, socio-economic, and political tasks and obligations of our time has been to site and develop technical, politically acceptable, solutions to the safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). However, at the end of the year 2002, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in the United States of America (USA) hosts the world's only operating LLRM-disposal system, which (1) is based on the LLRM-disposal principles recommended by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1957, i.e., deep geological disposal in a ''stable'' salt vault/repository, (2) complies with the nation's ''Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'', and (3) may receive 175,584 cubic meters (m3) of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW)a. Pending the scheduled opening of repositories for once-used nuclear fuel (OUNF) in the USA, Sweden, and Finland in the years 2010, 2015, and 2017, respectively, LLRM-disposal solutions remain the missing link in all national LLRM-disposition programs. Furthermore, for a variety of reasons, many nations with nuclear programs have chosen a ''spectator'' stance in terms of enhancing the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, and have either ''slow-tracked'' or deferred their LLRM-disposal programs to allow time for an informed national consensus to evolve based on LLRM-disposition experiences and solutions gained elsewhere. In the meantime, LLRMs will continue to amass in different types and levels of safeguarded storage facilities around the world. In an attempt to contribute to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, the authors developed the sample holistic approach for synergistic disposition of LLRMs comprising LLRM-disposition components considered either ''proven'' or ''promising'' by the authors. The fundamental principles of the holistic approach are: (1) Risk minimization; (2) Minimization of the LLRM volume requiring deep geological disposal; and (3) LLRM-disposition flexibility. An integral element of these principles is to allow time for LLRM-disposition solutions to evolve/mature technically, financially, and politically. Furthermore, contingent upon the desired outcome(s), available financial, scientific, and technical resources, and political will, these components may be implemented separately or in combinations by one or a group of nations.

  2. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  3. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  4. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  5. IMPROVING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DRUM TYPEPACKAGES BY USING HEAT PIPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a feasibility study to improve thermal loading of existing radioactive material packages by using heat pipes. The concept could be used to channel heat in certain directions and dissipate to the environment. The concept is applied to a drum type package because the drum type packages are stored and transported in an upright position. This orientation is suitable for heat pipe operation that could facilitate the heat pipe implementation in the existing well proven package designs or in new designs where thermal loading is high. In this position, heat pipes utilize gravity very effectively to enhance heat flow in the upward direction Heat pipes have extremely high effective thermal conductivity that is several magnitudes higher than the most heat conducting metals. In addition, heat pipes are highly unidirectional so that the effective conductivity for heat transfer in the reverse direction is greatly reduced. The concept is applied to the 9977 package that is currently going through the DOE certification review. The paper presents computer simulations using typical off-the-shelf heat pipe available configurations and performance data for the 9977 package. A path forward is outlined for implementing the concepts for further study and prototype testing.

  6. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  7. A history of major Hanford facilities and processes involving radioactive material. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hall, R.B.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established in 1987 to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. Hanford Site operations began in 1944 to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. This effort included fabricating fuel elements, irradiating the fuel in nuclear reactors, and separating the resulting plutonium from uranium and fission byproducts. To build a foundation for the first step in estimating radiation doses, HEDR staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory compiled and summarized historical information that describes the processes and facilities in which radioactive material was generated or used at the Hanford Site. This document categorizes nuclear operations under six processes: fuel fabrication, reactor operations, fuel separations, plutonium finishing, research and development, and tank farms and waste recovery. Historical emission controls and effluent monitoring are discussed for each process. Because Hanford Site operations used the first large-scale nuclear facilities of their kind, process development and effluent control measures evolved as knowledge about the processes improved. Over the years, facilities were added or modified to improve processes, accelerate production, and better control emissions to the environment. 25 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the landfill boundaries. (3) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-19-02. (4) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-23-02 identified 13 railroad cars that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. Six railroad cars were below these limits and therefore met the free-release criteria. (5) An In-Situ Object Counting System survey taken at CAS 25-23-02 identified two railroad cars possibly containing fuel fragments; both exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual free release criteria. (6) Corrective Action Site 25-23-18 contains total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics, Aroclor-1260, uranium-234, uranium-235, strontium-90, and cesium-137 that exceed PALs. (7) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-34-01 indicate that there were no total contamination readings that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (8) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-34-02 indicate that there were no total contamination readings that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (9) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-23-13 identified six pieces of equipment that exceed the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (10) Corrective Action Site 25-99-16 was not investigated. A review of historical documentation and current site conditions showed that no further characterization was required to select the appropriate corrective action. (11) Corrective Action Site 26-08-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (12) Corrective Action Site 26-17-01 contains total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics and Aroclor-1260 exceeding the PALs. (13) Radiological surveys at CAS 26-19-02 identified metallic debris that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. Concentrations of radiological or chemical constituents in soil did not exceed PALs.

  9. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  10. Projected environmental impacts of radioactive material transportation to the first US repository site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Reardon, P.C.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; McNair, G.W.

    1986-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the relative national environmental impacts of transporting nuclear wastes to each of the nine candidate repository sites in the United States. Several of the potential sites are closely clustered and, for the purpose of distance and routing calculations, are treated as a single location. These are: Cypress Creek Dome and Richton Dome in Mississippi (Gulf Interior Region), Deaf Smith County and Swisher County sites in Texas (Permian Basin), and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon site in Utah (Paradox Basin). The remaining sites are: Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; Yucca Mountain, Nevada; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. For compatibility with both the repository system authorized by the NWPA and with the MRS option, two separate scenarios were analyzed. In belief, they are (1) shipment of spent fuel and high-level wastes (HLW) directly from waste generators to a repository (Reference Case) and (2) shipment of spent fuel to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and then to a repository. Between 17 and 38 truck accident fatalities, between 1.4 and 7.7 rail accident fatalities, and between 0.22 and 12 radiological health effects can be expected to occur as a result of radioactive material transportation during the 26-year operating period of the first repository. During the same period in the United States, about 65,000 total deaths from truck accidents and about 32,000 total deaths from rail accidents would occur; also an estimated 58,300 cancer fatalities are predicted to occur in the United States during a 26-year period from exposure to background radiation alone (not including medical and other manmade sources). The risks reported here are upper limits and are small by comparison with the "natural background" of risks of the same type. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 2: Supporting documents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains presentation material and a transcript of the workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report.

  12. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging not exceed the regulatory limits prescribed by 10 CFR 71 for non-exclusive shipments. The mass of each radioisotope presented in this paper is limited by the radiation dose rate on the external surface of the package, which per the regulatory limit should not exceed 200 mrem/hr. The results presented are a compendium of allowable masses of a variety of different isotopes (with varying impurity levels of beryllium in some of the actinide isotopes) that, when loaded in an unshielded packaging, do not result in an external dose rate on the surface of the package that exceeds 190 mrem/hr (190 mrem/hr was chosen to provide 5% conservatism relative to the regulatory limit). These mass limits define the term 'Small Gram Quantity' (SGQ) contents in the context of radioactive material transportation packages. The term SGQ is isotope-specific and pertains to contents in radioactive material transportation packages that do not require shielding and still satisfy the external dose rate requirements. Since these calculated mass limits are for contents without shielding, they are conservative for packaging materials that provide some limited shielding or if the contents are placed into a shielded package. The isotopes presented in this paper were chosen as the isotopes that Department of Energy (DOE) sites most likely need to ship. Other more rarely shipped isotopes, along with industrial and medical isotopes, are planned to be included in subsequent extensions of this work.

  13. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a constrained shortest-path Dijkstra algorithm that has an assigned impedance factor. The route constraints modify the various impedance weights to bias or prefer particular network characteristics as desired by the user. Both the basic route model and the constrained impedance function calculations are determined by a series of network characteristics and shipment types. The study examines solutions under various constraints modeled by WebTRAGIS including possible routes from select shut-down reactor sites in the US to specific locations in the US. For purposes of illustration, the designated destinations are Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. To the degree that routes express sameness or variety under constraints serves to illustrate either a) the determinism of particular transport modes by either configuration or regulatory compliance, and/or b) the variety of constrained routes that are regulation compliant but may not be operationally feasible.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as LLW, and accumulators, gas cylinders, and associated debris were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW. (3) At CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum, as a BMP, an empty drum was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank, approximately 165 gal of lead-impacted liquid were removed and are currently pending disposal as HW, and approximately 10 gal of lead shot and 6 yd{sup 3} of wax embedded with lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW. As a BMP, approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of wax were removed and disposed as hydrocarbon waste, approximately 55 gal of liquid were removed and disposed as sanitary waste, and two metal containers were grouted in place. (5) At CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain, no further action was required; however, as a BMP, approximately l.5 yd{sup 3} of wax were removed and disposed as hydrocarbon waste, and one metal container was grouted in place.

  15. Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke, D.E. (INEEL); Hamp, S. (DOE-Albuquerque Operations Office)

    2002-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-containing material. Since transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together, it was decided that hydrogen generation was a problem that warranted the execution of a high-level roadmapping effort. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials, and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOE's Environmental Management (EM) organizations to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a ''program level'' roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This paper also presents the status of the roadmap and follow-up activities.

  16. Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Hamp, S.

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen- containing material. Since transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together, it was decided that hydrogen generation was a problem that warranted the execution of a high-level roadmapping effort. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials, and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOE’s Environmental Management (EM) organizations to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a "program level" roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This paper also presents the status of the roadmap and follow-up activities.

  17. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  18. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  19. Rehabilitation of contaminated territories while liquidating enterprises of uranium mining industry of the CIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamushka, V.P.; Ostroborodov, V.V. [VNIPIPROMTECHNOLOGII, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium mining in the Russian Federation has caused contamination of the environment with solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Radioactive materials are being leached from residual uranium ores and mill tailings piles. These contaminated areas are being decontaminated and recultivated. Ensuring radiation safety in remediating is of prime importance.

  20. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  1. The advancement of a technique using principal component analysis for the non-intrusive depth profiling of radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J. C.; Joyce, M. J. [Engineering Dept., Lancaster Univ., Lancaster. LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Mellor, M. [Createc Ltd., Derwent Mills Commercial Park, Cockermouth, Cumbria. CA13 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive technique using principal component analysis, to infer the depth of the fission fragment caesium-137, when it is buried under silica sand has been described. Using energy variances within different {gamma}-ray spectra, a complete depth model was produced for a single caesium-137 source buried under 1 mm depths ranging between 5-50 mm. This was achieved using a cadmium telluride detector and a bespoke phantom. In this paper we describe the advancement of the technique by further validating it using blind tests for applications outside of the laboratory, where not only the depth (z) but also the surface (x, y) location of {gamma}-ray emitting contamination is often poorly characterised. At present the technique has been tested at the point of maximum activity above the entrained {gamma}-ray emitting source (where the optimal x, y location is known). This is not usually practical in poorly characterized environments where the detector cannot be conveniently placed at such an optimal location to begin with and scanning at multiple points around the region of interest is often required. Using a uniform scanning time, the point of maximum intensity can be located by sampling in terms of total count rate, and converging on this optimal point of maximum intensity. (authors)

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be sufficient, and safety concerns existed about the stability of the crater component. Therefore, a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended, and sampling at the site was not considered necessary. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation to support the recommendation for closure of CAU 545 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from August 20 through November 02, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 545 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 545 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels established in this CADD/CR. The results of the CAI identified no COCs at the five CASs investigated in CAU 545. As a best management practice, repair of the fence enclosing CAS 03-08-03 has been completed. Therefore, the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office provides the following recommendations: • Close in place COCs at CASs 03-08-03 and 03-23-05 with use restrictions. • No further corrective action for CAU 545. • No Corrective Action Plan. • Corrective Action Unit 545 should be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. • A Notice of Completion to the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 545.

  3. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  4. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  5. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)] [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  6. Wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector and monitor capable of measuring radioactive-gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude is described. The device is designed to have an ionization chamber sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel-plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel-plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization-chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  7. Measurements and analyses of decay radioactivity induced in simulated deuterium-tritium neutron environments for fusion reactor structural materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, F.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kumar, A.; Youssef, M.Z.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet urgent requirements for data validation, an experimental analysis has been carried out for isotopic radioactivity induced by deuterium-tritium neutron irradiation in structural materials. The primary objective is to examine the adequacy of the activation cross sections implemented in the current activation calculation codes considered for use in fusion reactor nuclear design. Four activation cross-section libraries, namely, JENDL, LIB90, REAC{sup *}63, and REAC{sup *}175 were investigated in this current analysis. The isotopic induced radioactivity calculations using these four libraries are compared with experimental values obtained in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute/U.S. Department of Energy collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics. The nine materials studied are aluminum, silicon, titanium, vanadium, chromium, MnCu alloy, iron, nickel, niobium, and Type 316 stainless steel. The adequacy of the cross sections is investigated through the calculation to experiment analysis. As a result, most of the discrepancies in the calculations from experiments can be explained by inadequate activation cross sections. In addition, uncertainties due to neutron energy groups and neutron transport calculation are considered. The JENDL library gives the best agreement with experiments, followed by REAC{sup *}175, LIB90, and REAC{sup *}63, in this order. 45 refs., 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. DOE Partnerships with States, Tribes and Other Federal Programs Help Responders Prepare for Challenges Involving Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsha Keister

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE Partnerships with States, Tribes and Other Federal Programs Help Responders Prepare for Challenges Involving Transport of Radioactive Materials Implementing adequate institutional programs and validating preparedness for emergency response to radiological transportation incidents along or near U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shipping corridors poses unique challenges to transportation operations management. Delayed or insufficient attention to State and Tribal preparedness needs may significantly impact the transportation operations schedule and budget. The DOE Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) has successfully used a cooperative planning process to develop strong partnerships with States, Tribes, Federal agencies and other national programs to support responder preparedness across the United States. DOE TEPP has found that building solid partnerships with key emergency response agencies ensures responders have access to the planning, training, technical expertise and assistance necessary to safely, efficiently and effectively respond to a radiological transportation accident. Through the efforts of TEPP over the past fifteen years, partnerships have resulted in States and Tribal Nations either using significant portions of the TEPP planning resources in their programs and/or adopting the Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) program into their hazardous material training curriculums to prepare their fire departments, law enforcement, hazardous materials response teams, emergency management officials, public information officers and emergency medical technicians for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. In addition, through strong partnerships with Federal Agencies and other national programs TEPP provided technical expertise to support a variety of radiological response initiatives and assisted several programs with integration of the nationally recognized MERRTT program into other training venues, thus ensuring consistency of radiological response curriculums delivered to responders. This presentation will provide an overview of the steps to achieve coordination, to avoid redundancy, and to highlight several of the successful partnerships TEPP has formed with States, Tribes, Federal agencies and other national programs. Events, accident scenarios, and training where TEPP was proven to be integral in building the radiological response capabilities for first responders to actual radiological incidents are also highlighted. Participants will gain an appreciation for the collaborative efforts States and Tribes are engaging in with the DOE to ensure that responders all along the DOE transportation corridors are adequately prepared to respond to shipments of radioactive materials through their communities.

  9. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raske, D.T.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.

  10. 4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the wastes from uranium mines have been removed from mining sites and used in local and nearby communities4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING MATERIALS In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of natural uranium concentrations may average as low

  11. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  12. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  13. Versatile, automated sample preparation and detection of contaminants and biological materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of food, water, medicine and ingestible household products is a public health hazard that episodically causes outbreaks worldwide. Existing laboratory methods are often expensive, require a laboratory environment ...

  14. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  15. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift walls. The gamma-ray scattering properties of concrete are sufficiently similar to those of the host rock and proposed insert material; use of concrete will have no significant impact on the conclusions. The information in this report is presented primarily for use in performing pre-closure radiological safety evaluations of radiological contaminants, but it may also be used to develop strategies for contaminant leak detection and monitoring in the MGR. Included in this report are the methods for determining the source terms and release fractions, and mathematical models and model parameters for contaminant transport and distribution within the repository. Various particle behavior mechanisms that affect the transport of contaminant are included. These particle behavior mechanisms include diffusion, settling, resuspension, agglomeration and other deposition mechanisms.

  16. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers; Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Kass, J.N.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview.

  17. Experimental and Computer Simulation Study of Radioactivity of Materials Irradiated by Intermediate Energy Protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. E. Titarenko; O. V. Shvedov; V. F. Batyaev; E. I. Karpikhin; V. M. Zhivun; R. D. Mulambetov; S. G. Mashnik; R. E. Prael; W. B. Wilson

    1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of measurements and computer simulations of radioactivities and dose rates as functions of decay time are presented for Pb-nat and Bi-209 irradiated by 1.5-GeV protons, Co-59, Cu-63, and Cu-65 irradiated by 0.13- and 1.2-GeV protons, and Th-232 and U-nat irradiated by 0.1- and 0.8-GeV protons. The activities and dose rates are measured by direct high-precision gamma spectrometry. The irradiations were made using external beams extracted from the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. Simulations made using the LCS and CINDER'90 code systems are compared with measurements.

  18. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWR-GALE Code). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report revises the original issuance of NUREG-0017, ''Calculation of Releases of Radioactive Materials in Gaseous and Liquid Effluents from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR-GALE-Code)'' (April 1976), to incorporate more recent operating data now available as well as the results of a number of in-plant measurement programs at operating pressurized water reactors. The PWR-GALE Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the releases of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents (i.e., the gaseous and liquid source terms). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the PWR-GALE Code to determine conformance with the requirements of Appendix I to 10 CFR Part 50.

  19. Evaluation of Recent Trailer Contamination and Supersack Integrity Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, S.

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period from fiscal year (FY) 2009 to FY 2011, there were a total of 21 incidents involving radioactively contaminated shipment trailers and 9 contaminated waste packages received at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). During this time period, the EnergySolutions (ES) Clive, Utah, disposal facility had a total of 18 similar incidents involving trailer and package contamination issues. As a result of the increased occurrence of such incidents, DOE Environmental Management Headquarters (EM/HQ) Waste Management organization (EM-30) requested that the Energy Facility Contractors’ Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) conduct a detailed review of these incidents and report back to EM-30 regarding the results of this review, including providing any recommendations formulated as a result of the evaluation of current site practices involving handling and management of radioactive material and waste shipments.

  20. area contamination site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Radium-226 are the predominant radioactive contaminents on Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Plan (FUSRAP) sites. ** The half-life of a radioactive element is the time...

  1. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

    1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

  2. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Toranomon Towers Office, 14F, 4-1-28, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  3. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  4. FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELS: ADVANCED MATERIALS TO CAPTURE AND IMMOBILIZE RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Fryxell, Glen E.; Busche, Brad J.; Wallace, Krys; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the future expansion of nuclear energy, an effective method is needed to capture and safely store radiological iodine-129 released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Various materials have been investigated to capture and immobilize iodine. In most cases, however, the materials that are effective for capturing iodine cannot subsequently be sintered/densified to create a stable composite that could be a viable waste form. We have developed chemically modified, highly porous, silica aerogels that show sorption capacities higher than 440 mg of I2 per gram at 150 C. An iodine uptake test in dry air containing 4.2 ppm of iodine demonstrated no breakthrough after 3.5 h and indicated a decontamination factor in excess of 310. Preliminary densification tests showed that the I2-loaded aerogels retained more than 92 wt% of I2 after thermal sintering with pressure assistance at 1200 C for 30 min. These high capture and retention efficiencies for I2 can be further improved by optimizing the functionalization process and the chemistry as well as the sintering conditions.

  5. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ann M. Beauchesne

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the National Governors Association (NGA) project ``Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; Interstate waste and materials shipments; and Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the period from October 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past three months can be categorized as follows: maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; convened and facilitated the October 6--8 NGA FFCA Task Force Meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and continued to facilitate interactions between the states and DOE to develop a foundation for an ongoing substantive relationship between the Governors of key states and the Department.

  6. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials. Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities. Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex. Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in DOE's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure strategy and contractor integration analysis. Interstate waste and materials shipments. Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from April 30, 1998 through June 30, 1998 under the NGA project. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; and provided ongoing support to state-DOE interactions. maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, DOE's Environmental Management Budget, and DOE's proposed Intersite Discussions.

  7. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  8. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binning, P. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia); Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

  9. Determination of the radioactive material and plutonium holdup in ducts and piping in the 324 Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggard, D.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the measurements Performed to determine the radionuclide content and mass of plutonium in exposed ducts, filters, and piping in the 324 Building at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State. This information is needed to characterize facility radiation levels, to verify compliance with criticality safety specifications, and to allow more accurate nuclear material control using nondestructive assay (NDA) methods. Gamma assay techniques typically employed for NDA analysis were used to determine the gamma-emitting isotopes in the ducts, filters, and piping. Passive neutron counting was selected to estimate -the plutonium content because high gamma levels from fission and activation products effectively mask any gamma emissions from plutonium. A high-purity gamma-ray detector Was used to measure the mixed fission and activation radionuclides. A neutron slab detector containing five {sup 3}He proportional counters was used to determine the neutron emission rates and estimate the mass of plutonium present. Both measurement systems followed the methods and procedures routinely used for nuclear waste assay and safeguards measurements.

  10. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  11. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)] [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)] [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  12. Regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees were analyzed. The most potentially hazardous accident, by a large margin, was determined to be the sudden rupture of a heated multi-ton cylinder of UF/sub 6/. Acute fatalities offsite are probably not credible. Acute permanent injuries may be possible for many hundreds of meters, and clinically observable transient effects of unknown long term consequences may be possible for distances up to a few miles. These effects would be caused by the chemical toxicity of the UF/sub 6/. Radiation doses would not be significant. The most potentially hazardous accident due to radiation exposure was determined to be a large fire at certain facilities handling large quantities of alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244) or radioiodines (I-125 and I-131). However, acute fatalities or injuries to people offsite due to accidental releases of these materials do not seem plausible. The only other significant accident was identified as a long-term pulsating criticality at fuel cycle facilities handling high-enriched uranium or plutonium. An important feature of the most serious accidents is that releases are likely to start without prior warning. The releases would usually end within about half an hour. Thus protective actions would have to be taken quickly to be effective. There is not likely to be enough time for dose projections, complicated decisionmaking during the accident, or the participation of personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the site. The appropriate response by the facility is to immediately notify local fire, police, and other emergency personnel and give them a brief predetermined message recommending protective actions. Emergency personnel are generally well qualified to respond effectively to small accidents of these types.

  13. Non-Destructive Measurements of the Characteristics of Radioactive Contamination of Near Surface Layers of Concrete and Ground with Collimated Spectrometric Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potapov, V.N.; Danilovich, A.S.; Ignatov, S.M.; Volkovich, A.G.; Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Volkov, V.G. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The remote radiometric method for estimation of the characteristics of concrete and ground contamination by gamma nuclides was investigated. The studies were carried out for possible realization of a method with two types of spectrometric detectors: 1) scintillator + PMT and 2) scintillator + photo diode. The measurements of Cs-137 contamination were considered, as most widespread gamma-contaminant. The mathematical model of the radiometric device was developed for studying of a method, optimization of device's parameters and search of all dependences necessary for method realization. The collimated radiometer with volume of the detector 20 cm{sup 3} has the limiting sensitivity - MMA = 0.5 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} (19 kBq/m{sup 2}) at thickness of contaminated concrete layer 5 cm. The method can be realized for measurement of contamination of concrete and ground by other gamma radiating nuclides also. (authors)

  14. PURPOSE: This technical note describes the development of an alternative approach to evaluate chronic toxicity and the significance of contaminant bioaccumulation in dredged material assess-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chronic toxicity and the significance of contaminant bioaccumulation in dredged material assess- ments) require that biological evaluations be conducted to determine the suitability of dredged material sediment, the biological tests are conducted to assess the toxicity and bioaccumulation of contami- nants in dredged

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 166 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 166 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) CAS 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 166 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007).

  16. Method of treating contaminated HEPA filter media in pulp process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jian S.; Argyle, Mark D.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Mondok, Emilio P.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing contamination of HEPA filters with radioactive and/or hazardous materials is described. The method includes pre-processing of the filter for removing loose particles. Next, the filter medium is removed from the housing, and the housing is decontaminated. Finally, the filter medium is processed as pulp for removing contaminated particles by physical and/or chemical methods, including gravity, flotation, and dissolution of the particles. The decontaminated filter medium is then disposed of as non-RCRA waste; the particles are collected, stabilized, and disposed of according to well known methods of handling such materials; and the liquid medium in which the pulp was processed is recycled.

  17. PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

  18. Radioactive Material License.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourthN V O 1 8 7 +NewAugustr* R $ s- 0a \nROGER

  19. Environmental effects of dredging. Long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated estuarine dredged material placed in a wetland environment. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.; Engler, R.M.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note summarizes data collected between 1983 and 1989 that relate to plant and animal communities colonizing the wetland creation site of the US Army Corps of Engineers/Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program (FVP). The management of contaminated dredged material and the mobility of contaminants from the dredged material into plants and animals are also described and related to the evaluation of test results by Lee and others (1991). This site will be evaluated through September 1995 under the Long-Term Effects of Dredging (LEDO) Program.

  20. Estimation of Cosmic Induced Contamination in Ultra-low Background Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Greene, Austen T.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary This document presents the result of investigating a way to reliably determine cosmic induced backgrounds for ultra-low background materials. In particular, it focuses on those radioisotopes produced by the interactions with cosmic ray particles in the detector materials that act as a background for experiments looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. This investigation is motivated by the desire to determine background contributions from cosmic ray activation of the electroformed copper that is being used in the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The most important radioisotope produced in copper that contributes to the background budget is 60Co, which has the potential to deposit energy in the region of interest of this experiment. Cobalt-60 is produced via cosmic ray neutron collisions in the copper. This investigation aims to provide a method for determining whether or not the copper has been exposed to cosmic radiation beyond the threshold which the Majorana Project has established as the maximum exposure. This threshold is set by the Project as the expected contribution of this source of background to the overall background budget. One way to estimate cosmic ray neutron exposure of materials on the surface of the Earth is to relate it to the cosmic ray muon exposure. Muons are minimum-ionizing particles and the available technologies to detect muons are easier to implement than those to detect neutrons. We present the results of using a portable, ruggedized muon detector, the µ-Witness made by our research group, for determination of muon exposure of materials for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. From the muon flux measurement, this report presents a method to estimate equivalent sea-level exposure, and then infer the neutron exposure of the tracked material and thus the cosmogenic activation of the copper. This report combines measurements of the muon flux taken by the µ-Witness detector with Geant4 simulations in order to assure our understanding of the µ-Witness prototype. As a proof of concept, we present the results of using this detector with electroformed copper during its transport from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where the copper is grown, to the underground lab in Lead, South Dakota, where the experiment is being deployed. The development of a code to be used with the Majorana parts tracking database, designed to aid in estimating the cosmogenic activation, is also presented.

  1. Distinguishing Between Site Waste, Natural, and Other Sources of Contamination at Uranium and Thorium Contaminated Sites - 12274

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hays, David C. [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, 64106 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium and thorium processing and milling sites generate wastes (source, byproduct, or technically enhanced naturally occurring material), that contain contaminants that are similar to naturally occurring radioactive material deposits and other industry wastes. This can lead to mis-identification of other materials as Site wastes. A review of methods used by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency to distinguish Site wastes from potential other sources, enhanced materials, and natural deposits, at three different thorium mills was conducted. Real case examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the methods of distinguishing wastes. Distinguishing between Site wastes and enhanced Background material can be facilitated by establishing and applying a formal process. Significant project cost avoidance may be realized by distinguishing Site wastes from enhanced NORM. Collection of information on other potential sources of radioactive material and physical information related to the potential for other radioactive material sources should be gathered and reported in the Historical Site Assessment. At a minimum, locations of other such information should be recorded. Site decision makers should approach each Site area with the expectation that non site related radioactive material may be present and have a process in place to distinguish from Site and non Site related materials. (authors)

  2. Seminar on Radioactive Waste, Modelling and Dose Assessment -Ris National Laboratory 2 -6 December 2002 Assessment of doses and environmental contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    December 2002 Assessment of doses and environmental contamination from decommissioning of the nuclear on the environment dur- ing the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø and the assessed consequences facilities at Risø Per Hedemann Jensen Section of Applied Health Physics Risø Department of Decommissioning

  3. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  4. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  5. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  6. MRS (monitored retrievable storage) systems study Task G report: The role and functions of surface storage of radioactive material in the federal waste management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Woodruff, M.G.; Altenhofen, M.K.; MacKay, C.A.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study investigates the functions that could be performed by surface storage of radioactive material within the federal radioactive waste management system, including enabling acceptance of spent fuel from utility owners, scheduling of waste-preparation processes within the system, enhancement of system operating reliability, and conditioning the thermal (decay heat) characteristics of spent fuel emplaced in a repository. The analysis focuses particularly on the effects of storage capacity and DOE acceptance schedule on power reactors. Figures of merit developed include the storage capacity (in metric tons of uranium (MTU)) required to be added beyond currently estimated maximum spent fuel storage capacities and its associated cost, and the number of years that spent fuel pools would remain open after last discharge (in pool-years) and the cost of this period of operation. 27 refs., 36 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. An overview of airborne radioactive emissions at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, F.A.; Dvorak, R.F.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strict control is essential over any emissions of radioactivity in the ventilation exhaust from facilities where radioactive materials may become airborne. At Los Alamos National Laboratory there are 87 stacks exhausting ventilation air to the environment from operations with a potential for radioactive emissions. These stacks cover the diverse operations at all Laboratory facilities where radioactive materials are handled and require continuous sampling/monitoring to detect levels of contamination. An overview is presented of the operations, associated ventilation exhaust cleanup systems, and analysis of the emissions. In keeping with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable concept, emissions of radionuclides are reduced whenever practicable. A specific example describing the reduction of emissions from the linear accelerator beam stop area at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility during 1985 by a factor of 8 over previous emissions is presented.

  8. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  9. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  10. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs.

  11. Measurements of D-T neutron induced radioactivity in plasma-facing materials and their role in qualification of activation cross-section libraries and codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    USDOE/JAERI collaborative program on induced radioactivity measurements has been spread over last five years and has covered, among others, a large number of plasma facing materials of interest to D-T fusion reactors, including ITER and DEMO. The experiments have consisted of irradiation of high purity material samples in a range of neutron energy spectra in simulated fusion environments of prototypical blanket assemblies driven by D-T neutrons at FNS/JAERI. A typical sample measured 10 mm in diameter by 1 mm thickness, and the neutron fluence ranged from {approximately}10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} to {approximately}10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}, over an irradiation period of 30 m and 10 h. The irradiated samples were then cooled for varying times, from {approximately}10 m to {approximately}3 weeks, and their activity was derived by counting associated {gamma}-rays with intrinsic germanium detectors.

  12. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  13. Airborne radioactive material collection, measurement, and data storage for the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Melody Louise

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES AEC73 AEC Regulatory Guide 8. 2, 1973, "Guide for Administrative Practices in Radiation Monitoring". AEC74 AEC Regulatory Guide 1. 21, Rev. 1, 1974, "Measuring, Evaluating, and Reporting Radioactivity in Solid Wastes, and Releases... System at the Nuclear Science Center (Texas AAM University) 38 VITA 66 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NUMBER Figure 1: FAM//I and FANF3 Sample Probe Orientation, PAGE Figure 2: FAM42, FAMR4, and FAMt6 Sample Probe Location . . 13 Figure 3; FAMF1 and FAM...

  14. Application of the base catalyzed decomposition process to treatment of PCB-contaminated insulation and other materials associated with US Navy vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Gano, S.R.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BCD process was applied to dechlorination of two types of PCB-contaminated materials generated from Navy vessel decommissioning activities at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard: insulation of wool felt impregnated with PCB, and PCB-containing paint chips/debris from removal of paint from metal surfaces. The BCD process is a two-stage, low-temperature chemical dehalogenation process. In Stage 1, the materials are mixed with sodium bicarbonate and heated to 350 C. The volatilized halogenated contaminants (eg, PCBs, dioxins, furans), which are collected in a small volume of particulates and granular activated carbon, are decomposed by the liquid-phase reaction (Stage 2) in a stirred-tank reactor, using a high-boiling-point hydrocarbon oil as the reaction medium, with addition of a hydrogen donor, a base (NaOH), and a catalyst. The tests showed that treating wool felt insulation and paint chip wastes with Stage 2 on a large scale is feasible, but compared with current disposal costs for PCB-contaminated materials, using Stage 2 would not be economical at this time. For paint chips generated from shot/sand blasting, the solid-phase BCD process (Stage 1) should be considered, if paint removal activities are accelerated in the future.

  15. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  16. Medium-Sized Mammals around a Radioactive Liquid Waste Lagoon at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Uptake of Contaminants and Evaluation of Radio-Frequency Identification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie A. Hansen; Phil R. Fresquez; Rhonda J. Robinson; John D. Huchton; Teralene S. Foxx

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of a radioactive liquid waste lagoon by medium-sized mammals and levels of tritium, other selected radionuclides, and metals in biological tissues of the animals were documented at Technical Area 53 (TA-53) of Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1997 and 1998. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegates), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) were captured at TA-53 and at a control site on the Santa Fe National Forest. Captured animals were anesthetized and marked with radio-frequency identification (RFD) tags and/or ear tags. We collected urine and hair samples for tritium and metals (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium) analyses, respectively. In addition, muscle and bone samples from two rock squirrels collected from each of TA-53, perimeter, and regional background sites were tested for tritium, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and total uranium. Animals at TA-53 were monitored entering and leaving the lagoon area using a RFID monitor to read identification numbers from the RFID tags of marked animals and a separate camera system to photograph all animals passing through the monitor. Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.), rock squirrel, and raccoon were the species most frequently photographed going through the RFID monitor. Less than half of all marked animals in the lagoon area were detected using the lagoon. Male and female rock squirrels from the lagoon area had significantly higher tritium concentrations compared to rock squirrels from the control area. Metals tested were not significantly higher in rock squirrels from TA-53, although there was a trend toward increased levels of lead in some individuals at TA-53. Muscle and bone samples from squirrels in the lagoon area appeared to have higher levels of tritium, total uranium, and {sup 137}Cs than samples collected from perimeter and background locations. However, the committed effective dose equivalent estimated from the potential human consumption of the muscle and bone tissue from these rock squirrels did not suggest any human health risk. Indirect routes of tritium uptake, possibly through consumption of vegetation, are important for animals in the lagoon area.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC uncertainty, the analytical program for most CASs will include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radionuclides. Upon reviewing historical data and current site conditions, it has been determined that no further characterization is required at USW G3 (CAS 25-99-16) to select the appropriate corrective action. A cesium-137 source was encased in cement within the vadous zone during the drilling of the well (CAS 25-99-16). A corrective action of closure in place with a land-use restriction for drilling near USW G3 is appropriate. This corrective action will be documented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for CAU 168. The results of the remaining field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives for the other CASs within CAU 168 in this CADD.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 529 consists of one Corrective Action Site (25-23-17). For the purpose of this investigation, the Corrective Action Site has been divided into nine parcels based on the separate and distinct releases. A conceptual site model was developed for each parcel to address the translocation of contaminants from each release. The results of this investigation will be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  19. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  20. Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  1. New Remote Method for Estimation of Contamination Levels of Reactor Equipment - 13175

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilovich, Alexey; Ivanov, Oleg; Potapov, Victor; Semenov, Sergey; Semin, Ilya; Smirnov, Sergey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Volkovich, Anatoly [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projects for decommissioning of shutdown reactors and reactor facilities carried out in several countries, including Russia. In the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' decontamination and decommissioning of the research reactor MR (Material Testing Reactor) has been initiated. The research reactor MR has a long history and consists of nine loop facilities for experiments with different kinds of fuel. During the operation of main and auxiliary equipment of reactors it was subjected to strong radioactive contamination. The character of this contamination requires individual strategies for the decontamination work. This requires information about the character of the distribution of radioactive contamination of equipment in the premises. A detailed radiation survey of these premises using standard dosimetric equipment is almost impossible because of high levels of radiation and high-density of the equipment that does not allow identifying the most active fragments using standard tools of measurement. The problem can be solved using the method of remote measurements of distribution of radioactivity with help of the collimated gamma-ray detectors. For radiation surveys of the premises of loop installations remotely operated spectrometric collimated system was used [1, 2, 3]. As a result of the work, maps of the distribution of activity and dose rate for surveyed premises were plotted and superimposed on its photo. The new results of measurements in different areas of the reactor and at its loop installations, with emphasis on the radioactive survey of highly-contaminated samples, are presented. (authors)

  2. Synchrotron-based investigations of the nature and impact of iron contamination in multicrystalline silicon solar cell materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 72, 441 (2002). O. F.discussions about solar cells and defects in cast mc-Si;on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes (

  3. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction (UR) Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash (Parcel H). This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level at the time of the initial investigation.

  4. A Prototype Radon Filter for Air A typical, recurring problem in low-background physics is the contamination of sensitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the contamination of sensitive surfaces of experimental apparata with the radioactive decay products of 222Rn . What

  5. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs.

  6. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinson, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: radioactive waste solution cleanup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solution cleanup ECIS and UOP (a Honewell Company): CSTs Clean Radioactive Waste in Fukushima and Worldwide On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Materials Science, Nuclear Energy,...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: removing the highly radioactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    elements ECIS and UOP (a Honewell Company): CSTs Clean Radioactive Waste in Fukushima and Worldwide On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Materials Science, Nuclear Energy,...

  9. Removal of Historic Low-Level Radioactive Sediment from the Port Hope Harbour - 13314

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolberg, Mark [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada)] [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)] [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Port Hope Harbour, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the Harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. These waste materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Several other on-land locations within the community of Port Hope are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. The Port Hope Project is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remediation of the estimated 120,000 m{sup 3} of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope Harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Port Hope Project. Following a thorough review of various options, the proposed method of contaminated sediment removal is by dredging. The sediment from the dredge will then be pumped as a sediment-water slurry mixture into geo-synthetic containment tubes for dewatering. Due to the hard substrate below the contaminated sediment, the challenge has been to set performance standards in terms of low residual surface concentrations that are attainable in an operationally efficient manner. (authors)

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Strand

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if contaminants of concern are present. (5) If contaminants of concern are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the extent of the contamination. (6) Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management and minimization purposes. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'', this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, and field work will commence following approval.

  11. ORISE: Radiation and Radioactive Contamination FAQ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOENurse TriageInternational Training REAC/TS

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  13. Dismantling of alpha contaminated obsolete installations and glove boxes on the IRMM site in Geel (Belgium)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cretskens, Pieter; Lenie, Koen [Tecnubel NV, Gravenstraat 77, B-2480 Dessel (Belgium); Melis, Gustaaf [IRMM JRC, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (European commission, Joint Research Centre, IRMM) a dismantling campaign of obsolete installations and glove boxes has been carried out in 2005. There were various reasons for their removal. Some large installations did not meet modern safety standards, other installations were worn out and expected to cause a radioactive contamination risk in the future. The main goal was to create as less waste as possible by extensive contamination checks and by decontamination if necessary. For the glove boxes, decontamination was not possible. A controlled area was set up around the installation to be dismantled in order to prevent spreading of contamination from dust and dirt. This was only possible for the 'minor' contaminated installations. The dismantling campaign of the glove boxes was carried out by using tents of two types depending the contamination inside the glove boxes. The most common glove boxes were dismantled in a tent constructed with hard surfaced polycarbonate plates (ventilated cell). For glove boxes with higher contamination, the same principle was used but with a second 'glove box tent' inside (ventilated glove tent). The purpose of this project was to learn from the experience of this campaign which gave the ability to make estimates of future radioactive waste or classic waste that could be expected from dismantled installations. (authors)

  14. Treatment of Mercury Contaminated Oil from the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2000-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Over one thousand gallons of tritiated oil, at various contamination levels, are stored in the Main Hill Tritium Facility at the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (MEMP), commonly referred to as Mound Site. This tritiated oil is to be characterized for hazardous materials and radioactive contamination. Most of the hazardous materials are expected to be in the form of heavy metals, i.e., mercury, silver, lead, chromium, etc, but transuranic materials and PCBs could also be in some oils. Waste oils, found to contain heavy metals as well as being radioactively contaminated, are considered as mixed wastes and are controlled by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for removal and stabilization of RCRA metals (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and for removal of mercury from organic solvents. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide supports provide a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. SAMMS material has high flexibility in that it binds with different forms of mercury, including metallic, inorganic, organic, charged, and neutral compounds. The material removes mercury from both organic wastes, such as pump oils, and from aqueous wastes. Mercury-loaded SAMMS not only passes TCLP tests, but also has good long-term durability as a waste form because: (1) the covalent binding between mercury and SAMMS has good resistance in ion-exchange, oxidation, and hydrolysis over a wide pH range and (2) the uniform and small pore size of the mesoporous silica prevents bacteria from solubilizing the bound mercury.

  15. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)] [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  16. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

  17. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised for the 2012 edition (pdg.lbl.gov) February 16, 2012 14:08 #12;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  18. 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised://pdg.lbl.gov) June 18, 2012 16:20 #12;2 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection tissue caused by different radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  19. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection caused by different radiation types R weighted with so radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  20. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  1. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  2. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  3. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  4. Health care facility-based decontamination of victims exposed to chemical, biological, and radiological materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koenig, Kristi L MD

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contaminants, and management of contaminated materials andmanagement, triage, surveillance, decontamination procedures and materials,from the body, and management of contaminated materials and

  5. Radioactive Material or Multiple Hazardous Materials Decontamination |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring SolarNo.Frequency |Department ofDepartment of

  6. Contaminated land and groundwater management at Sellafield, a large operational site with significant legacy and contaminated land challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeve, Phil; Eilbeck, Katherine [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940's for the production and reprocessing of fissile materials. Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to 20 million m{sup 3}. Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo. Over the past three decades there has been a programme of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The latest phase of characterization is a pounds 10 million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models. The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been established. Setting and measuring performance against challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognizant of the long timescales (ca. 80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success. It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains. It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using international experts. (authors)

  7. Conditioning and Repackaging of Spent Radioactive Cs-137 and Co-60 Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13490

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; El-Zakla, T. [Hot Labs and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)] [Hot Labs and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive Sealed sources (RSSs) are widely use all over the world in medicine, agriculture, industry, research, etc. The accidental misuse and exposure to RSSs has caused significant environmental contamination, serious injuries and many deaths. The high specific activity of the materials in many RSSs means that the spread of as little as microgram quantities can generate significant risk to human health and inhibit the use of buildings and land. Conditioning of such sources is a must to protect humans and environment from the hazard of ionizing radiation and contamination. Conditioning is also increase the security of these sources by decreasing the probability of stolen and/or use in terrorist attacks. According to the law No.7/2010, Egyptian atomic energy authority represented in the hot laboratories and waste management center (centralized waste facility, HLWMC) has the responsibility of collecting, conditioning, storing and management of all types of radioactive waste from all Egyptian territory including spent radioactive sealed sources (SRSSs). This paper explains the conditioning procedures for two of the most common SRSSs, Cs{sup 137} and Co{sup 60} sources which make up more than 90% of the total spent radioactive sealed sources stored in our centralized waste facility as one of the major activities of hot laboratories and waste management center. Conditioning has to meet three main objectives, be acceptable for storage, enable their safe transport, and comply with disposal requirements. (authors)

  8. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste.

  9. Microsoft Word - EMSL Rad Materials Use.r2.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dispersible radioactive material must be placed in rigid, leak-tight inner containers (e.g., durable screw-top sample jars). Non-dispersible radioactive material may...

  10. Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

  11. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  12. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2007 TANK 50H WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low activity wastewater streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the high level waste (HLW) storage tanks, are stored as a mixture in Tank 50H until it can be pumped to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. Specific waste acceptance criteria (WAC) must be met for the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Facility. Low level waste which meets the WAC can be transferred, stored and treated in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) for subsequent disposal as saltstone in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested through a Technical Task Request (TTR) that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measure the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants listed in the currently approved Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and Analytical Study Plan has been written for this request. WAC determinations are needed on a quarterly basis for chemical contaminants and every first and third quarter for radioactive contaminants. This memorandum presents the results for the chemical and radionuclide contaminants in the third quarter, from the samples taken from Tank 50 in September, 2007.

  13. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  14. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  15. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  17. Solidification/stabilization of simulated uranium and nickel contaminated sludges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramabhadran, Sanjay

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research missions in nuclear energy conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy facilities have generated large volumes of mixed wastes with hazardous and radioactive components. Uranium and nickel are the primary contaminants of concern...

  18. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  19. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  20. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  1. Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFrate, P.; Elliott, J.; Valasquez, M.

    1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail.

  2. Environmental effects of dredging. Long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated esturaine dredged material placed in an upland environment. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers/Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program (FVP), 1981-1986 (Peddicord 1988). Upland tests (plant and earthworm bioassays) were conducted on the sediment before dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under the upland disposal alternative. Laboratory test results were subsequently field verified at the field test site at `Tongue Point,` Bridgeport, Connecticut. The results of the upland disposal portion of the FVP and the changes occurring since the completion of the FVP for the upland disposal environment are summarized herein. This technical note emphasizes the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland ecosystem at this site will be evaluated until September 1995.

  3. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  4. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project: Acushnet River Estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 2. Sediment and contaminant hydraulic transport investigations. Technical report, February 1986-July 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeter, A.M.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the evaluation of hydraulic conditions and sediment migration associated with the dredging and dredged material disposal alternatives proposed for the upper Acushnet River Estuary upstream of New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts. Dredging and onsite disposal is one remedial measure being considered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Assessments of sediment and contaminant migration beyond the upper New Bedford Harbor from proposed dredging and disposal alternatives were made based on field, laboratory, and various model studies. The upper estuary was found to be depositional and a reasonably efficient sediment trap. Total suspended material (TSM) concentrations were very low in the system.

  5. annual radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  6. activity radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  7. aqueous radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  8. artificial radioactivity levels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  9. acidic radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  10. ambient radioactivity levels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  11. activities radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  12. activity radioactive wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  13. alkaline radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  14. Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Multiple Users January 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Transportation Tracking and Communication System users can now track shipments of radioactive materials and access...

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  16. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

  17. Helpful links for materials transport, safety, etc.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helpful links for materials transport, safety, etc. relating to experiment safety at the APS. Internal Reference Material: Transporting Hazardous Materials "Natural" radioactivity...

  18. LANSCE | Materials Test Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facility Training Office Contact Administrative nav background Materials Test Station dotline Testing New Reactor Fuels that Reduce Radioactive Waste Mission Used...

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  20. Effect of Saltstone Vault Roof Configuration on the Rate of Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, R.H.; Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang

    1994-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ``Saltstone``. The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Sophisticated groundwater models were used to predict the groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems. The modeling effort was divided into two parts: the unsaturated-zone model and the saturated zone model. One of the major performance objectives is to show that the impacted groundwater will be in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act.

  1. Evaluation of Trenchless Installation Technology for Radioactive Wastewater Piping Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Sullivan, Nicholas M [ORNL; Bugbee, Kathy P [ORNL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes dispositioning facilities, contaminated legacy materials/waste, and contamination sources and remediation of soil under facilities, groundwater, and surface water to support final Records of Decision (RODs). The Integrated Facilities Disposition Project (IFDP) is a roughly $15B project for completion of the EM mission at Oak Ridge, with a project duration of up to 35 years. The IFDP Mission Need Statement - Critical Decision-0 (CD-0) - was approved by DOE in July 2007, and the IFDP Alternative Selection and Cost Range - Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) - was approved in November 2008. The IFDP scope includes reconfiguration of waste collection and treatment systems as needed to complete the IFDP remediation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) missions in a safe and cost-effective manner while maintaining compliance with all governing regulations and bodies and preserving the support of continuing operations at ORNL. A step in the CD-1 approval process included an external technical review (ETR) of technical approaches proposed in the CD-1 document related to the facility reconfiguration for the ORNL radioactive waste and liquid low-level waste management systems. The ETR team recommended that the IFDP team consider the use of trenchless technologies for installing pipelines underground in and around contaminated sites as part of the alternatives evaluations required in support of the CD-2 process. The team specifically recommended evaluating trenchless technologies for installing new pipes in existing underground pipelines as an alternative to conventional open trench installation methods. Potential benefits could include reduction in project costs, less costly underground piping, fewer disruptions of ongoing and surface activities, and lower risk for workers. While trenchless technologies have been used extensively in the sanitary sewer and natural gas pipeline industries, they have been used far less in contaminated environments. Although trenchless technologies have been used at ORNL in limited applications to install new potable water and gas lines, the technologies have not been used in radioactive applications. This study evaluates the technical risks, benefits, and economics for installing gravity drained and pressurized piping using trenchless technologies compared to conventional installation methods for radioactive applications under ORNL geological conditions. A range of trenchless installation technologies was reviewed for this report for general applicability for replacing existing contaminated piping and/or installing new pipelines in potentially contaminated areas. Installation methods that were determined to have potential for use in typical ORNL contaminated environments were then evaluated in more detail for three specific ORNL applications. Each feasible alternative was evaluated against the baseline conventional open trench installation method using weighted criteria in the areas of environment, safety, and health (ES&H); project cost and schedule; and technical operability. The formulation of alternatives for evaluation, the development of selection criteria, and the scoring of alternatives were performed by ORNL staff with input from vendors and consultants. A description of the evaluation methodology and the evaluation results are documented in the following sections of this report.

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  3. METHODS OF PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF ZINC CONTAMINATION DURING VACUUM PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Stoner, K.; Duncan, A.

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive zinc, {sup 65}Zn, was detected after a thermal vacuum process that extracted a desired product from articles out of a commercial light water reactor. While the facility is designed to handle radioactive materials, the location of the {sup 65}Zn was in an area that is not designed for gamma emitting contaminants. A series of experiments were conducted to entrain the contaminant in an easily replaceable trap within the process piping. The experiments were conducted with increasing levels of complexity. Initially a simple apparatus was developed to determine the effect of substrate temperature on the vapor capture, this was followed by experiments to determine the effect of filter pore size on pumping and trapping, finally the interactive effects of both pore size and temperature were evaluated. The testing was conducted on a system that used a roughing vacuum pump using model and prototypic materials. It was determined that heating the substrate to nominally 200°C resulted in effective trapping on the model as well as prototypic material.

  4. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section regulates the transportation and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Minnesota, and establishes a Nuclear Waste Council to monitor the federal high-level radioactive waste...

  6. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition | NationalMaterials

  7. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Third Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on July 7, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

  8. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 12, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

  9. Radioactive targets for neutron-induced cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronenberg, A. (Andreas); Bond, E. M. (Evelyn M.); Glover, S. E. (Samuel E.); Rundberg, R. S. (Robert S.); Vieira, D. J. (David J.); Esch, E. I. (Ernst-Ingo); Reifarth, R. (Rene); Ullmann, J. L. (John L.); Haight, Robert C.; Rochmann, D. (Dimitri)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements using radioactive targets are important for the determination of key reaction path ways associated with the synthesis of the elements in nuclear astrophysics (sprocess), advanced fuel cycle initiative (transmutation of radioactive waste), and stockpile stewardship. High precision capture cross-section measurements are needed to interpret observations, predict elemental or isotopical ratios, and unobserved abundances. There are two new detector systems that are presently being commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory for very precise measurements of (n,{gamma}) and (n,f) cross-sections using small quantities of radioactive samples. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments), a 4 {pi} gamma array made up of 160 BaF{sub 2} detectors, is designed to measure neutron capture cross-sections of unstable nuclei in the low-energy range (thermal to {approx}500 keV). The high granularity and high detection efficiency of DANCE, combined with the high TOF-neutron flux available at the Lujan Center provides a versatile tool for measuring many important cross section data using radioactive and isotopically enriched targets of about 1 milligram. Another powerful instrument is the Lead-slowing down spectrometer (LSDS), which will enable the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-section of U-235m and other short-lived actinides in a energy range from 1-200 keV with sample sizes down to 10 nanograms. Due to the short half-life of the U-235m isomer (T{sub 1/2} = 26 minutes), the samples must be rapidly and repeatedly extracted from its {sup 239}Pu parent. Since {sup 239}Pu is itself highly fissile, the separation must not only be rapid, but must also be of very high purity (the Pu must be removed from the U with a decontamination factor >10{sup 12}). Once extracted and purified, the {sup 235m}U isomer would be electrodeposited on solar cells as a fission detector and placed within the LSDS for direct (n,f) cross section measurements. The production of radioactive targets of a few milligrams will be described as well as the containment for safe handling of these targets at the Lujan Center at LANSCE. To avoid any contamination, the targets are electrochemically fixed onto thin Ti foils and two foils are placed back to back to contain the radioactive material within. This target sandwich is placed in a cylinder made of aluminum with thin translucent windows made of Kapton. Actinides targets, such as {sup 234,235,236,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu are prepared by electrodeposition or molecular plating techniques. Target thicknesses of 1-2 mg/cm{sup 2} with sizes of 1 cm{sup 2} or more have been made. Other targets will be fabricated from separation of irradiated isotopically enriched targets, such as {sup 155}Eu from {sup 154}Sm,{sup 171}Tm from {sup 170}Er, and {sup 147}Pm from {sup 146}Nd, which has been irradiated in the high flux reactor at ILL, Grenoble. A radioactive sample isotope separator (RSIS) is in the process of being commissioned for the preparation of other radioactive targets. A brief summary of these experiments and the radioactive target preparation technique will be given.

  10. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  12. Use of Source Term and Air Dispersion Modeling in Planning Demolition of Highly Alpha-Contaminated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bloom, Richard W.

    2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The current cleanup of structures related to cold-war production of nuclear materials includes the need to demolish a number of highly alpha-contaminated structures. The process of planning for the demolition of such structures includes unique challenges related to ensuring the protection of both workers and the public. Pre-demolition modeling analyses were conducted to evaluate potential exposures resulting from the proposed demolition of a number of these structures. Estimated emission rates of transuranic materials during demolition are used as input to an air-dispersion model. The climatological frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures at locations of interest are estimated based on years of hourly meteorological records. The modeling results indicate that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. The pre-demolition modeling directed the need for better contamination characterization and/or different demolition methods—and in the end, provided a basis for proceeding with the planned demolition activities. Post-demolition modeling was also conducted for several contaminated structures, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. Comparisons of modeled and monitoring results are shown. Recent monitoring data from the demolition of a UO3 plant shows increments in concentrations that were previously identified in the pre-demolition modeling predictions; these comparisons confirm the validity and value of the pre-demolition source-term and air dispersion computations for planning demolition activities for other buildings with high levels of radioactive contamination.

  13. Backfill barriers: the use of engineered barriers based on geologic materials to assure isolation of radioactive wastes in a repository. [Nickel-iron alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.; Cook, N.G.W.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary assessment is made to show that canisters fabricated of nickel-iron alloys, and surrounded by a suitable backfill, may produce an engineered barrier where the canister material is thermodynamically stable with respect to its environment. As similar conditions exist in nature, the performance of such systems as barriers to isolate radionuclides can be predicted over very long periods, of the order of 10/sup 6/ years.

  14. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq)] [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)

  15. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  16. Ceramicrete stabilization of U-and Pu-bearing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Maloney, M. David (Evergreen, CO); Thompson, Gary H. (Thornton, CO)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of stabilizing nuclear material is disclosed. Oxides or halides of actinides and/or transuranics (TRUs) and/or hydrocarbons and/or acids contaminated with actinides and/or TRUs are treated by adjusting the pH of the nuclear material to not less than about 5 and adding sufficient MgO to convert fluorides present to MgF.sub.2; alumina is added in an amount sufficient to absorb substantially all hydrocarbon liquid present, after which a binder including MgO and KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 is added to the treated nuclear material to form a slurry. Additional MgO may be added. A crystalline radioactive material is also disclosed having a binder of the reaction product of calcined MgO and KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 and a radioactive material of the oxides and/or halides of actinides and/or transuranics (TRUs). Acids contaminated with actinides and/or TRUs, and/or actinides and/or TRUs with or without oils and/or greases may be encapsulated and stabilized by the binder.

  17. Contaminant treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip (Schenectady, NY); Thornton, Roy Fred (Schenectady, NY); Salvo, Joseph James (Schenectady, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  18. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  19. Acceptance of Soil from Off Site Sources In order to guard against receiving contaminated soils to used as fill material on campus,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    regulations governing the remediation of site, and hazardous chemical disposal. Local Oversight Program Agency basic information for determining if there has been a release of a hazardous substance that present specifications. Because most sites requiring fill material are located in or near urban areas, the fill materials

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in-place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Currently, no points of exposure (e.g. a drinking water well); and no receptors of contaminated ground water have been identified at the Maybell site. Therefore, there are no current human health and ecological risks associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Furthermore, if current site conditions and land- and water-use patterns do not change, it is unlikely that contaminated ground water would reach people or the ecological communities in the future.

  1. Radioactive and chemotoxic wastes: Only radioactive wastes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eletti, G.F.; Tocci, M. [ENEA DISP, Rome (Italy)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste arising from Italian Nuclear Power Plants and Research Centers, classified as 1st and 2nd Category wastes, are managed only as radioactive wastes following the Technical Guide No. 26 issued by the Italian Regulatory Body: ENEA DISP on 1987. A very important Regulatory Regime revision for Italian Nuclear Activities started at the end of 1991. This paper considers the need to develop a new strategy dedicated to mixed waste in line with current international trends.

  2. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate wastes are also discussed. The various processing technologies are cross-referenced to the various types of wasteforms since often a particular type of wasteform can be made by a variety of different processing technologies.

  3. EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities: Continue to manage waste...

  4. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  5. Upgrading the Radioactive Waste Management Infrastructure in Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huseynov, A. [Baku Radioactive Waste Site IZOTOP, Baku (Azerbaijan); Batyukhnova, O. [State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, M. [Sheffield Univ., Immobilisation Science Lab. (United Kingdom); Rowat, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclide uses in Azerbaijan are limited to peaceful applications in the industry, medicine, agriculture and research. The Baku Radioactive Waste Site (BRWS) 'IZOTOP' is the State agency for radioactive waste management and radioactive materials transport. The radioactive waste processing, storage and disposal facility is operated by IZOTOP since 1963 being significantly upgraded from 1998 to be brought into line with international requirements. The BRWS 'IZOTOP' is currently equipped with state-of-art devices and equipment contributing to the upgrade the radioactive waste management infrastructure in Azerbaijan in line with current internationally accepted practices. The IAEA supports Azerbaijan specialists in preparing syllabus and methodological materials for the Training Centre that is currently being organized on the base of the Azerbaijan BRWS 'IZOTOPE' for education of specialists in the area of safety management of radioactive waste: collection, sorting, processing, conditioning, storage and transportation. (authors)

  6. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  7. Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, J.F.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants. 2 figs.

  8. Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU)168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 25 and 26 at the NTS in Nevada, CAU 168 is comprised of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Review of data collected during the corrective action investigation, as well as consideration of current and future operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS, led the way to the development of three CAAs for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Close in Place with Administrative Controls. As a result of this evaluation, a combination of all three CAAs is recommended for this CAU. Alternative 1 was the preferred CAA for three CASs, Alternative 2 was the preferred CAA for six CASs (and nearly all of one other CAS), and Alternative 3 was the preferred CAA for two CASs (and a portion of one other CAS) to complete the closure at the CAU 168 sites. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and elimination of potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at CAU 168.

  10. Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

    2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  12. Release of Residues from Melting NORM-Contaminated Steel Scrap - A German Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quade, U.; Thierfeldt, S.; Wvrlen, S.

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As many raw materials like crude oil, natural gas, mineral sands, phosphor ores and others are contaminated by radionuclides from the Uranium and/or Thorium decay chain (NORM), also plants for processing these materials became contaminated during operation. When plants are shut down, large quantities of pipes, valves, pumps and other components have to be scrapped. As scrap yards and steel mills are equipped by large detector systems to avoid an input of radioactivity into the steel cycle, decontamination is required before recycling. Siempelkamp is operating a melting plant for processing NORM and/or chemically/ toxically contaminated steel scrap. Beside the decontaminated steel as output, residues like slag and filter dust have to be managed within the range of licensed values. Based on the European Safety Standard the European member states have to implement radiation exposure from work activities with NORM in their Radiation Protection Ordinances (RPO). The German government revised the RPO in July 2001. Part 3 describes exposure limits for workers and for the public. Exposures from residues management have to meet 1 mSv/year. Brenk Systemplanung has performed calculations for assessing the radiation exposure from residues of the Siempelkamp melting plant. These calculations have been based on the input of metal from different origins and include all relevant exposure pathways in a number of scenarios. The calculations have been based on the dose criterion of 1 mSv/y as required by the German RPO. The methods and results will be presented.

  13. Improving Modeling of Iodine-129 Groundwater Contamination Plumes Using the System Assessment Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirkes, J.; Nichols, W.E.; Wurstner, S.K.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Years of production of radioactive materials at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has resulted in contamination of surface, subsurface, and surface water environments. Cleanup of the site has been aided by various tools, including computer software used to predict contaminant migration in the future and estimate subsequent impacts. The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a total systems tool designed to simulate the movement of contaminants from all waste sites at Hanford through the vadose zone, the unconfined aquifer, and the Columbia River. Except for iodine-129, most of the contaminants modeled by SAC have acceptably matched field measurements. The two most likely reasons for the inconsistency between the measured field data and SAC modeled predictions are an underestimated inventory and an overestimated sorption value (Kd). Field data tend to be point measurements taken from near the surface of the unconfined aquifer. Thus, the depth of the iodine-129 contamination plume on the site is not well characterized. Geostatistical analyses of the measured data were conducted to determine the mass of iodine-129 for four assumed plume depths within the unconfined aquifer. Several simulations for two different Kd’s using the initial SAC inventory were run to determine the effect of an overestimated sorption value on SAC modeled predictions. The initial SAC inventory was then increased for the two different Kd’s to determine the influence of an underestimated inventory on SAC modeled predictions. It was found that evidence for both an underestimated inventory and for an overestimated sorption value for iodine-129 exist. These results suggest that the Kd for iodine-129 should be reevaluated and that a more complete inventory must be generated in order to more accurately model iodine-129 groundwater contamination plumes that match available field data.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    England, Matthew

    contaminated with radionuclides, including Cesium-137, were released into the Pacific Ocean. With a halfMulti-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive of the leaked Cs-137 in the North Pacific Ocean. The simulations suggest that the contaminated plume would have

  16. Internal Contamination in the CTF As already mentioned in Chapter 6, the main purposes of the Counting Test Facility are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 8 Internal Contamination in the CTF As already mentioned in Chapter 6, the main purposes. Internal Contamination in the CTF 344 "miscellaneous" naturally occurring radioactive isotopes such as 40K that our samples of internal events are not contaminated much by surface or external events

  17. RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE Paul A. WitherspoonRADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE Paul A. Wither spoona repository site in granite are to evaluate the suitability

  18. TRESS: A Transportable Radioactive Effluent Solidification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, J. [BBN Environmental Management Ltd., Bramhall (United Kingdom). WasteChem Div.; Schneider, K. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an attempt to produce a totally new concept for a transportable plant capable of encapsulating radioactive sludges and ion exchange resins, employing recently developed dewatering and mixing techniques. One of the prime aims of the investigation was to produce a plant which could handle both beta/gamma and alpha-bearing materials.

  19. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

  20. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menkhaus, Daniel E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Loomis, Guy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mullen, Carlan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Scott, Donald W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Feldman, Edgar M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meyer, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  1. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Mullen, C.K.; Scott, D.W.; Feldman, E.M.; Meyer, L.C.

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  2. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, William E. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

  3. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  4. RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT REMOVAL FROM WATER USING GRAPHENE OXIDE (GO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concklin, Joshua Paul

    2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    and uranium. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are abundant throughout the earth's crust. Human manipulation of NORM for economic ends, such as mining, ore processing, fossil fuel extraction, and commercial aviation, may lead to what is known...

  5. account radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Derek 2012-06-07 49 NRC INSPECTION MANUAL FSMEDWMEP INSPECTION PROCEDURE 84900 LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE CiteSeer Summary: To determine whether fuel cycle and materials...

  6. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

  7. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LANL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  8. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  9. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest and Evaluation |quasicrystals |

  10. Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_Cost Estimating35.doc Microsoft WordDepartment of Energy

  11. ETEC - Radioactive Handling Materials Facility (RMHF) Leachfield |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department ofNotices |Notice The Crystal Cityof Energy

  12. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office ofEnergyFinalEnergyEVProposed PenaltyEnergylinesDEPARTMENT OF

  13. Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions forCheneyNovemberiMid-Level Ethanol Blends TestDepartmentDepartment

  14. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.

    2011-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  15. accidental radioactive contamination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita. It is important to remember that the lesson learned by going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for normal...

  16. Dose assessment for radioactive contamination of a child

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalczik, Jeffrey Aaron

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    representing children of various ages for use in estimates of internal dose, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR- 1159; 1980. Cristy M, Eckerman KF. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources. Oak... program built a three-dimensional geometry of a 10-year old male based on descriptions given previous reports from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Cristy 1980, Cristy and Eckerman, 1987, Snyder 1974). The Body Builder program used to model the child...

  17. airborne radioactive contamination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bronchial model; Radiation 1. Introduction Inhalation of airborne short-lived radon progeny in the indoor and outdoor environment yields the greatest amount of natural...

  18. PIA - Radioactive Airborne Contamination Survey | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMakeEducation Programs Business EnclavePositive Pay and

  19. T.G. Hinton: Radioactive Contaminants in Aquatic Ecosystems | Savannah

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(InsertAbout theSystems LongFacilityT h iRiver

  20. T.G. Hinton: Radioactive Contaminants in Terrestrial Ecosystems | Savannah

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(InsertAbout theSystems LongFacilityT h

  1. T.G. Hinton: Remediation of Radioactively Contaminated Ecosystems |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(InsertAbout theSystems LongFacilityT hSavannah

  2. Radiation Impact of Very Low Level Radioactive Steel Reused in Building Industry with Emphasis on External Exposure Pathway - 12569

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panik, Michal; Hrncir, Tomas; Necas, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable quantities of various materials are accumulated during the decommissioning process of nuclear installations. Some of arising materials are activated or contaminated. However, many of them continue to have an economic value and exist in a form that can be recycled or reused for special purposes. Furthermore much of the material generated during decommissioning process will contain only small amounts of radionuclides. For these materials there exist environmental and economic incentives to maximize the use of the concept of clearance from further regulatory control. This impact analysis is devoted to mentioned incentives. The aim is to conditionally clear maximum amount of the scrap steel and consequently recycle and reuse it in form of reinforcing components in tunnel and bridge building scenarios. Recent calculations relevant for external exposure pathway indicate that concept of conditional clearance represent a feasible option for the management of radioactive materials. Even in chosen specific industrial applications it is possible to justify new, approximately one order of magnitude higher, clearance levels. However analysis of other possible exposure pathways relevant for particular scenario of reuse of conditionally cleared materials has to be performed in order to confirm indications from partially obtained results. Basically, the concept of conditional clearance can bring two basic benefits. Firstly it is saving of considerable funds, which would be otherwise used for treatment, conditioning and disposal of materials at appropriate radioactive waste repository. Moreover materials with intrinsic value (particularly metals) can be recycled and reused in industrial applications instead of investing resources on mining and production process in order to obtain new, 'fresh' materials. (authors)

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  4. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

  5. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  6. Active remote detection of radioactivity based on electromagnetic signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprangle, P. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States) [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); Hafizi, B. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Milchberg, H.; Nusinovich, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)] [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); Zigler, A. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States) [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); Icarus Research, Inc., PO Box 30780, Bethesda, Maryland 20824-0780 (United States); The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a new concept for the remote detection of radioactive materials. The concept is based on the detection of electromagnetic signatures in the vicinity of radioactive material and can enable stand-off detection at distances greater than 100?m. Radioactive materials emit gamma rays, which ionize the surrounding air. The ionized electrons rapidly attach to oxygen molecules forming O{sub 2}{sup ?} ions. The density of O{sub 2}{sup ?} around radioactive material can be several orders of magnitude greater than background levels. The elevated population of O{sub 2}{sup ?} extends several meters around the radioactive material. Electrons are easily photo-detached from O{sub 2}{sup ?} ions by laser radiation. The photo-detached electrons, in the presence of laser radiation, initiate avalanche ionization which results in a rapid increase in electron density. The rise in electron density induces a frequency modulation on a probe beam, which becomes a direct spectral signature for the presence of radioactive material.

  7. Analysis of potential groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S.Y.; Peterson, J.M.; Winters, M.C.B.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of the analysis of contaminant migration beneath the raffinate pits at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site indicate that during a 10,000-year time period, the maximum concentrations in the water immediately beneath the pit bottoms would be about 4600 pCi/L of radium-226 (Pit 3) and about 12,000 pCi/L of uranium-238 (Pit 1); these concentrations would occur at the centers of the pit bottoms. Based on the assumptions used in this study, the radioactive contaminants in the pits would migrate no more than 2 m (7 ft) below the pit bottoms. Because 6 to 12 m (20 to 40 ft) of silty clays underlie the raffinate pits, the radioactive contaminants would take several tens of thousands of years to reach nearby groundwater supplies. Although the results of these analyses indicate that a high degree of confinement is provided by the four raffinate pits, it should be noted that the validity of such analyses rests on the quality of the parameter values utilized. Due to a lack of current site-specific data for some physical parameters, it has been necessary to use historical and regional data for these values. The values cited are at times inconsistent and contradictory, e.g., the wide range of values indicated for the permeability of clays underlying the pits. However, these were the only data available. The analysis reported herein indicates that within the limitations of the available data, use of the Raffinate Pits site for long-term management of radioactive materials such as those currently being stored in the four pits appears to be feasible. 24 references, 14 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  9. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

  10. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  11. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Richard Paul (Allentown, PA); Makitka, III, Alexander (Hatfield, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  12. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.

  13. Prioritization and accelerated remediation of groundwater contamination in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittreich, C.D.; Ford, B.H.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site, operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), occupies about 1,450 km{sup 2} (560 mi{sup 2}) of the southeastern part of Washington State north of the confluence of the Yakima and Columbia Rivers. The Hanford Site is organized into numerically designated operational areas. The 200 Areas, located near the center of the Hanford Site, encompasses the 200 West, East and North Areas and cover an area of over 40 km{sup 2}. The Hanford Site was originally designed, built, and operated to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons using production reactors and chemical reprocessing plants. Operations in the 200 Areas were mainly related to separation of special nuclear materials from spent nuclear fuel and contain related chemical and fuel processing and waste management facilities. Large quantities of chemical and radioactive waste associated with these processes were often disposed to the environment via infiltration structures such as cribs, ponds, ditches. This has resulted in over 25 chemical and radionuclide groundwater plumes, some of which have reached the Columbia River. An Aggregate Area Management Study program was implemented under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order to assess source and groundwater contamination and develop a prioritized approach for managing groundwater remediation in the 200 Areas. This included a comprehensive evaluation of existing waste disposal and environmental monitoring data and the conduct of limited field investigations (DOE-RL 1992, 1993). This paper summarizes the results of groundwater portion of AAMS program focusing on high priority contaminant plume distributions and the groundwater plume prioritization process. The objectives of the study were to identify groundwater contaminants of concern, develop a conceptual model, refine groundwater contaminant plume maps, and develop a strategy to expedite the remediation of high priority contaminants through the implementation of interim actions.

  14. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  15. RESULTS FOR THE SECOND QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, the DDA (Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment) process, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are listed in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Second Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on April 4, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limit for {sup 59}Ni is above the requested limit from Reference 2 but below the established limit in Reference 3. (3) The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit from Reference 2; however, it is below the established limits in Reference 3. (4) The reported concentration of {sup 242m}Am is above the target in Listed in Attachment 8.4 of the Saltstone WAC. (5) {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (6) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13{sup 5} is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (7) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (8) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

  17. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, David R. (Bothel, WA); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Macdonald, John M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  18. Basic radiological studies contamination control experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duce, S.W.; Winberg, M.R.; Freeman, A.L.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of experiments relating to contamination control performed in support of the Environmental Restoration Programs Retrieval Project. During the years 1950 to 1970 waste contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides was disposed of in shallow land-filled pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Due to potential for migration of radionuclides to an existing aquifer the feasibility of retrieving and repackaging the waste for placement in a final repository is being examined as part of a retrieval project. Contamination control experiments were conducted to determine expected respirable and nonrespirable plutonium contaminated dust fractions and the effectiveness of various dust suppression techniques. Three soil types were tested to determine respirable fractions: Rocky Flats Plant generic soil, Radioactive Waste Management Complex generic soil, and a 1:1 blend of the two soil types. Overall, the average respirable fraction of airborne dust was 5.4% by weight. Three contamination control techniques were studied: soil fixative sprays, misting agents, and dust suppression agents. All of the tested agents proved to be effective in reducing dust in the air. Details of product performance and recommended usage are discussed.

  19. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  20. Method of treating fluoride contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, P.K.; Kakaria, V.K.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating spent aluminum smelting potliner material containing fluoride contaminants is described which comprises: adding silica to the material to form a mixture thereof; elevating the temperature of the mixture within the range of 1,000/sup 0/ to 1,700/sup 0/C. to form a slag; providing sufficient silica in the mixture and forming the slag in the presence of sufficient water for pyrohydrolysis conditions resulting in the volatilization of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants mostly in the form of hydrogen fluoride; and cooling the slag remaining after volatilizatiion of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants to produce an insoluble silicate glass-residue containing any remaining portion of the fluoride contaminants in an immobile state.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, cancels DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

  2. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  3. An improved ion exchange method for treatment of slightly contaminated wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.D.; Begovich, J.M.; Brown, C.H.; Campbell, D.O.; Lasher, L.C.; Morris, M.I.; Robinson, S.M.; Scott, C.B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method is being developed for the treatment of wastewaters that contain predominantly calcium, sodium, and magnesium bicarbonates and are slightly contaminated with /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. The process decontaminates the water sufficiently for release to the environment while concentrating the radioactive materials into a nonhazardous waste form that can be safely stored with minimum surveillance. The water is passed through a series of columns containing a natural chabazite type of zeolite. The loaded zeolite in discharged columns is dewatered and transferred to a disposal container. Excellent results have been obtained in both partial and full-scale tests. The process is simple, reliable, and economical. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Standard Guide for Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance of Radiologically Contaminated Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide outlines a method for developing a Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) plan for inactive nuclear facilities. It describes the steps and activities necessary to prevent loss or release of radioactive or hazardous materials, and to minimize physical risks between the deactivation phase and the start of facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). 1.2 The primary concerns for S&M are related to (1) animal intrusion, (2) structural integrity degradation, (3) water in-leakage, (4) contamination migration, (5) unauthorized personnel entry, and (6) theft/intrusion. This document is intended to serve as a guide only, and is not intended to modify existing regulations.

  5. Hazardous Material Packaging for Transport - Administrative Procedures

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1986-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To establ1sh administrative procedures for the certification and use of radioactive and other hazardous materials packaging by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  7. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

  8. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

  9. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A. Chg 1 dated 8-28-01. Certified 1-9-07.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A

  11. New Proton Radioactivity Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    New Proton Radioactivity Measurements Richard J. Irvine Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor to search for examples of proton emission from ground and low­lying states in odd­Z nuclei at the proton into a double­sided silicon strip detector system, where their subsequent particle decays (proton or alpha) were

  12. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  13. WM'05 Conference, February 27 March 3, 2005, Tucson, AZ WM-5202 INTERNATIONAL APPROACH TO MONITORING FOR RADIOACTIVELY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    processing industries are very concerned about the importation of scrap metal contaminated by radioactivity within the scrap metal industry to share data and experiences on contaminated scrap incidents, especially a training program for the scrap metal industry entitled "Response To Radiation Alarms at Metal Processing

  14. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, M.E. (ed.)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found.

  15. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  16. Method for treating materials for solidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John B. (Aiken, SC); Martin, Hollis L. (N. Augusta, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating materials such as wastes for solidification to form a solid, substantially nonleachable product. Addition of reactive silica rather than ordinary silica to the material when bringing the initial molar ratio of its silica constituent to a desired ratio within a preselected range increases the solubility and retention of the materials in the solidified matrix. Materials include hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and heavy metal species. Amounts of other constituents of the material, in addition to its silica content are also added so that the molar ratio of each of these constituents is within the preselected ranges for the final solidified product. The mixture is then solidified by cement solidification or vitrification. The method can be used to treat a variety of wastes, including but not limited to spent filter aids from waste water treatment, waste sludges, combinations of spent filter aids and waste sludges, combinations of supernate and waste sludges, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, combinations of incinerator ash and offgas blowdown, cementitious wastes and contaminated soils.

  17. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  18. Remote video radioactive process evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  19. Remote video radioactive process evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  20. Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1998-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers.

  1. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  2. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C. (Augusta, GA); Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  3. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  4. Nuclear Material Packaging Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The manual provides detailed packaging requirements for protecting workers from exposure to nuclear materials stored outside of an approved engineered contamination barrier. No cancellation. Certified 11-18-10.

  5. Effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A dedicated test of the effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. A detector has been designed and assembled for this specific task and connected to a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Nitrogen into the liquid Argon. Purpose of the test is to detect the reduction of the Ar scintillation light emission as a function of the amount of the Nitrogen contaminant injected in the Argon volume. A wide concentration range, spanning from about 10^-1 ppm up to about 10^3 ppm, has been explored. Measurements have been done with electrons in the energy range of minimum ionizing particles (gamma-conversion from radioactive sources). Source spectra at different Nitrogen contaminations are analyzed, showing sensitive reduction of the scintillation yield at increasing concentrations. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Nitrogen in liquid Ar has been found to be k(N2)=0.11 micros^-1 ppm^-1. Direct PMT signals acquisition at high time resolution by fast Waveform recording allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1 ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations.

  6. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

  7. Solid materials for removing metals and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Reynolds, John G.; Coleman, Sabre J.

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid materials have been developed to remove contaminating metals and organic compounds from aqueous media. The contaminants are removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are sol-gel and or sol-gel and granulated activated carbon (GAC) mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards the contaminant(s). The contaminated solid materials can then be disposed of or the contaminant can be removed and the solids recycled.

  8. Investigation of the possibility of decontamination of bitumen concrete pavement contaminated with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlina, O.K.; Ovchinnikov, A.V.; Ozhovan, M.I. [and others

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive contamination of the environment is possible during operation of nuclear power plants and the utilization of radionuclide sources in the economy. The problem of decontaminating the surfaces of industrial objects and environmental objects which are contaminated by radionuclides can be solved by different methods of depending on the character of the object: chemical treatment of metallic surfaces of equipment parts by application of different washing fluids, mechanical removal of contaminants or washing contaminants off with a jet of liquid, as well as adding different abrasive additives, the use of film-forming substances for sorption and removal of the decontaminating layer from the surface being cleaned, and other methods.

  9. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  10. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  11. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  12. The Belgoprocess Strategy Relating to the Management of Materials from Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teunckens, L.; Lewandowski, P.; Walthery, R.; Ooms. B.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Belgium started its nuclear program quite early. The first installations were constructed in the fifties, and presently, more than 55 % of the Belgian electricity production is provided by nuclear power plants. After 30 years of nuclear experience, Belgium started decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the eighties with two main projects: the BR3-PWR plant and the Eurochemic reprocessing plant. The BR3-decommissioning project is carried out at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, while the decommissioning of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant is managed and operated by Belgoprocess n.v., which is also operating the centralized waste treatment facilities and the interim storage for Belgian radioactive waste. Some fundamental principles have to be considered for the management of materials resulting from the decommissioning of nuclear installations, equipment and/or components, mainly based on the guidelines of the ''IAEA-Safety Fundamentals. The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. Safety Series No. 111-F, IAEA, Vienna, 1995'' with respect to radioactive waste management. Two of the fundamental principles indicated in this document are specifically dealing with the strategy for the management of materials from decommissioning, ''Generation of radioactive waste shall be kept to the minimum practicable'' (seventh principle), and ''Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that it will not impose undue burdens on future generations'' (fifth principle). Based on these fundamental principles, Belgoprocess has made a straightforward choice for a strategy with minimization of the amount of materials to be managed as radioactive waste. This objective is obtained through the use of advanced decontamination techniques and the unconditional release of decontaminated materials. Unconditionally released materials are recycled, such as i.e., metal materials that are removed to conventional melting facilities, or are removed to conventional industrial disposal sites if they have no remaining value. In order to achieve these objectives, Belgoprocess uses techniques and equipment that enable the high degrees of decontamination to be obtained, while based on commercially available technology. As an example, for concrete surfaces, where the contamination has not penetrated deeply, significant improvement in operation efficiency was achieved when developing dry hand held and automated floor and wall shaving systems as an alternative for scabbling. As it was also shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, an industrial automated dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. Moreover, a specific facility was developed and operations started for taking representative samples and monitoring concrete material in view of the final demolition and unconditional release of remaining structures of buildings after completing all dismantling and decontamination work.

  13. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  14. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  15. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  16. NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPED TO MEET REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m{sup 3} (250,000 yd{sup 3}) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent industrial worker exposure to radioactive or hazardous contamination exceeding Principal Threat Source Material levels; (2) Minimize human and ecological exposure to unacceptable risk associated with radiological and hazardous constituents that are or may be present; (3) Prevent to the extent practicable the migration of radioactive or hazardous contaminants from the closed facility to the groundwater so that concentrations in groundwater do not exceed regulatory standards; (4) Eliminate or control all routes of human exposure to radiological and chemical contamination; and (5) Prevent animal intruder exposure to radioactive and hazardous contamination.

  17. Bioremediation of contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, J.B.; Jee, V.; Ward, C.H. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminants in bottom sediments have historically been considered to have minimal environmental impact because they are buried, sorbed or electrostatically bound to clay particles, or incorporated into humus. Physical and chemical conditions such as alkalinity, pH, and redox of the sediments also play a part in sequestering contaminants. As long as the sediments are undisturbed, the contaminants are considered stabilized and not an immediate environmental problem. Resuspension of bottom sediments makes contaminants more available for dispersal into the marine environment. Events that can cause resuspension include storm surges, construction activity, and dredging. During resuspension, sediment particles move from an anaerobic to aerobic environment, changing their redox characteristics, and allowing the indigenous aerobic bacteria to grow and utilize certain classes of contaminants as energy sources. The contaminants are also more available for use because the mixing energy imparted to the particles during resuspension enhances mass transfer, allowing contaminants to enter the aqueous phase more rapidly. The contaminants targeted in this research are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of contaminant commonly found in bottom sediments near highly industrialized areas. PAH sources include fossil fuel combustion and petroleum spills. Previous research has shown that PAHs can be biodegraded. Size and structure, i.e., number and configuration of condensed rings, can affect compound disappearance. The focus of this research was to examine the relationship between resuspension and biodegradation of PAHs in lab scale slurry reactors. The rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments into an uncontaminated water column was determined. Oxygen demand of initially anaerobic sediments were investigated. Then rate and extent of phenanthrene biodegradation was examined.

  18. Contaminated sediment removal from a spent fuel storage canal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geber, K R

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A leaking underground spent fuel transfer canal between a decommissioned reactor and a radiochemical separations building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was found to contain RCRA-hazardous and radioactive sediment. Closure of the Part B RCRA permitted facility required the use of an underwater robotic vacuum and a filtration-containment system to separate and stabilize the contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the radiological controls established to maintain contamination and exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) during the sediment removal.

  19. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long completion times. The radioactive waste management problem in fact offers a prospect for international participation to engage the DPRK constructively. DPRK nuclear dismantlement, when accompanied with a concerted effort for effective radioactive waste management, can be a mutually beneficial goal.

  20. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehabi, Arman

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Studyoccupants. To investigate contamination levels, particlemethod of collecting contamination readings. The system,

  1. Radioactive waste management strategy in the Republic of Croatia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subasic, D.; Saler, A.; Skanata, D. [Javno poduzece za zbrinjavanje radioaktivnog otpada, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental preservation and human health protection have been proclaimed by the Croatian Government as priority actions. Hence, all organized actions toward this aim are expected to be supported by the State. Radioactive waste management plays a significant role in controlling materials that could harm the environment. Strategy in handling radioactive wastes is a prerequisite for well-organized radwaste management. It should be applied to all radioactive wastes that have already been produced in various industries, medical institutions, and scientific laboratories. Additionally, radioactive wastes that are being generated in the Krsko NPP must not be neglected, as well as possible future nuclear program needs in Croatia. For all considered actions, world-wide experiences and safety requirements should be strictly respected.

  2. Measurement of Ultra-Low Potassium Contaminations with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Dong

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Levels of trace radiopurity in active detector materials is a subject of major concern in low-background experiments. Among the radio-isotopes, $\\k40$ is one of the most abundant and yet whose signatures are difficult to reject. Procedures were devised to measure trace potassium concentrations in the inorganic salt CsI as well as in organic liquid scintillator (LS) with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), giving, respectively, the $\\k40$-contamination levels of $\\sim 10^{-10}$ and $\\sim 10^{-13}$ g/g. Measurement flexibilities and sensitivities are improved over conventional methods. The projected limiting sensitivities if no excess of potassium signals had been observed over background are $8 \\times 10^{-13}$ g/g and $3 \\times 10^{-17}$ g/g for the CsI and LS, respectively. Studies of the LS samples indicate that the radioactive contaminations come mainly in the dye solutes, while the base solvents are orders of magnitude cleaner. The work demonstrate the possibilities of measuring naturally-occurring isotopes with the AMS techniques.

  3. Measurement of Ultra-Low Potassium Contaminations with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, K J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Levels of trace radiopurity in active detector materials is a subject of major concern in low-background experiments. Among the radio-isotopes, $\\k40$ is one of the most abundant and yet whose signatures are difficult to reject. Procedures were devised to measure trace potassium concentrations in the inorganic salt CsI as well as in organic liquid scintillator (LS) with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), giving, respectively, the $\\k40$-contamination levels of $\\sim 10^{-10}$ and $\\sim 10^{-13}$ g/g. Measurement flexibilities and sensitivities are improved over conventional methods. The projected limiting sensitivities if no excess of potassium signals had been observed over background are $8 \\times 10^{-13}$ g/g and $3 \\times 10^{-17}$ g/g for the CsI and LS, respectively. Studies of the LS samples indicate that the radioactive contaminations come mainly in the dye solutes, while the base solvents are orders of magnitude cleaner. The work demonstrate the possibilities of measuring naturally-occurring isoto...

  4. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites and facilities. Note that Riley and Zachara analyzed the data from only 18 sites/facilities including 91 plumes. In this paper, we present the results of statistical analyses of the data in the GWD as guidance for planning future basic and applied research of groundwater contaminants within the DOE complex. Our analyses include the evaluation of a frequency and ranking of specific contaminants and contaminant groups, contaminant concentrations/activities and total contaminant masses and activities. We also compared the results from analyses of the GWD with those from the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The difference between our results and those summarized in the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara could be caused by not only additional releases, but also by the use of modern site characterization methods, which more accurately reveal the extent of groundwater contamination. Contaminated sites within the DOE complex are located in all major geographic regions of the United States, with highly variable geologic, hydrogeologic, soil, and climatic conditions. We assume that the information from the 60 DOE sites included in the GWD are representative for the whole DOE complex. These 60 sites include the major DOE sites and facilities, such as Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Savannah River Site, South Carolina; Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. These five sites alone ccount for 71% of the value of the remediation work.

  5. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  6. Contaminant modeling. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, S.L.; Dortch, M.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note provides initial information on contaminant models that are potentially applicable to situations where the presence of toxic materials in sediments complicates Corps of Engineers (CE) dredging activities.

  7. Handling Radioactive Waste from the Proton Accelerator Facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) - Always Surprising? - 13320

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueth, Joachim [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is the largest national research centre in Switzerland. Its multidisciplinary research is dedicated to a wide field in natural science and technology as well as particle physics. In this context, PSI is operating, amongst others, a large proton accelerator facility since more than 30 years. In two cyclotrons, protons are accelerated to high speeds and then guided along roughly 100 m of beam line to three different target stations to produce secondary particles like mesons and neutrons for experiments and a separately beam line for UCN. The protons induce spallation processes in the target materials, and also at other beam loss points along the way, with emission of protons, neutrons, hydrogen, tritium, helium, heavier fragments and fission processes. In particular the produced neutrons, due to their large penetration depth, will then interact also with the surrounding materials. These interactions of radiation with matter lead to activation and partly to contamination of machine components and the surrounding infrastructures. Maintenance, operation and decommissioning of installations generate inevitably substantial amounts of radioactive operational and dismantling waste like targets, magnets, collimators, shielding (concrete, steel) and of course secondary waste. To achieve an optimal waste management strategy for interim storage or final disposal, radioactive waste has to be characterized, sorted and treated. This strategy is based on radiation protection demands, raw waste properties (size, material, etc.), and requirements to reduce the volume of waste, mainly for legal and economical reasons. In addition, the radiological limitations for transportation of the waste packages to a future disposal site have to be taken into account, as well as special regulatory demands. The characterization is a task of the waste producer. The conditioning processes and quality checks for radioactive waste packages are part of an accredited waste management process of PSI, especially of the Section Dismantling and Waste Management. Strictly proven and accepted methods needed to be developed and enhanced for safe treatment, transport, conditioning and storage. But in the field of waste from research activities, individual and new solutions have to be found in an increasingly growing administrative environment. Furthermore, a wide variety of components, with a really large inventory of radioactive nuclides, has to be handled. And there are always surprising challenges concerning the unusual materials or the nuclide inventory. In case of the operational and dismantling radioactive accelerator waste, the existing conditioning methods are in the process of a continuous enhancement - technically and administratively. The existing authorized specifications of conditioning processes have to be extended to optimize and fully describe the treatment of the inevitably occurring radioactive waste from the accelerator facility. Additional challenges are the changes with time concerning the legal and regulatory requirements - or do we have to consider it as business as usual? This paper gives an overview of the current practices in radioactive waste management and decommissioning of the existing operational accelerator waste. (authors)

  8. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  9. CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAY 1990 THE NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS Nordic liaison CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS Final Report of the NKA Project AKT 242 Edited the members of the working group. Graphic Systems AB, Malmo 1990 #12;111 ABSTRACT. The NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA

  10. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W. (13237 W. 8th Ave., Golden, CO 80401); Brugger, Ronald P. (Lafayette, CO)

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  11. Organic contaminant separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Mar, P.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

  12. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  13. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  14. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, David G. (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  15. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  16. Original article Salmonella typhimurium contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Salmonella typhimurium contamination from farm to meat in adult cattle 3 June 1997) Summary ― The aim of this work was to study the increase in hair contamination this contamination and the contamination of carcasses and of the ground beef made from these animals. l3ctween April

  17. Nuclear Operations Application to Environmental Restoration at Corrective Action Unit 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Cabble (NSO), Mark Krauss and Patrick Matthews (N-I)

    2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office has responsibility for environmental restoration at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site). This includes remediation at locations where past testing activities have resulted in the release of plutonium to the environment. One of the current remediation efforts involves a site where an underground subcritical nuclear safety test was conducted in 1964. The underground test was vented through a steel pipe to the surface in a closed system where gas samples were obtained. The piping downstream of the gas-sampling apparatus was routed belowground to a location where it was allowed to vent into an existing radioactively contaminated borehole. The length of the pipe above the ground surface is approximately 200 meters. This pipe remained in place until remediation efforts began in 2007, at which time internal plutonium contamination was discovered. Following this discovery, an assessment was conducted to determine the quantity of plutonium present in the pipe. This site has been identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites. The quantity of plutonium identified at CAU 547 exceeded the Hazard Category 3 threshold but was below the Hazard Category 2 threshold specified in DOE Standard DOE-STD-1027-92. This CAU, therefore, was initially categorized as a Hazard Category 3 environmental restoration site. A contaminated facility or site that is initially categorized as Hazard Category 3, however, may be downgraded to below Hazard Category 3 if it can be demonstrated through further analysis that the form of the material and the energy available for release support reducing the hazard category. This is an important consideration when performing hazard categorization of environmental restoration sites because energy sources available for release of material are generally fewer at an environmental restoration site than at an operating facility and environmental restoration activities may result in the complete removal of source material.

  18. Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuresko, Daniel D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

  19. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  20. Cross flow filtration of aqueous radioactive tank wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Reynolds, B.A. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wilson, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology addresses remediation of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks. Baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. Solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. This basic process is used for decontamination of tank waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Ion exchange of radioactive ions has been proposed for other tank wastes, requiring removal of insoluble solids to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Additionally, volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage of High Level Wastes. The scope of this multi-site task is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. Testing has emphasized cross now filtration with metal filters to pretreat tank wastes, due to tolerance of radiation and caustic.

  1. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  2. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  3. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  4. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ``Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,`` (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  5. Radioactive Testing Results in Support of the In-Tank Precipitation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of twelve tests examined benzene generation rates with radioactive materials simulating the planned Batches 2 through 4 that complete Cycle 1 for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility.

  6. Bagless transfer process and apparatus for radioactive waste confinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, D.N.; Hones, R.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus are provided for removing radioactive material from a glovebox, placing the material in a stainless steel storage vessel in communication with the glovebox, and sealing the vessel with a welded plug. The vessel is then severed along the weld, a lower half of the plug forming a closure for the vessel. The remaining welded plug half provides a seal for the remnant portion of the vessel and thereby maintains the sealed integrity of the glovebox. 7 figs.

  7. Bagless transfer process and apparatus for radioactive waste confinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, David N. (Aiken, SC); Hones, Robert H. (Evans, GA); Rogers, M. Lane (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus is provided for removing radioactive material from a glovebox, placing the material in a stainless steel storage vessel in communication with the glovebox, and sealing the vessel with a welded plug. The vessel is then severed along the weld, a lower half of the plug forming a closure for the vessel. The remaining welded plug half provides a seal for the remnant portion of the vessel and thereby maintains the sealed integrity of the glovebox.

  8. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  9. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  10. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  11. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  12. Managing contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asante-Duah, D.K.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This book summarizes the generic principles of contaminated site management. The book walks the reader through contaminated site identification, risk assessment and the evaluation of remediation alternatives. The book is divided into two major sections, problem diagnosis and development of site restoration. In problem diagnosis, the general principles of site investigation are discussed, including the objectives and differences between tier 1,2, and 3 investigations. The principles of data collection and analysis are presented. A small quantitative discussion of statistical analysis is presented but in keeping with the objectives of the text is not sufficient comprehensive or detailed to provide much of a guide for the practitioner. Chapters on contaminant fate and transport processes and risk assessment help the reader understand the role of these issues in site investigation and remedial planning. A chapter is also included on elements of a site characterization activity, which summarizes some of the key considerations in conducting a site investigation.

  13. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  14. Volume reduction/solidification of liquid radioactive waste using bitumen at Ontario Hydro`s Bruce Nuclear Generating Station `A`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, J.E.; Baker, R.L.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ontario Hydro at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station `A` has undertaken a program to render the station`s liquid radioactive waste suitable for discharge to Lake Huron by removing sufficient radiological and chemical contaminants to satisfy regulatory requirements for emissions. The system will remove radionuclide and chemical contaminants from five different plant waste streams. The contaminants will be immobilized and stored at on-site radioactive waste storage facilities and the purified streams will be discharged. The discharge targets established by Ontario Hydro are set well below the limits established by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) and are based on the Best Available Technology Economically Achievable Approach (B.A.T.E.A.). ADTECHS Corporation has been selected by Ontario Hydro to provide volume reduction/solidification technology for one of the five waste streams. The system will dry and immobilize the contaminants from a liquid waste stream in emulsified asphalt using thin film evaporation technology.

  15. Material Open Test Assembly Specimen Retrieval from Hanford's Shielded Material Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdez, Patrick LJ; Rinker, Michael W.

    2009-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford’s 324 Building, the Shielded Material Facility (SMF), was developed to provide containment for research and fabrication development studies on highly radioactive metallic and ceramic nuclear reactor fuels and structural materials. Between 1983 and 1992, the SMF was used in support of the Department of Energy (DOE)-funded Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) program. In this program, metallurgical specimens were irradiated in FFTF and then sent to SMF for processing and storage in two cabinets. This effort was abruptly ended in early 1990s due to programmatic shifts within the DOE, leaving many specimens unexamined. In recent years, these specimens have become of high value to new DOE programs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with retrieving specimens from one of the cabinets in support of fuel clad and duct development for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. Cesium contamination of the cell and failure of the overhead crane system utilized for opening the cabinets prevented PNNL from using the built-in hot cell equipment to gain access to the cabinets. PNNL designed and tested a lifting device to fit through a standard 10 inch diameter mechanical manipulator port in the SMF South Cell wall. The tool was successfully deployed in June 2008 with the support of Washington Closure Hanford.

  16. EULERIANLAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHODS FOR TRANS PORT OF NUCLEARWASTE CONTAMINATION IN POROUS MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    EULERIAN­LAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHODS FOR TRANS­ PORT OF NUCLEAR­WASTE CONTAMINATION­ creasingly threatened by organic, inorganic, and radioactive pollutants as well as high­level nuclear waste developed for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to analyze deep geologic nuclear waste disposal

  17. Wildfires in Chernobyl-contaminated forests and risks to the population and the environment: A new nuclear disaster about to happen?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildfires in Chernobyl-contaminated forests and risks to the population and the environment: A new June 2014 Accepted 20 August 2014 Available online xxxx Keywords: Chernobyl accident Forest fires Redistribution Radionuclides Risks Radioactive contamination in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia after the Chernobyl

  18. Bugs boost Cold War clean-up: Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago. updated at midnight GMTtoday is friday, november 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    2003 · Fungus catches radioactive fallout 8 May 2002 · Depleted uranium soils battlefields 12 MarchBugs boost Cold War clean-up: Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago boost Cold War clean-up Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago. 13 October

  19. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  20. Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorg Schwitzgebel; Klaus Schwitzgebel; Michael W. Bonem; Ronald E. Borah

    1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT â Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT â chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.