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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium.

D Read; G D Read; M C Thorne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The radioactive material must then be placed in inner packages that will prevent radioactive contamination during transportation. Dispersible radioactive material must be...

5

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

Gray, P. [ed.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

7

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation...

8

Laboratory Surveys when Working with Radioactive Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radioactive materials (RAM) are used or stored, including waste areas. Negative results should be clearlyLaboratory Surveys when Working with Radioactive Materials Procedure: 7.546 Created: 9/25/14 Version: 1.0 Revised: Environmental Health & Safety Page 1 of 6 A. Purpose Radioactive contamination and

Jia, Songtao

9

Film Badge Application Radioactive Material Package Receipt Log  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGE RECEIPT LOG DATE: DELIVERED BY: AUTHORIZED BY: Contamination Check DPM/100 cm2APPENDIX A Film Badge Application Radioactive Material Package Receipt Log Radioactive Material Package Receipt Form (Off-Campus Locations) Radiation / Contamination Survey Form #12;PERSONNEL MONITORING

Slatton, Clint

10

Researchers at Montana State University and Idaho National Lab have developed a process to effectively and efficiently clean natural and man-made porous material of radioactive contamination. The system eliminates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to effectively and efficiently clean natural and man-made porous material of radioactive contamination. The system eliminates the practice of full demolition and removal of contaminated objects and can address contaminated substrate. Thus, building walls (interior or exterior), floors and ceilings can be remediated

Maxwell, Bruce D.

11

Container for radioactive materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

Fields, S.R.

1984-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

12

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS  

SciTech Connect

Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

99: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located 99: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications Summary This EA was being prepared to evaluate potential environmental impacts of a proposal to dispose of nickel scrap that is volumetrically contaminated with radioactive materials and that DOE recovered from equipment it had used in uranium enrichment. This EA is on hold. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities at this time.

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha contaminated material Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

possible. Radioactively Contaminated... consumption by removing levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials found in raw water supplies... . As large quantities of water...

15

RESRAD Computer Code- Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989.

16

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Cancels DOE M 460.2-1.

2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

17

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

When are they used? How are they moved? What's their construction? Who uses them? Who makes rules? What are the requirements? Safety Record A radioactive material (RAM) packaging is a container that is used to safely transport radioactive material from one location to another. In RAM transportation the container alone is called the Packaging. The packaging together with its contents is called the Package. Basic types of radioactive material packagings are: Excepted Packaging Industrial Packaging Type A Packaging Type B Packaging [EXCEPTED] Click to view picture [IP] Click to view picture [TYPE A] Click to view picture [TYPE B] Click to view picture Excepted Packagings are designed to survive normal conditions of transport. Excepted packagings are used for transportation of materials that are either Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) and that are limited quantity shipments, instruments or articles, articles manufactured from natural or depleted uranium or natural thorium; empty packagings are also excepted (49CFR 173.421-428).

18

Management of Transuranic Contaminated Material  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish guidelines for the generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) contaminated material.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Storage depot for radioactive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Radiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

quarterly · Radioactive waste retrieval, storage, disposal · Dosimetry exchange · Leak tests of sealedRadiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material, Chemistry, Physics, Applied Physiology · Radioactive Material ­ Sealed Sources, Unsealed Sources (liquid

Sherrill, David

22

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How are they moved? What's their construction? Who uses them? Who makes rules? What are the requirements? Safety Record Packagings are used to safely transport radioactive materials across the United States in over 1.6 million shipments per year. [Weiner et. al., 1991, Risk Analysis, Vol. 11, No. 4, p. 663] Most shipments are destined for hospitals and medical facilities. Other destinations include industrial, research and manufacturing plants, nuclear power plants and national defense facilities. The last comprehensive survey showed that less than 1 percent of these shipments involve high-level radioactive material. [Javitz et. al., 1985, SAND84-7174, Tables 4 and 8] The types of materials transported include: Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials, Low-Level Waste (LLW),

23

Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex The EMSL Radiochemistry Annex, located in the 3410 Material Science and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contamination during transportation. Dispersible radioactive material must be placed in rigid, leak- tight inner be sufficient such that EMSL staff will not encounter radioactive contamination when they open the shippingRadioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex The EMSL Radiochemistry Annex, located

24

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

25

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPENING RADIONUCLIDE SHIPMENTS All packages containing radioactive material are physically received at the Department of Environmental  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are monitored and contamination of the package exterior is assessed. The radioactive stock vialINSTRUCTIONS FOR OPENING RADIONUCLIDE SHIPMENTS All packages containing radioactive material radionuclide packages. GENERAL PROCEDURES 1. Radioactive packages must be opened and inspected as soon

Firestone, Jeremy

27

rev September 2003 Radiation Safety Manual Section 11 Procurement of Radioactive Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rev September 2003 Radiation Safety Manual Section 11 ­ Procurement of Radioactive Material Page 11-1 Section 11 Procurement of Radioactive Materials Contents A. Authorization to Order Radioactive Materials. Authorized Investigator Package Monitoring.................................11-3 3. No Contamination Detected

Wilcock, William

28

Safe Use of Radioactive Materials Procedure: 7.542 Created: 3/7/2014  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-level radioactive waste and still provide for ease of decontamination. Trays made of impervious material (iSafe Use of Radioactive Materials Procedure: 7.542 Created: 3/7/2014 Version: 1.0 Revised of radioactive materials (RAM). They are designed to reduce the risk of a significant contamination event

Jia, Songtao

29

Radioactive material package seal tests  

SciTech Connect

General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

DTECTEUR DE CONTAMINATION RADIOACTIVE Par M. BRIRE et J. WEILL,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

623. D?TECTEUR DE CONTAMINATION RADIOACTIVE Par M. BRI?RE et J. WEILL, Division des Constructions rapidement sur leurs mains, chaussures et vêtements toute trace de contamination. Le principe utilisé permet'utilisation. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM. TOME 14, NOVEMBRE 1953, , Le détecteur de contamination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

INTRODUCTION In every laboratory where radioactive materials are utilized, it is necessary to maintain a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) in their work habits and to minimize the potential for exposures, contamination or release of radioactiveINTRODUCTION In every laboratory where radioactive materials are utilized, it is necessary of Texas the privilege of using large varieties of radioactive materials. Large amounts of activity

32

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Radioactive Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactive Materials Radioactive Materials Refer to transportation guidelines in the applicable Radioactive Work Authorization (RWA). Contact the Radiation Protection Group (x7652) if transportation assistance is needed or if radioactive materials need to be shipped. Refer to RPG's Zone sheet to identifying the RCT or HP for your building: https://ehswprod.lbl.gov/rpg/who_to_call.shtml Need radioactive material shipped from LBNL? Please complete the request for shipment form online, print, sign, and forward to your building assigned RPG support person: RPG Transportation - Request for Shipment Form: http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/rpg/assets/docs/Transportation4.pdf Receiving radioactive material at LBNL? If receiving radioactive material at LBNL; radioactive material should be sent to the following address:

33

Spills of Radioactive Materials -Emergency Procedures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to radioactive waste container. For surface decontamination, use soap and water and cleansers appropriateSpills of Radioactive Materials - Emergency Procedures Procedure: 7.53 Created: 1/16/2014 Version for injured personnel. B. Applicability/scope This policy applies to all facilities where radioactive

Jia, Songtao

34

Diverter assembly for radioactive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

1988-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

35

Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

36

Radiation Machines and Radioactive Materials (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These chapters describe general provisions and regulatory requirements; registration, licensure, and transportation of radioactive materials; and exposure standards for radiation protection.

37

RESRAD Computer Code - Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deployed Deployed Widely Used and Maintained Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division - RESRAD Program RESRAD codes are used at more than 300 sites since its first release in 1989. Page 1 of 2 Argonne National Laboratory Multiple States & Sites Illinois RESRAD Computer Code - Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites Challenge The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989. The RESRAD code has been updated since then to improve the models within the codes, to operate on new computer platforms, to use new state of science radiation dose and risk factors, and to calculate cleanup criteria ("Authorized Limits") for radioactively contaminated sites. A series of similar codes have been developed to address radiation dose, risk, and cleanup criteria

38

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Radioactive Material or Multiple Hazardous Materials Decontamination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for performing decontamination ofindividuals who have entered a hot zone during transportation incidents involving radioactive.

40

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SAFE are radioactive material transportations packages? SAFE are radioactive material transportations packages? RAM PACKAGES TESTING & CERTIFICATION REGULATIONS & GUIDANCE SITE MAP This graphic was generated from a computer analysis and shows the results from a regulatory puncture test of a stainless steel packaging dropping 40 inches (10 MPH) onto a 6 inch diameter steel spike. U.S. DOE | Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Sandia National Laboratories | Nuclear Energy & Fuel Cucle Programs © Sandia Corporation | Site Contact | Sandia Site Map | Privacy and Security An internationally recognized web-site from PATRAM 2001 - the 13th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material. Recipient of the AOKI AWARD. PATRAM, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency brings government and industry leaders together to share information on innovations, developments, and lessons learned about radioactive materials packaging and transportation.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 -- 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopurity level of the ZnWO4 crystal scintillators is briefly addressed.

P. Belli; R. Bernabei; F. Cappella; R. Cerulli; F. A. Danevich; A. M. Dubovik; S. d'Angelo; E. N. Galashov; B. V. Grinyov; A. Incicchitti; V. V. Kobychev; M. Laubenstein; L. L. Nagornaya; F. Nozzoli; D. V. Poda; R. B. Podviyanuk; O. G. Polischuk; D. Prosperi; V. N. Shlegel; V. I. Tretyak; I. A. Tupitsyna; Ya. V. Vasiliev; Yu. Ya. Vostretsov

2010-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

42

Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 ?? 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopur...

Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Dubovik, A M; d'Angelo, S; Galashov, E N; Grinyov, B V; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagornaya, L L; Nozzoli, F; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Prosperi, D; Shlegel, V N; Tretyak, V I; Tupitsyna, I A; Vasiliev, Ya V; Vostretsov, Yu Ya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to! We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these radionuclides. We will then review some of the industrial sectors affected by TENORM, followed by a brief discussion on regulatory aspects of the issue.

Egidi, P.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

SSRL Radioactive Material Sample Holder Catalog 5/30/14 Page 1 of 17  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SSRL Radioactive Material Sample Holder Catalog 5/30/14 Page 1 of 17 Hazard Class Category finger under vacuum #12;SSRL Radioactive Material Sample Holder Catalog 5/30/14 Page 2 of 17 1.d USGS polyethylene envelopes. Check for no contamination of each envelope. - External envelope glued onto the cell

Wechsler, Risa H.

45

Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

Belmonte, Mark S. (Irwin, PA); Davis, James H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Williams, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's their construction? Who uses them? Who makes rules? What are the requirements? Safety Record Radioactive materials are carried by road, rail, water, and air. There are strict regulations that originate from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) which cover the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Road Rail Water Air [Road transport] Click to view picture [Rail transport] Click to view picture [Sea transport] Click to view picture [Air transport] Click to view picture 1998 DOE Radioactive Shipments in the United States Out of the 3 million hazardous material shipments are made each year, DOE accounts for less than 1% of all radioactive materials shipments and 75% of the total curies shipped in the United States Ship 0 Train 308

47

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Radioactive Samples / Materials at the APS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Radioactive Samples / Materials at the APS Using Radioactive Samples / Materials at the APS The use of radioactive samples requires additional information for review and approval. All proposed experiments involving radioactive samples will be reviewed by the APS Radioactive Sample Safety Review Committee (RSSRC). The review will be on a graded basis. Hence, the experimenters are strongly advised to send in the experiment proposal in detail at least 2 months before the expected scheduled date of the experiment. Previously approved containment, isotopes and weights can be submitted as late as 2 weeks in advance. If your ESAF was submitted less than seven (7) days in advance of its scheduled start date you may be delayed to allow time for a safety review. The following guidelines are to be followed for all experiments with

49

PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation 4...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation 41300 PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation 41300 The objective of this surveillance is to...

50

Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments Safety and Security Technologies for...

51

Identifying Mixed Chemical and Radioactive Waste Mixed waste is: any waste material containing both radioactive materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identifying Mixed Chemical and Radioactive Waste Mixed waste is: any waste material containing both as noted on the list, you do not have a mixed waste and it may be managed as a normal radioactive waste radioactive waste after initially dating the container, the hold for decay time is extended, but you cannot

Straight, Aaron

52

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What are the requirements? What are the requirements? Safety Record Radioactive material has been shipped in the U. S. for more than 50 years with no occurrences of death or serious injury from exposure of the contents of these shipments. Hazardous Material Shipments for 1 Year Internationally 300 million United States 3 million DOE <1% or 5,000 (out of 3 million) [U.S. DOE NTP, 1999, Transporting Radioactive Materials] All radioactive shipments are regulated by the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since transport accidents cannot be prevented, the regulations are primarily designed to: Insure safety in routine handling situations for minimally hazardous material Insure integrity under all circumstances for highly dangerous materials

53

t -software package for numerical simulations of radioactive contaminant transport in groundwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

r3 t - software package for numerical simulations of radioactive contaminant transport equations that arise from the modelling of radioactive contaminant transport in porous media. It can solve, see [6]) can help to numerically simulate the spreading of radioactive contaminants in flowing ground

Frolkovic, Peter

54

Radioactive contamination of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI2(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to characterisation that included relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for gamma quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both in scintillation mode and by using ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI2(Eu) detector to alpha particles (alpha/beta ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the 226Ra trace contamination internal to the crystal. We have found alpha/beta=0.55 and no difference in scintillation decay for alpha particles and gamma quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in 84Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity T_1/2 \\sim 10^15-10^16 yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation appli...

Belli, P; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Galenin, E; Gektin, A; Incicchitti, A; Isaienko, V; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Podviyanuk, R B; Tkachenko, S; Tretyak, V I

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What are the requirements? Safety Record The Agencies that Generate Rules that Promulgate the Transport of Radioactive Materials: Regulations to control the transport of radioactive material were initiated about 1935 by the Postal Service. Over the years, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) became involved and in 1948 promulgated regulations as Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In 1966, DOT received hazardous materials regulatory authority that had been exercised by the ICC, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and United States Costal Guard (USCG). Currently, five groups generate rules governing the transport of radioactive material -- the DOT, NRC, USPS, DOE, and various State agencies. Among these, DOT and NRC are the primary agencies issuing regulations based on the model regulations developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

56

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specific Activity Specific Activity Low Specific Activity (LSA) material means Class 7 (radioactive) material with limited specific activity which satisfies the descriptions and limits set forth below. Shielding materials surrounding the LSA material may not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity of the package contents. LSA material must be in one of three groups: LSA-I (i) Ores containing only naturally occurring radionuclides (e.g., uranium, thorium) and uranium or thorium concentrates of such ores; or (ii) Solid unirradiated natural uranium or depleted uranium or natural thorium or their solid or liquid compounds or mixtures; or (iii) Class 7 (radioactive) material, other than fissile material, for which the A2 value is unlimited; or

57

Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.

Shappert, L.B.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emergency Response Effects of Radiation History Gallery Glossary of Nuclear Terms [Majority from NRC] Contacts Comments & Questions Agencies U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT), U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Postal Services (USPS) U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Conference of State Legislatures - Environment, Energy and Transportation Program, Hazardous and Radioactive Materials International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulations Code of Federal Regulations: Title 10 - Energy Code of Federal Regulations: Title 10, PART 71 - Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material Code of Federal Regulations: Title 49 - Transportation Code of Federal Regulations: Title 49, PART 173 - Shippers - General

59

EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO A TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENT INVOLVING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emer Emer Emer Emer Emer Emergency Response to a T gency Response to a T gency Response to a T gency Response to a T gency Response to a Transportation ransportation ransportation ransportation ransportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Accident Involving Radioactive Material Accident Involving Radioactive Material Accident Involving Radioactive Material Accident Involving Radioactive Material DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER Viewing this video and completing the enclosed printed study material do not by themselves provide sufficient skills to safely engage in or perform duties related to emergency response to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. Meeting that goal is beyond the scope of this video and requires either additional

60

Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex The EMSL Radiochemistry Annex, located in the 3410 Material Science and Technology Building, is authorized to work with small to moderate amounts of radioactive material. In order to work within 3410 facility radiological limits, potential users must provide detailed information about the type and quantity of radioactive material, the form and packaging of the material and the type of work that will be performed at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex. Radioactive material includes both purchased radioactive material and samples that contain concentrations of radioactive material in excess of normal background levels. Please realize that some samples that may not be considered to be radioactive material at your institution will be managed as radioactive material at

62

Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FEMA 358, 05/10 FEMA 358, 05/10 Q A RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program U.S. Department of Energy TRANSPORTATION AND INCIDENT RESPONSE Q&A About Incident Response Q Q Law Enforcement ____________________________________ Fire ___________________________________________ Medical ____________________________________________ State Radiological Assistance ___________________________ Local Government Official ______________________________ Local Emergency Management Agency ___________________ State Emergency Management Agency ___________________ HAZMAT Team ______________________________________ Water Pollution Control ________________________________ CHEMTEL (Toll-free US & Canada) 1-800-255-3924 _________ CHEMTREC (Toll-free US & Canada) 1-800-424-9300 _______

63

Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

McCarthy, T.L.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

65

Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

Schweitzer, Donald G. (Bayport, NY); Davis, Mary S. (Wading River, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sources of Radiation Biological Responses Other Effects History Gallery Glossary of Nuclear Terms [Majority from NRC] Contacts Comments & Questions Radiation is all around us, occurring naturally in the environment. We are always exposed to radiation from: radon in the air uranium, radium and thorium in the earth cosmic rays from outer space and the sun radioactive potassium in our food and water naturally occuring radioactive material within our own bodies. This is commonly called "naturally-occurring background radiation." TYPES OF IONIZING RADIATION Alpha Alpha particles can be shielded by a sheet of paper or by human skin. If alpha emitters are inhaled, ingested, or enter the body through a cut, they can cause cancer. Beta Beta radiation can be stopped by a shield like aluminum foil or wood. If beta emitters are inhaled, ingested, or enter the body through a cut, they can cause cancer.

67

Study of gel materials as radioactive 222Rn gas detectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......studied as radioactive radon gas detectors. The detection...diffusion of the radioactive gas in the gel material...easy handling and low cost of the gel material...and other radioactive gases. INTRODUCTION The objective...homogeneity of the device production, dimensions, almost......

G. Espinosa; J. I. Golzarri; J. Rickards; R. B. Gammage

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Council of State Governments Council of State Governments Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee May 15, 2012 Knoxville, Tennessee Revised Agenda 9 - 9:45 am Welcome, Introductions, and Committee Reports Report from co-chairs Tim Runyon (Illinois) Project update Lisa Janairo, CSG Midwest Work group reports Integrated Spent Fuel Management Work Group Teri Engelhart (Wisconsin) NTSF-related reports Planning Committee Tim Runyon (Illinois) Communications Ad Hoc Working Group Jane Beetem (Missouri) WIPP Security Communications Protocol Major Lance Evans (Iowa) Ad Hoc Working Group Information and Communications Work Group Lisa Janairo 9:45 - 10:45 am Committee Discussion Blue Ribbon Commission final report: state reactions, next steps

69

RECLAMATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING COMPONENTS  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive material packages are withdrawn from use for various reasons; loss of mission, decertification, damage, replacement, etc. While the packages themselves may be decertified, various components may still be able to perform to their required standards and find useful service. The Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems group of the Savannah River National Laboratory has been reducing the cost of producing new Type B Packagings by reclaiming, refurbishing, and returning to service the containment vessels from older decertified packagings. The program and its benefits are presented.

Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

70

Experiment Hazard Class 8.1 - Radioactive Materials/Samples  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 - Radioactive Materials 1 - Radioactive Materials Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving radioactive materials as samples. The requirements of this hazard class also apply to sealed radioactive sources that are used as a sample (i.e. a target for x-ray radiation). Other hazard classifications and their associated hazard controls may also apply to experiments in this hazard class. The current requirements can be found in the APS Policy for Conducting Radioactive Sample Experiments in APS Experiment Enclosures. NOTE: The APS must be notified of shipment of any radioactive materials to the site well in advance of the proposed experiment. All radioactive materials must arrive through Argonne Receiving in Building 46 and the Argonne Materials Control & Accountability group (MC&A). Please contact

71

Radioactive Material Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radioactive Material Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM) 12/5/2013 (form Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM) 12/5/2013 (form date) SLAC-I-760-2A08Z-001 (RWM date) SLAC-I-760-2A08Z-001 (RWM number) Page 1 of 2 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DECLARATION FORM For RP use

Wechsler, Risa H.

72

Study of gel materials as radioactive 222Rn gas detectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Commercial hair gel material (polyvinyl pyrolydone...radioactive gas in the gel material, and the subsequent...reproducibility of data, easy handling and low cost of the gel material. This detection...aerosols(7). The diagrams of the Marinelli......

G. Espinosa; J. I. Golzarri; J. Rickards; R. B. Gammage

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

DECONTAMINATION DRESSDOWN AT A TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENT INVOLVING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Video User' s Guide Video User' s Guide DECONTAMINATION DRESSDOWN AT A TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENT INVOLVING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DISCLAIMER Viewing this video and completing the enclosed printed study material do not by themselves provide sufficient skills to safely engage in or perform duties related to emergency response to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. Meeting that goal is beyond

74

Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567  

SciTech Connect

The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada)] [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What are full-scale tests? What are scale-model tests? What is computer analysis? What are examples of severe testing? How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents? Demonstrating target hardness. A packaging is certified when it can survive a sequence of impact, crush, puncture, fire, and immersion tests designed to replicate transport accident conditions. Type B Packages must meet the testing requirements of: Compliance Testing, as defined in 10 CFR Part 71.85 and 10 CFR Part 71.87 Normal Conditions of Transport, Ten tests as defined in 10 CFR Part 71.71 Hypothetical Accident Conditions, Six tests as defined in 10 CFR Part 71.73 The ability of radioactive material packages to withstand testing environments can be demonstrated by full-scale testing, scale-model

76

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Other Effects History Gallery Glossary of Nuclear Terms [Majority from NRC] Contacts Comments & Questions Dose Rate Calculator Click to use calculator. This tool calculates a dose rate (DR) at 2 meters (about 6 ft) from the surface of a package containing radioactive material IF you know the dose rate at 1 meter (about 3 ft). It will also calculate the reverse; DR at 1 meter if you know the DR at 2 meters. These two distances are used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to define acceptable dose rates for packages. Dose (Rad) Biological Effect < 5 rad No immediate observable effects 5 - 50 rad Slight blood changes may be detected by medical evaluation 50 - 150 rad Slight blood changes will be noted and likely symptoms of nausea, fatigue, vomiting, etc.

77

Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources will be presented in the paper. (authors)

Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near surface waste-storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986 to 1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5 to 15 km from the NPP site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100-years service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste management at the reactor site and in the Exclusion Zone, and especially for high-level and long-lived waste, has not been developed.

Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Radioactive Materials at SSRL | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactive Materials at SSRL Radioactive Materials at SSRL Contact Information SSRL Safety Officer (650) 926-3861 SSRL Radiation Protection Group (650) 926-4299 SSRLRadMat@SLAC.STANFORD.EDU Throughout the course of an SSRL Experimental Run, there are requests from users to transport and use small amounts of radioactive material in their experiments, either as stand alone samples or in a matrix of other materials. There is no minimum quantity for declaring the use of radioactive samples at SSRL. The purpose of this procedure is to enable Users, SSRL and SLAC staff to know what radiological controls will be implemented for these materials, based on the isotope, its toxicity risk and radiological controls. Radioactive materials at SSRL are classified into 4 classification Groups based on the radiotoxicity tables, see below.

80

Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Security Technologies for and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments Safety & Security Technologies Study Started in 2005 with OCRWM Funding. OCRWM funding ended in 2009. EM gave CVSA funding to finish the report. CVSA Ad Hoc RAM/Security/ITS Committee Examined current and emerging technologies for safety and security of radioactive material shipments Site visits Product reviews HMCRP HM-04 report on emerging technologies Safety & Security Technologies Study Completed several site visits to look at current technologies being used. Technologies were broken down into five categories. 1. Inspection Technologies 2. Security Technologies 3. Radioactive Material Dose Rate Measurement and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders  

SciTech Connect

In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

NKS Conference on Radioactive Contamination in Urban Areas Ris National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark, 7 -9 May, 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NKS Conference on Radioactive Contamination in Urban Areas Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 vegetation to reduce 1 #12;NKS Conference on Radioactive Contamination in Urban Areas Risø National Roskilde, Denmark, 7 - 9 May, 2003 Radiation protection and decision-making on cleanup of contaminated

83

Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination  

SciTech Connect

Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

T.G. Hinton: Remediation of Radioactively Contaminated Ecosystems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

trucking of the contaminated sediments to another location. Relevant works Hinton, T. G., D. I. Kaplan, A. S. Knox and R. Sharitz. 2005. Phytoremediation potential of native...

85

T.G. Hinton: Radioactive Contaminants in Terrestrial Ecosystems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

largely in the Ukraine and Switzerland, this work has concentrated on the role of resuspension in the contamination of agricultural plants. Whereas other researchers have shown...

86

High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico Press Release High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico Nov 15, 2013 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

87

NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material Fact Sheet NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material Apr 12, 2013 The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA),

88

High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico Press Release High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico Nov 15, 2013 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

89

Sandia technology used to remove radioactive material at Fukushima |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

technology used to remove radioactive material at Fukushima | technology used to remove radioactive material at Fukushima | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Sandia technology used to remove radioactive material ... Sandia technology used to remove radioactive material at Fukushima Posted By Office of Public Affairs

90

NNSA Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston | National  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston | National Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > NNSA Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston Press Release NNSA Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston Nov 22, 2013

91

Dose assessment for radioactive contamination of a child  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dose assessments produced using the computer code MCNP are important to simulate events that are difficult to recreate experimentally. An emergency scenario involving whole-body skin contamination is one example of such an event. For these scenarios...

Kowalczik, Jeffrey Aaron

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT) [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

93

Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution  

SciTech Connect

The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

Thiesen, B.P.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

Attia, Yosry A. (221 Oakland Park Ave., Columbus, OH 43214)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

none,

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

11 - Ukraine: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: A succinct description of the experience of radioactive waste management in Ukraine, which accumulated when using nuclear energy and developed as a result of the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant, is given in this chapter. In addition, the chapter summarizes the current state of the Chernobyl area contamination and the experience of Ukraine in decontamination and clean-up of the contaminated territories.

V. Shestopalov; I. Shybetskyi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

2011 In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist...

98

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Hanford Site surface soil radioactive contamination control plan, March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Program is responsible to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office, for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 closures at the Hanford Site. This program also manages the Radiation Area Remedial Action that includes the surveillance, maintenance, decontamination, and/or interim stabilization of inactive burial grounds, cribs, ponds, trenches, and unplanned release sites. This plan addresses only the Radiation Area Remedial Action activity requirements for managing and controlling the contaminated surface soil areas associated with these inactive sites until they are remediated as part of the Hanford Site environmental restoration process. All officially numbered Radiation Area Remedial Action and non-Radiation Area Remedial Action contaminated surface soil areas are listed in this document so that a complete list of the sites requiring remediation is contained in one document.

Mix, P.D.; Winship, R.A.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

EIS-0084: Incineration Facility for Radioactively Contaminated PCBs and Other Wastes, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Uranium Enrichment and Assessment prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the proposed Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, an incineration facility to dispose of radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biophenyls, as well as combustible waste from the Paducah, Portsmouth and Oak Ridge facilities.

102

Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

103

UW EH&S Radiation Safety Office Box 354400 201 Hall Health Seattle WA 98195-4400 206-543-0463 FORM 160 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DELIVERY AND USAGE RECORD (5/00)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

160 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DELIVERY AND USAGE RECORD (5/00) AUI Name PO # AUI # Item # Order Date Order be surveyed if they are labeled with a Radioactive White I, Yellow II or Yellow III label. Swipes CONTAMINATION (WAC 246-221-160(4)): contamination

Wilcock, William

104

Applications of RESRAD family of computer codes to sites contaminated with radioactive residues.  

SciTech Connect

The RESIL4D family of computer codes was developed to provide a scientifically defensible answer to the question ''How clean is clean?'' and to provide useful tools for evaluating human health risk at sites contaminated with radioactive residues. The RESRAD codes include (1) RESRAD for soil contaminated with radionuclides; (2) RESRAD-BUILD for buildings contaminated with radionuclides; (3) RESRAD-CHEM for soil contaminated with hazardous chemicals; (4) RESRAD-BASELINE for baseline risk assessment with measured media concentrations of both radionuclides and chemicals; (5) RESRAD-ECORISK for ecological risk assessment; (6) RESRAD-RECYCLE for recycle and reuse of radiologically contaminated metals and equipment; and (7) RESRAD-OFFSITE for off-site receptor radiological dose assessment. Four of these seven codes (RESRAD, RESRAD-BUILD, RESRAD-RECYCLE, and RESRAD-OFFSITE) also have uncertainty analysis capabilities that allow the user to input distributions of parameters. RESRAD has been widely used in the United States and abroad and approved by many federal and state agencies. Experience has shown that the RESRAD codes are useful tools for evaluating sites contaminated with radioactive residues. The use of RESRAD codes has resulted in significant savings in cleanup cost. Analysis of 19 site-specific uranium guidelines is discussed in the paper.

Yu, C.; Kamboj, S.; Cheng, J.-J.; LePoire, D.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Zielen, A.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.

1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

105

Hanford Site Shares Lessons Learned in Retrieving Highly Radioactive Material  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

RICHLAND, Wash. EMs Richland Operations Office (Richland) and its contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL), welcomed staff from the Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management Transuranic (TRU) waste processing team in Tennessee to the Hanford site recently to share lessons learned in the retrieval and processing of highly radioactive material, called sludge.

106

A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

Abergel, Rebecca

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

107

The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance  

SciTech Connect

As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Who makes rules? What are the requirements? Safety Record USERS OF PACKAGINGS CARRIER PACKAGE TYPE Hospitals and their suppliers common carrier Type A Industrial radiography companies private carrier Type B Soil testing laboratories private carrier Type B Food irradiators contract carrier Type B Medical supply sterilizers contract carrier Type B Academic research institutes common & contract carrier all types Nuclear energy fuel cycle facilities common & contract carrier all types Nuclear weapons complex contract & government carrier all types An agency or company that wants to ship RAM (shipper) often makes arrangements with a common or contract carrier or (where appropriate) a private carrier may transport the material. Packagings may be procured or

109

Possibility of Contamination of Subcontractor-Owned Materials and Equipment UT-B Contracts Div Page 1 of 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

establish appropriate surface contamination limits for the non- Company radioactive contaminants. (c to decontaminate rejected equipment on the site. Any decontamination to remove non-Company radioactive contaminants wastes generated as a result of decontamination to remove non-Company radioactive contaminants. Neither

Pennycook, Steve

110

Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan  

SciTech Connect

Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program.

Cantut, L; Dougan, A; Hemberger, P; Kravenchenko, Gromov, A; Martin, D; Pohl, B; Richardson, J H; Williams, H; York, R; Zaitsev, E

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Recommendations of treatment technologies for radioactively contaminated lead at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Approximately one million pounds of radioactively contaminated lead are currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and must be treated according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This excess lead exists in various forms, including brick, sheet, shot, wool, blankets, steel-jacketed casks, scrap, and miscellaneous solids. Several lead treatment technologies were evaluated based on effectiveness, applicability, feasibility, availability of equipment and materials, health and safety, generation of secondary waste streams, cost, and flexibility. Emphasis is given in this report to those treatment technologies that yield recyclable lead products. Methods that treat lead for storage and disposal were also investigated. Specific treatment technologies for decontaminating the excess lead at the INEL are recommended. The proposed treatment for lead brick, sheet, shot, blankets, and scrap is a series of surface decontamination techniques followed by melt-refining, if necessary. The recommended series of treatments for lead casks begins with removing and macroencapsulating the steel jackets, followed by size reducing and melt-refining the lead. Macroencapsulation is the proposed treatment for miscellaneous lead solids. Recycling lead that has been successfully decontaminated and macroencapsulating or stabilizing the treatment residuals is also recommended.

Neupauer, R.M.; Zukauskas, J.F.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines  

SciTech Connect

This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

FIVE YEAR REVIEW - MONTICELLO RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED PROPERTIES - 06/11/2007  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Third Five-Year Review Report Third Five-Year Review Report for Monticello Radioactively Contaminated Properties Monticello, Utah San Juan County, Utah June 2007 Office of Legacy Management DOE M/1473 2007 - -L Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management U.S. Department of Energy DOE-LM/1473-2007 Five-Year Review Report Third Five-Year Review Report For Monticello Radioactively Contaminated Properties Monticello, Utah San Juan County, Utah June 2007 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Grand Junction, Colorado Approved by: Raymond M:'P' ness Deputy Director U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management Brent H. Everett

114

Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP  

SciTech Connect

In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 157-8550 (Japan); Jinbo, Y. [CDM Cosulting Co.Ltd., 1-13-13 Tsukiji Chuo-ku Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Ishido, A. [Radwaste and Decommissioning Center, 1-7-6 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Digital Radiography of a Drop Tested 9975 Radioactive Materials Packaging  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of radiography as a tool for evaluating damage to radioactive material packaging subjected to regulatory accident conditions. The Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 71, presents the performance based requirements that must be used in the development (design, fabrication and testing) of a radioactive material packaging. The use of various non-destructive examination techniques in the fabrication of packages is common. One such technique is the use of conventional radiography in the examination of welds. Radiography is conventional in the sense that images are caught one at a time on film stock. Most recently, digital radiography has been used to characterize internal damage to a package subjected to the 30-foot hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) drop. Digital radiography allows for real time evaluation of the item being inspected. This paper presents a summary discussion of the digital radiographic technique and an example of radiographic results of a 9975 package following the HAC 30-foot drop.

Blanton, P.S.

2001-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two `hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the He-3 proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

O'Keeffe, H M; Cleveland, B T; Doucas, G; Gagnon, N; Jelley, N A; Kraus, C; Lawson, I T; Majerus, S; McGee, S R; Myers, A W; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Rosten, R C; Stonehill, L C; VanDevender, B A; Van Wechel, T D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two `hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the He-3 proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

H. M. O'Keeffe; T. H. Burritt; B. T. Cleveland; G. Doucas; N. Gagnon; N. A. Jelley; C. Kraus; I. T. Lawson; S. Majerus; S. R. McGee; A. W. Myers; A. W. P. Poon; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; R. C. Rosten; L. C. Stonehill; B. A. VanDevender; T. D. Van Wechel

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

118

Q A RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Q A RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program U.S. Department of Energy TRANSPORTATION AND INCIDENT RESPONSE Q&A About Incident Response Q Q Law Enforcement ____________________________________ Fire ___________________________________________ Medical ____________________________________________ State Radiological Assistance ___________________________ Local Government Official ______________________________ Local Emergency Management Agency ___________________ State Emergency Management Agency ___________________ HAZMAT Team ______________________________________ Water Pollution Control ________________________________ CHEMTEL (Toll-free US & Canada) 1-800-255-3924 _________ CHEMTREC (Toll-free US & Canada) 1-800-424-9300 _______

119

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

120

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl [U(VI)] ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to;Radioactive Waste · Program requires · Generator support · Proper segregation · Packaging · labeling #12;Radioactive Waste · What is radioactive waste? · Anything that · Contains · or is contaminated

Slatton, Clint

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha contaminated wastes Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and solid radioactively contaminated wastes in unlined... that uses electrical power to heat and melt contaminated soil, fusing the ... Source: Pint, Bruce A. - Materials...

124

Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium (137Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and 137Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations (137Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption.

Mayumi Yoshimura; Tetsuya Yokoduka

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Canada nuclear and radiological regulatory responsibilities are shared between the provinces/territories and the federal government. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates nuclear fuel cycle materials and man?made radionuclides under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (2000). The provinces and territories regulate NORM arising from industrial activities not involving the nuclear fuel cycle materials. Present guidelineCanadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)was published in 2000 in order to bring uniformity to the management of NORM?related procedures to provide adequate radiation protection for workers and the general public. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the NORM?related activities should not be posing any greater hazard than those activities regulated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act; these concepts are described in this paper.

Anar S. Baweja; Bliss L. Tracy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Canada  

SciTech Connect

In Canada, nuclear and radiological regulatory responsibilities are shared between the provinces/territories and the federal government. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates nuclear fuel cycle materials and man-made radionuclides under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (2000). The provinces and territories regulate NORM arising from industrial activities, not involving the nuclear fuel cycle materials. Present guideline--Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)--was published in 2000 in order to bring uniformity to the management of NORM-related procedures to provide adequate radiation protection for workers and the general public. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the NORM-related activities should not be posing any greater hazard than those activities regulated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act; these concepts are described in this paper.

Baweja, Anar S.; Tracy, Bliss L. [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass both physical security (hardware and engineering) and administrative procedures. Security regimes for these devices and materials typically use a defense-in-depth- or layered-security approach to eliminate single points of failure. The Department of Energy, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the American Society of Industrial Security (ASIS), the Security Industry Association (SIA) and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) all rovide design guidance and hardware specifications. With a graded approach, a physical-security specialist can tailor an integrated security-management system in the most appropriate cost-effective manner to meet the regulatory and non-regulatory requirements of the licensee or client.

Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

TYPE B RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGE FAILURE MODES AND CONTENTS COMPLIANCE  

SciTech Connect

Type B radioactive material package failures can occur due to any one of the following: inadequate design, manufacture, and maintenance of packages, load conditions beyond those anticipated in the regulations, and improper package loading and operation. The rigorous package design evaluations performed in the certification process, robust package manufacture quality assurance programs, and demanding load conditions prescribed in the regulations are all well established. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of Type B package loading with respect to an overbatch which may cause a package failure.

Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Allen Smith, A

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

129

Air Monitoring Leads to Discovery of New Contamination at Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (Area G) at LANL  

SciTech Connect

Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of {sup 238}Pu were essentially unaffected, which was puzzling because the {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings didn't provide an adequate cause for the elevations, a gamma survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found in February, 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter of so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the first rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils were very low in 238Pu which explains why we saw very little {sup 238}Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am dropped considerably, the y have not returned to pre-1995 levels.

Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

130

THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

131

Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

134

The Radioactivity Characteristics of the NPP Charcoal Sample Contaminated by Carbon-14 - 13531  

SciTech Connect

The radioactivity of {sup 14}C-contaminated charcoal sample was analyzed by using a high temperature oxidation and liquid scintillation counting method. The radioactivity of the sample was monotonically increased according to the increase of the combustion time at each temperature where the experimental uncertainty was calculated in the 95 % confidence level. It showed that the {sup 14}C radioactivity was not completely extracted from the sample by simply increasing the combustion time unless the combustion temperature was high enough. The higher the combustion temperature was, the higher the recovery during the first 30 minutes was. The first 30 minute recoveries were 100 % at a temperature equal to or greater than 450 deg. C. The ratios of the recovery during the first 30 minutes to the total recovery during whole duration were more than 90 % at each experiment temperature. It was understood that the temperature was a critical factor for the complete removal of the {sup 14}C from the waste sample. (authors)

Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and correct.

Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

136

Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Demonstration of a computer model for residual radioactive material guidelines, RESRAD  

SciTech Connect

A computer model was developed to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This model, called RESRAD, can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputer. Seven potential exposure pathways from contaminated soil are analyzed, including external radiation exposure and internal radiation exposure from inhalation and food digestion. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to derive soil cleanup guidelines. The experience gained indicates that a comprehensive set of site-specific hydrogeologic and geochemical input parameters must be used for a realistic pathway analysis. The RESRAD code is a useful tool; it is easy to run and very user-friendly. 6 refs., 12 figs.

Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION  

SciTech Connect

Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

Gupta, N.

2010-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

139

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance to EMS care providers for properly handling and packaging potentially radiologically contaminated patients. This procedure applies to Emergency Medical Service care providers who respond to a radioactive material transportation incident that involves potentially contaminated injuries. Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient.docx More Documents & Publications Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Emergency Response to a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response

140

Albert Einstein College of Medicine Amendment to Non-human Use of Radioactive Material License  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RSO-2 Rev.0 Albert Einstein College of Medicine Amendment to Non-human Use of Radioactive Material License INSTRUCTIONS: If you wish to make changes to your license to use radioactive material please exposure; Glove box: Mechanical pipettes: Fume hood: Absorbent liner & Tray Shielding: Lead: Lucite: GM

Emmons, Scott

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation 4/13/00 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation 4/13/00 PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation 4/13/00 PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation 4/13/00 The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the effectiveness of the contractor's programs, policies, and procedures to transport radioactive and hazardous materials off-site or to receive such materials for routine operations, treatment, storage, or disposal. The Facility Representative observes preparation of materials for shipment and receipt of materials and reviews specific documents to determine compliance with requirements imposed by DOE and by applicable regulations from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Transportation. PTS13-01.doc More Documents & Publications Order Module--DOE O 460.1C, PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION SAFETY, DOE O

142

U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites (Revision 2, March 1987) U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites (Revision 2, March 1987) More Documents & Publications

143

U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites (Revision 2, March 1987) U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites (Revision 2, March 1987) More Documents & Publications

144

Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle.

Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Albert Einstein College of Medicine Application for Non-human Use of Radioactive Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RSO-1 Rev.0 Albert Einstein College of Medicine Application for Non-human Use of Radioactive pipettes: Fume hood: Absorbent liner & Tray Shielding: Lead: Lucite: GM survey meter: Handling tongs radioactive material is secure against unauthorized access: 9. Please check the type of application below

Emmons, Scott

146

Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

Not Listed

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Storage systems and containers for radioactive materials. February 1971-November 1989 (a Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for February 1971-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning container designs for storage, shipping, and handling of radioactive materials. Storage equipment and devices such as sheilding, racks, covers, seals, packing materials, and filling systems for containerized radioactive materials are considered. Radioactive materials considered include nuclear fuels, spent fuels, radioactive wastes, and radioactive research materials. High- and low-level radioactive materials are included. (Contains 139 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Surveillance Guides - PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RADIOACTIVE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION RADIOACTIVE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION 1.0 Objective The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the effectiveness of the contractor's programs, policies, and procedures to transport radioactive and hazardous materials off-site or to receive such materials for routine operations, treatment, storage, or disposal. The Facility Representative observes preparation of materials for shipment and receipt of materials and reviews specific documents to determine compliance with requirements imposed by DOE and by applicable regulations from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Transportation. 2.0 References DOE O 460.1A, Packaging and Transportation Safety DOE O 460.2, Chg1, Departmental Materials Transportation and Packaging

150

In-situ remediation of naturally occurring radioactive materials with high-permeability hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis addresses the problem of removal of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials, NORM, and describes an effective alternative to the current treatment method for their removal. High-pen-meability fracturing, recently established...

Demarchos, Andronikos Stavros

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

151

Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Materials We know that binary Sm x Co y compounds are more radi- ation resistant and have better thermal

Spencer, J.; Anderson, S. D.; Wolf, Z.; Volk, J. T.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Shipment of Small Quantities of Unspecified Radioactive Material in Chalfant Packagings  

SciTech Connect

In the post 6M era, radioactive materials package users are faced with the disciplined operations associated with use of Certified Type B packagings. Many DOE, commercial and academic programs have a requirement to ship and/or store small masses of poorly characterized or unspecified radioactive material. For quantities which are small enough to be fissile exempt and have low radiation levels, the materials could be transported in a package which provides the required containment level. Because their Chalfant type containment vessels meet the highest standard of containment (helium leak-tight), the 9975, 9977, and 9978 are capable of transporting any of these contents. The issues associated with certification of a high-integrity, general purpose package for shipping small quantities of unspecified radioactive material are discussed and certification of the packages for this mission is recommended.

Smith, Allen; Abramczyk, Glenn; Nathan, Steven; Bellamy, Steve

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

156

U.S. Works With Kazakhstan to Stop Nuclear and Radioactive Material  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Works With Kazakhstan to Stop Nuclear and Radioactive Material Works With Kazakhstan to Stop Nuclear and Radioactive Material Smuggling U.S. Works With Kazakhstan to Stop Nuclear and Radioactive Material Smuggling May 6, 2006 - 10:34am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - As part of the overall U.S. strategy to prevent nuclear and dangerous radiological materials from falling into the hands of terrorists, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) announced today that an agreement with the government of Kazakhstan had been signed to create a partnership under the Second Line of Defense program. U.S. Ambassador Ordway joined Kazakhstan Customs Control Committee Chairman Askar Shakirov in signing the accord. The agreement will pave the way for NNSA to work collaboratively with the Kazakhstan Customs Control Committee

157

MOIRA: A decision support system for decision making on aquatic ecosystems contaminated by radioactive fallout  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interventions to restore radionuclide contaminated aquatic ecosystems may reduce individual and collective radiation doses, but may also result in detrimental ecological, social and economic effects. Decision ...

D. Ros Insua; E. Gallego; A. Mateos; S. Ros-Insua

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Resuspension of radioactive fall-out from the soil surface and particulate contamination of vegetative cover  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for the determination of resuspension parameters of radioactive fall-out from nuclear...k ?-137Cs resuspension parameter, the trend ofk ? with time in 19631978, the trend...

K. P. Makhon'ko; F. A. Rabotnova

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Trench Bathtubbing and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide ...

Timothy E. Payne; Jennifer J. Harrison; Catherine E. Hughes; Mathew P. Johansen; Sangeeth Thiruvoth; Kerry L. Wilsher; Dioni I. Cendn; Stuart I. Hankin; Brett Rowling; Atun Zawadzki

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

160

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GUIDELINES FOR RESIDUAL RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL AT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

I I U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GUIDELINES FOR RESIDUAL RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL AT FORMERLY UTILIZED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM AHD REMOTE SURPLUS FACILITIES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM SITES (Revision 2, March 1987) A. INTRODUCTION This document presents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radiological protection guidelines for cleanup of residual radioactive material and management of the resulting wastes and residues. It is applicable to si~es - "C-- identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites l{emedia1 Ac:tionProgram (FUSRAP) .and remote sites identified by the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP).* The topics covered are basic dose limits, guidelines and authorized limits for allowable levels of residual radioactive material, and requirements for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Middlesex Sampling Plant Site, Middlesex, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site in Middlesex, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. The site became contaminated from operations conducted in support of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1943 and 1967. Activities conducted at the site included sampling, storage, and shipment of uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores and residues. Uranium guidelines for single radioisotopes and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the MSP site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four scenarios were considered for the site. These scenarios vary regarding future land use at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed.

Dunning, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE`s need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system in Section 6.

Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Radioactive Waste Management  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

1984-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

164

Gamma motes for detection of radioactive materials in shipping containers  

SciTech Connect

Shipping containers can be effectively monitored for radiological materials using gamma (and neutron) motes in distributed mesh networks. The mote platform is ideal for collecting data for integration into operational management systems required for efficiently and transparently monitoring international trade. Significant reductions in size and power requirements have been achieved for room-temperature cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) gamma detectors. Miniaturization of radio modules and microcontroller units are paving the way for low-power, deeply-embedded, wireless sensor distributed mesh networks.

Harold McHugh; William Quam; Stephan Weeks; Brendan Sever

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

165

Physical test report for drop test of a 9974 radioactive material shipping packaging  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the drop test results for the 9974 radioactive material shipping package being dropped onto 6-inch diameter, 40-inch long puncture pin. Also reported are the drop test resuls for a 30-foot impact that failed the drum confinement boundary. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum.

Blanton, P.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Radcalc: An Analytical Tool for Shippers of Radioactive Material and Waste  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ships radioactive materials in support of its research and development, environmental restoration, and national defense activities. The Radcalc software program assists personnel working on behalf of DOE in packaging and transportation determinations (e.g., isotopic decay, decay heat, regulatory classification, and gas generation) for shipment of radioactive materials and waste. Radcalc performs: - The U.S. Department of Transportation determinations and classifications (i.e., activity concentration for exempt material Type A or B, effective A1/A2, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled quantity, fissile quantity, fissile excepted, reportable quantity, list of isotopes required on shipping papers) - DOE calculations (i.e., transuranic waste, Pu-239 equivalent curies, fissile-gram equivalents) - The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission packaging category (i.e., Category I, II, or III) - Dose-equivalent curie calculations - Radioactive decay calculations using a novel decay methodology and a decay data library of 1,867 isotopes typical of the range of materials encountered in DOE laboratory environments - Hydrogen and helium gas calculations - Pressure calculations. Radcalc is a validated and cost-effective tool to provide consistency, accuracy, reproducibility, timeliness, quality, compliance, and appropriate documentation to shippers of radioactive materials and waste at DOE facilities nationwide. Hundreds of shippers and engineers throughout the DOE Complex routinely use this software to automate various determinations and to validate compliance with the regulations. The effective use of software by DOE sites contributes toward minimizing risk involved in radioactive waste shipments and assuring the safety of workers and the public. (authors)

Kapoor, A.K. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation, Washington, DC (United States); Stuhl, L.A. [EnergySolutions Federal Services, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

CUORE crystal validation runs: results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.

Alessandria, F; Ardito, R; Arnaboldi, C; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biassoni, M; Bloxham, T; Brofferio, C; Bryant, A; Bucci, C; Cai, X Z; Canonica, L; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Carrettoni, M; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Dafinei, I; Dally, A; De Biasi, A; Decowski, M P; Deninno, M M; de Waard, A; Di Domizio, S; Ejzak, L; Faccini, R; Fang, D Q; Farach, H; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Foggetta, L; Freedman, S; Frossati, G; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Heeger, K M; Huang, H Z; Ichimura, K; Kadel, R; Kazkaz, K; Keppel, G; Kogler, L; Kolomensky, Y G; Kraft, S; Lenz, D; Li, Y L; Liu, X; Longo, E; Ma, Y G; Maiano, C; Maier, G; Martinez, C; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Newman, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Orio, F; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, J; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rampazzo, V; Rimondi, F; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Salvioni, C; Sangiorgio, S; Schaeffer, D; Scielzo, N D; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Stivanello, F; Taffarello, L; Terenziani, G; Tian, W D; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Ventura, G; Vignati, M; Wang, B; Wang, H W; Whitten, C A; Wise, T; Woodcraft, A; Xu, N; Zanotti, L; Zarra, C; Zhu, B X; Zucchelli, S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

CUORE crystal validation runs: results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.

F. Alessandria; E. Andreotti; R. Ardito; C. Arnaboldi; F. T. Avignone III; M. Balata; I. Bandac; T. I. Banks; G. Bari; J. W. Beeman; F. Bellini; A. Bersani; M. Biassoni; T. Bloxham; C. Brofferio; A. Bryant; C. Bucci; X. Z. Cai; L. Canonica; S. Capelli; L. Carbone; L. Cardani; M. Carrettoni; N. Chott; M. Clemenza; C. Cosmelli; O. Cremonesi; R. J. Creswick; I. Dafinei; A. Dally; A. De Biasi; M. P. Decowski; M. M. Deninno; A. de Waard; S. Di Domizio; L. Ejzak; R. Faccini; D. Q. Fang; H. Farach; E. Ferri; F. Ferroni; E. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; S. Freedman; G. Frossati; A. Giachero; L. Gironi; A. Giuliani; P. Gorla; C. Gotti; E. Guardincerri; T. D. Gutierrez; E. E. Haller; K. Han; K. M. Heeger; H. Z. Huang; K. Ichimura; R. Kadel; K. Kazkaz; G. Keppel; L. Kogler; Y. G. Kolomensky; S. Kraft; D. Lenz; Y. L. Li; X. Liu; E. Longo; Y. G. Ma; C. Maiano; G. Maier; C. Martinez; M. Martinez; R. H. Maruyama; N. Moggi; S. Morganti; S. Newman; S. Nisi; C. Nones; E. B. Norman; A. Nucciotti; F. Orio; D. Orlandi; J. Ouellet; M. Pallavicini; V. Palmieri; L. Pattavina; M. Pavan; M. Pedretti; G. Pessina; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; V. Rampazzo; F. Rimondi; C. Rosenfeld; C. Rusconi; C. Salvioni; S. Sangiorgio; D. Schaeffer; N. D. Scielzo; M. Sisti; A. R. Smith; F. Stivanello; L. Taffarello; G. Terenziani; W. D. Tian; C. Tomei; S. Trentalange; G. Ventura; M. Vignati; B. Wang; H. W. Wang; C. A. Whitten Jr; T. Wise; A. Woodcraft; N. Xu; L. Zanotti; C. Zarra; B. X. Zhu; S. Zucchelli

2011-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

169

Contaminated Materials Treatment Program annual report for FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Western New York Nuclear Services Center reprocessed nuclear fuel for five years until operations were terminated in 1972. Underground tanks at the site contain high-level waste (HLW) generated during the reprocessing operations. Based on original agreements, the state of New York has assumed responsibility for the wastes and the site. The Department of Energy (DOE) is assisting New York State, through the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), in processing and solidifying the HLW. The site contractor for the WVDP is West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), through the West Valley Support Project, has been supporting WVNS and DOE in establishing vitrification and waste processing technology and capability at the West Valley Site. The specific objective of the West Valley Support Project during FY 1989 were to complete designs of remote equipment, assist in characterizing the WVNS feed, sampling, ceramic melter and off-gas systems, provide chemical analysis of the radioactive wastes and testing of future processes with actual radioactive wastes, provide testing and modeling studies of the reference WV waste product, and conduct special studies, such as evaluating corrosion of the waste tanks and supporting operation of the supernatant treatment system. 13 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Ross, W.A.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10?g/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl?, NO3?, SO42?). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10?g/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30?g/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in 234U/238U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu.

J.A. Corcho Alvarado; B. Balsiger; S. Rllin; A. Jakob; M. Burger

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea by [sup 90]Sr  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater containing fission products from roofs and other surfaces have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr were detected again, with cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated [sup 90]Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the observed mean residence time of [sup 90]Sr in cistern waters, estimated to be 6.2 [+-] 1.9 y, was similar to that calculated for fallout. Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, observed [sup 90]Sr mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be very small, in the 1990's less than few [micro]Sv y[sup [minus]1].

Franic, Z.; Lokobauer, N.; Marovic, G. (Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia). Radiation Protection Unit)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Development of a computer model for calculation of radioactive materials into the atmosphere after an accident  

SciTech Connect

Secondary atmospheric contamination with radioactive dust and chemical species deposited on the ground and resuspended by wind occur very widely. This process is particularly pronounced in case of extensive contamination of soil and under extreme weather conditions, for example, during dust storms. The mechanism of wind dust generation consists in the following. At low wind speed U=2-3 m/s, which is most common in midlatitude, small radioactive dust particles (diameter of hundredth of a micron to 10-20 microns) are lifted from soil surface due to turbulent vortexes. Under the gravitational force the particles of 1-2 micron diameter practically do not settle. Larger dust particles cannot remain in the air for a long time: they are lifted by turbulent vortexes and settle, their motion in the wind flow is jump-wise and the interaction of particles with the flow is called saltation /I/. Saltation is the main mechanism of dust generation up to the wind velocity at which wind erosion starts. The size of dust particles can be as large as 100 pm. When dropping they can be ricocheting from ground or pass the impulse to other particles which begin rolling over and jumping up. The process of dust transport by wind can be compared to a chain reaction. At the velocity of 10 m/s large particles of about 500 pm stop skipping and roll over only, while particles of more than 1 mm remain stationary. Thus, the fine fraction is blown out from the polydispersed soil particles. The intensity of wind resuspension of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized either by a resuspension factor or a resuspension rate.

Schershakov, V. [Federal Information Analytical Centre, Obinski (Russia)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Radiological Survey of Contaminated Installations of Research Reactor before Dismantling in High Dose Conditions with Complex for Remote Measurements of Radioactivity - 12069  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning of the research reactors MR (Testing Reactor) and RFT (Reactor of Physics and Technology) has recently been initiated in the National Research Center (NRC) 'Kurchatov institute', Moscow. These research reactors have a long history and many installations - nine loop facilities for experiments with different kinds of fuel. When decommissioning nuclear facilities it is necessary to measure the distribution of radioactive contamination in the rooms and at the equipment at high levels of background radiation. At 'Kurchatov Institute' some special remote control measuring systems were developed and they are applied during dismantling of the reactors MR and RFT. For a survey of high-level objects a radiometric system mounted on the robotic Brokk vehicle is used. This system has two (4? and collimated) dose meters and a high resolution video camera. Maximum measured dose rate for this system is ?8.5 Sv/h. To determine the composition of contaminants, a portable spectrometric system is used. It is a remotely controlled, collimated detector for scanning the distribution of radioactive contamination. To obtain a detailed distribution of contamination a remote-controlled gamma camera is applied. For work at highly contaminated premises with non-uniform background radiation, another camera is equipped with rotating coded mask (coded aperture imaging). As a result, a new system of instruments for remote radioactivity measurements with wide range of sensitivity and angular resolution was developed. The experience and results of measurements in different areas of the reactor and at its loop installations, with emphasis on the radioactive survey of highly-contaminated samples, are presented. These activities are conducted under the Federal Program for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Russia. Adaptation of complex remote measurements of radioactivity and survey of contaminated installations of research reactor before dismantling in high dose conditions has proven successful. The radioactivity measuring devices for operation at high, non-uniform dose background were tested in the field and a new data of measurement of contamination distribution in the premises and installations were obtained. (authors)

Danilovich, Alexey; Ivanov, Oleg; Lemus, Alexey; Smirnov, Sergey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Volkovich, Anatoly [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the contaminant/substrate with the particular decontamination technology is also very important. Results of decontamination testing from hundreds of contaminated coupons have lead to certain conclusions about the contamination and the type of decontamination methods being deployed. A recent addition to the DARPA initiated methodology simulates the deposition of nuclear fallout. This contamination differs from previous tests in that it has been developed and validated purely to simulate a 'loose' type of contamination. This may represent the first time that a radiologically contaminated 'fallout' stimulant has been developed to reproducibly test decontamination methods. While no contaminant/methodology may serve as a complete example of all aspects that could be seen in the field, the study of this family of simulation methods provides insight into the nature of radiological contamination.

Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14  

SciTech Connect

Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

178

Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

179

Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: II. St. Louis Airport Storage Site  

SciTech Connect

The St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLASS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy is considering various remedial action options for the SLASS under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This report describes the results of geochemical investigations, carried out to support the FUSRAP activities and to aid in quantifying various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples from the site were characterized, and sorption ratios for uranium and radium and apparent concentration limit values for uranium were measured in soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. The uranium and radium concentrations in soil samples were significantly above background near the old contaminated surface horizon (now at the 0.3/sup -/ to 0.9/sup -/m depth); the maximum values were 1566 ..mu..g/g and 101 pCi/g, respectively. Below about the 6/sup -/m depth, the concentrations appeared to be typical of those naturally present in soils of this area (3.8 +- 1.2 ..mu..g/g and 3.1 +- 0.6 pCi/g). Uranium sorption ratios showed stratigraphic trends but were generally moderate to high (100 to 1000 L/kg). The sorption isotherm suggested an apparent uranium concentration limit of about 200 mg/L. This relatively high solubility can probably be correlated with the carbonate content of the soil/groundwater systems. The lower sorption ratio values obtained from the sorption isotherm may have resulted from changes in the experimental procedure or the groundwater used. The SLASS appears to exhibit generally favorable behavior for the retardation of uranium solubilized from waste in the site. Parametric tests were conducted to estimate the sensitivity of uranium sorption and solubility to the pH and carbonate content of the system.

Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Closed source experimental system for soft x-ray spectroscopy of radioactive materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An instrumental and experimental setup for soft x-rayspectroscopy meeting the requirements of a closed source for radioactivity is described. The system consists of a vacuum sealed cell containing the sample mounted on a tubing system to ensure compatibility with most standard manipulators. The soft x rays penetrate a thin x-ray window separating the interior of the cell from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Our first results for single crystal PuO 2 confirm the feasibility of experiments using the setup. The results are consistent with results of first principles calculations and previously recorded spectra obtained using a standard open source setup. The results show that the closed source experimental system can be used to collect valuable experimental data from radioactive materials.

A. Modin; S. M. Butorin; J. Vegelius; A. Olsson; C.-J. Englund; J. Andersson; L. Werme; J. Nordgren; T. Kmbre; G. Skarnemark; B. E. Burakov

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance to EMS care providers for properly handling and packaging potentially radiologically contaminated patients. This procedure applies to Emergency Medical Service care providers who respond to a radioactive material transportation incident that involves potentially contaminated injuries. Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient.docx More Documents & Publications Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Medical Examiner/Coroner on the Handling of a Body/Human Remains that are Potentially Radiologically Contaminated

182

Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2 7 ABSTRACT: The sustainable management of dredged waterway sediments requires on-site determination8 sediments precludes any application of standard methods. Measurements for Pb, Zn, Cu and As were11 performed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

A Regional Perspective on Contaminated Site RemediationFate of Materials and Pollutants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Regional Perspective on Contaminated Site RemediationFate of Materials and Pollutants ... Other innovative treatment technologies such as bioremediation showed a decreasing trend, although they could be very effective treatment alternatives for PHCs (6). ... Anderson, W. C. Innovative Site Remediation Technology. ...

1999-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Use of Haz-Flote to Efficiently Remove Mercury from Contaminated Materials  

SciTech Connect

There are thousands of known contaminated sites in the United Stated, including Superfund sites (1500 to 2100 sites), RCRA corrective action sites (1500 to 3500 sites), underground storage tanks (295,000 sites), U.S. Department of Defense sites (7300 sites), U.S. Department of Energy sites (4,000 sites), mining refuse piles, and numerous other hazardous metals and organic contamination sites. Only a small percentage of these sites has been cleaned up. The development of innovative technologies to handle the various clean-up problems on a national and international scale is commonplace. Many innovative technologies have been developed that can be used to effectively remediate contaminated materials. Unfortunately, many of these technologies are only effective for materials coarser than approximately 200 mesh. In addition, these technologies usually require considerable investment in equipment, and the clean-up costs of soil material are relatively high - in excess of $100 to $500 per yd{sup 3}. These costs result from the elaborate nature of the processes, the costs for power, and the chemical cost. The fine materials are disposed of or treated at considerable costs. As a result, the costs often associated with amelioration of contaminated sites are high. Western Research institute is in the process of developing an innovative soil washing technology that addresses the removal of contaminants from the fine size-fraction materials located at many of the contaminated sites. This technology has numerous advantages over the other ex-situ soil washing techniques. It requires a low capital investment, low operating costs and results in high levels of re-emplacement of the cleaned material on site. The process has the capability to clean the fine fraction (<200 mesh) of the soil resulting in a replacement of 95+% of the material back on-side, reducing the costs of disposal. The Haz-Flote{trademark} technology would expand the application of soil washing technology to heavy soils (clay-type should) to which current soil washing practices are not applied. WRI is not aware of any other soil washing technologies that demonstrate this ability at the expected cost on a per ton basis. The market for this technology is considered excellent for Superfund and other inorganic contaminated sites.

Terry Brown

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

185

ELUCIDATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONSITE AND OFFSITE SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Federal regulations stipulate how radioactive materials are transported within the United States. However, the Department of Energy, under Department of Energy Order, has the authority to operate, within the boundaries of their physical site, to other stipulations. In many cases the DOE sites have internal reviews for onsite transfers that rival reviews performed by the regulatory authorities for offsite shipments. Most of the differences are in the level or type of packaging that is required, but in some cases it may be in the amount and type of material that is allowed to be transferred. This paper will describe and discuss those differences and it will discuss ways to effectively align the onsite rules for transferring materials with those for offsite shipment.

Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

186

Alternatives for the disposal of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) wastes in Texas  

SciTech Connect

Some of the Texas wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have been disposed of in a uranium mill tailings impoundment. There is currently no operating disposal facility in Texas to accept these wastes. As a result, some wastes containing extremely small amounts of radioactivity are sent to elaborate disposal sites at extremely high costs. The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has sponsored a study to investigate lower cost, alternative disposal methods for certain wastes containing small quantities of NORM. This paper presents the results of a multipathway safety analysis of various scenarios for disposing of wastes containing limited quantities of NORM in Texas. The wastes include pipe scales and sludges from oil and gas production, residues from rare-earth mineral processing, and water treatment resins, but exclude large-volume, diffuse wastes (coal fly ash, phosphogypsum). The purpose of the safety analysis is to define concentration and quantity limits for the key nuclides of NORM that will avoid dangerous radiation exposures under different waste disposal scenarios.

Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C. (Rogers Associates Engineering Corporation, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Pollard, C.G. (Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, Austin (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Radiological Dose Assessment Related to Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials Generated by the Petroleum Industry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tebes is affiliated with the University of Illinois. Tebes is affiliated with the University of Illinois. ANL/EAD-2 Radiological Dose Assessment Related to Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials Generated by the Petroleum Industry by K.P. Smith, D.L. Blunt, G.P. Williams, and C.L. Tebes * Environmental Assessment Division Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 September 1996 Work sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, Office of Policy iii CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii NOTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

188

Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages  

SciTech Connect

A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M. [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Contaminant Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Contaminant sources include almost every component in the manufacturing process: people, materials, processing equipment, and manufacturing environments. People can generate contaminating particles, gases, conden...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - administered radioactive material Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 The New Orphaned Radioactive Sources Program in the United States International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Summary: on the...

191

Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials  

SciTech Connect

Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-containing materials. Transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials (NM), and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOEs Environmental Management (EM) organization to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a "program level" roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This "program level" roadmapping involves linking technology development (and deployment) efforts to the programs needs and requirements for dispositioning the material/waste that generates combustible gas through radiolysis and chemical decomposition. The roadmapping effort focused on needed technical & programmatic support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (i.e., high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (i.e., high programmatic risk). A second purpose for roadmapping was to provide the basis for coordinating sharing of "lessons learned" from research and development (R&D) efforts across DOE programs to increase efficiency and effectiveness in addressing gas generation issues.

Luke, Dale Elden; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Hamp, S.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean, D. [MDM/Lamb, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, C. [Environmental Dimensions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87109 (United States); Byrd, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR GENERAL PURPOSE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS  

SciTech Connect

Polyurethane foam has been employed in impact limiters for large radioactive materials packagings since the early 1980's. Its consistent crush response, controllable structural properties and excellent thermal insulating characteristics have made it attractive as replacement for the widely used cane fiberboard for smaller, drum size packagings. Accordingly, polyurethane foam was chosen for the overpack material for the 9977 and 9978 packagings. The study reported here was undertaken to provide data to support the analyses performed as part of the development of the 9977 and 9978, and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

194

GOLDSIM models of long-term radiation impact of conditionally cleared radioactive material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Management of waste materials from the decommissioning of nuclear installations offers opportunities for optimization. Large amounts of waste materials with low contents of various radionuclides could be recycled to save financial resources or repository capacity. The increase of the share of recycled materials compared to the current practice could be accomplished by applying the conditional clearance concept. Conditional clearance, as up to now is an unproven theoretical concept, demands utilization of the cleared material for the previously defined purpose (e.g., building construction). Safety studies needed for realization of this practice have to prove that conditionally cleared material will not cause radiation impact exceeding levels prescribed in health and safety regulations. Safety studies assess radiation impact during all manipulations with low level radioactive material (e.g., melting, component manufacturing, building of construction, etc.) as well as its impact on inhabitants living near the construction built using conditionally cleared material. The article is focused on modeling and calculation of long-term radiation impact on inhabitants living near the constructions. Models (scenarios) of various building applications were simulated using GOLDSIM software with Radionuclide Transport Module. Scenarios were selected according to information from the civil engineering business to cover the types of buildings most suitable for application of conditionally cleared material. The results of the calculations showed that conditional clearance represents no significant safety issue in the long-term. Calculated individual effective doses received by inhabitants did not exceed the given dose constraint (10?Sv/year) in case of any scenario evaluated. Detailed and transparent studies of the long-term impact of conditionally cleared materials are important especially for winning of public acceptance.

Michal Panik; Vladimir Necas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect

Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Radioactive Probes of the Supernova-Contaminated Solar Nebula: Evidence that the Sun was Born in a Cluster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a simple model for radioisotopic enrichment of the protosolar nebula by injection from a nearby supernova, based on the inverse square law for ejecta dispersion. We find that the presolar radioisotopes abundances (i.e., in solar masses) demand a nearby supernova: its distance can be no larger than 66 times the size of the protosolar nebula, at a 90% confidence level, assuming 1 solar mass of protosolar material. The relevant size of the nebula depends on its state of evolution at the time of radioactivity injection. In one scenario, a collection of low-mass stars, including our sun, formed in a group or cluster with an intermediate- to high-mass star that ended its life as a supernova while our sun was still a protostar, a starless core, or perhaps a diffuse cloud. Using recent observations of protostars to estimate the size of the protosolar nebula constrains the distance of the supernova at 0.02 to 1.6 pc. The supernova distance limit is consistent with the scales of low-mass stars formation around one or more massive stars, but it is closer than expected were the sun formed in an isolated, solitary state. Consequently, if any presolar radioactivities originated via supernova injection, we must conclude that our sun was a member of such a group or cluster that has since dispersed, and thus that solar system formation should be understood in this context. In addition, we show that the timescale from explosion to the creation of small bodies was on the order of 1.8 Myr (formal 90% confidence range of 0 to 2.2 Myr), and thus the temporal choreography from supernova ejecta to meteorites is important. Finally, we can not distinguish between progenitor masses from 15 to 25 solar masses in the nucleosynthesis models; however, the 20 solar mass model is somewhat preferred.

Leslie W. Looney; John J. Tobin; Brian D. Fields

2006-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Evolution of U.S. Transportation Regulations for Radioactive Materials?A Retrospective  

SciTech Connect

The discussion in this Chapter is a highly condensed version of the information presented previously in Chapter 52 of the 2nd Edition of the Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code.[1] The full text of the previous Chapter 52, i.e., Development of U.S. Regulations for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials - A Look Back over the Past 40 Years, could not be reproduced here. Therefore, this Chapter offers a high-level overview of the information presented previously, including all of the appropriate references. For the most part, the material that was not included in this version of Chapter 52 is available in the public domain. Due to the sheer volume of the information, readers interested in the preamble-only versions of the material referenced in this Chapter are redirected to Reference [1]. Readers interested in the full-text versions of the material referenced in this Chapter are redirected to the appropriate Federal Register and/or U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) websites. Because some of the material dates back to pre-website times, readers interested in the full-text versions of some of the references may have to rely on the services of their local libraries.

Hafner, R

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

198

Knowledge Management Initiatives Used to Maintain Regulatory Expertise in Transportation and Storage of Radioactive Materials - 12177  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1974 with the mission to license and regulate the civilian use of nuclear materials for commercial, industrial, academic, and medical uses in order to protect public health and safety, and the environment, and promote the common defense and security. Currently, approximately half (?49%) of the workforce at the NRC has been with the Agency for less than six years. As part of the Agency's mission, the NRC has partial responsibility for the oversight of the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. The NRC has experienced a significant level of expertise leaving the Agency due to staff attrition. Factors that contribute to this attrition include retirement of the experienced nuclear workforce and mobility of staff within or outside the Agency. Several knowledge management (KM) initiatives have been implemented within the Agency, with one of them including the formation of a Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation (SFST) KM team. The team, which was formed in the fall of 2008, facilitates capturing, transferring, and documenting regulatory knowledge for staff to effectively perform their safety oversight of transportation and storage of radioactive materials, regulated under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 71 and Part 72. In terms of KM, the SFST goal is to share critical information among the staff to reduce the impact from staff's mobility and attrition. KM strategies in place to achieve this goal are: (1) development of communities of practice (CoP) (SFST Qualification Journal and the Packaging and Storing Radioactive Material) in the on-line NRC Knowledge Center (NKC); (2) implementation of a SFST seminar program where the seminars are recorded and placed in the Agency's repository, Agency-wide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS); (3) meeting of technical discipline group programs to share knowledge within specialty areas; (4) development of written guidance to capture 'administrative and technical' knowledge (e.g., office instructions (OIs), generic communications (e.g., bulletins, generic letters, regulatory issue summary), standard review plans (SRPs), interim staff guidance (ISGs)); (5) use of mentoring strategies for experienced staff to train new staff members; (6) use of Microsoft SharePoint portals in capturing, transferring, and documenting knowledge for staff across the Division from Division management and administrative assistants to the project managers, inspectors, and technical reviewers; and (7) development and implementation of a Division KM Plan. A discussion and description of the successes and challenges of implementing these KM strategies at the NRC/SFST will be provided. (authors)

Lindsay, Haile; Garcia-Santos, Norma; Saverot, Pierre; Day, Neil; Gambone Rodriguez, Kimberly; Cruz, Luis; Sotomayor-Rivera, Alexis; Vechioli, Lucieann; Vera, John; Pstrak, David [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop EBB-03D-02M, 6003 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ion implantation effects in insulators and the long-term stability of radioactive waste storage materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most insulator materials so far proposed for storing high-level radioactive wastes, such as glass and and the constituent minerals of ceramics are nuclear track detectors. Lead ion implantation experiments show that such materials should be transformed into giant nuclear tracks, when the internal fluence of heavy recoils emitted during the ?-decay of actinide elements stored in them exceeds a critical value, which corresponds to an equivalent storage period of a few thousand years for the wastes expected from a pressurized water reactor. In contrast, actinide bearing minerals are much more stable against ?-recoil damage. As nuclear tracks are extremely chemical reactive, ?-recoil damage is expected to shorten the lifetime of storage materials such as glass and ceramics against dissolution in ground waters. Fortunately new nuclear track concepts are already yielding guidelines for predicting and improving the long-term stability of storage materials. The results of the present studies also bear on the physics of ion implantation phenomena an insulator targets exposed to high fluences of low energy ions.

J.C. Dran; Y. Langevin; M. Maurette; J.C. Petit; B. Vassent

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0  

SciTech Connect

This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J. [and others

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Results of the European Commission Marina II Study Part IIeffects of discharges of naturally occurring radioactive material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are produced through various industrial operations and may lead to discharges to the marine environment. A recent study, called MARINA II, carried out for the European Commission considered discharges of radionuclides from the NORM industries to north European marine waters and their consequences. There are two main sources that were considered in the study. The use of phosphogypsum during the production of phosphoric acid by the fertiliser industry and the pumping of oil and gas from the continental shelf in the North Sea which produces large quantities of water contaminated with enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Discharges of alpha emitting radionuclides from these two industries have contributed significantly to the total input of alpha emitters to north European waters over the period 19812000 (data were not available prior to 1981). Discharges due to the use of phosphogypsum have declined since the early 1990s and are now very low. Discharges from the oil and gas industries stabilised in the second half of the 1990s and are now the major contributor to alpha discharges to the region. As most European countries do not report discharges of radioactivity with the water produced during extraction, there is considerable uncertainty in the discharges used in the study. The impact of the discharges has been estimated both in terms of the effect on non-human biota and the radiological impact for people. In the 1980s the radiation dose rates to marine biota in the region around a phosphate plant on the north-west coast of England were as high due to the discharges from the phosphate plant as those near to the Sellafield reprocessing plant due to its discharges. In recent years the additional dose to marine biota in this region due to the past NORM discharges is of the same order of magnitude as the natural background. The collective dose rate was estimated to determine the radiological impact on people. The peak collective dose rate from the NORM industries occurred in 1984 and was just over 600 manSv y?1. The collective dose rate fell with time as discharges from the phosphate industry reduced and was estimated as under 200 manSv y?1 in 2000.

M. Betti; L. Aldave de las Heras; A. Janssens; E. Henrich; G. Hunter; M. Gerchikov; M. Dutton; A.W. van Weers; S. Nielsen; J. Simmonds; A. Bexon; T. Sazykina

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials in reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

The release and transport characteristics of radioactive materials at a boiling accident of the high active liquid waste (HALW) in a reprocessing plant have been studied for improving experimental data of source terms of the boiling accident. In the study, a heating test and a thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test were conducted. In the heating test using a simulated HALW, it was found that ruthenium was mainly released into the air in the form of gas and that non-volatile elements were released into the air in the form of mist. In the TG-DTA test, the rate constants and reaction heat of thermal decomposition of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate were obtained from TG and DTA curves. (authors)

Amano, Y.; Tashiro, S.; Uchiyama, G.; Abe, H.; Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Kodama, T. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., 4-108 Okitsuke, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS  

SciTech Connect

During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

204

APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS.  

SciTech Connect

Polyurethane foam has been widely used as an impact absorbing and thermal insulating material for large radioactive materials packages, since the 1980's. With the adoption of the regulatory crush test requirement, for smaller packages, polyurethane foam has been adopted as a replacement for cane fiberboard, because of its ability to withstand the crush test. Polyurethane foam is an engineered material whose composition is much more closely controlled than that of cane fiberboard. In addition, the properties of the foam can be controlled by controlling the density of the foam. The conditions under which the foam is formed, whether confined or unconfined have an affect on foam properties. The study reported here reviewed the application of polyurethane foam in RAM packagings and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE A(F)RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

In a coordinated effort, the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed the elimination of the Specification Packaging from 49 CFR 173.[1] In accordance with the Federal Register, issued on October 1, 2004, new fabrication of Specification Packages would no longer be authorized. In accordance with the NRC final rulemaking published January 26, 2004, Specification Packagings are mandated by law to be removed from service no later than October 1, 2008. This coordinated effort and resulting rulemaking initiated a planned phase out of Specification Type B and Type A fissile (F) material transportation packages within the Department of Energy (DOE) and its subcontractors. One of the Specification Packages affected by this regulatory change is the UN1A2 Specification Package, per DOT 49 CFR 173.417(a)(6). To maintain continuing shipments of DOE materials currently transported in UN1A2 Specification Package after the existing authorization expires, a replacement Type A(F) material packaging design is under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of the prototype design effort and testing of the new Type A(F) Package development for the DOE. This paper discusses the progress made in the development of a Type A Fissile Packaging to replace the expiring 49 CFR UN1A2 Specification Fissile Package. The Specification Package was mostly a single-use waste disposal container. The design requirements and authorized radioactive material contents of the UN1A2 Specification Package were defined in 49 CFR. A UN1A2 Specification Package was authorized to ship up to 350 grams of U-235 in any enrichment and in any non-pyrophoric form. The design was specified as a 55-gallon 1A2 drum overpack with a body constructed from 18 gauge steel with a 16 gauge drum lid. Drum closure was specified as a standard 12-gauge ring closure. The inner product container size was not specified but was listed as any container that met Specification 7A requirements per 49 CFR 178.350. Specification 7A containers were required to withstand Type A packaging tests required by 49CFR173.465 with compliance demonstrated through testing, analysis or similarity to other containers. The maximum weight of the 7A product container, the radioactive content, and any internal packaging was limited to 200 lbs. The total gross weight for the UN1A2 Specification Package was limited to 350 lbs. No additional restrictions were applied. Authorization for use did not require the UN1A2 Specification Package to be tested to the Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) required for performance based, Type A(F) packages certified by the NRC or DOE. The Type A(F) Packaging design discussed in this paper is required to be in compliance with the regulatory safety requirements defined in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71.41 through 71.47 and 10 CFR71.71. Sub-criticality of content must be maintained under the Hypothetical Accident Conditions specified under 10 CFR71.73. These federal regulations, and other applicable DOE Orders and Guides, govern design requirements for a Type A(F) package. Type A(F) packages with less than an A2 quantity of radioactive material are not required to have a leak testable boundary. With this exception a Type A(F) package design is subject to the same test requirements set forth for the design of a performance based Type B packaging.

Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

Materials performance in a high-level radioactive waste vitrification system  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy Facility designed to vitrify highly radioactive waste. An extensive materials evaluation program has been completed on key components in the DWPF after twelve months of operation using nonradioactive simulated wastes. Results of the visual inspections of the feed preparation system indicate that the system components, which were fabricated from Hastelloy C-276, should achieve their design lives. Significant erosion was observed on agitator blades that process glass frit slurries; however, design modifications should mitigate the erosion. Visual inspections of the DWPF melter top head and off gas components, which were fabricated from Inconel 690, indicated that varying degrees of degradation occurred. Most of the components will perform satisfactorily for their two year design life. The components that suffered significant attack were the borescopes, primary film cooler brush, and feed tubes. Changes in the operation of the film cooler brush and design modifications to the feed tubes and borescopes is expected to extend their service lives to two years. A program to investigate new high temperature engineered materials and alloys with improved oxidation and high temperature corrosion resistance will be initiated.

Imrich, K.J.; Chandler, G.T.

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

207

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES  

SciTech Connect

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

Smith, A

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

none,

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Volatile tritiated organic acids in stack effluents and in air surrounding contaminated materials  

SciTech Connect

A small fraction of the tritium released into the atmosphere from tritium-handling or solid waste storage facilities was shown to be in the form of volatile organic acids. The same compounds were also found, but at a much higher proportion, in the tritium evolved at room temperature from highly contaminated materials placed under air atmospheres. This might be due to the oxidation and labeling of hydrocarbon(s) by mechanisms that are presumably of a radiolytic nature. The new forms could have an impact on operational requirements and waste management strategies within a tritium facility and a fusion reactor hall. Further data are needed to assess the related doses.

Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T.; Raviart, S. (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (France))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is collected by the RSO. 2. Dry radioactive waste must be segregated by isotope. 3. Liquid radioactive waste must be separated by isotope. 4. Liquid frequently and change them if contaminated. 5. Use radioactive waste container to collect the waste. 6. Check

Jia, Songtao

211

SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE FOR CERTAIN USERS OF SEALED SOURCES, SHORT HALF-LIFE MATERIALS,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

authority with a minimum of: (1) a certification that no residual radioactive contamination attributable, AND SMALL QUANTITIES A large number of users of radioactive materials may use a simplified procedure that qualify for simplified decommissioning procedures are those where radioactive materials have been used

212

Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review  

SciTech Connect

Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

Smith, K.P.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the landfill boundaries. (3) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-19-02. (4) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-23-02 identified 13 railroad cars that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. Six railroad cars were below these limits and therefore met the free-release criteria. (5) An In-Situ Object Counting System survey taken at CAS 25-23-02 identified two railroad cars possibly containing fuel fragments; both exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual free release criteria. (6) Corrective Action Site 25-23-18 contains total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics, Aroclor-1260, uranium-234, uranium-235, strontium-90, and cesium-137 that exceed PALs. (7) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-34-01 indicate that there were no total contamination readings that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (8) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-34-02 indicate that there were no total contamination readings that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (9) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-23-13 identified six pieces of equipment that exceed the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (10) Corrective Action Site 25-99-16 was not investigated. A review of historical documentation and current site conditions showed that no further characterization was required to select the appropriate corrective action. (11) Corrective Action Site 26-08-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (12) Corrective Action Site 26-17-01 contains total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics and Aroclor-1260 exceeding the PALs. (13) Radiological surveys at CAS 26-19-02 identified metallic debris that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. Concentrations of radiological or chemical constituents in soil did not exceed PALs.

Wickline, Alfred

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Confidentiality and the Desire for Open Communication in the Transport of Radioactive Material to a National Repository  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Confidentiality, Security and Confidentiality, Security and Confidentiality, Security and Confidentiality, Security and the Desire for Open the Desire for Open Communication in the Communication in the Transport of Radioactive Transport of Radioactive Material to a National Material to a National Repository Repository A presentation to the A presentation to the DOE Transportation External Coordination (TEC) DOE Transportation External Coordination (TEC) Working Group Meeting Working Group Meeting Albuquerque, NM Albuquerque, NM 21 21 - - 23 April 2004 23 April 2004 Ronald B. Pope Consultant April 2004 April 2004 Confidentiality Confidentiality - - TEC Working TEC Working Group Group - - Albuquerque Albuquerque 2 2 Objectives Objectives Address and prompt TEC discussion on issues Address and prompt TEC discussion on issues

216

Physical test report to drop test of a 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the drop test results for the 9975 radioactive material shipping package being dropped 30 feet onto a unyielding surface followed by a 40-inch puncture pin drop. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum. The 30-foot drop was designed to weaken the lid closure lug while still maintaining maximum extension of the lugs from the drum surface. This was accomplished by angling the drum approximately 30 degrees from horizontal in an inverted position. In this position, the drum was rotated slightly so as not to embed the closure lugs into the drum as a result of the 30-foot drop. It was determined that this orientation would maximize deformation to the closure ring around the closure lug while still maintaining the extension of the lugs from the package surface. The second drop was from 40 inches above a 40-inch tall 6-inch diameter puncture pin. The package was angled 10 degrees from vertical and aligned over the puncture pin to solidly hit the drum lug(s) in an attempt to disengage the lid when dropped.Tests were performed in response to DOE EM-76 review Q5 inquires that questioned the capability of the 9975 drum lid to remain in place under this test sequence. Two packages were dropped utilizing this sequence, a 9974 and 9975. Test results for the 9974 package are reported in WSRC-RP-97-00945. A series of 40-inch puncture pin tests were also performed on undamaged 9975 and 9974 packages.

Blanton, P.S.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

217

Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

218

A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 2: Supporting documents  

SciTech Connect

A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains presentation material and a transcript of the workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report.

Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

To the best of my knowledge, the following hazardous materials are/were  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surfaces must be performed with an appropriate instrument. If radioactive contamination is detected Chemicals (Poisons|Toxics) Radioactive Materials 9/30/2010 #12;GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORY EQUIPMENT. Resurvey to assure contamination has been removed to less than 100 counts per minute per 100 cm2

Washington at Seattle, University of

220

Los Alamos racquetball contamination incident  

SciTech Connect

Several employees of the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility were found to have low levels of radioactivity on their hands and clothing when they arrived for work one morning. The initial concern was that the stringent contamination or material controls at the facility had failed, and that one or more of the employees had either accidentally or intentionally removed plutonium from the Laboratory premises. Fortunately, however, an investigation revealed that the source of the radioactivity was radon daughters electrostatically collected upon the surface of the racquetball and transferred by physical contact to the employees during an early morning racquetball game. This paper describes the events leading to the discovery of this phenomenon. 1 figure.

McAtee, J.L.; Stafford, R.G.; Dowdy, E.J.; Prestwood, R.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET in glass at pH 3.5). None of the leachates approaches the maximum concentrations for drinking water- QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union

Filzmoser, Peter

222

Radioactive material (RAM) transportation accident and incident experience in the U.S.A. (1971--1997)  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed in 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive materials transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation`s (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the National Transportation Program (EM-70) of the US Department of Energy. Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident incident events in the US for the period 1971--1997. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred.

McClure, J.D.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Fagan, H.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation Systems Analysis Dept.; Thomas, T. [Dept. of Energy National Transportation Program (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Benchmark studies of induced radioactivity produced in LHC materials, part II: remanent dose rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......production of radioactive isotopes as well as their decay...carbon composites, boron nitride, aluminium...step (calculation of isotopes), the FLUKA implementation...benchmark(6,7). Isotope information was written...uncertainty for the determination of the effective centre......

M. Brugger; H. Khater; S. Mayer; A. Prinz; S. Roesler; L. Ulrici; H. Vincke

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

224

STATEMENT OF TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE (Radioactive Material User) Print Name: _______________________________________________ Permit Supervisor: ___________________________________  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Practices of Radiation Protection [ ] YES [ ] NO Radioactivity measurement, monitoring techniques [ ] STAFF [ ] GRADUATE STUDENT [ ] POST DOC [ ] UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT I plan to use (check all that apply. [Radiation Safety Courses at other institutions and lectures on the topics as part of college level

Firestone, Jeremy

225

Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

226

Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

SciTech Connect

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

228

Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for developing an emergency response plan, as outlined in OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.120(q), for facility response. This model has been adopted and applied to work for response to transportation accidents involving radioactive material or other hazardous materials incidents Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure.docx More Documents & Publications Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Decontamination Dressdown at a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Medical Examiner/Coroner on the Handling of a Body/Human Remains that are Potentially Radiologically Contaminated

229

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES  

SciTech Connect

The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

230

Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report  

SciTech Connect

Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

232

Versatile, automated sample preparation and detection of contaminants and biological materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contamination of food, water, medicine and ingestible household products is a public health hazard that episodically causes outbreaks worldwide. Existing laboratory methods are often expensive, require a laboratory environment ...

Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A novel solidification technique for fluorine-contaminated bassanite using waste materials in ground improvement applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates the development of solidification technology, based on the formation of ettringite, for fluorine-contaminated bassanite using waste and ... B in varying proportions to obtain the optimal ettringite

Takeshi Kamei; Aly Ahmed; Hideto Horai

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

Kotter, Dale K

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF SPRING ENERGIZED C-RINGS FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS CONTAINING TRITIUM  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the sealing performance testing and results of silver-plated inconel Spring Energized C-Rings used for tritium containment in radioactive shipping packagings. The test methodology used follows requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) summarized in ASME Pressure Vessel Code (B&PVC), Section V, Article 10, Appendix IX (Helium Mass Spectrometer Test - Hood Technique) and recommendations by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) described in ANSI N14.5-1997. The tests parameters bound the predicted structural and thermal responses from conditions defined in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR 71. The testing includes an evaluation of the effects of pressure, temperature, flange deflection, surface roughness, permeation, closure torque, torque sequencing and re-use on performance of metal C-Ring seals.

Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

236

Radioactive waste storage issues  

SciTech Connect

In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

Kunz, D.E.

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Modeling for Airborne Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift walls. The gamma-ray scattering properties of concrete are sufficiently similar to those of the host rock and proposed insert material; use of concrete will have no significant impact on the conclusions. The information in this report is presented primarily for use in performing pre-closure radiological safety evaluations of radiological contaminants, but it may also be used to develop strategies for contaminant leak detection and monitoring in the MGR. Included in this report are the methods for determining the source terms and release fractions, and mathematical models and model parameters for contaminant transport and distribution within the repository. Various particle behavior mechanisms that affect the transport of contaminant are included. These particle behavior mechanisms include diffusion, settling, resuspension, agglomeration and other deposition mechanisms.

F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thermal Analysis and Test Results for the Overpack of a Typical Radioactive Materials Package  

SciTech Connect

In the course of the development and certification of the 9975 Package, extensive thermal analyses were performed and the package subjected to the regulatory HAC thermal test. The results of the thermal analysis and materials tests of the cane fiberboard overpack material were evaluated in comparison with the package HAC thermal test results. The evaluation confirmed that the thermal analysis correctly predicted the performance of the 9975 in the HAC fire test. The post test examination revealed that the heat affected region of the Celotex(R) overpack correlated well with the calculated temperature distribution

Smith, A.C.

2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

239

Assuring Access to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities for Non-DOE Users of Radioactive Materials: Solutions -Outside the Box  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes both near-term and long-term solutions for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) Classes B and C generated by non-DOE organizations in thirty-six states that will lose access to the Barnwell, SC disposal facility on July 1, 2008. The solutions proposed here call for the federal government, specifically the US Department of Energy (DOE), to play a key role and are outside the existing interstate compact framework established by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (amended in 1985) and subsequent state ratification and Congressional consent statutes. (authors)

Pasternak, A.D. [Ph.D. California Radioactive Materials Management Forum, Lafayette, CA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Evaluation of Recent Trailer Contamination and Supersack Integrity Issues  

SciTech Connect

During the period from fiscal year (FY) 2009 to FY 2011, there were a total of 21 incidents involving radioactively contaminated shipment trailers and 9 contaminated waste packages received at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). During this time period, the EnergySolutions (ES) Clive, Utah, disposal facility had a total of 18 similar incidents involving trailer and package contamination issues. As a result of the increased occurrence of such incidents, DOE Environmental Management Headquarters (EM/HQ) Waste Management organization (EM-30) requested that the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) conduct a detailed review of these incidents and report back to EM-30 regarding the results of this review, including providing any recommendations formulated as a result of the evaluation of current site practices involving handling and management of radioactive material and waste shipments.

Gordon, S.

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Application of a passive electrochemical noise technique to localized corrosion of candidate radioactive waste container materials  

SciTech Connect

One of the key engineered barriers in the design of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is the waste canister that encapsulates the spent fuel elements. Current candidate metals for the canisters to be emplaced at Yucca Mountain include cast iron, carbon steel, Incoloy 825 and titanium code-12. This project was designed to evaluate passive electrochemical noise techniques for measuring pitting and corrosion characteristics of candidate materials under prototypical repository conditions. Experimental techniques were also developed and optimized for measurements in a radiation environment. These techniques provide a new method for understanding material response to environmental effects (i.e., gamma radiation, temperature, solution chemistry) through the measurement of electrochemical noise generated during the corrosion of the metal surface. In addition, because of the passive nature of the measurement the technique could offer a means of in-situ monitoring of barrier performance.

Korzan, M.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

Hakonson, T.E.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

USING A RISK-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR THE TRANSFER OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL WITHIN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BOUNDARY  

SciTech Connect

Shipment of radioactive materials (RAM) is discussed in the Code of Federal Regulations in parts of both 49 CFR and 10 CFR. The regulations provide the requirements and rules necessary for the safe shipment of RAM across public highways, railways, waterways, and through the air. These shipments are sometimes referred to as in-commerce shipments. Shipments of RAM entirely within the boundaries of Department of Energy sites, such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), can be made using methodology allowing provisions to maintain equivalent safety while deviating from the regulations for in-commerce shipments. These onsite shipments are known as transfers at the SRS. These transfers must follow the requirements approved in a site-specific Transportation Safety Document (TSD). The TSD defines how the site will transfer materials so that they have equivalence to the regulations. These equivalences are documented in an Onsite Safety Assessment (OSA). The OSA can show how a particular packaging used onsite is equivalent to that which would be used for an in-commerce shipment. This is known as a deterministic approach. However, when a deterministic approach is not viable, the TSD allows for a risk-based OSA to be written. These risk-based assessments show that if a packaging does not provide the necessary safety to ensure that materials are not released (during normal or accident conditions) then the worst-case release of materials does not result in a dose consequence worse than that defined for the SRS. This paper will discuss recent challenges and successes using this methodology at the SRS.

Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.; Loibl, M.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

245

Fundamental properties of monolithic bentonite buffer material formed by cold isostatic pressing for high-level radioactive waste repository  

SciTech Connect

The methods of fabrication, handling, and emplacement of engineered barriers used in a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste should be planned as simply as possible from the engineering and economic viewpoints. Therefore, a new concept of a monolithic buffer material around a waste package have been proposed instead of the conventional concept with the use of small blocks, which would decrease the cost for buffer material. The monolithic buffer material is composed of two parts of highly compacted bentonite, a cup type body and a cover. As the forming method of the monolithic buffer material, compaction by the cold isostatic pressing process (CIP) has been employed. In this study, monolithic bentonite bodies with the diameter of about 333 mm and the height of about 455 mm (corresponding to the approx. 1/5 scale for the Japanese reference concept) were made by the CIP of bentonite powder. The dry densities: {rho}d of the bodies as a whole were measured and the small samples were cut from several locations to investigate the density distribution. The swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity as function of the monolithic body density for CIP-formed specimens were also measured. High density ({rho}d: 1.4--2.0 Mg/m{sup 3}) and homogeneous monolithic bodies were formed by the CIP. The measured results of the swelling pressure (3--15 MPa) and hydraulic conductivity (0.5--1.4 x 10{sup {minus}13} m/s) of the specimens were almost the same as those for the uniaxial compacted bentonite in the literature. It is shown that the vacuum hoist system is an applicable handling method for emplacement of the monolithic bentonite.

Kawakami, S.; Yamanaka, Y.; Kato, K.; Asano, H.; Ueda, H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Measurement of radioactive contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

At Los Alamos, a comprehensive program is underway for the development of sensitive, practical, nondestructive assay techniques for the quantification of low-level transuranics in bulk solid wastes. The program encompasses a broad range of techniques, including sophisticated active and passive gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron detection systems, pulsed portable neutron generator interrogation systems, and electron accelerator-based techniques. The techniques can be used with either low-level or high-level beta-gamma wastes in either low-density or high-density matrices. The techniques are quite sensitive (< 10 nCi/g detection) and, in many cases, isotopic specific. Waste packages range in size from small cardboard boxes to large metal or wooden crates. Considerable effort is being expended on waste matrix identification to improve assay accuracy.

Caldwell, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Crane, T.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

1995-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

248

INMM 55th Annual Meeting, July 2024, 2014, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Transport Security for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials --A DOE Training Course  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory. The course was developed by Argonne for the U.S. Department of Energy Packaging Certification of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585 ABSTRACT In early December of 2013, a weeklong training course on security Transport Security for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials -- A DOE Training Course Ronald B. Pope, Yung

Kemner, Ken

249

Novel hybrid materials in the remediation of ground waters contaminated with As(III) and As(V)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural mica type of clay mineral sericite was modified to obtain the materials viz., Al-HDTMA-sericite (AH) and Al-AMBA-sericite (AA) which was characterized by the FT-IR and XRD data and morphologically analyzed by the SEM images. Further, the simulated batch reactor data indicated that increase in sorptive concentration enhanced the uptake of these pollutants and the 1000 times increase in ionic strength i.e., background electrolyte concentration (NaNO3) caused an insignificant decrease in As(V) removal, which inferred that As(V) was adsorbed specifically onto the solid surface. However, it was affected greatly with As(III) pointed that As(III) was sorbed mainly through electrostatic or even with van der Waals attraction. pH dependence data showed that arsenic removal was greatly affected with change in solution pH. Simultaneous presence of phenol in the removal of As(III) or As(V) showed insignificant change in arsenic removal by these materials pointed that different sorption sites available for these two different contaminants. Results obtained under dynamic conditions inferred that materials were reasonably useful in the speciation/attenuation of these two metal ions from water bodies. The breakthrough data was fitted well to the Thomas equation and hence, the maximum amount of the As(III) or As(V) to be loaded was found to be 0.338 and 0.433mg/g respectively for AA and AH for As(III) and 0.541 and 0.852mg/g respectively for AA and AH for As(V) under the specified column reactor conditions. Comparing these two materials AH possessed with higher removal capacity than AA, at least, for these two contaminants.

Diwakar Tiwari; Seung Mok Lee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

PRE-HOSPITAL PRACTICES FOR HANDLING A RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED PATIENT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER Viewing this video and completing the enclosed printed study material do not by themselves provide sufficient skills to safely engage in or perform duties related to emergency response to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. Meeting that goal is beyond the scope of this video and requires either additional specific areas of competency or more hours of training

251

Regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. Draft report for comment  

SciTech Connect

Potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees were analyzed. The most potentially hazardous accident, by a large margin, was determined to be the sudden rupture of a heated multi-ton cylinder of UF/sub 6/. Acute fatalities offsite are probably not credible. Acute permanent injuries may be possible for many hundreds of meters, and clinically observable transient effects of unknown long term consequences may be possible for distances up to a few miles. These effects would be caused by the chemical toxicity of the UF/sub 6/. Radiation doses would not be significant. The most potentially hazardous accident due to radiation exposure was determined to be a large fire at certain facilities handling large quantities of alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244) or radioiodines (I-125 and I-131). However, acute fatalities or injuries to people offsite due to accidental releases of these materials do not seem plausible. The only other significant accident was identified as a long-term pulsating criticality at fuel cycle facilities handling high-enriched uranium or plutonium. An important feature of the most serious accidents is that releases are likely to start without prior warning. The releases would usually end within about half an hour. Thus protective actions would have to be taken quickly to be effective. There is not likely to be enough time for dose projections, complicated decisionmaking during the accident, or the participation of personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the site. The appropriate response by the facility is to immediately notify local fire, police, and other emergency personnel and give them a brief predetermined message recommending protective actions. Emergency personnel are generally well qualified to respond effectively to small accidents of these types.

McGuire, S.A.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

Binning, P. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia); Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Standard for Communicating Waste Characterization and DOT Hazard Classification Requirements for Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

STD-5507-2013 STD-5507-2013 February 2013 DOE STANDARD Standard for Communicating Waste Characterization and DOT Hazard Classification Requirements for Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects [This Standard describes acceptable, but not mandatory means for complying with requirements. Standards are not requirements documents and are not to be construed as requirements in any audit or appraisal for compliance with associated rule or directives.] U.S. Department of Energy SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 Distribution Statement: A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services,

255

REEVALUATION OF WATERBORNE RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS FROM THE MAYAK PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION INTO THE TECHA RIVER IN 1949-1951  

SciTech Connect

The Mayak Production Association was the first site for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia. Early operations led to the waterborne release of large amounts of radioactive materials into the small Techa River. Residents living downstream used river water for drinking and other purposes. The releases and subsequent flooding resulted in the deposition of sediments along the shoreline and on floodplain soil. Primary routes of exposure were external dose from the deposited sediments and the ingestion of 90Sr and other radionuclides. Study of the Techa River Cohort has revealed an increased incidence of leukemia and solid cancers. These epidemiologic studies are supported by extensive dose-reconstruction activities that have led to the creation of various versions of a Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS). The correctness of the TRDS has been challenged by the allegation that releases of short-lived radionuclides were much larger than those used in the TRDS. Although the dosimetry system depends more upon the measurements of 90Sr in humans and additional measurements of radionuclides and of exposure rates in the environment, a major activity has been undertaken to define more precisely the time-dependent rates of release and radionuclide composition of the releases. The major releases occurred during 1950-1951. In addition to routine releases major accidental releases occurred. The re-evaluated amount of total release is 114 PBq, about half of which was from accidents that occurred in late 1951. The composition of the radionuclides released has also been re-evaluated; this composition changed with time.

Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

Bander, T.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Analysis of Zinc 65 Contamination after Vacuum Thermal Process  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive contamination with a gamma energy emission consistent with {sup 65}Zn was detected in a glovebox following a vacuum thermal process. The contaminated components were removed from the glovebox and subjected to examination. Selected analytical techniques were used to determine the nature of the precursor material, i.e., oxide or metallic, the relative transferability of the deposit and its nature. The deposit was determined to be borne from natural zinc and was further determined to be deposited as a metallic material from vapor.

Korinko, Paul S.; Tosten, Michael H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Contamination Control Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many high-technology products currently manufactured are affected adversely if contamination is deposited in or on the product during manufacture or use. Contamination can be defined as any condition, material, p...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this User's Guide is to provide instructors with an overview of the key points covered in the video. The Student Handout portion of this Guide is designed to assist the instructor in reviewing those points with students. The Student Handout should be distributed to students after the video is shown and the instructor should use the Guide to facilitate a discussion on key activities and duties at the scene. PRE-HOSPITAL PRACTICES FOR HANDLING A RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED PATIENT More Documents & Publications Emergency Response to a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient

260

Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive Materials Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive Materials Participants should expect to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Distinguishing Between Site Waste, Natural, and Other Sources of Contamination at Uranium and Thorium Contaminated Sites - 12274  

SciTech Connect

Uranium and thorium processing and milling sites generate wastes (source, byproduct, or technically enhanced naturally occurring material), that contain contaminants that are similar to naturally occurring radioactive material deposits and other industry wastes. This can lead to mis-identification of other materials as Site wastes. A review of methods used by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency to distinguish Site wastes from potential other sources, enhanced materials, and natural deposits, at three different thorium mills was conducted. Real case examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the methods of distinguishing wastes. Distinguishing between Site wastes and enhanced Background material can be facilitated by establishing and applying a formal process. Significant project cost avoidance may be realized by distinguishing Site wastes from enhanced NORM. Collection of information on other potential sources of radioactive material and physical information related to the potential for other radioactive material sources should be gathered and reported in the Historical Site Assessment. At a minimum, locations of other such information should be recorded. Site decision makers should approach each Site area with the expectation that non site related radioactive material may be present and have a process in place to distinguish from Site and non Site related materials. (authors)

Hays, David C. [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, 64106 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Seminar on Radioactive Waste, Modelling and Dose Assessment -Ris National Laboratory 2 -6 December 2002 Assessment of doses and environmental contamination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

appear to be only a very small fraction of the individual doses from the naturally occurring background and contaminated dust. Only minor discharges of activity are expected to occur during the decommissioning radiation. 1 Introduction When a nuclear installation is to be dismantled in a Member State of the European

264

Contamination analysis unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Contamination analysis unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial radioactive aerosols Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 4 Spatial Data Analysis and Modeling of Radioactively-Contaminated Territories: Lessons...

267

Contamination of Soil by Crude Oil and Drilling Muds. Use of Wastes by Production of Road Construction Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermal method of separating wastes into organic and mineral parts is proposed for processing crude oil sludges and oil-contaminated soils accumulated in operation of oil fields and oil pipelines. After expo...

Z. A. Mansurov; E. K. Ongarbaev

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Application of the base catalyzed decomposition process to treatment of PCB-contaminated insulation and other materials associated with US Navy vessels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The BCD process was applied to dechlorination of two types of PCB-contaminated materials generated from Navy vessel decommissioning activities at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard: insulation of wool felt impregnated with PCB, and PCB-containing paint chips/debris from removal of paint from metal surfaces. The BCD process is a two-stage, low-temperature chemical dehalogenation process. In Stage 1, the materials are mixed with sodium bicarbonate and heated to 350 C. The volatilized halogenated contaminants (eg, PCBs, dioxins, furans), which are collected in a small volume of particulates and granular activated carbon, are decomposed by the liquid-phase reaction (Stage 2) in a stirred-tank reactor, using a high-boiling-point hydrocarbon oil as the reaction medium, with addition of a hydrogen donor, a base (NaOH), and a catalyst. The tests showed that treating wool felt insulation and paint chip wastes with Stage 2 on a large scale is feasible, but compared with current disposal costs for PCB-contaminated materials, using Stage 2 would not be economical at this time. For paint chips generated from shot/sand blasting, the solid-phase BCD process (Stage 1) should be considered, if paint removal activities are accelerated in the future.

Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Gano, S.R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Subsurface contaminants focus area  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM V): proceedings of an international symposium, Seville, Spain, 1922 March 2007  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......their decay chain members in rare earth minerals is often enough...occupational exposure during rare earth production gives rise...variety of monazite mining and rare earth recovery industries...environmental weathering of stacked phosphogypsum waste materials, with observed......

William E. Kennedy; Jr.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Radiation protection and decision-making on cleanup of contaminated urban environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

--4000 Roskilde,4000 Roskilde, DenmarkDenmark NKS Conference on Radioactive Contamination in Urban Areas-making NKS Conference on Radioactive Contamination in Urban Areas, Risø National Laboratory, 7 - 9 May 2003Justification of cleanup NKS Conference on Radioactive Contamination in Urban Areas, Risø National Laboratory, 7 - 9 May

272

Gaseous, Chemical, and Other Contaminant Descriptions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most contamination control technology considers generalized and often unidentified particulate material as the major contaminant, but there are many situations in which gases, chemical films, microbiological m...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Investigation of materials performances in high moisture environments including corrosive contaminants typical of those arising by using alternative fuels in gas turbines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

materials performances in high moisture materials performances in high moisture environments including corrosive contaminants typical of those arising by using alternative fuels in gas turbines Gerald Meier, Frederick Pettit and Keeyoung Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jung University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15260 Peer review Workshop III UTSR Project 04 01 SR116 October 18-20, 2005 Project Approach Task I Selection and Preparation of Specimens Task II Selection of Test Conditions Specimens : GTD111+CoNiCrAlY and Pt Aluminides, N5+Pt Aluminides Deposit : No Deposit, CaO, CaSO 4 , Na 2 SO 4 1150℃ Dry 1150℃ Wet 950℃ Wet 750℃ SO 3 950℃ Dry Selection of Test Temperature, T 1 , Gas Environment and Deposit Composition, D

274

Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

New Remote Method for Estimation of Contamination Levels of Reactor Equipment - 13175  

SciTech Connect

Projects for decommissioning of shutdown reactors and reactor facilities carried out in several countries, including Russia. In the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' decontamination and decommissioning of the research reactor MR (Material Testing Reactor) has been initiated. The research reactor MR has a long history and consists of nine loop facilities for experiments with different kinds of fuel. During the operation of main and auxiliary equipment of reactors it was subjected to strong radioactive contamination. The character of this contamination requires individual strategies for the decontamination work. This requires information about the character of the distribution of radioactive contamination of equipment in the premises. A detailed radiation survey of these premises using standard dosimetric equipment is almost impossible because of high levels of radiation and high-density of the equipment that does not allow identifying the most active fragments using standard tools of measurement. The problem can be solved using the method of remote measurements of distribution of radioactivity with help of the collimated gamma-ray detectors. For radiation surveys of the premises of loop installations remotely operated spectrometric collimated system was used [1, 2, 3]. As a result of the work, maps of the distribution of activity and dose rate for surveyed premises were plotted and superimposed on its photo. The new results of measurements in different areas of the reactor and at its loop installations, with emphasis on the radioactive survey of highly-contaminated samples, are presented. (authors)

Danilovich, Alexey; Ivanov, Oleg; Potapov, Victor; Semenov, Sergey; Semin, Ilya; Smirnov, Sergey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Volkovich, Anatoly [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 of 3) 3 of 3) RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH Student's Guide Office of Environment, Safety & Health U.S. Department of Energy February 1997 DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This page intentionally left blank. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Table of Contents Page TERMINAL OBJECTIVE............................................................................1 ENABLING OBJECTIVES...........................................................................1 I. RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION................................................. 2 A. Comparison of Radiation and Radioactive Contamination ..................... 2 B. Types of Contamination.............................................................. 2

277

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if contaminants of concern are present. (5) If contaminants of concern are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the extent of the contamination. (6) Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management and minimization purposes. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'', this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, and field work will commence following approval.

David Strand

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Presented by Kevin R. Blackwell, Radioactive Materials...

279

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

Alfred Wickline

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Materials Interface Interactions Test: Papers presented at the Commission of European Communities workshop on in situ testing of radioactive waste forms and engineered barriers  

SciTech Connect

The three papers in this report were presented at the second international workshop to feature the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT). This Workshop on In Situ Tests on Radioactive Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers was held in Corsendonk, Belgium, on October 13--16, 1992, and was sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre D`Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN, Belgium), and the US Department of Energy (via Savannah River) also cosponsored this workshop. Workshop participants from Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States gathered to discuss the status, results and overviews of the MIIT program. Nine of the twenty-five total workshop papers were presented on the status and results from the WIPP MIIT program after the five-year in situ conclusion of the program. The total number of published MIIT papers is now up to almost forty. Posttest laboratory analyses are still in progress at multiple participating laboratories. The first MIIT paper in this document, by Wicks and Molecke, provides an overview of the entire test program and focuses on the waste form samples. The second paper, by Molecke and Wicks, concentrates on technical details and repository relevant observations on the in situ conduct, sampling, and termination operations of the MIIT. The third paper, by Sorensen and Molecke, presents and summarizes the available laboratory, posttest corrosion data and results for all of the candidate waste container or overpack metal specimens included in the MIIT program.

Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R. [eds.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Wicks, G.G. [ed.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (US)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Braunschweig (Germany); Schnier, C. [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Scholten, L.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......people living in long-term-contaminated...Radioactive waste management in...longer-term storage and appropriate...appropriate for the long-term assessment...long-lived radioactive wastes in planned exposure...People Living in Long-term Contaminated...from Radioactive Waste Management in......

Daisuke Sugiyama; Takatoshi Hattori

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Removal of Historic Low-Level Radioactive Sediment from the Port Hope Harbour - 13314  

SciTech Connect

At the Port Hope Harbour, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the Harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. These waste materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Several other on-land locations within the community of Port Hope are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. The Port Hope Project is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remediation of the estimated 120,000 m{sup 3} of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope Harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Port Hope Project. Following a thorough review of various options, the proposed method of contaminated sediment removal is by dredging. The sediment from the dredge will then be pumped as a sediment-water slurry mixture into geo-synthetic containment tubes for dewatering. Due to the hard substrate below the contaminated sediment, the challenge has been to set performance standards in terms of low residual surface concentrations that are attainable in an operationally efficient manner. (authors)

Kolberg, Mark [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada)] [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)] [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Investigation of the November 8, 2011, Plutonium Contamination in the Zero Power Physics Reactor Facility, at the Idaho National Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

On November 8, 2011, workers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Facility were packaging plutonium (Pu) reactor fuel plates. Two of the fuel storage containers had atypical labels indicating potential abnormalities with the fuel plates located inside. Upon opening one of the storage containers, the workers discovered a Pu fuel plate wrapped in plastic and tape. When the workers attempted to remove the wrapping material, an uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants occurred, resulting in the contamination of 16 workers and the facility

285

Uranium Compounds and Other Natural Radioactivities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radioactive materials and global fallout as it exists in the environment (such as from testing of nuclear explosive devices.) However, any action that has been taken to separate...

286

Treatment of Mercury Contaminated Oil from the Mound Site  

SciTech Connect

Over one thousand gallons of tritiated oil, at various contamination levels, are stored in the Main Hill Tritium Facility at the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (MEMP), commonly referred to as Mound Site. This tritiated oil is to be characterized for hazardous materials and radioactive contamination. Most of the hazardous materials are expected to be in the form of heavy metals, i.e., mercury, silver, lead, chromium, etc, but transuranic materials and PCBs could also be in some oils. Waste oils, found to contain heavy metals as well as being radioactively contaminated, are considered as mixed wastes and are controlled by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for removal and stabilization of RCRA metals (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and for removal of mercury from organic solvents. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide supports provide a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. SAMMS material has high flexibility in that it binds with different forms of mercury, including metallic, inorganic, organic, charged, and neutral compounds. The material removes mercury from both organic wastes, such as pump oils, and from aqueous wastes. Mercury-loaded SAMMS not only passes TCLP tests, but also has good long-term durability as a waste form because: (1) the covalent binding between mercury and SAMMS has good resistance in ion-exchange, oxidation, and hydrolysis over a wide pH range and (2) the uniform and small pore size of the mesoporous silica prevents bacteria from solubilizing the bound mercury.

Klasson, KT

2000-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

287

Subsurface Contamination Control  

SciTech Connect

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

289

Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)] [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

Scientists decipher genome of bacterium that remediates uranium contamination, generates electricity Public release date: 11-Dec-2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a microbe's capability to generate electricity and to help clean up radioactive contamination, scientistsScientists decipher genome of bacterium that remediates uranium contamination, generates that remediates uranium contamination, generates electricity Analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens genes reveals

Lovley, Derek

291

Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Radiological Protection Policy for the Disposal of Radioactive...Contaminated Areas after a Nuclear Accident or a Radiation...SITUATIONS RESULTING FROM A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT. | In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive......

Daisuke Sugiyama; Takatoshi Hattori

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable characterization method for quantification of tritium contaminated trash and debris. The characterization technique is applicable to surface and subsurface tritium contaminated materials with surfaces amenable to swiping. Some limitations of this characterization technique are identified.

Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

293

Radioactive ion detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

294

Radioactive ion detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial radioactivity measurements Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cognition Group Collection: Biology and Medicine ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 4 Spatial Data Analysis and Modeling of Radioactively-Contaminated Territories: Lessons...

296

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

297

Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.  

SciTech Connect

A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 MAG LAB REPORTS Volume 18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials, topological insulators, quantum fl uids & solids,...

299

Impact of the deployment schedule of fast breeding reactors in the frame of French act for nuclear materials and radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

In the frame of the French Act of June 28, 2006 on 'a sustainable management of nuclear materials and radioactive waste' EDF R and D assesses various research scenarios of transition between the actual French fleet and a Generation IV fleet with a closed fuel cycle where plutonium is multi-recycled. The basic scenarios simulate a deployment of 60 GWe of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) in two steps: one third from 2040 to 2050 and the rest from 2080 to 2100 (scenarios 2040). These research scenarios assume that SFR technology will be ready for industrial deployment in 2040. One of the many sensitivity analyses that EDF, as a nuclear power plant operator, must evaluate is the impact of a delay of SFR technology in terms of uranium consumptions, plutonium needs and fuel cycle utilities gauging. The sensitivity scenarios use the same assumptions as scenarios 2040 but they simulate a different transition phase: SFRs are deployed in one step between 2080 and 2110 (scenarios 2080). As the French Act states to conduct research on minor actinides (MA) management, we studied different options for 2040 and 2080 scenarios: no MA transmutation, americium transmutation in heterogeneous mode based on americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB) in SFRs and all MA transmutation in heterogeneous mode based on MA Bearing Blankets (MABB). Moreover, we studied multiple parameters that could impact the deployment of these reactors (SFR load factor, increase of the use of MOX in Light Water Reactors, increase of the cooling time in spent nuclear fuel storage...). Each scenario has been computed with the EDF R and D fuel cycle simulation code TIRELIRE-STRATEGIE and optimized to meet various fuel cycle constraints such as using the reprocessing facility with long period of constant capacity, keeping the temporary stored mass of plutonium and MA under imposed limits, recycling older assemblies first... These research scenarios show that the transition from the current PWR fleet to an equivalent fleet of Generation IV SFR can follow different courses. The design of SFR-V2B that we used in our studies needs a high inventory of plutonium resulting in tension on this resource. Several options can be used in order to loosen this tension: our results lead to favour the use of axial breeding blanket in SFR. Load factor of upcoming reactors has to be regarded with attention as it has a high impact on plutonium resource for a given production of electricity. The deployment of SFRs beginning in 2080 instead of 2040 following the scenarios we described creates higher tensions on reprocessing capacity, separated plutonium storage and spent fuel storage. In the frame of the French Act, we studied minor actinides transmutation. The flux of MA in all fuel cycle plants is really high, which will lead to decay heat, a and neutron emission related problems. In terms of reduction of MA inventories, the deployment of MA transmutation cycle must not delay the installation of SFRs. The plutonium production in MABB and AmBB does not allow reducing the use of axial breeding blankets. The impact of MA or Am transmutation over the high level waste disposal is more important if the SFRs are deployed later. Transmutation option (americium or all MA) does not have a significant impact on the number of canister produced nor on its long-term thermal properties. (authors)

Le Mer, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lemasson, D. [Electricite de France R and D, 1, Avenue du General De Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

302

Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

1980-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

303

Particulate Contaminant Descriptions and Definitions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate contaminants can be either solid or liquid. Many of these materials were originally suspended in air or in a process fluid; others derive from nearby sources, such as activities of personnel working i...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

22 - Radioactive waste disposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the disposal of radioactive wastes that arise from a great variety of sources, including the nuclear fuel cycle, beneficial uses of isotopes, and radiation by institutions. Spent fuel contains uranium, plutonium, and highly radioactive fission products. The spent fuel is accumulating, awaiting the development of a high-level waste repository. It is anticipated that a multi-barrier system involving packaging and geologic media will provide protection of the public over the centuries. The favored method of disposal is in a mined cavity deep underground. In some countries, reprocessing the fuel assemblies permits recycling of materials and disposal of smaller volumes of solidified waste. Transportation of wastes is done by casks and containers designed to withstand severe accidents. Low-level wastes come from research and medical procedures and from a variety of activation and fission sources at a reactor site. They generally can be given near-surface burial. Isotopes of special interest are cobalt-60 and cesium-137. Transuranic wastes are being disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Decommissioning of reactors in the future will contribute a great deal of low-level radioactive waste.

Raymond L. Murray

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING MATERIALS In general, building materials contain low, especially in buildings constructed with materials containing uranium TENORM mine wastes. In the Grand the wastes from uranium mines have been removed from mining sites and used in local and nearby communities

306

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online. 16. W. Benz, A. G. W. Cameron, H. J. Melosh, Icarus 81, 113 (1989). 17. S. L. Thompson, H. S. Lauson, Technical Rep. SC-RR-710714, Sandia Nat. Labs (1972). 18. H. J. Melosh, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 42, 2079 (2007). 19. S. Ida, R. M. Canup, G. R. Stewart, Nature 389, 353 (1997). 20. E. Kokubo, J. Makino, S. Ida, Icarus 148, 419 (2000). 21. M. M. M. Meier, A. Reufer, W. Benz, R. Wieler, Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society LXXIV, abstr. 5039 (2011). 22. C. B. Agnor, R. M. Canup, H. F. Levison, Icarus 142, 219 (1999). 23. D. P. O'Brien, A. Morbidelli, H. F. Levison, Icarus 184, 39 (2006). 24. R. M. Canup, Science 307, 546 (2005). 25. J. J. Salmon, R. M. Canup, Lunar Planet. Sci. XLIII, 2540 (2012). Acknowledgments: SPH simulation data are contained in tables S2 to S5 of the supplementary materials. Financial support

307

Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail.

LaFrate, P.; Elliott, J.; Valasquez, M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units  

SciTech Connect

This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

JOHNSON, R.E.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Bacteria eats radioactive waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria eats radioactive waste Bacteria eats radioactive waste Name: deenaharper Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: In my studies, I have found that everything in this world is balanced. When something dies it is converted into life. Is there anything out there that could convert radioactive material into a harmless substance? Some sort of bacteria that consumes radiation? Replies: The reason why radiation is so harmful is that is produces free radicals in living tissue, that is, it de-stabilizes molecules by tearing off electrons due to intense energies. These free radicals start a chain reaction of destruction, de-stabilizing neighboring molecules. If this continues unchecked, cells die, genetic material are mutated, and tissue aging accelerates. It is somewhat like being burned. Fire oxidizes by a similar free radical reaction. (Hence the term "sun burn.") The natural defenses against free radical reactions in biological systems are antioxidants, which are enzymes, nutrients, and other chemicals, which quench free radical reactions. Without them, life would very quickly cease. To my knowledge, no microorganism has an antioxidant capacity great enough to withstand even minimal exposure to any type of radiation. Microorganisms are actually very susceptible to radiation, which is why heat and gamma irradiation are used to sterilize food, instruments, etc. However, you raise an interesting possibility in that perhaps one can be genetically engineered to have super- antioxidant capacity, but that may be beyond current technology. Plus, if any got loose, given the exponential rate of reproduction, they may become an uncontrollable health hazard, as it would be very difficult to destroy them!

310

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel A Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy October 2009 #12 Safety (Germany) Peter De Preter: National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials

312

RADIOACTIVITY 1997 BNL Site Environmental Report 4 -1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a few inches. Naturally occurring radioactive elements such as potassium-40 emit beta radiation. Gamma by materials such as paper and have a range in air of only an inch or so. Naturally occurring radioactive 4.3 Sources of Radiation Radioactivity and radiation are part of the earth's natural environment

313

A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. An infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable's motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

Banks, T I; Wallig, J; Ybarrolaza, N; Gando, A; Gando, Y; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Kishimoto, Y; Koga, M; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Shimizu, I; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takemoto, Y; Tamae, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Xu, B D; Yoshida, H; Yoshida, S; Kozlov, A; Grant, C; Keefer, G; Piepke, A; Bloxham, T; Fujikawa, B K; Han, K; Ichimura, K; Murayama, H; O'Donnell, T; Steiner, H M; Winslow, L A; Dwyer, D A; McKeown, R D; Zhang, C; Berger, B E; Lane, C E; Maricic, J; Miletic, T; Batygov, M; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Sakai, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Downum, K E; Gratta, G; Efremenko, Y; Perevozchikov, O; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Heeger, K M; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

now track shipments of radioactive materials and access transportation information on mobile devices. Transportation Tracking and Communication System users can now track...

315

Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

Shinn, J.H.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Evaluation of Trenchless Installation Technology for Radioactive Wastewater Piping Applications  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes dispositioning facilities, contaminated legacy materials/waste, and contamination sources and remediation of soil under facilities, groundwater, and surface water to support final Records of Decision (RODs). The Integrated Facilities Disposition Project (IFDP) is a roughly $15B project for completion of the EM mission at Oak Ridge, with a project duration of up to 35 years. The IFDP Mission Need Statement - Critical Decision-0 (CD-0) - was approved by DOE in July 2007, and the IFDP Alternative Selection and Cost Range - Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) - was approved in November 2008. The IFDP scope includes reconfiguration of waste collection and treatment systems as needed to complete the IFDP remediation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) missions in a safe and cost-effective manner while maintaining compliance with all governing regulations and bodies and preserving the support of continuing operations at ORNL. A step in the CD-1 approval process included an external technical review (ETR) of technical approaches proposed in the CD-1 document related to the facility reconfiguration for the ORNL radioactive waste and liquid low-level waste management systems. The ETR team recommended that the IFDP team consider the use of trenchless technologies for installing pipelines underground in and around contaminated sites as part of the alternatives evaluations required in support of the CD-2 process. The team specifically recommended evaluating trenchless technologies for installing new pipes in existing underground pipelines as an alternative to conventional open trench installation methods. Potential benefits could include reduction in project costs, less costly underground piping, fewer disruptions of ongoing and surface activities, and lower risk for workers. While trenchless technologies have been used extensively in the sanitary sewer and natural gas pipeline industries, they have been used far less in contaminated environments. Although trenchless technologies have been used at ORNL in limited applications to install new potable water and gas lines, the technologies have not been used in radioactive applications. This study evaluates the technical risks, benefits, and economics for installing gravity drained and pressurized piping using trenchless technologies compared to conventional installation methods for radioactive applications under ORNL geological conditions. A range of trenchless installation technologies was reviewed for this report for general applicability for replacing existing contaminated piping and/or installing new pipelines in potentially contaminated areas. Installation methods that were determined to have potential for use in typical ORNL contaminated environments were then evaluated in more detail for three specific ORNL applications. Each feasible alternative was evaluated against the baseline conventional open trench installation method using weighted criteria in the areas of environment, safety, and health (ES&H); project cost and schedule; and technical operability. The formulation of alternatives for evaluation, the development of selection criteria, and the scoring of alternatives were performed by ORNL staff with input from vendors and consultants. A description of the evaluation methodology and the evaluation results are documented in the following sections of this report.

Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Sullivan, Nicholas M [ORNL; Bugbee, Kathy P [ORNL

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

APS Radioactive Sample Safety Review Committee  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactive Sample Safety Review Committee Radioactive Sample Safety Review Committee March 6, 2012 1. Purpose The APS Safety Radioactive Sample Safety Review Committee (RSSRC) advises the AES Division Director on the radioactive samples to be used at the APS and the adequacy of controls in place for the duration of their use. The RSSRC reviews the radioactive material samples proposed to be run at the APS to ensure that they fall within established safety envelopes of the APS. 2. Membership The RSSRC members are appointed by the AES Division Director. The current members of the RSRC are: B. Glagola AES - Chair S. Davey AES G. Pile AES L. Soderholm CHM J. Vacca RSO W. VanWingeren AES M. Beno XSD E. Alp XSD M. Rivers PUC 3. Method The AES User Safety Coordinator will notify the RSSRC of any samples

318

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

Reactive barrier technologies for treatment of contaminated groundwater at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is supporting the investigation of reactive barrier technologies to mitigate the risks associated with mixed organic/radioactive waste at several DOE sites. Groundwater from a small contaminated plume at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is being used to evaluate passive reactive material treatment. Permeable reactive barriers which intercept contaminants and destroy the VOC component while containing radionuclides are attractive for a number of reasons relating to public and regulatory acceptance. In situ treatment keeps contaminants away from the earth`s surface, there is no above-ground treatment equipment that could expose workers and the public and operational costs are expected to be lower than currently used technologies. This paper will present results from preliminary site characterization and in-field small-scale column testing of reactive materials at RFETS. Successful demonstration is expected to lead to full-scale implementation of the technology at several DOE sites, including Rocky Flats.

Marozas, D.C.; Bujewski, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castaneda, N. [Rocky Flats Field Office, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Radioactive Waste Management (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This section regulates the transportation and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Minnesota, and establishes a Nuclear Waste Council to monitor the federal high-level radioactive waste...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Contamination-pipetting: relative efficiency of filter tips compared to Microman positive displacement pipette  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of contamination when working with infectious, toxic, corrosive or radioactive agents. Tip manufacturers haveContamination-pipetting: relative efficiency of filter tips compared to Microman® positive displacement pipette Filter tips are generally accepted as the solution for preventing cross-contamination

Cai, Long

322

RCUT: A Non-Invasive Method for Detection, Location, and Quantification of Radiological Contaminants in Pipes and Ducts - 12514  

SciTech Connect

Radiological Characterization Using Tracers (RCUT) is a minimally invasive method for detection and location of residual radiological contamination in pipes and ducts. The RCUT technology utilizes reactive gaseous tracers that dissociate when exposed to gamma and/or beta radiation emitting from a radiological contaminant in a pipe or duct. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) was selected as a tracer for this radiological application, because it is a chemically inert gas that is both nonflammable, nontoxic, and breaks down when exposed to gamma radiation. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the tracer pair of SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} formed SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} when exposed to a gamma or beta radioactive field, which indicated the presence of radiological contamination. Field application of RCUT involves first injecting the reactive tracers into the pipe to fill the pipe being inspected and allowing sufficient time for the tracer to interact with any contaminants present. This is followed by the injection of an inert gas at one end of the pipe to push the reactive tracer at a known or constant flow velocity along the pipe and then out the exit and sampling port at the end of the pipeline where its concentration is measured by a gas chromatograph. If a radiological contaminant is present in the pipe being tested, the presence of SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} will be detected. The time of arrival of the SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} can be used to locate the contaminant. If the pipe is free of radiological contamination, no SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} will be detected. RCUT and PCUT are both effective technologies that can be used to detect contamination within pipelines without the need for mechanical or human inspection. These methods can be used to detect, locate, and/or estimate the volume of a variety of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, and heavy metals. While further optimization is needed for RCUT, the key first step of identification of a tracer compound appropriate for the application of detecting radioactive pipeline contamination through the detection of decomposition products of SF{sub 6} has been demonstrated. Other tracer gases that will also undergo radiolysis will be considered in the future. The next step for the RCUT development process is conducting laboratory scale tests using short pipelines to define analytical requirements, establish performance boundaries, and develop strategies for lower exposure levels. Studies to identify additional analytical techniques using equipment that is more field rugged than a GC/MS would also be beneficial. (authors)

Bratton, Wesley L.; Maresca, Joseph W. Jr.; Beck, Deborah A. [Vista Engineering Technologies, L.L.C., Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

5 - Fukushima Radioactivity Impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Huge amounts of radioactivity have been released to the environment because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. In order to implement adequate protective actions and to assess the impact of the Fukushima radioactivity on the environment, an environmental monitoring has been conducted by national and local governments, research institutes and universities in Japan and over the world. The environmental monitoring revealed that heavy radioactivity-contaminated areas appeared within about 50 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, controlled by land topography as do meteorological factors. The Fukushima-derived radionuclides, in which dominant nuclides were 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, contaminated food stuffs. The radionuclide levels exceeded the regulation values in a part of food stuffs produced within about 500 km off Fukushima. Based on the comprehensive monitoring data, we describe here levels of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environments and in food products in Japan and over the globe. Temporal and spatial distributions of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in aerosols revealed the presence of two dominant radionuclide maxima which were observed throughout the Europe with decreasing amplitudes from the North to the South, which were associated with different air masses present in the European air. Modeled forward and backward trajectories indicated a preferential transport of air masses between Fukushima and Europe at 500 hPa (5000 m a. s. l.) air heights. The Lagrangian dispersion modeling showed that the horizontal dispersion in the Europe reached about 4000-km-wide belt, however, the entire world has been labeled with the Fukushima radionuclides, although at very low levels. A typical travel time between Fukushima and Europe has been estimated to be of 1015 days, with an average speed of the plume of 5070 km/h. An average 131I concentration, which was measured over the Europe (?1 mBq/m3), would result in the total amount of dispersed 131I of about 1 PBq. Although this represents a high release rate (almost 1% of the total amount of 131I released from the Fukushima NPP), as it was distributed over a huge area, it has not been of any radiological significance for European citizens. 134Cs and 137Cs were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major likely pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northeast of the site. High-density observations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the surface water were carried out by 17 cruises of cargo ships and several research-vessel cruises since March 2011 till March 2012. Main body of radioactive surface plume whose activity exceeded 10 Bq/m3 had been traveling along 40 N, and reached International Date Line on March 2012, 1 year after the accident. A zonal speed of the radioactive plume was estimated to be about 8 cm/s which was consistent with the zonal speed derived by Argo floats and satellite observations at the region. The dispersion of Fukushima-derived 137Cs in surface seawater of the North Pacific Ocean was carried out using an ocean global circulation model. The traveling time from the Fukushima coast to the US west coast was estimated to be 45 years, and the predicted 137Cs levels will reach ?3 Bq/m3, which are by about a factor of three higher than the present global fallout background levels. After 10 years, the 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean will not be distinguishable over the global fallout background of 1 Bq/m3. The maximum predicted 137Cs activity concentrations in 2012 in the open western North Pacific Ocean will be around 20 Bq/m3, which will be comparable to that observed during the early 1960s after atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. However, after 10 years this concentration will be similar to that from global fallout. The open Pacific Ocean radionuclide concentrations will not pose therefore any radiation risk to the world population from consumption of seafood collected in this region.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Ceramicrete stabilization of U-and Pu-bearing materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of stabilizing nuclear material is disclosed. Oxides or halides of actinides and/or transuranics (TRUs) and/or hydrocarbons and/or acids contaminated with actinides and/or TRUs are treated by adjusting the pH of the nuclear material to not less than about 5 and adding sufficient MgO to convert fluorides present to MgF.sub.2; alumina is added in an amount sufficient to absorb substantially all hydrocarbon liquid present, after which a binder including MgO and KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 is added to the treated nuclear material to form a slurry. Additional MgO may be added. A crystalline radioactive material is also disclosed having a binder of the reaction product of calcined MgO and KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 and a radioactive material of the oxides and/or halides of actinides and/or transuranics (TRUs). Acids contaminated with actinides and/or TRUs, and/or actinides and/or TRUs with or without oils and/or greases may be encapsulated and stabilized by the binder.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Maloney, M. David (Evergreen, CO); Thompson, Gary H. (Thornton, CO)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

325

Review of soil contamination guidance  

SciTech Connect

A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Forensic Application of Microbiological Culture Analysis To Identify Mail Intentionally Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contamination issues before handling such materials. The contamination...suitability of PPE materials for use with dried...established. FIG. 1. Diagram of the negative...SBA plates during handling of exposed mail (see Materials and Methods for...

Douglas J. Beecher

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Chapter 22 - Radioactive Waste Disposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses safe disposal of radioactive waste in order to provide safety to workers and the public. Radioactive wastes arise from a great variety of sources, including the nuclear fuel cycle, and from beneficial uses of isotopes and radiation by institutions. Spent fuel contains uranium, plutonium, and highly radioactive fission products. In the United States spent fuel is accumulating, awaiting the development of a high-level waste repository. A multi-barrier system involving packaging and geological media will provide protection of the public over the centuries the waste must be isolated. The favored method of disposal is in a mined cavity deep underground. In other countries, reprocessing the fuel assemblies permits recycling of materials and disposal of smaller volumes of solidified waste. Transportation of wastes is by casks and containers designed to withstand severe accidents. Low-level wastes (LLWs) come from research and medical procedures and from a variety of activation and fission sources at a reactor site. They generally can be given near-surface burial. Isotopes of special interest are cobalt-60 and cesium-137. Transuranic wastes are being disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Establishment of regional disposal sites by interstate compacts has generally been unsuccessful in the United States. Decontamination of defense sites will be long and costly. Decommissioning of reactors in the future will contribute a great deal of low-level radioactive waste.

Raymond L. Murray

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Internal Contamination in the CTF As already mentioned in Chapter 6, the main purposes of the Counting Test Facility are  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Internal Contamination in the CTF 344 "miscellaneous" naturally occurring radioactive isotopes such as 40KChapter 8 Internal Contamination in the CTF As already mentioned in Chapter 6, the main purposes such event is presumed to represent the decay of one radioactive atom in the CTF or the passage of one muon

329

Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Stewart, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216  

SciTech Connect

Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)

Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq)] [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities: Continue to manage waste...

332

Uptake, Accumlation and Loss of Radioactive Cerium-144 by Marine ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

from laboratories, power reactors, and plants producing nuclear fuels and materials for nuclear weapons. With the possibility of increased contamination of the...

1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

333

Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

334

Acceptance of Soil from Off Site Sources In order to guard against receiving contaminated soils to used as fill material on campus,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this guideline document in order to provide information for acceptance of clean imported fill material from off regulations governing the remediation of site, and hazardous chemical disposal. Local Oversight Program Agency, auto repair facilities and sites containing petroleum impacted soils and disposal and transportation

de Lijser, Peter

335

A Prototype Radon Filter for Air A typical, recurring problem in low-background physics is the contamination of sensitive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the contamination of sensitive surfaces of experimental apparata with the radioactive decay products of 222Rn . What since all its daughters are short-lived and decay away in a few days (see the 232Th radioactive chain.1: The 232Th natural radioactive chain. Diffusion of thoron (220Rn) and plate out of its daughters doesn

336

What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?  

SciTech Connect

Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

DOE

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants. 2 figs.

Schabron, J.F.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Contaminant-Generation Mechanisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last chapter, the areas where contaminants are generated were discussed. Knowing the location of contaminant generation is helpful in controlling that contamination, but understanding the mechanisms is ...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Upgrading the Radioactive Waste Management Infrastructure in Azerbaijan  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide uses in Azerbaijan are limited to peaceful applications in the industry, medicine, agriculture and research. The Baku Radioactive Waste Site (BRWS) 'IZOTOP' is the State agency for radioactive waste management and radioactive materials transport. The radioactive waste processing, storage and disposal facility is operated by IZOTOP since 1963 being significantly upgraded from 1998 to be brought into line with international requirements. The BRWS 'IZOTOP' is currently equipped with state-of-art devices and equipment contributing to the upgrade the radioactive waste management infrastructure in Azerbaijan in line with current internationally accepted practices. The IAEA supports Azerbaijan specialists in preparing syllabus and methodological materials for the Training Centre that is currently being organized on the base of the Azerbaijan BRWS 'IZOTOPE' for education of specialists in the area of safety management of radioactive waste: collection, sorting, processing, conditioning, storage and transportation. (authors)

Huseynov, A. [Baku Radioactive Waste Site IZOTOP, Baku (Azerbaijan); Batyukhnova, O. [State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, M. [Sheffield Univ., Immobilisation Science Lab. (United Kingdom); Rowat, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security, Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Solvent recycle/contaminant reduction testing - Phase I, Task 3. Topical progress report, June 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. This report describes the solvent recyle test program for EDTA/ammonium carbonate solvent.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 69 (2003) 129143 www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvrad  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 69 (2003) 129­143 www the radioactive chronometers 210 Pb and 228 Th and the stable isotopes of C and N. The examination of sediment the pollution records; and therefore, considering that the contaminated sediments at some locations

Long, Bernard

342

Ris-R-1146(EN) Power Production from Radioactively  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the 1986 Chernobyl power plant disaster. The combustion of biomass in an electric-power-producing boilerRisø-R-1146(EN) Power Production from Radioactively Contaminated Biomass and Forest Litter and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in a Belarussian

343

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What is computer analysis? What are examples of severe testing? How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents? Demonstrating target hardness. Accurate determination of package behavior for impact and puncture accidents can be obtained by testing sub-scale models. This technique is frequently used in conjunction with full-scale tests and computer analyses. Full-scale spent fuel packages can weigh 250,000 pounds (three fully loaded semi-trucks) or more, therefore the ability to determine the behavior with scale-models improves testing safety and reduces testing costs. *** 1/4 Scale Free Drop Test 1/4 Scale Component Free Drop Test 1/3 Scale Puncture Test 1/2 Scale Puncture Test 1/8 Scale Rail Crush Test [scale model DROP test] Click to view picture [scale model component test]

344

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Package Certification Using Computer Analysis Package Certification Using Computer Analysis Engineering Principles Established by Three Early Scientists Engineering Principles Applied to Ancient Structures Description of Computer Model in Computer Analysis Engineered Structures Built WITHOUT the Use of Computer Analysis Structures Analyzed WITH the Use of Computer Analysis What are examples of severe testing? How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents? Demonstrating target hardness. Computer analysis is an application of known engineering principles that take advantage of high-power computing capabilities in solving the response of computer models to various environments with complex mathematical calculations. Computer analysis can be used for package certification by generating a

345

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What are examples of severe testing? What are examples of severe testing? How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents? Demonstrating target hardness. These full-scale tests, conducted at Sandia National Laboratories Transportation Programs, demonstrate how spent fuel casks perform in accident environments that are more similar to what may happen during actual shipments. Each of the tests included the transportation vehicle as well as the cask. The damage to the casks from these tests was less than the damage during the regulatory hypothetical accident tests, demonstrating that the regulatory tests are more severe. DESCRIPTION PHOTO DURING TEST PHOTO AFTER TEST PHOTO OF PACKAGE AFTER TEST VIDEO OF TEST CRASH TEST Cask rail car with a 74 ton Type B Package on it crashing into a 690 ton concrete block at 81 miles per hour [photo]

346

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Free Drop Comparison Crush Comparison Puncture Comparison Fire Comparison Immersion Comparison Demonstrating target hardness. Hypothetical Accident Conditions: Six tests as defined in 10 CFR Part 71.73 of the NRC transportation regulations were established to provide repeatable and definable conditions that encompass most real-life accidents. The real-life accidents on this page are comparisons to the environments that the regulatory hypothetical accidents protect against. The collision forces or fire temperature and duration that were present in each accident are similar to the conditions that spent fuel casks are designed to survive. Passenger Train and Semi-truck Trailer Collision [DROP scenario] Mack Truck and Subaru Collision [CRUSH scenario] Freight Train and Freight Train Collision

347

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comments & Questions Gary Lanthrum, DOE/NTP Albuquerque, NM E-mail: glanthrum@doeal.gov Phone: (505) 845-5277 Fax: (505) 845-5508 Ashok K. Kapoor, DOE/NTP Albuquerque, NM E-mail: akapoor@doeal.gov Phone: (505) 845-4574 Fax: (505) 845-5508 David R. Miller, SNL/TP Manager, Albuquerque, NM E-mail: drmille@sandia.gov Phone: (505) 284-2574 Fax: (505) 844-2829 Mona L. Aragon, SNL/TP Advanced Visualization, Albuquerque, NM E-mail: mlrage@sandia.gov Phone: (505) 844-2541 Fax: (505) 844-0244 Doug Ammerman, SNL/TP Structural Analysis, Albuquerque, NM E-mail: djammer@sandia.gov Phone: (505) 845-8158 Fax: (505) 844-0244 Fran Kanipe, SNL/TP Computer Programming, Albuquerque, NM E-mail: flkanip@sandia.gov Phone: (505) 844-1121 Fax: (505) 844-0244 Carlos Lopez, SNL/TP Thermal Analysis, Albuquerque, NM

348

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glossary of Nuclear Terms [Majority from NRC] Contacts Comments & Questions Photos 30-Foot Free Drop Test jpeg, 788K [photo] Click to view picture 1100-Pound Crush Test jpeg, 448K [photo] Click to view picture 40-Inch Puncture Test jpeg, 912K [photo] Click to view picture 30-Minute Pool Fire Test jpeg, 88K [photo] Click to view picture 8-Hour Immersion Test jpeg, 416K [photo] Click to view picture Graphics Unyielding Target jpeg, 144K [graphic] Click to view graphic title jpeg, 000K [graphic] Click to view graphic title jpeg, 000K [graphic] Click to view graphic title jpeg, 000K [graphic] Click to view graphic title jpeg, 000K [graphic] Click to view graphic Movies 30-Foot Free Drop Test AVI, 4.5 MB [movie] Click to view movie 1/3-Scale Puncture Test AVI, 3.3 MB [movie] Click to view movie 30-Minute

349

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crush Comparison Puncture Comparison Fire Comparison Immersion Comparison Demonstrating target hardness. Comparison of the Free Drop Test to a Passenger Train and Semi-truck Trailer Collision Free Drop Test 3,000,000 lbs of force present in this package certification test. [DROP test] Click to view picture Real-life Accident Comparison 1,000,000 lbs of force present in this real-life accident. [DROP scenario] Click to view picture Real-life scenarios that are encompassed by the above test include: the package being struck by a train traveling 60 MPH the package falling off of a 30-foot high bridge onto solid rock or from a higher bridge onto a highway or railroad the package running into a bridge support or rock slope at 45 MPH. Packages are transported onboard trucks or rail cars, which absorb some of the impact energy, reducing the resulting damage to the packages from the accident. On May 2, 1995, an O&J Gordon Trucking Company truck consisting of a tractor and a lowbed semitrailer became lodged on a high-profile (hump) railroad grade crossing near Sycamore, South Carolina. About 35 minutes later, the truck was struck by southbound Amtrak train No. 81, Silver Star, en route from New York City to Tampa, Florida.

350

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

REGULATIONS & GUIDANCE SEARCH SITE MAP SITE MAP SAFE HOME Search Site RAM PACKAGES What are they? When are they used? How are they moved? What's their construction? Who uses them? Who makes rules? What are the requirements? Safety Record TESTING & CERTIFICATION How are packages certified? What are full-scale tests? What are scale-model tests? What is computer analysis? Package Certification Using Computer Analysis Engineering Principles Established by Three Early Scientists Engineering Principles Applied to Ancient Structures Description of Computer Model in Computer Analysis Engineered Structures Built WITHOUT the Use of Computer Analysis Structures Analyzed WITH the Use of Computer Analysis What are examples of severe testing? How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents?

351

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Puncture Comparison Fire Comparison Immersion Comparison Demonstrating target hardness. Comparison of the Free Drop Test to a Mack Truck and Subaru Collision Crush Test 200,000 lbs of force present in this package certification test. [CRUSH test] Click to view picture Real-life Accident Comparison 60,000 lbs of force present in this real-life accident. [CRUSH scenario] Click to view picture Real-life scenarios that the above test* is designed to protect against include: the package being under a vehicle during a pile-up accident the package being pinned between two vehicles during a collision. The 55 gallon drum is an overpack for a smaller (6-inch diameter x 18-inch long, 1/4-inch thick stainless steel walled) package that is inside. Note*: This test is ONLY for packages weighing less than 500 kg (1100 lbs). On April 25, 1996, a Mack truck with a concrete mixer body, unable to stop, proceeded through an intersection at the bottom of an exit ramp. It collided with and overrode a Subaru passenger car near Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania.

352

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What are examples of severe testing? What are examples of severe testing? How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents? Demonstrating target hardness. Purpose Background Results References Demonstrating Target Hardness between an Unyielding Target vs. Concrete Target During 30-foot Drop Tests. 30-foot 1/2 scale DHLW (Defense High-Level Waste) cask drop onto an unyielding target click to play, avi 4.7MB 30-foot 1/2 scale DHLW (Defense High-Level Waste) cask drop onto a 1/2 scale (5 1/2 inch) concrete pad click to play, avi 2.5MB 30-foot van drop onto an unyielding target click to play, avi 3.7MB 30-foot van drop onto an 11 inch concrete pad click to play, avi 3.4MB Purpose [ Back to top of page ] The purpose of this series of tests is to visually demonstrate the severity of the Type B Hypothetical Accident Condition impact test (10 CFR Part

353

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Immersion Comparison Demonstrating target hardness. Comparison of the Fire Test to a Gasoline Tanker and Sedan collision under an Overpass Fire Test [FIRE test] Click to view picture Real-life Accident Comparison [FIRE scenario] Click to view picture Real-life scenarios that the above test is designed to protect against include being involved in an accident with a gasoline tanker truck, causing the gasoline contents to burn the package. The amount of fuel being burned is approximately 5000 gallons in a pool 30 feet in diameter. During this test, the package is fully engulfed in the fire and is not protected by a transporting vehicle. On October 9, 1997, a truck tractor pulling a cargo tank semitrailer was going under an overpass of the New York State Thruway in Yonkers, New York when it was struck by a sedan. The car hit the right side of the cargo tank in the area of the tank's external loading/unloading lines, releasing the 8800 gallons of gasoline they contained.

354

Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This job aid is a quick reference to assist emergency responders in identifying preliminary safety precautions that should be taken during the initial response phase after arrival at the scene of...

355

Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This booklet was written to answer questions most frequently asked by fire fighters, law enforcement officers, and emergency medical services personnel. The booklet is not intended as a substitute...

356

ETEC - Radioactive Handling Materials Facility (RMHF) Leachfield...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of Plume (acres): 2 Plume Status: Plume expanding but not expected to migrate offsite Remedial Approach Remedy Name Status Start Date End Date Groundwater Use Exit Strategy...

357

Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

LANL

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) in the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation to, as quickly as possible, identify, secure, remove andor...

359

Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

360

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structures Analyzed WITH the Use of Computer Analysis Structures Analyzed WITH the Use of Computer Analysis What are examples of severe testing? How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents? Demonstrating target hardness. Structural Analysis and Thermal Analysis of RAM Packaging Sandia National Laboratories jpeg, 24K Click to view picture AVI, 344K Click to view movie jpeg, 100K Click to view picture AVI, 1.5 MB Click to view movie C-1500 Truck Model Crash Analysis National Crash Analysis Center jpeg, 60K Click to view picture AVI, 616K Click to view movie AVI, 1.4 MB Click to view movie AVI, 368K Click to view movie Ship-to-Ship Collision Sandia National Laboratories Simulation Testing of Tire Designs Sandia National Laboratories jpeg, 72K Click to view picture AVI, 6.9 MB Click to view movie jpeg, 88K

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Responses Other Effects History Gallery Glossary of Nuclear Terms [Majority from NRC] Contacts Comments & Questions [RAD Pie Chart] Exposure Source Average annual dose to an individual in the United States (millirem) Natural sources (including radon) - Ground, cosmic, and terrestrial - Internal radiation 200 mrem 100 mrem Occupational 0.9 mrem Nuclear Fuel Cycle 0.05 mrem Consumer Products - Tobacco - Other (i.e., smoke detectors, exit signs, luminous watch dials) Dose to lungs ~16,000 mrem 5 - 13 mrem Environmental Sources 0.06 mrem Medical - Diagnostic X-rays - Nuclear Medicine 39 mrem 14 mrem Approximate Annual Total 360 mrem [Radiation] Everyone in the world is continuously exposed to naturally-occuring background radiation. The average radiation dose received by the United

362

Plant-Based Plume-Scale Mapping of Tritium Contamination in Desert Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...interred at radioactive-waste disposal sites. Because tritiated water...contaminants, the associated site disturbance and costs of equipment...subsurface tritium movement from the Maxey Flats, KY LLRW disposal site (Rickard and Kirby, 1987 Kalisz...

B. J. Andraski; D. A. Stonestrom; R. L. Michel; K. J. Halford; J. C. Radyk

363

Measurement of natural radioactivity from soil samples of Sind, Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Gnbold G., Ganhimeg G. Natural Radioactivity of Some Mongolian Building Materials (2000) National University of Mongolia. INIS Electronic Form No. E16-20002-46. 14 Baeza A. , Del-Rio M., Miro C. Natural radioactivity in soils of the Province......

S. A. Mujahid; S. Hussain

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Natural radioactivity in soil in the Baluchistan province of Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Gnbold G., Ganhimeg G. Natural radioactivity of some Mongolian building materials. (2000) National University of Mongolia, INIS Electronic Form No. E16-20002-46. 17 Baeza A. , Del-Rio M., Miro C. Natural radioactivity in soils of the Province......

S. A. Mujahid; S. Hussain

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Alternatives Generation Analysis Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System Storage  

SciTech Connect

The long length contaminated equipment was designed and built to aid in the remote removal and transport of highly radioactive, contaminated equipment from various locations in the tank farms to disposal. The equipment has been stored in an open lay-down yard area, exposed to the elements for the past year and a half. The possible alternatives available to provide shelter for the equipment are investigated.

BOGER, R.M.

1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

367

System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

Menkhaus, Daniel E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Loomis, Guy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mullen, Carlan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Scott, Donald W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Feldman, Edgar M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meyer, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Modification of Polymer Flocculants for the Removal of Soluble Contaminants from Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contaminants in aqueous environments exist in phases that are sorbed to suspended or colloidal material and that are dissolved in solution. Polymer flocculants can be used to remove suspended or colloidal material along with sorbed contaminants...

Goebel, Timothy Steven O'Gara

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

369

Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

Veatch, B.D.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227  

SciTech Connect

The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow and load scenarios. (authors)

Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb [AECOM, 99 Commerce Drive, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3P 0Y7 (Canada)] [AECOM, 99 Commerce Drive, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3P 0Y7 (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada); Arey, Jimi [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ontario (Canada)] [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ontario (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Minor Change Procedure 9317 Number: Revision 01  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ROUTINE CONTAMINATION SURVEYS FOR OPEN SOURCE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL LABS for conducting and documenting routine contamination surveys in open source radioactive material labs/23/2014 Date: / / Page 2 of 10 ROUTINE CONTAMINATION SURVEYS FOR OPEN SOURCE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL LABS

Nair, Sankar

372

Minor Change Procedure 9317 Number: Revision 00  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ROUTINE CONTAMINATION SURVEYS FOR OPEN SOURCE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL LABS for conducting and documenting routine contamination surveys in open source radioactive material labs are applicable to routine contamination surveys in open source radioactive material labs. An open source

Nair, Sankar

373

Radioactive contamination of atmospheric dust over southeastern New Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerosol particle samples were collected at three sites located near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a deep underground nuclear waste-storage facility, and they were analyzed to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of selected radionuclides and inorganic substances. The activities of 238Pu, 239,240Pu,241Pu and 241Am were determined by alpha spectrometry following a series of chemical separations, and the concentrations of Al, U and Th were determined in a separate set of samples by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. There was no evidence for impacts of the WIPP on radionuclide activity concentrations. Rather, the activities of both naturally-occurring (U and Th) and man-made (241Am and 239,240Pu) radionuclides in the aerosols peaked in spring and tracked the loadings of Al, an indicator of mineral dust. More than half of the variability in the 239,240Pu at the sampling site closest to the WIPP could be explained by the seasonal cycles of atmospheric dust. For U and Th, the predictive value of Al was even higher: 66% to over 90% of the variance in these nuclides could be explained by their relationship to dust. Extrapolation of the data to a global scale suggests that ?0.02% of the total 239,240Pu from nuclear weapons fallout currently recirculates between the earth and atmosphere each year. In terms of monitoring releases from nuclear facilities, the results presented here demonstrate that elemental data provide information directly relevant to understanding causes for variability in the activities of atmospheric radionuclides.

Richard Arimoto; Joel L. Webb; Marsha Conley

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

In situ long-term monitoring system for radioactive contaminants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......74074, USA A long-term in situ subsurface...locations around a waste site, are allowed...high-level liquid waste in 177 underground storage tanks, 2100 metric...or stored solid waste and more than...are remediated, long-term monitoring of......

D. M. Klein; E. G. Yukihara; S. W. S. McKeever; J. S. Durham; M. S. Akselrod

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

All paper copies are uncontrolled -please go to www.ehs.ucr.edu to view most current version Document #: EHS003-01  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

........................................................................................................16 Radioactive Contamination/ Spill

376

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

377

Radioactive ''hot spots'' from nuclear weapons test fallout  

SciTech Connect

In a paper presented on January 8, 1985, at the Health Physics Society Midyear Symposium, Franke and Alvarez claimed that radioactivity observed on the Savannah River Plant site on March 14, 1955, was the result of a reactor accident. The source of the observed radioactivity was, in fact, rainwater containing radioactive products from a nuclear weapon test made two days earlier in Nevada. The weapon test TEAPOT HORNET was shown to be the source of the contamination at the time, and this has been corroborated in two recent papers. The aim of this review is to show that the highly-localized radioactive fallout on the Savannah River Plant site was not unique but part of a widespread phenomenon occurring all over the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Sanders, S.M.

1985-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT REMOVAL FROM WATER USING GRAPHENE OXIDE (GO)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and may release significant amounts of radioactive material into the environment resulting in the potential for widespread exposure. These industries include mining, phosphate processing, metal ore processing, heavy mineral sand processing, titanium...

Concklin, Joshua Paul

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

379

Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments Benefit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments Benefit Multiple Users Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments Benefit Multiple Users January 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Transportation Tracking and Communication System users can now track shipments of radioactive materials and access transportation information on mobile devices. Transportation Tracking and Communication System users can now track shipments of radioactive materials and access transportation information on mobile devices. CARLSBAD, N.M. - EM's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) recently deployed a new version of the Transportation Tracking and Communication System (TRANSCOM) that is compatible with mobile devices, including smartphones. The recent enhancement, TRANSCOM version 3.0, improves the user interface

380

Modelling of long-term diffusionreaction in a bentonite barrier for radioactive waste confinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling of long-term diffusion­reaction in a bentonite barrier for radioactive waste confinement in geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. This material is expected to fill up by swelling transformations; Solute diffusion 1. Introduction The radioactive waste confinement in deep geolo- gical laye

Montes-Hernandez, German

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Investigations to site a radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigations to site a radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4 Radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4 s the UK radioactive waste legacy comprises difficult material which is complex, of mixed origin

382

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

383

Radioactive Dust from Nuclear Detonations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...than the dose received from natural radioactivity in a period of...radioactive particles. The natural radioactivity of the atmosphere...curies/liter. This radioactive gas is present in equilibrium with...With an approximation of the natural radiation dose to the lung as...

Merril Eisenbud; John H. Harley

1953-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

384

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atoms. Radioactive Contamination Radioactive contamination is radioactive material distributed over some the effects of radiation. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the spontaneous transformation of an unstable atom or a disintegrations of an atom. Radioactive Material Radioactive Material is any material that contains radioactive

Vallino, Joseph J.

385

Puncture detecting barrier materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline radioactive liquid Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with Conventional Uranium Milling Introduction Summary: Radioactive Materials from Uranium Mining. Volume 1: Mining and Reclamation Background" by U.S. EPA (2006... as an...

387

Radioactive residues associated with water treatment, use and disposal in Australia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water resources are known to contain radioactive materials, either from natural or anthropogenic sources. Treatment, including wastewater treatment, of water for drinking, domestic, agricultural and (more)

Kleinschmidt, Ross Ivan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated radioactive particle Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OF TARGET MATERIAL RECYCLING AS WASTE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE Summary: , requires remote handling, adds radioactive storage fa- cilities, and increases the cost and...

389

Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

Fleischhauer, H.L.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

Underwood, Richard Paul (Allentown, PA); Makitka, III, Alexander (Hatfield, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

391

Slow changes in performance consistent with expectations for increasing radiation damage and contamination deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and contamination deposition · Performance changes do not substantially degrade instrument capabilities · Quiescent damage, molecular contamination and aging in general. Here we present highlights from the instrument team transits radiation belts at perigee · ACIS External Calibration Source (ECS) - Radioactive Fe-55 with Al

Grant, Catherine E.

392

Developing effective removal of caesium, strontium and uranium from contaminated soils and sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of radioactively contaminated ground (1, 2) . An immediate priority is the remediation of high activity fission their migration from the source. One of the handful of contaminated soil and water remediation technologies being immobilise the radionuclides within the sediment (4, 5) . In order to remediate this sediment associated

Burke, Ian

393

Radioactive Nickel-63 - ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Making Radioactive Nickel-63 Making Radioactive Nickel-63 ORNL-Supplied Nickel-63 Enables High-Sensitivity Explosives, Chemical Weapons, and Narcotics Detectors at Airports Explosives and narcotics detector. Detectors based on ion mobility spectrometry using ORNL 63Ni can now satisfy enhanced Homeland Security requirements at airports and other sensitive locations. When Transportation Security Administration (TSA) inspectors swipe a cloth over your luggage and then place it in an analyzer to check for explosives residue, they are using a device containing 63Ni, a radioactive isotope of nickel, made at ORNL. ORNL is the exclusive producer for 63Ni in North America and perhaps worldwide. "Our only competition would probably be Russia. They have high-flux research reactors and may well be supplying the material also,"

394

Physics Division ESH Bulletin 2007-03 Radiological Survey Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and found to contain no other radioactive material or contamination. The direct cause of this incident Area Airborne Radioactivity Area High Contamination Area Contamination Area Contamination Buffer Awareness Program (OAP) inspection, a small, unlabeled plastic bag that was emitting radioactivity

395

Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions  

SciTech Connect

Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

NONE

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.

Allred, W.E.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Radioactivity in food crops  

SciTech Connect

Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Hazardous Material Packaging for Transport - Administrative Procedures  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establ1sh administrative procedures for the certification and use of radioactive and other hazardous materials packaging by the Department of Energy (DOE).

1986-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

399

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, cancels DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

400

Radiation consequences of seawater contamination during floating storage of reactor-compartment units from salvaged nuclear-powered submarines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The storage time before salvaging of decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines and the floating storage time of reactor units from salvaged submarines ... decades. During this time, radioactive contamination of seawater

A. Ya. Blekher; N. L. Kuchin; I. V. Sergeev

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Modeling Colloid-Facilitated Contaminant Transport in the Vadose Zone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mobilization can also occur at waste disposal sites (Grolimund et al., 1996; Flury...Characterization of plutonium in Maxey Flats radioactive trench leachates...material from a near-surface waste disposal site. Appl. Geochem. 13:31-42...

Markus Flury; Hanxue Qiu

402

Nuclear Material Packaging Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The manual provides detailed packaging requirements for protecting workers from exposure to nuclear materials stored outside of an approved engineered contamination barrier. No cancellation. Certified 11-18-10.

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

403

Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet Mar 23, 2012 Radioactive materials are a critical and beneficial component of global

404

First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River July 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov 509-376-4171 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Dee_Millikin@rl.doe.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, Wash. - Workers have started moving highly radioactive material, called sludge, away from the Columbia River, marking a significant milestone in the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s cleanup of the Hanford Site in Washington State. Today, DOE contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) safely transferred the first large container of highly radioactive sludge from a basin next to a former plutonium production reactor to dry storage in the center of the site. Today's transfer is the first of six shipments

405

Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

406

Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

407

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

408

Radioactive Waste Management  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

409

Questions and Answers - How does the radioactivity of an atom affect the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How is radioactivity measured? How is radioactivity measured? Previous Question (How is radioactivity measured?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Why do we use radioactivity to destroy cancers?) Why do we use radioactivityto destroy cancers? How does the radioactivity of an atom affect the body? You've asked a very broad question, so we'll have to split it up into smaller chunks in order to give you a reasonable answer. This is a topic that is very much misunderstood by most people and it's hard to give a short answer. You may know that all of us have radioactive material in our bodies naturally. There has always been radioactive material on earth (in fact, a million years ago, there was more present than there is today), and people have therefore always been exposed to it. There has also always been cosmic

410

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

Hazen, Terry C. (Augusta, GA); Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Surface and Volume Contamination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Will there be volume contamination/activation guides as well as updated contamination guides? The only guidance being developed for volumetric contamination is a Technical Standard for accelerator facilities. However, a revised version of ANSI N13.12-1999 is expected in the future and it will be assessed to determine its acceptability for use as a pre-approved authorized limit. It is noted that ANSI N13.12-1999 is only applicable to personal property not structures.

412

Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

1995-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included 1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; 2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; 3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and 4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55oF to 80oF dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: Be easy to apply Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity Not be hazardous in final applied form Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected to be applied by divers after scrubbing loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuuming up the sludge. A special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pool with no airborne contamination problems.

Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup  

SciTech Connect

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites.

Devgun, J.S.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup  

SciTech Connect

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites.

Devgun, J.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Finding Aids: Radioactive Fallout  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Guide to Archival Collections Relating to Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapon Testing A Guide to Archival Collections Relating to Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapon Testing Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Argonne National Laboratory Bancroft Library, University of California Boeing Aircraft Company Brookhaven National Laboratory Coordination and Information Center (CIC) Eastman Kodak EG&G, Energy Measurements Holmes and Narver Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory Manuscript Division, Library of Congress National Academy of Sciences Archives Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pacific Northwest Laboratory Sandia National Laboratories Scripps Institution of Oceanography Archives Smithsonian Institution Archives U.S. Air Force Brooks Air Force Base Kirtland Air Force Base USAF Historical Research Center U.S. Army Chemical Corps (Aberdeen Proving Ground)

418

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Bioremediation of contaminated sediments  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in bottom sediments have historically been considered to have minimal environmental impact because they are buried, sorbed or electrostatically bound to clay particles, or incorporated into humus. Physical and chemical conditions such as alkalinity, pH, and redox of the sediments also play a part in sequestering contaminants. As long as the sediments are undisturbed, the contaminants are considered stabilized and not an immediate environmental problem. Resuspension of bottom sediments makes contaminants more available for dispersal into the marine environment. Events that can cause resuspension include storm surges, construction activity, and dredging. During resuspension, sediment particles move from an anaerobic to aerobic environment, changing their redox characteristics, and allowing the indigenous aerobic bacteria to grow and utilize certain classes of contaminants as energy sources. The contaminants are also more available for use because the mixing energy imparted to the particles during resuspension enhances mass transfer, allowing contaminants to enter the aqueous phase more rapidly. The contaminants targeted in this research are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of contaminant commonly found in bottom sediments near highly industrialized areas. PAH sources include fossil fuel combustion and petroleum spills. Previous research has shown that PAHs can be biodegraded. Size and structure, i.e., number and configuration of condensed rings, can affect compound disappearance. The focus of this research was to examine the relationship between resuspension and biodegradation of PAHs in lab scale slurry reactors. The rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments into an uncontaminated water column was determined. Oxygen demand of initially anaerobic sediments were investigated. Then rate and extent of phenanthrene biodegradation was examined.

Hughes, J.B.; Jee, V.; Ward, C.H. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout  

SciTech Connect

In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactively contaminated materials" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Potential Carcinogenicity of Food Additives and Contaminants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Carcinogenicity of Food Additives and Contaminants 1...as a result of the manufacturing process used; an example...Specifi cations of food additives are of immense significance...use of DES as a food additive for cattle. I am unable...occupational hazards from manufacturing these materials even...

Philippe Shubik

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Atmospheric pressure plasma cleaning of contamination surfaces. 1997 mid-year progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Goals of the project are to (1) identify the key physics and chemistry underlying the use of high pressure plasmas for etching removal of actinides and actinide surrogates; and (2) identify key surface reactions and plasma physics necessary for optimization of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Technical description of the work decommissioning of transuranic waste (TRU) into low-level radioactive waste (LLW) represents the largest cleanup cost associated with the nuclear weapons complex. This work is directed towards developing a low-cost plasma technology capable of converting TRU into LLW, based upon highly selective plasma etching of plutonium and other actinides from contaminated surfaces. In this way, only the actinide material is removed, leaving the surface less contaminated. The plasma etches actinide material by producing a volatile halide compound, which may be efficiently trapped using filters. To achieve practical, low-cost operation of a plasma capable of etching actinide materials, the authors have developed a y-mode, resonant-cavity, atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In contrast to conventional, low pressure plasmas, the APPJ produces a purely-chemical effluent free of ions, and so achieves very high selectivity and produces negligible damage to the surface. Since the jet operates outside a chamber, many nuclear wastes may be treated including machinery, duct-work, concrete and other building materials. In some cases, it may be necessary to first remove paint from contaminated surfaces using a plasma selective for that surface, then to switch to the actinide etching chemistry for removal of actinide contamination. The goal of this work is to develop the underlying science required for maturation of this technology and to establish early version engineering prototypes. Accomplishments to Date The authors have made significant progress in this program. The work conducted jointly at Los Alamos and at UCLA. This has been facilitated by exchange of people, equipment and designs between the two locations. The study can be divided into three (3) components: (1) source design, operation and physics, (2) effluent characterization and analysis, (3) surface reactions and decontamination. Some of the key accomplishments in each area are noted.'

Selwyn, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hicks, R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (US)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Submersible purification system for radioactive water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

Abbott, Michael L. (Fort Collins, CO); Lewis, Donald R. (Pocatello, ID)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

426

Radioactivities in Solution by Particle Radiation can Increase Sister  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivities in Solution by Particle Radiation can Increase Sister Radioactivities in Solution by Particle Radiation can Increase Sister Chromatid Exchanges Junko Maeda Colorado State University Abstract Introduction Non-radioactive atoms can become radioactive from a nuclear reaction when atoms are hit by other high energy particles. These radioactivations are observed in nuclear facilities and may result in health effects in humans. Protons, carbon-ions, and iron-ions are tested to verify this hypothesis. Materials and Methods Protons were accelerated to 70MeV in cyclotron (NIRS-930) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Carbon-ions and iron-ions were accelerated to 290MeV/n and 500MeV/n respectively, in HIMAC (Heavy ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) at NIRS. 60ml of sterilized Milli-Q ultra pure water or PBS were filled in Falcon T25 flasks and exposed to ionizing

427

Personnel and Contamination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Everyone concerned with contamination control dreams of the day when automation will remove the need for employees to actually handle the wafers. This wish arises from the fact that humans are such a major factor...

M. Kozicki; S. Hoenig; P. Robinson

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

RSSC RADIOISOTOPES LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 08/2011 6-1 RADIONUCLIDE LABORATORY TECHNIQUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...............................................................................................................6-4 V. Radioactive Contamination Limits and internal hazard from radiation and radioactive contamination. This section deals with general regulations be worn when manipulating radioactive materials to prevent contamination of street clothing or skin. B

Slatton, Clint

429

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 CHAPTER 7 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PAGE I. Radioactive Waste Disposal ............................................................................................ 7-2 II. Radiation Control Technique #2 Instructions for Preparation of Radioactive Waste

Slatton, Clint

430

Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases  

SciTech Connect

This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

Vincent, A.W. III

2001-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

432

Solution Speciation of Plutonium and Americium at an Australian Legacy Radioactive Waste Disposal Site  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. ... It should also be taken into account that, at some sites, such as the Maxey Flats disposal site,(19) codisposed organic contaminants have been implicated in actinide mobilization. ...

Atsushi Ikeda-Ohno; Jennifer J. Harrison; Sangeeth Thiruvoth; Kerry Wilsher; Henri K. Y. Wong; Mathew P. Johansen; T. David Waite; Timothy E. Payne

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

FAQ 5-Is uranium radioactive?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is uranium radioactive? Is uranium radioactive? Is uranium radioactive? All isotopes of uranium are radioactive, with most having extremely long half-lives. Half-life is a measure of the time it takes for one half of the atoms of a particular radionuclide to disintegrate (or decay) into another nuclear form. Each radionuclide has a characteristic half-life. Half-lives vary from millionths of a second to billions of years. Because radioactivity is a measure of the rate at which a radionuclide decays (for example, decays per second), the longer the half-life of a radionuclide, the less radioactive it is for a given mass. The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.5 billion years, uranium-235 about 700 million years, and uranium-234 about 25 thousand years. Uranium atoms decay into other atoms, or radionuclides, that are also radioactive and commonly called "decay products." Uranium and its decay products primarily emit alpha radiation, however, lower levels of both beta and gamma radiation are also emitted. The total activity level of uranium depends on the isotopic composition and processing history. A sample of natural uranium (as mined) is composed of 99.3% uranium-238, 0.7% uranium-235, and a negligible amount of uranium-234 (by weight), as well as a number of radioactive decay products.

434

Properties of Natural Radiation and Radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

Ubiquitous natural sources of radiation and radioactive material (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) have exposed humans throughout history. To these natural sources have been added technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) sources and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. This chapter describes the ubiquitous radiation sources that we call background, including primordial radionuclides such as 40K, 87Rb, the 232Th series, the 238U series, and the 235U series; cosmogenic radionuclides such as 3H and 14C; anthropogenic radionuclides such as 3H, 14C, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I; radiation from space; and radiation from technologically-enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides, particularly the short-lived decay products of 222Rn ("radon") and 220Rn ("thoron") in indoor air. These sources produce radiation doses to people principally via external irradiation or internal irradiation following intakes by inhalation or ingestion. The effective doses from each are given, with a total of 3.11 mSv y-1 (311 mrem y-1) to the average US resident. Over 2.5 million US residents receive over 20 mSv y-1 (2 rem y-1), primarily due to indoor radon. Exposure to radiation from NORM and TENORM produces the largest fraction of ubiquitous background exposure to US residents, on the order of 2.78 mSv (278 mrem) or about 89%. This is roughly 45% of the average annual effective dose to a US resident of 6.2 mSv y-1 (620 mrem y-1) that includes medical (48%), consumer products and air travel (2%), and occupational and industrial (0.1%). Much of this chapter is based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report No. 160, "Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States," for which the author chaired the subcommittee that wrote Chapter 3 on "Ubiquitous Background Radiation."

Strom, Daniel J.

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

435

Radioactive waste management in the former USSR  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

Bradley, D.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH the stabilization of petroleum- contaminated soils (PCSs) using another recycled material, high carbon content fly; however, the level of petroleum contamination has a significant effect on the leaching properties

Aydilek, Ahmet

437

Historic contamination along Oakland Inner Harbor  

SciTech Connect

As part of the ongoing remedial investigations (RI) at the Navy`s fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Oakland (FISCO)-Alameda Facility/Alameda Annex (the facility), FISC Oakland, and NAS Alameda, the presence of widespread historic chemical contaminants along the interface between the fill material and the former marshland deposits has been discovered. The historic contaminants are believed to have accumulated within the marshland areas prior to the filling activities along the Oakland Inner Harbor. The historic contaminants consist of heavy petroleum hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), apparently generated by the former industries in the area. Three solid waste management units (SWMUs) and eight areas of concern ( AOCs) were identified at the facility. Three SWMUs and 1 AOC were recommended for site investigations as high-priority.

Bird, J.C. [Versar, Inc. Alameda, CA (United States); Shafer, D.L. [PRC Environmental Management, Inc,. Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

Brassell, Gilbert W. (13237 W. 8th Ave., Golden, CO 80401); Brugger, Ronald P. (Lafayette, CO)

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

439

CHAPTER 4: CONCEPTS OF RADIOACTIVITY 1998 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT4-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a range in air of only an inch or so. Naturally occurring radioactive elements such as radon emit alpha by materials such as aluminum foil. They have a range in air of a few inches. Naturally occurring radioactive-rays are essen- tially a form of gamma radiation. Figure 4-1. Typical Annual Radiation Doses from Natural and Man

440

How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

Jantzen, C.M.

2000-04-11T23:59:59.000Z