National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radioactive power source

  1. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  2. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1991-12-24

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

  3. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-12-22

    This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

  4. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  5. Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-02-27

    To establish U.S. Department of Energy requirements for inventory reporting, transaction reporting, verification of reporting, and assign responsibilities for reporting of radioactive sealed sources. DOE N 251.86 extends this notice until 5-6-11. No cancellations. Canceled by DOE O 231.1B

  6. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  7. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  8. Control of Sealed Radioactive Sources

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    appropriate hazards controls were not identified and implemented. CONCLUSION Loss of control of radioactive material can result in unplanned personnel exposures and spread of...

  9. The IAEA and Control of Radioactive SourcesThe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodd, B.

    2004-10-03

    This presentation discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the control of radioactive sources.

  10. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-20

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE`s and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ({sup 238}Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ({sup 241}Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ({sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}). The proposed action would include placing the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2} in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility.

  11. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Control Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-04-15

    For use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a sealed radioactive source accountability and control program that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998a), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835. In particular, this Guide provides guidance for achieving compliance with subpart M of 10 CFR 835. Canceled by DOE G 441.1-1B.

  12. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  13. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  14. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  15. January 28, 2016 Webinar - Borehole Disposal of Spent Radioactive Sources |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy January 28, 2016 Webinar - Borehole Disposal of Spent Radioactive Sources January 28, 2016 Webinar - Borehole Disposal of Spent Radioactive Sources Performance & RIsk Assessment (P&RA) Community of Practice (CoP) Webinar - January 28, 2016 - Borehole Disposal of Spent Radioactive Sources (Dr. Matt Kozak, INTERA). Webinar Recording Agenda & Webinar Instructions - January 28, 2016 - P&RA CoP Webinar (117.24 KB) Borehole Disposal of Spent Sources (BOSS)

  16. Armenia Secures Dangerous Radioactive Sources in Cooperation with NNSA |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Armenia Secures Dangerous Radioactive Sources in Cooperation with NNSA May 27, 2015 The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) joined the Republic of Armenia today to announce the safe and secure removal of three unused radioactive sources from two locations in Yerevan, Armenia. The successful completion of the radioactive source recovery campaign was conducted by the Armenia Nuclear Regulatory Authority

  17. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  18. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  19. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  20. Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet March 23, 2012 Radioactive materials are a critical and beneficial component of global medical, industrial, and academic efforts. The possibility that these materials could be used by terrorists is a national security concern. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), along with international and domestic partners, addresses radiological material security as part of its nuclear nonproliferation mission. US

  1. Method for fabricating thin californium-containing radioactive source wires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-08-22

    A method for reducing the cross-sectional diameter of a radioactive californium-containing cermet wire while simultaneously improving the wire diameter to a more nearly circular cross section. A collet fixture is used to reduce the wire diameter by controlled pressurization pulses while simultaneously improving the wire cross-sectional diameter. The method is especially suitable for use in hot cells for the production of optimized cermet brachytherapy sources that contain large amounts of radioactive californium-252.

  2. Hybrid power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  3. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  4. Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in EgyptIMPRSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, A.; El-Adham, K.

    2004-10-03

    This presentation discusses the Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Realed Sources (IMPRSS) in Egypt.

  5. METHOD OF PREPARING RADIOACTIVE CESIUM SOURCES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, T.C.

    1963-12-17

    A method of preparing a cesium-containing radiation source with physical and chemical properties suitable for high-level use is presented. Finely divided silica is suspended in a solution containing cesium, normally the fission-product isotope cesium 137. Sodium tetraphenyl boron is then added to quantitatively precipitate the cesium. The cesium-containing precipitate is converted to borosilicate glass by heating to the melting point and cooling. Up to 60 weight percent cesium, with a resulting source activity of up to 21 curies per gram, is incorporated in the glass. (AEC)

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  9. Underground Sources of Radioactive Noble Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Misner, Alex C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Woods, Vincent T.; Emer, Dudley

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that radon is present in relatively high concentrations below the surface of the Earth due to natural decay of uranium and thorium. However, less information is available on the background levels of other isotopes such as 133Xe and 131mXe produced via spontaneous fission of either manmade or naturally occurring elements. The background concentrations of radioxenon in the subsurface are important to understand because these isotopes potentially can be used to confirm violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) during an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured radioxenon concentrations from the subsurface at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS—formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) to determine whether xenon isotope background levels could be detected from spontaneous fission of naturally occurring uranium or legacy 240Pu as a result of historic nuclear testing. In this paper, we discuss the results of those measurements and review the sources of xenon background that must be taken into account during OSI noble gas measurements.

  10. Dedication of Radioactive Source Storage Facilities in Tajikistan |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Dedication of Radioactive Source Storage Facilities in Tajikistan May 12, 2016 Farhod Rahimi of the Academy of Sciences dedicates the national storage facility of Tajikistan. (Dushanbe, Tajikistan) - On May 11, the United States' Embassy of Tajikistan, the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the United Kingdom's Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), and the Government of Tajikistan dedicated two

  11. Cable attachment for a radioactive brachytherapy source capsule

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-07-18

    In cancer brachytherapy treatment, a small californium-252 neutron source capsule is attached to a guide cable using a modified crimping technique. The guide cable has a solid cylindrical end, and the attachment employs circumferential grooves micromachined in the solid cable end. The attachment was designed and tested, and hardware fabricated for use inside a radioactive hot cell. A welding step typically required in other cable attachments is avoided.

  12. Emissivity Tuned Emitter for RTPV Power Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl M. Stoots; Robert C. O'Brien; Troy M. Howe

    2012-03-01

    Every mission launched by NASA to the outer planets has produced unexpected results. The Voyager I and II, Galileo, and Cassini missions produced images and collected scientific data that totally revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and the formation of the planetary systems. These missions were enabled by the use of nuclear power. Because of the distances from the Sun, electrical power was produced using the radioactive decay of a plutonium isotope. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in the past and currently used Multi-Mission RTGs (MMRTGs) provide power for space missions. Unfortunately, RTGs rely on thermocouples to convert heat to electricity and are inherently inefficient ({approx} 3-7% thermal to electric efficiency). A Radioisotope Thermal Photovoltaic (RTPV) power source has the potential to reduce the specific mass of the onboard power supply by increasing the efficiency of thermal to electric conversion. In an RTPV, a radioisotope heats an emitter, which emits light to a photovoltaic (PV) cell, which converts the light into electricity. Developing an emitter tuned to the desired wavelength of the photovoltaic is a key part in increasing overall performance. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have built a Thermal Photovoltaic (TPV) system, that utilizes a simulated General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) from a MMRTG to heat a tantalum emitter. The GPHS is a block of graphite roughly 10 cm by 10 cm by 5 cm. A fully loaded GPHS produces 250 w of thermal power and weighs 1.6 kgs. The GRC system relies on the GPHS unit radiating at 1200 K to a tantalum emitter that, in turn, radiates light to a GaInAs photo-voltaic cell. The GRC claims system efficiency of conversion of 15%. The specific mass is around 167 kg/kWe. A RTPV power source that utilized a ceramic or ceramic-metal (cermet) matrix would allow for the combination of the heat source, canister, and emitter into one compact unit, and allow variation in size

  13. Flowsheets and source terms for radioactive waste projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Flowsheets and source terms used to generate radioactive waste projections in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program are given. Volumes of each waste type generated per unit product throughput have been determined for the following facilities: uranium mining, UF/sub 6/ conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, boiling-water reactors (BWRs), pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and fuel reprocessing. Source terms for DOE/defense wastes have been developed. Expected wastes from typical decommissioning operations for each facility type have been determined. All wastes are also characterized by isotopic composition at time of generation and by general chemical composition. 70 references, 21 figures, 53 tables.

  14. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, Richard W.

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  15. Backup power sources for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This standard establishes fundamental requirements and guidance for backup power sources at DOE facilities. Purpose is to document good engineering practices for installation, testing, and maintenance of these backup power sources, which also covers emergency power sources. Examples are those which supply power to nuclear safety systems, radiation monitors and alarms, fire protection systems, security systems, and emergency lighting.

  16. Conventional power sources for colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    At SLAC we are developing high peak-power klystrons to explore the limits of use of conventional power sources in future linear colliders. In an experimental tube we have achieved 150 MW at 1 ..mu..sec pulse width at 2856 MHz. In production tubes for SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) we routinely achieve 67 MW at 3.5 ..mu..sec pulse width and 180 pps. Over 200 of the klystrons are in routine operation in SLC. An experimental klystron at 8.568 GHz is presently under construction with a design objective of 30 MW at 1 ..mu..sec. A program is starting on the relativistic klystron whose performance will be analyzed in the exploration of the limits of klystrons at very short pulse widths.

  17. Power Sources Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sources Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Sources Inc. Place: Charlotte, North Carolina Sector: Biomass Product: US-based operator and developer of biomass-to-energy...

  18. Current Situation for Management of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in Japan - 13025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusama, Keiji; Miyamoto, Yoichi

    2013-07-01

    As for the Sealed Radioactive Source currently used in Japan, many of them are imported from overseas. The U.S., Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Czech Republic are the main exporting States. Many of disused sealed radioactive sources are being returned to exporting States. The sealed radioactive sources which cannot be returned to exporting States are appropriately kept in the domestic storage facility. So, there are not main problem on the long term management of disused sealed radioactive sources in Japan. However, there are some difficulties on repatriate. One is reservation of a means of transport. The sea mail which conveys radioactive sources owing to reduction of movement of international cargo is decreasing in number. And there is a denial of shipment. Other one is that the manufacturer has already resigned from the work and cannot return disused sealed radioactive sources, or a manufacturer cannot specify and disused sources cannot be returned. The disused sealed radioactive source which cannot be repatriated is a little in term of radioactivity. As for the establishment of national measure of final disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources, in Japan, it is not yet installed with difficulty. Since there are many countries for which installation of a final disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources is difficult, the source manufacture country should respond positively to return the source which was manufactured and sold in the past. (authors)

  19. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  20. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  1. Prestressed glass, aezoelectric electrical power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newson, Melvin M.

    1976-01-01

    An electrical power source which comprises a body of prestressed glass having a piezoelectric transducer supported on the body in direct mechanical coupling therewith.

  2. Safety and Security of Radioactive Sealed and Disused/Orphan Sources in Ukraine - German Contribution - 13359

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brasser, Thomas; Hertes, Uwe; Meyer, Thorsten; Uhlenbruck, Hermann; Shevtsov, Alexey

    2013-07-01

    Within the scope of 'Nuclear Security of Radioactive Sources', the German government implemented the modernization of Ukrainian State Production Company's transport and storage facility for radioactive sources (TSF) in Kiev. The overall management of optimizing the physical protection of the storage facility (including the construction of a hot cell for handling the radioactive sources) is currently carried out by the German Federal Foreign Office (AA). AA jointly have assigned Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Germany's leading expert institution in the area of nuclear safety and waste management, to implement the project and to ensure transparency by financial and technical monitoring. Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research. Their life cycle starts with the production and finally ends with the interim/long-term storage of the disused sources. In Ukraine, IZOTOP is responsible for all radioactive sources throughout their life cycle. IZOTOP's transport and storage facility (TSF) is the only Ukrainian storage facility for factory-fresh radioactive sources up to an activity of about 1 million Ci (3.7 1016 Bq). The TSF is specially designed for the storage and handling of radioactive sources. Storage began in 1968, and is licensed by the Ukrainian state authorities. Beside the outdated state of TSF's physical protection and the vulnerability of the facility linked with it, the lack of a hot cell for handling and repacking radioactive sources on the site itself represents an additional potential hazard. The project, financed by the German Federal Foreign Office, aims to significantly improve the security of radioactive sources during their storage and handling at the TSF site. Main tasks of the project are a) the modernization of the physical protection of the TSF itself in order to prevent any unauthorized access to radioactive sources as well as b) the construction of a hot cell to reduce the number of

  3. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuppero, Anthony C.; Krawetz, Barton; Barklund, C. Rodger; Seifert, Gary D.

    1997-01-14

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  4. Study finds radioactivity around Los Alamos largely due to natural sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactivity largely due to natural sources Study finds radioactivity around Los Alamos largely due to natural sources The study was subsequently peer reviewed externally by scientists at Colorado State University and internally within the Lab. December 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  5. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Burra, Rajni K.; Acharya, Kaustuva

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  6. Rf power sources for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.M.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Nelson, E.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B. ); Boyd, J.K.; Houk, T.; Ryne, R.D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S. (Lawrence Live

    1990-06-01

    The next generation of linear colliders requires peak power sources of over 200 MW per meter at frequencies above 10 GHz at pulse widths of less than 100 nsec. Several power sources are under active development, including a conventional klystron with rf pulse compression, a relativistic klystron (RK) and a crossed-field amplifier. Power from one of these has energized a 0.5 meter two- section High Gradient Accelerator (HGA) and accelerated a beam at over 80 MeV meter. Results of tests with these experimental devices are presented here.

  7. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2009-09-30

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  8. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2010-01-08

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  9. Import and Export of Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Sources and Aggregated Quantities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-11-10

    This Order has been developed to provide requirements and responsibilities pertaining to the International Atomic Energy Agency CODEOC/2004, Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. No cancellation. Admin Chg 1, 7-10-13.

  10. Import and Export of Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Sources Aggregated Quantities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-11-10

    To formalize relevant guidance contained in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) CODEOC 2004, Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, January 2004 and IAEA CODEOC IMP-EXP 2005, Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources, March 2005 and to assign responsibilities and prescribe procedures for DOE elements and contractors in support of the Import-Export Guidance. Admin Chg 1, 7-10-2013 supersedes DOE O 462.1. Certified 12-3-14.

  11. Power sources manufactures association : power technology roadmap workshop - 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, John S.

    2006-03-01

    The Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA) is pleased to announce the release of the latest Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report. This Fifth Edition Workshop Report includes presentations and discussions from the workshop as seen by the participants that included many of the industry's most influential members representing end-users, power supply manufacturers, component suppliers, consultants and academia. This report provides detailed projections for the next three to four years of various technologies in a quantitative form. There was special emphasis on how the increasing use of digital technologies will affect the industry in the next four years. The technology trend analysis and the roadmap is provided for the following specific product families expected to be the areas of largest market growth: (1) Ac-dc front end power supplies--1 kW from a single phase ac source; (2) External ac-dc power supplies; (3) Dc-dc bus converters; and (4) Non-isolated dc-dc converters. Bruce Miller, Chairman of PSMA, stated that 'the Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is an extensive document that analyzes and provides projections for most major technical parameters for a specific power supply. It is a unique document as it contains technology/parametric trends in a roadmap fashion from a variety of diverse sources, giving significant depth to its content. No such information is available from any other source'. The Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is available at no cost as to PSMA Regular and Associate members and at a reduced price to Affiliate members as a benefit of membership. The report will be offered to non-members at a price of $2490. For further information or to buy a copy of the report, please visit the publications page or the PSMA website or contact the Association Office.

  12. Property:EnergyAccessPowerSource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Property Name EnergyAccessPowerSource Property Type String Description Power Source Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:Energy...

  13. Shanghai Pearl Hydrogen Power Source Technology | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Power Source Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Pearl Hydrogen Power Source Technology Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Product: Chinese...

  14. Spallation Neutron Source Power Level Exceeds 1 MW (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spallation Neutron Source Power Level Exceeds 1 MW Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spallation Neutron Source Power Level Exceeds 1 MW No abstract prepared. Authors: ...

  15. The Spallation Neutron Source: A powerful tool for materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Spallation Neutron Source: A powerful tool for materials research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Spallation Neutron Source: A powerful tool for ...

  16. EA-164 Constellation Power Source, Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Constellation Power Source, Inc EA-164 Constellation Power Source, Inc Order authorizing Constellation Power Source, Inc to export electric energy to Canada. EA-164 Constellation Power Source, Inc (44.81 KB) More Documents & Publications EA-162 PP&L, Inc EA-163 Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C EA-158 Williams Energy Services Company

  17. EA-164-A Constellation Power Source, Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PDF icon EA-164-A Constellation Power Source, Inc More Documents & Publications EA-164 Constellation Power Source, Inc EA-196-A Minnesota Power, Sales EA-232 OGE Energy Resources

  18. Development of Approach for Long-Term Management of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources - 13630

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinker, M.; Reber, E.; Mansoux, H.; Bruno, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)] [International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive sources are used widely throughout the world in a variety of medical, industrial, research and military applications. When such radioactive sources are no longer used and are not intended to be used for the practice for which an authorization was granted, they are designated as 'disused sources'. Whether appropriate controls are in place during the useful life of a source or not, the end of this useful life is often a turning point after which it is more difficult to ensure the safety and security of the source over time. For various reasons, many disused sources cannot be returned to the manufacturer or the supplier for reuse or recycling. When these attempts fail, disused sources should be declared as radioactive waste and should be managed as such, in compliance with relevant international legal instruments and safety standards. However, disposal remains an unresolved issue in many counties, due to in part to limited public acceptance, insufficient funding, and a lack of practical examples of strategies for determining suitable disposal options. As a result, disused sources are often stored indefinitely at the facilities where they were once used. In order to prevent disused sources from becoming orphan sources, each country must develop and implement a comprehensive waste management strategy that includes disposal of disused sources. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fosters international cooperation between countries and encourages the development of a harmonized 'cradle to grave' approach to managing sources consistent with international legal instruments, IAEA safety standards, and international good practices. This 'cradle to grave' approach requires the development of a national policy and implementing strategy, an adequate legal and regulatory framework, and adequate resources and infrastructure that cover the entire life cycle, from production and use of radioactive sources to disposal. (authors)

  19. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  20. Connecting renewable power sources into the system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzler, F.U.

    1982-11-01

    The many technical, legal, and economic issues that must be overcome before windmills, fuel cells, and photovoltaics can serve existing grids ae discusssed. Distributed storage and generation sources (DSGs) consist of energy converters to transform sun, wind, or chemical energy into electricity; a power conditioner to convert dc to ac; relays, breakers, and fuses for equipment protection and personnel safety; and appropriate load-metering equipment for billing customers. Aside from windmills and windfarms, there are few utility owned DSGs. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (1978) requires utilities to permit the connection to their power grids of private DSGs with capacities of up to 80 MW. In addition, the utilities must purchase the power from the DSG owned at ''just and reasonable rates'' and offer to supply backup power if the owner's facility malfunctions. Before connecting to a utility line, a DSG entrepreneur must meet certain specifications spelled out by the participating utility. Long-range power-distribution strategies will be needed to assess various automated distribution schemes that have been proposed, together with communication techniques to control and coordinate the small and large DSG within a highly complex power grid.

  1. Conditioning and Repackaging of Spent Radioactive Cs-137 and Co-60 Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13490

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; El-Zakla, T.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive Sealed sources (RSSs) are widely use all over the world in medicine, agriculture, industry, research, etc. The accidental misuse and exposure to RSSs has caused significant environmental contamination, serious injuries and many deaths. The high specific activity of the materials in many RSSs means that the spread of as little as microgram quantities can generate significant risk to human health and inhibit the use of buildings and land. Conditioning of such sources is a must to protect humans and environment from the hazard of ionizing radiation and contamination. Conditioning is also increase the security of these sources by decreasing the probability of stolen and/or use in terrorist attacks. According to the law No.7/2010, Egyptian atomic energy authority represented in the hot laboratories and waste management center (centralized waste facility, HLWMC) has the responsibility of collecting, conditioning, storing and management of all types of radioactive waste from all Egyptian territory including spent radioactive sealed sources (SRSSs). This paper explains the conditioning procedures for two of the most common SRSSs, Cs{sup 137} and Co{sup 60} sources which make up more than 90% of the total spent radioactive sealed sources stored in our centralized waste facility as one of the major activities of hot laboratories and waste management center. Conditioning has to meet three main objectives, be acceptable for storage, enable their safe transport, and comply with disposal requirements. (authors)

  2. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  3. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  4. Multimegawatt power sources for commercial space operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dearien, J.A.; Martinell, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in commercial operation in space today, but very little consideration of where the power to run such an operation is to come from. For any commercial operation in space, the power source, especially those involving kilowatts and megawatts of power, must be considered at the very onset of the venture. The Multimegawatt Space Reactor Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is working this problem in conjunction with the development of Strategic Defense Initiative needs. The same type of up-front power development program needs to be considered in all discussions associated with commercial development in space. A system developed for a commercial operation in space will most likely be a hybrid system utilizing both electrical and thermal energy. Even if the commercial process consists totally of high power thermal energy usage, there will be a certain amount of electricity required for controls, mass transport, environmental control (if manned), and communications. The optimum system will thus require a great deal of planning and coordination with the development of the commercial process. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Fast pulsed operation of a small non-radioactive electron source with continuous emission current control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochems, P.; Kirk, A. T.; Bunert, E.; Runge, M.; Goncalves, P.; Zimmermann, S.

    2015-06-15

    Non-radioactive electron sources are of great interest in any application requiring the emission of electrons at atmospheric pressure, as they offer better control over emission parameters than radioactive electron sources and are not subject to legal restrictions. Recently, we published a simple electron source consisting only of a vacuum housing, a filament, and a single control grid. In this paper, we present improved control electronics that utilize this control grid in order to focus and defocus the electron beam, thus pulsing the electron emission at atmospheric pressure. This allows short emission pulses and excellent stability of the emitted electron current due to continuous control, both during pulsed and continuous operations. As an application example, this electron source is coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer. Here, the pulsed electron source allows experiments on gas phase ion chemistry (e.g., ion generation and recombination kinetics) and can even remove the need for a traditional ion shutter.

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1983-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1980 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1980 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  9. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  10. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    year capacity as the first of several modules, was about 30% completed by July 1989. The completion of this plant was subsequently "indefinitely postponed." The initial reprocessing scheme at the Kyshtym site used sodium uranyl acetate precipitation from fuel dissolved in nitric acid solutions. The basic method~ ology now appears to be based on the conventional PUREX process. Dry reprocessing on a pilot or laboratory scale has been under way in Dimitrovgrad since 1984, and a larger unit is now being built, according to the French CEA. Perhaps significantly, much research is being done on partitioning high-level waste into element fractions. The Soviets appear to have the technology to remove radioactive noble gases released during reprocessing operations; however, there are no indications of its implementation. Millions of curies of liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes have been disposed of by well injection into underground areas where they were supposedly contained by watertight rock strata. Some gaseous wastes were also disposed of by well injection. This practice is not referred to in recent literature and thus may not be widely used today. Rather, it appears that these waste streams are now first treated to reduce volume, and then solidified using bitumen or concrete. These solidified liquid wastes from Soviet nuclear power reactor operations, along with solid wastes, are disposed of in shallow-land burial sites located at most large power reactor stations. In addition, 35 shallow-land burial sites have been alluded to by the Soviets for disposal of industrial, medical, and research low-level wastes as well as ionization sources. Research on tritium-bearing and other gaseous wastes is mentioned, as well as a waste minimization program aimed at reducing the volume of waste streams by 30%. The Soviets have announced that their high-level waste management plan is to 1) store liquid wastes for 3-5 years; 2) incorporate the waste into glass (at a final glass

  11. The adequacy of current import and export controls on sealed radioactive sources.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longley, Susan W.; Cochran, John Russell; Price, Laura L.; Lipinski, Kendra J.

    2003-10-01

    Millions of sealed radioactive sources (SRSs) are being used for a wide variety of beneficial purposes throughout the world. Security experts are now concerned that these beneficial SRSs could be used in a radiological dispersion device to terrorize and disrupt society. The greatest safety and security threat is from those highly radioactive Category 1 and 2 SRSs. Without adequate controls, it may be relatively easy to legally purchase a Category 1 or 2 SRS on the international market under false pretenses. Additionally, during transfer, SRSs are particularly susceptible to theft since the sources are in a shielded and mobile configuration, transportation routes are predictable, and shipments may not be adequately guarded. To determine if government controls on SRS are adequate, this study was commissioned to review the current SRS import and export controls of six countries. Canada, the Russian Federation, and South Africa were selected as the exporting countries, and Egypt, the Philippines, and the United States were selected as importing countries. A detailed review of the controls in each country is presented. The authors found that Canada and Russia are major exporters, and are exporting highly radioactive SRSs without first determining if the recipient is authorized by the receiving country to own and use the SRSs. Available evidence was used to estimate that on average there are tens to possibly hundreds of intercountry transfers of highly radioactive SRSs each day. Based on these and other findings, this reports recommends stronger controls on the export and import of highly radioactive SRSs.

  12. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  13. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  14. German Support Program for Retrieval and Safe Storage of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Ukraine - 13194

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pretzsch, Gunter; Salewski, Peter; Sogalla, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) on behalf of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany supports the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine (SNRIU) in enhancement of nuclear safety and radiation protection and strengthening of the physical protection. One of the main objectives of the agreement concluded by these parties in 2008 was the retrieval and safe interim storage of disused orphan high radioactive sealed sources in Ukraine. At present, the Ukrainian National Registry does not account all high active radiation sources but only for about 70 - 80 %. GRS in charge of BMU to execute the program since 2008 concluded subcontracts with the waste management and interim storage facilities RADON at different regions in Ukraine as well with the waste management and interim storage facility IZOTOP at Kiev. Below selected examples of removal of high active Co-60 and Cs-137 sources from irradiation facilities at research institutes are described. By end of 2012 removal and safe interim storage of 12.000 disused radioactive sealed sources with a total activity of more than 5,7.10{sup 14} Bq was achieved within the frame of this program. The German support program will be continued up to the end of 2013 with the aim to remove and safely store almost all disused radioactive sealed sources in Ukraine. (authors)

  15. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in the Slovak Republic - 12100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salzer, Peter

    2012-07-01

    After splitting-up the Czechoslovak Federation in 1993, the system of management of institutional radioactive waste, where disused sources represent its significant part, had had to build from beginning, since all corresponding activities had remained in the Czech part of the Federation. The paper presents the development of legislative and institutional framework of the disused radioactive sealed source management, development of the national inventory and development of management practices. According the Governmental decision (1994), the management of disused sealed sources and institutional radioactive waste at whole was based on maximal utilization of facilities inside nuclear facilities, particularly in the NPP A1 (shut down in the past, currently under decommissioning). This approach has been recently changing by Governmental decision (2009) to construct 'non-nuclear facility' - central storage for remained disused sealed sources collected from the places of use, where they were stored in some cases for tens of years. The approaches to siting and construction of this storage facility will be presented, as well as the current approaches to solution of the disused radioactive sources final disposal. Environmental impact assessment process in regard to the given facility/activity is slowly drawing to a close. The final statement of the Ministry of Environment can be expected in January or February 2012, probably recommending option 1 as preferred [6]. According to the Slovak legislation, the final statement has a status of recommendation for ongoing processes leading to the siting license. Very recently, in December 2012, Government of the Slovak republic decided to postpone putting the facility into operation by the end of June, 2014. (author)

  16. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  17. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, T. I.; Freedman, S. J.; Wallig, J.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Bloxham, T.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O׳Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2014-10-14

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. Finally, an infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable’s motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

  18. A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin

    2014-07-01

    The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly — due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . ‘Le mieux est l’ennemi du bien’ (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials – particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on

  19. Management of Spent and Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the Czech Republic - 12124

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podlaha, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Czech Republic is a country with a well-developed peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Sealed Radioactive Sources (further also SRS) are broadly used in many areas in the Czech Republic, e.g. in research, industry, medicine, education, agriculture, etc. Legislation in the field of ionizing radiation source utilization has been fully harmonized with European Community legislation. SRS utilization demands a proper system which must ensure the safe use of SRS, including the management of disused (spent) and orphaned SRS. In the Czech Republic, a comprehensive system of SRS management has been established that is comparable with systems in other developed countries. The system covers both legal and institutional aspects. The Central Register of Ionizing Radiation Sources is an important part of the system. It is a tracking system that covers all activities related to SRS, from their production or import to the end of their use (recycling or disposal). Many spent SRS are recycled and can be used for other purposes after inspection, repacking or reprocessing. When the disused SRS are not intended for further use, they are managed as radioactive waste (RAW). The system of SRS management also ensures the suitable resolution of situations connected with improper SRS handling (in the case of orphaned sources, accidents, etc.). (author)

  20. Advanced Power Sources Ltd APS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sources Ltd APS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Power Sources Ltd (APS) Place: United Kingdom Product: UK R&D company based at Loughborough University focusing on fuel...

  1. HuanYu Power Source Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Product: Henan - based maker of rechargeable batteries using Nickel, Lead and Lithium Chemistries and for a wide variety of applications. References: HuanYu Power Source...

  2. Shenzhen Power Source Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Co., Ltd Place: China Product: China-based manufacturer and researcher of lithium rechargeable batteries. References: Shenzhen Power Source Technology Co., Ltd1 This...

  3. Breakout Session: Solar as a Base Load Power Source | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Does solar have a future as a base load electricity source? This session explores a vision in which solar power plants can provide dispatchability, predictability, and reliability ...

  4. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Banks, T. I.; Freedman, S. J.; Wallig, J.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; et al

    2014-10-14

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealedmore » housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. Finally, an infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable’s motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.« less

  5. Pulsed pyroelectric crystal-powered gamma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.; Raber, T. N.; Morse, D. H.

    2013-04-19

    A compact pulsed gamma generator is being developed to replace radiological sources used in commercial, industrial and medical applications. Mono-energetic gammas are produced in the 0.4 - 1.0 MeV energy range using nuclear reactions such as {sup 9}Be(d,n{gamma}){sup 10}B. The gamma generator employs an RF-driven inductively coupled plasma ion source to produce deuterium ion current densities up to 2 mA/mm{sup 2} and ampere-level current pulses can be attained by utilizing an array extraction grid. The extracted deuterium ions are accelerated to approximately 300 keV via a compact stacked pyroelectric crystal system and then bombard the beryllium target to generate gammas. The resulting microsecond pulse of gammas is equivalent to a radiological source with curie-level activity.

  6. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  7. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security

  8. Simulated Performance of Algorithms for the Localization of Radioactive Sources from a Position Sensitive Radiation Detecting System (COCAE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karafasoulis, K.; Zachariadou, K.; Seferlis, S.; Kaissas, I.; Potiriadis, C.; Lambropoulos, C.; Loukas, D.

    2011-12-13

    Simulation studies are presented regarding the performance of algorithms that localize point-like radioactive sources detected by a position sensitive portable radiation instrument (COCAE). The source direction is estimated by using the List Mode Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-ML-EM) imaging algorithm. Furthermore, the source-to-detector distance is evaluated by three different algorithms based on the photo-peak count information of each detecting layer, the quality of the reconstructed source image, and the triangulation method. These algorithms have been tested on a large number of simulated photons over a wide energy range (from 200 keV to 2 MeV) emitted by point-like radioactive sources located at different orientations and source-to-detector distances.

  9. Compact portable electric power sources (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Connect Compact portable electric power sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compact portable electric power sources × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the

  10. Nuclear energy is an important source of power, supplying 20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy is an important source of power, supplying 20 percent of the nation's electricity. More than 100 nuclear power plants are operating in the U.S., and countries around the world are implementing nuclear power as a carbon-free alternative to fossil fuels. We can maximize the climate and energy security benefits provided by responsible global nuclear energy expansion by developing options to increase the energy extracted from nuclear fuel, improve waste management, and strengthen nuclear

  11. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  12. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

  13. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  14. Source team evaluation for radioactive low-level waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The review identified deficiencies in the information currently being recorded on shipping manifests and the development of a uniform manifest is recommended (the NRC is currently developing a rule to establish a uniform manifest). The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages. From the results, preliminary lists have been prepared of the isotopes which might be the most significant from the aspect of the development of a source term model.

  15. The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, K E; Gosnell, T B; Knapp, D A

    2009-03-05

    This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications.

  16. Handling of Highly Radioactive Radiation Sources in a Hot Cell Using a Mechanically Driven Cell Crane - 13452

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klute, Stefan; Huber, Wolfgang-Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for design and erection of a Hot Cell for handling and storage of highly radioactive radiation sources. This Hot Cell is part of a new hot cell laboratory, constructed for the NHZ (Neues Handhabungszentrum = New Handling Center) of the Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH (NES). All incurring radioactive materials from Austria are collected in the NHZ, where they are safely conditioned and stored temporarily until their final storage. The main tasks of the NES include, apart from the collection, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste, also the reprocessing and the decontamination of facilities and laboratories originating from 45 years of research and development at the Seibersdorf site as well as the operation of the Hot Cell Laboratory [1]. The new Hot Cell Laboratory inside the NHZ consists of the following room areas: - One hot cell, placed in the center, for remote controlled, radiation protected handling of radioactive materials, including an integrated floor storage for the long-term temporary storage of highly radioactive radiation sources; - An anteroom for the loading and unloading of the hot cell; - One control room for the remote controlling of the hot cell equipment; - One floor storage, placed laterally to the hot cell, for burial, interim storage and removal of fissionable radioactive material in leak-proof packed units in 100 l drums. The specific design activity of the hot cell of 1.85 Pbq relating to 1-Me-Radiator including the integrated floor storage influences realization and design of the components used in the cell significantly. (authors)

  17. Potential power sources for high-temperature geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Dobranich, D

    1996-05-01

    The thermal response under geothermal-borehole conditions of a conventional thermal battery was evaluated for various designs by numerical simulations using a finite-element thermal model. This technology, which is based on molten salts, may be suitable as a power source for geothermal borehole applications for data logging. Several promising candidate electrolytes were identified for further study.

  18. Improved current control makes inverters the power sources of choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, H.; Harada, S.; Ueyama, T.

    1997-02-01

    It is now generally understood that by increasing the operating or switching frequency of a power source the size of the main transformer and main reactor can be shrunk. Thus, a 300-A DC welding power source weighing well under 100 lb can be produced. This makes the inverter power source an ideal choice for applications requiring equipment maneuverability. It is also generally understood that due to higher switching frequencies, a smoother output is obtained from inverter power sources. In the late 1980s, the company developed a new double-inverter power source by which inverted DC weld output is inverted back to AC weld output. This product was the first of its kind in the world. Again, the small compact size of this product was of great interest. Utilizing current waveform control, it was realized that fast response switching from electrode negative to electrode positive could be accurately controlled, offering benefits such as AC GTA welding with high-frequency start only, even at a low welding current. The primary benefit is the ability to limit the electrode positive half cycle to less than 5%. The electrode positive half cycle is responsible for tungsten erosion, which also creates the balling effect of a tungsten electrode. By limiting the electrode positive portion of the AC cycle to a very low level, a rather sharp point can be maintained on the tungsten, which creates a very concentrated, focused arc column. This ability provides excellent joint penetration in fillet welding of aluminum alloys, especially on thick plate. It also reduces the heat-affected zone in AC GTA welding of aluminum.

  19. Power from bio-sources in Italy incentives and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerardi, V.; Ricci, A.; Scoditti, E.

    1996-12-31

    In Italy most of the technologies for producing power from bio-sources, as well as from other non-conventional renewable Energy Sources (RES), are rather mature, but their exploitation is still not completely convenient from the economic point of view. It depends on many factors, such as designing of plants, selection of energy conversion system and components, selection of installation site, size of market still too limited, high production costs of the technologies and lack of adequate financial supports. In the early nineties, in the attempt to overcome this situation, the Italian Government issued a series of measures addressed mainly to the power production from RES. This gives a short description of the regulations in force and some details about an important incentive tool (CIP 6/92 and relative decrees) for RES power plants installation. In particular, it indicates the possible power plant typologies, the criteria to assimilate the fossil fuel plants to RES ones, the present prices of electricity transferred into the grid and the methodology for updating the prices. Furthermore, the paper gives some data concerning submitted proposals, plant operation planning and their geographic distribution according to different bio-sources typologies.

  20. Development and Use of the Galileo and Ulysses Power Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Gary L; Hemler, Richard J; Schock, Alfred

    1994-10-01

    Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, October 1994. The Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Ulysses mission to explore the polar regions of the Sun required a new power source: the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generator (GPHS-RTG), the most powerful RTG yet flow. Four flight-qualified GPHS-RTGs were fabricated with one that is being used on Ulysses, two that are being used on Galileo and one that was a common spare (and is now available for the Cassini mission to Saturn). In addition, and Engineering Unit and a Qualification Unit were fabricated to qualify the design for space through rigorous ground tests. This paper summarizes the ground testing and performance predictions showing that the GPHS-RTGs have met and will continue to meet or exceed the performance requirements of the ongoing Galileo and Ulysses missions. There are two copies in the file.

  1. TPV power source development for an unmanned undersea vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmquist, G.A. )

    1995-01-05

    The thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electrical power promises efficiencies that are exploitable for military and commercial applications. TPV offers a combination of unique characteristics as a power source for military Unmanned Undersea Vehicles. In civilian applications TPV technology offers the potential for lightweight, rugged, and reliable power systems that can be environmentally benign. These systems can use a variety of fuels and can be scaled up in size. TPV is truly a dual use technology in which the United States appears to have a technical lead. The focus of the current Quantum program is the maturation of the technology and the demonstration of a 10 kilowatt generator. Preliminary results of this project are presented.

  2. A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, K; Ciucu, F; Lin, C; Low, SH

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy such as solar and wind generation will constitute an important part of the future grid. As the availability of renewable sources may not match the load, energy storage is essential for grid stability. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of integrating solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines into the grid by also accounting for energy storage. To deal with the fluctuation in both the power supply and demand, we extend and apply stochastic network calculus to analyze the power supply reliability with various renewable energy configurations. To illustrate the validity of the model, we conduct a case study for the integration of renewable energy sources into the power system of an island off the coast of Southern California. In particular, we asses the power supply reliability in terms of the average Fraction of Time that energy is Not-Served (FTNS).

  3. Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S.; Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V.; Esaulov, Andrey A.; Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I.; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Vigil, Marcelino Patricio

    2008-09-01

    A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we

  4. Streamtube Fate and Transport Modeling of the Source Term for the Old Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.

    2000-11-16

    The modeling described in this report is an extension of previous fate and transport modeling for the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study. The purpose of this and the previous modeling is to provide quantitative input to the screening of remedial alternatives for the CMS/FS for this site.

  5. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirm, Karl; Curt, Stephane; Dobert, Steffen; McMonagle, Gerard; Rossat, Ghislain; Syratchev, Igor; Timeo, Luca; Haase, Andrew Jensen, Aaron; Jongewaard, Erik; Nantista, Christopher; Sprehn, Daryl; Vlieks, Arnold; Hamdi, Abdallah; Peauger, Franck; Kuzikov, Sergey; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  6. PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

  7. EFFECT OF A HIGH OPACITY ON THE LIGHT CURVES OF RADIOACTIVELY POWERED TRANSIENTS FROM COMPACT OBJECT MERGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Kasen, Daniel [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, 366 LeConte Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    The coalescence of compact objects is a promising astrophysical source of detectable gravitational wave signals. The ejection of r-process material from such mergers may lead to a radioactively powered electromagnetic counterpart signal which, if discovered, would enhance the science returns. As very little is known about the optical properties of heavy r-process elements, previous light-curve models have adopted opacities similar to those of iron group elements. Here we consider the effect of heavier elements, particularly the lanthanides, which increase the ejecta opacity by several orders of magnitude. We include these higher opacities in time-dependent, multi-wavelength radiative transport calculations to predict the broadband light curves of one-dimensional models over a range of parameters (ejecta masses {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and velocities {approx}0.1-0.3 c). We find that the higher opacities lead to much longer duration light curves which can last a week or more. The emission is shifted toward the infrared bands due to strong optical line blanketing, and the colors at later times are representative of a blackbody near the recombination temperature of the lanthanides (T {approx} 2500 K). We further consider the case in which a second mass outflow, composed of {sup 56}Ni, is ejected from a disk wind, and show that the net result is a distinctive two component spectral energy distribution, with a bright optical peak due to {sup 56}Ni and an infrared peak due to r-process ejecta. We briefly consider the prospects for detection and identification of these transients.

  8. Source holder collimator for encapsulating radioactive material and collimating the emanations from the material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laurer, G.R.

    1974-01-22

    This invention provides a transportable device capable of detecting normal levels of a trace element, such as lead in a doughnutshaped blood sample by x-ray fluorescence with a minimum of sample preparation in a relatively short analyzing time. In one embodiment, the blood is molded into a doughnut-shaped sample around an annular array of low-energy radioactive material that is at the center of the doughnut-shaped sample but encapsulated in a collimator, the latter shielding a detector that is close to the sample and facing the same so that the detector receives secondary emissions from the sample while the collimator collimates ths primary emissions from the radioactive material to direct these emissions toward the sample around 360 deg and away from the detector. (Official Gazette)

  9. SYSTEMATICS OF DYNAMICAL MASS EJECTION, NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND RADIOACTIVELY POWERED ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS FROM NEUTRON-STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Goriely, S.

    2013-08-10

    We investigate systematically the dynamical mass ejection, r-process nucleosynthesis, and properties of electromagnetic counterparts of neutron-star (NS) mergers in dependence on the uncertain properties of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) by employing 40 representative, microphysical high-density EOSs in relativistic, hydrodynamical simulations. The crucial parameter determining the ejecta mass is the radius R{sub 1.35} of a 1.35 M{sub Sun} NS. NSs with smaller R{sub 1.35} (''soft'' EOS) eject systematically higher masses. These range from {approx}10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} to {approx}10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} for 1.35-1.35 M{sub Sun} binaries and from {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} to {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} for 1.2-1.5 M{sub Sun} systems (with kinetic energies between {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg and 10{sup 51} erg). Correspondingly, the bolometric peak luminosities of the optical transients of symmetric (asymmetric) mergers vary between 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and 14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} (9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and 14.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}) on timescales between {approx}2 hr and {approx}12 hr. If these signals with absolute bolometric magnitudes from -15.0 to -16.7 are measured, the tight correlation of their properties with those of the merging NSs might provide valuable constraints on the high-density EOS. The r-process nucleosynthesis exhibits a remarkable robustness independent of the EOS, producing a nearly solar abundance pattern above mass number 130. By the r-process content of the Galaxy and the average production per event the Galactic merger rate is limited to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1} (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} yr{sup -1}) for a soft (stiff) NS EOS, if NS mergers are the main source of heavy r-nuclei. The production ratio of radioactive {sup 232}Th to {sup 238}U attains a

  10. Neutral particle dynamics in a high-power RF source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todorov, D. Paunska, Ts.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-04-08

    Previous studies on the spatial discharge structure in the SPIDER source of negative hydrogen/deuterium ions carried out at low applied power are extended towards description of the discharge maintenance under the conditions of the actual rf power deposition of 100 kW planned for a single driver of the source. In addition to the expected higher electron density, the results show strong increase of the electron temperature and of the temperatures of the neutral species (hydrogen atoms and molecules). In the discussions, not only the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters but also that of the fluxes in the discharge (particle and energy fluxes) is involved. The obtained results come in confirmation of basic concepts for low-pressure discharge maintenance: (i) mutually related electron density and temperature as a display of the generalized Schottky condition, (ii) discharge behavior governed by the fluxes, i.e. strong nonlocality in the discharge, and (iii) a non-ambipolarity in the discharge regime, which originates from shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature and shows evidence in a vortex electron flux and in a dc current in a rf discharge, the latter resulting from a shift in the positions of the maxima of the electron density and plasma potential.

  11. R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots A luminescent solar concentrator is an emerging ...

  12. 2015,"AK","Total Electric Power Industry","All Sources",18,8...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Industry","All Sources",1,1,12,12 2015,"AR","Total Electric Power Industry","Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic",1,1,12,12 2015,"AZ","Total Electric Power ...

  13. ISO standardization of scaling factor method for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Makoto; Masui, Hideki; Denda, Yasutaka; James, David; Lantes, Bertrand; Mueller, Wolfgang; Garamszeghy, Mike; Leganes, Jose Luis; Maxeiner, Harald; Van Velzen, Leo

    2007-07-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (L-ILW ) generated at nuclear power plants are disposed of in various countries. In the disposal of such wastes, it is required that the radioactivity concentrations of waste packages should be declared with respect to difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63 and a-emitting nuclides, which are often limited to maximum values in disposal licenses, safety cases and/or regulations for maximum radioactive concentrations. To fulfill this requirement, the Scaling Factor method (SF method) has been applied in various countries as a principal method for determining the concentrations of DTM nuclides. In the SF method, the concentrations of DTM nuclides are determined by multiplying the concentrations of certain key nuclides by SF values (the determined ratios of radioactive concentration between DTM nuclides and those key nuclides). The SF values used as conversion factors are determined from the correlation between DTM nuclides and key nuclides such as Co-60. The concentrations of key nuclides are determined by {gamma} ray measurements which can be made comparatively easily from outside the waste package. The SF values are calculated based on the data obtained from the radiochemical analysis of waste samples. The use of SFs, which are empirically based on analytical data, has become established as a widely recognized 'de facto standard'. A number of countries have independently collected nuclide data by analysis over many years and each has developed its own SF method, but all the SF methods that have been adopted are similar. The project team for standardization had been organized for establishing this SF method as a 'de jure standard' in the international standardization system of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The project team for standardization has advanced the standardization through technical studies, based upon each country's study results and analysis data. The

  14. Design, construction, and use of a shipping case for radioactive sources used in the calibration of portal monitors in the radiation portal monitoring project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, Elwood A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with US Customs and Border Protection to assist in the installation of radiation portal monitors. We need to provide radioactive sources both gamma- and neutron-emitting to ports of entry where the monitors are being installed. The monitors must be calibrated to verify proper operation and detection sensitivity. We designed a portable source-shipping case using numerical modeling to predict the neutron dose rate at the cases surface. The shipping case including radioactive sources meets the DOT requirements for limited quantity. Over 300 shipments, domestic and international, were made in FY2008 using this type of shipping case.

  15. On feasibility of a closed nuclear power fuel cycle with minimum radioactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    Practical implementation of a closed nuclear fuel cycle implies solution of two main tasks. The first task is creation of environmentally acceptable operating conditions of the nuclear fuel cycle considering, first of all, high radioactivity of the involved materials. The second task is creation of effective and economically appropriate conditions of involving fertile isotopes in the fuel cycle. Creation of technologies for management of the high-level radioactivity of spent fuel reliable in terms of radiological protection seems to be the hardest problem.

  16. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1983. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.

    1986-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1983 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1983 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-12-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1993-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 13, Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1992 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1973 through 1991 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1992 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1991, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1994-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  1. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1981. Vol. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1984-06-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1981 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1981 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  2. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1989: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1992-09-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1989 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1970 through 1988 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1989 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  3. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1982. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.

    1986-02-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1982 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1982 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  4. PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a new Berkeley ... Gallery: Interior views of a plasma-source module. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of ...

  5. R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots A luminescent solar concentrator is an emerging sunlight harvesting technology that has the potential to disrupt ...

  6. Method of producing stable metal oxides and chalcogenides and power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1996-01-01

    A method of making chemically and electrochemically stable oxides or other chalcogenides for use as cathodes for power source applications, and of making batteries comprising such materials.

  7. R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots A luminescent solar concentrator is an emerging sunlight harvesting technology that has the potential to disrupt the way we think about energy: It could turn any window into a daytime power source. August 30, 2015 R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots A luminescent solar concentrator is an emerging sunlight harvesting technology

  8. CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITY PROJECT IN COLOMBIA TO PROVIDE THE SAFE STORAGE AND PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Raymond; Wright, Kyle A.; McCaw, Erica E.; Vallejo, Jorge

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of these materials. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources. GTRI began cooperation with the Republic of Colombia in April 2004. This cooperation has been a resounding success by securing forty high-risk sites, consolidating disused/orphan sources at an interim secure national storage facility, and developing a comprehensive approach to security, training, and sustainability. In 2005 the Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy requested the Department of Energys support in the construction of a new Central Storage Facility (CSF). In December 2005, the Ministry selected to construct this facility at the Institute of Geology and Mining (Ingeominas) site in Bogota. This site already served as Colombias national repository, where disused sources were housed in various buildings around the complex. The CSF project was placed under contract in May 2006, but environmental issues and public protests, which led to a class action lawsuit against the Colombian Government, forced the Ministry to quickly suspend activities, thereby placing the project in jeopardy. Despite these challenges, however, the Ministry of Mines and Energy worked closely with public and environmental authorities to resolve these issues, and continued to be a strong advocate of the GTRI program. In June 2008, the Ministry of Mines and Energy was granted the construction and environmental licenses. As a result, construction immediately resumed and the CSF was completed by December 2008. A commissioning ceremony was held for the new facility in January 2009, which was attended by representatives from the Department of Energy, U.S. Embassy, and

  9. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  10. Note: A new regulation method of stable operation of high power cathode ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. C.; Xie, Y. H. Hu, C. D.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, S.; Liang, L. Z.; Liu, Z. M.

    2015-05-15

    The hot cathode ion source will tend to be unstable when operated with high power and long pulse. In order to achieve stable operation, a new regulation method based on the arc power (discharge power) feedback control was designed and tested on the hot cathode ion source test bed with arc discharge and beam extraction. The results show that the new regulation method can achieve stable arc discharge and beam extraction. It verifies the success of feedback control of arc source with arc power.

  11. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  13. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. )

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  14. R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots August 30, 2015 R&D Magazine: Windows into Solar Power Sources with Quantum Dots A luminescent solar concentrator is an emerging sunlight harvesting technology that has the potential to disrupt the way we think about energy: It could turn any window into a daytime power source. "In these devices, a fraction of light transmitted through the window is absorbed by nano-sized particles (semiconductor quantum dots)

  15. Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Sobering news from experts: Rising populations, regional droughts, and decreasing groundwater levels are draining the nation’s fresh water supply. What plant operators need is a system that catalogs in one place nontraditional water sources that can be used for electricity production instead of valuable, limited fresh water. Now, thanks to a Department of Energy (DOE)-supported project, there’s an app for that.

  16. Alabama Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",7252,4136,6136,12535,8704 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-","-","-","-" "Wood/Wood Waste",3865,3784,3324,3035,2365 "MSW Biogenic/Landfill

  17. Alabama Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",97827,101561,97376,87580,102762 " Coal",78109,77994,74605,55609,63050 " Petroleum",180,157,204,219,200 " Natural Gas",19407,23232,22363,31617,39235 " Other Gases",131,178,204,135,277 "Nuclear",31911,34325,38993,39716,37941 "Renewables",11136,7937,9493,15585,11081 "Pumped

  18. Kentucky Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",95720,95075,95478,86937,95182 " Coal",91198,90483,91621,84038,91054 " Petroleum",3341,2791,2874,2016,2285 " Natural Gas",1177,1796,979,878,1841 " Other Gases",4,5,4,4,3 "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-" "Renewables",3050,2134,2377,3681,3020 "Pumped

  19. Louisiana Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",69795,71028,72850,70155,80110 " Coal",24395,23051,24100,23067,23924 " Petroleum",1872,2251,2305,1858,3281 " Natural Gas",41933,43915,45344,44003,51344 " Other Gases",1595,1811,1101,1227,1561 "Nuclear",16735,17078,15371,16782,18639 "Renewables",3676,3807,3774,3600,3577 "Pumped

  20. Maine Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",8214,7869,8264,7861,8733 " Coal",321,376,352,72,87 " Petroleum",595,818,533,433,272 " Natural Gas",7298,6675,7380,7355,8374 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-" "Renewables",8246,7945,8515,8150,7963 "Pumped

  1. Maryland Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",32091,33303,29810,26529,27102 " Coal",29408,29699,27218,24162,23668 " Petroleum",581,985,406,330,322 " Natural Gas",1770,2241,1848,1768,2897 " Other Gases",332,378,338,269,215 "Nuclear",13830,14353,14679,14550,13994 "Renewables",2730,2256,2587,2440,2241 "Pumped Storage","-","-","-","-","-"

  2. Massachusetts Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",36773,40001,34251,30913,34183 " Coal",11138,12024,10629,9028,8306 " Petroleum",2328,3052,2108,897,296 " Natural Gas",23307,24925,21514,20988,25582 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear",5830,5120,5869,5396,5918 "Renewables",2791,2038,2411,2430,2270 "Pumped

  3. Michigan Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",80004,84933,80179,75869,78535 " Coal",67780,70811,69855,66848,65604 " Petroleum",402,699,458,399,382 " Natural Gas",11410,13141,9602,8420,12249 " Other Gases",412,282,264,203,299 "Nuclear",29066,31517,31484,21851,29625 "Renewables",3963,3687,3956,3995,4083 "Pumped Storage",-1039,-1129,-916,-857,-1023 "Other",563,303,286,344,332

  4. Oklahoma Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",624,3066,3811,3553,2809 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",1712,1849,2358,2698,3808 "Wood/Wood Waste",297,276,23,68,255 "MSW Biogenic/Landfill Gas","-",4,5,"-","-" "Other

  5. Oregon Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",37850,33587,33805,33034,30542 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",931,1247,2575,3470,3920 "Wood/Wood Waste",799,843,717,674,632 "MSW Biogenic/Landfill Gas",71,100,131,128,205 "Other

  6. Pennsylvania Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",2844,2236,2549,2683,2332 "Solar","-","-","s",4,8 "Wind",361,470,729,1075,1854 "Wood/Wood Waste",683,620,658,694,675 "MSW Biogenic/Landfill Gas",1411,1441,1414,1577,1706 "Other Biomass",18,16,2,3,3

  7. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1986. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 66 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 31 person-rem to a low of 0.0007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.7 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 110 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup -6} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. 12 refs.

  8. Population Dose Commitments Due to Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Power Plant Sites in 1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D. A.

    1980-10-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1977. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ, Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 220 person-rem to a low of 0.003 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 16 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 700 person-rem for the 92 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10{sup -5} mrem to a high of 0.1 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  9. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1984. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 56 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 110 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 5 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 280 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.04 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  10. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1983. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 52 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 45 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 170 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk.

  11. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from Nuclear-Power-Plant Sites in 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1982-12-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1979. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 1300 person-rem to a low of 0.0002 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 38 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 1800 person-rem for the 94 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.7 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  12. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commericial power reactors operating during 1985. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 61 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 73 person-rem to a low of 0.011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 200 person-rem for the 110 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  13. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear-power-plant sites in 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peloquin, R.A.; Schwab, J.D.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1978. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 200 person-rem to a low of 0.0004 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 14 person-rem. The total population dose for allsites was estimated at 660 person-rem for the 93 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 3 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.08 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  14. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1987. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 70 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for reach of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mrem to a high of 0.009 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year). 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  16. Method of producing stable metal oxides and chalcogenides and power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-10-22

    A method is described for making chemically and electrochemically stable oxides or other chalcogenides for use as cathodes for power source applications, and of making batteries comprising such materials. 6 figs.

  17. A New Underwater Power Source for the Subsea Factory | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Underwater Power Source for the Subsea Factory Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new ...

  18. Code System for Evaluating Routine Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants with Windows Interface.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-12-12

    Version 14 NRCDose is a user-friendly 32-bit PC-based software interface for the LADTAP II, GASPAR II, and XOQDOQ programs which operates under all Microsoft WindowsTM platforms. LADTAP II, GASPAR II, and XOQDOQ are industry standards, originally created for mainframe computers and written using the Fortran programming language. While still utilizing the proven Fortran code modules, NRCDose allows the user to enter and retrieve data through a series of windows dialogs, making the use of themore » program much more user-friendly and efficient than its original design. This graphical interface also allows the user to create sets of data that can be named and retrieved at a later date for review or modification. The NRCDose program is equipped to perform calculations with up to 169 radionuclides, seven organs (bone, liver, total body, thyroid, kidney, lung, and GI-LLI) and four age ranges (infant, child, teenager, and adult). The source of the DCFs (dose conversion factors) in NRCDose is Regulatory Guide 1.109, supplemented with additional dose factors from NUREG-0172. See Abstract for recent modifications.« less

  19. Code System for Evaluating Routine Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants with Windows Interface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MALAFEEW, VAL

    2012-12-12

    Version 14 NRCDose is a user-friendly 32-bit PC-based software interface for the LADTAP II, GASPAR II, and XOQDOQ programs which operates under all Microsoft WindowsTM platforms. LADTAP II, GASPAR II, and XOQDOQ are industry standards, originally created for mainframe computers and written using the Fortran programming language. While still utilizing the proven Fortran code modules, NRCDose allows the user to enter and retrieve data through a series of windows dialogs, making the use of the program much more user-friendly and efficient than its original design. This graphical interface also allows the user to create sets of data that can be named and retrieved at a later date for review or modification. The NRCDose program is equipped to perform calculations with up to 169 radionuclides, seven organs (bone, liver, total body, thyroid, kidney, lung, and GI-LLI) and four age ranges (infant, child, teenager, and adult). The source of the DCFs (dose conversion factors) in NRCDose is Regulatory Guide 1.109, supplemented with additional dose factors from NUREG-0172. See Abstract for recent modifications.

  20. Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiss, T.J.

    2000-04-18

    This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should

  1. Rotational motion based, electrostatic power source and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Michael D. (Churchville, NY)

    2007-05-01

    A power system includes a member with two or more sections and at least one pair of electrodes. Each of the two or more sections has a stored static charge. Each of the pair of electrodes is spaced from and on substantially opposing sides of the member from the other electrode and is at least partially in alignment with the other electode. At least one of the member and the at least one pair of electrodes is moveable with respect to the other. When at least one of the sections is at least partially between the pair of electrodes, the at least one of the sections has the stored static electric charge closer to one of the pair of electrodes. When at least one of the other sections is at least partially between the pair of electrodes, the other section has the stored static electric charge closer to the other one of the pair of electrodes.

  2. Ohio Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",632,410,386,528,429 "Solar","-","-","-","-",13 "Wind",14,15,15,14,13 "Wood/Wood Waste",410,399,418,410,399 "MSW Biogenic/Landfill Gas",24,11,183,198,264 "Other Biomass",10,10,8,11,12 "Total",1091,846,1010,1161,1

  3. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2011-10-19

    Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability. Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders. This paper reviews information currently collected by both industry and government sources for this purpose and assesses factors that might affect their usefulness in supporting the academic literature that has relied upon them to draw conclusions about the reliability of the US electric power system.

  4. 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ducers","Petroleum",,,102.5,95.33 1990,"CA","Electric Generators, Independent Power Producers","Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic",,10,360.2,310.68 1990,"CA","Electric Generators, ...

  5. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  6. Characteristics of rf H{sup -} Ion Source by Using FET Power Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, A.; Moon, C. H.; Komuro, J.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

    2009-03-12

    Characteristics of radio frequency(rf) plasma production are investigated using a FET inverter power supply as an rf generator. The matching circuit in the inverter system is simple compared to a conventional 50 Ohm matching system and only an imaginary part of the impedance of rf transmission should be matched by adjusting operating frequency or capacitance of the circuit. An electron density over 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} is produced in argon plasma with 1 kW rf power. Lower densities are obtained in helium and hydrogen plasmas compared to the argon plasma. Effect of axial magnetic field in driver region is examined. Electron density more than 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} is obtained at the hydrogen gas pressure around 1 Pa with the help of the axial magnetic field.

  7. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  8. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.

    2005-07-19

    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  9. Prospects for using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, R.A.; Farrell, W.; Ma, Q.

    1997-09-01

    Third-generation, high-intensity, x-ray synchrotron radiation sources are capable of producing high heat-flux x-ray beams. In many applications finding ways to handle these powers is viewed as a burden. However, there are some technological applications where the deep penetration length of the x-rays may find beneficial uses as a volumetric heat source. In this paper the authors discuss the prospects for using high power x-rays for volumetric heating and report some recent experimental results. The particular applications they focus on are welding and surface heat treatment. The radiation source is an undulator at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Results of preliminary tests on aluminum, aluminum metal matrix composites, and steel will be presented.

  10. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

  11. Multi-source energy harvester to power sensing hardware on rotating structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Alezander D; Ouellette, Scott; Carlson, Clinton P; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to meet 20% of the nation's energy needs through wind power by the year 2030. To accomplish this goal, the industry will need to produce larger (> 100m diameter) turbines to increase efficiency and maximize energy production. It will be imperative to instrument the large composite structures with onboard sensing to provide structural health monitoring capabilities to understand the global response and integrity of these systems as they age. A critical component in the deployment of such a system will be a robust power source that can operate for the lifespan of the wind turbine. In this paper we consider the use of discrete, localized power sources that derive energy from the ambient (solar, thermal) or operational (kinetic) environment. This approach will rely on a multi-source configuration that scavenges energy from photovoltaic and piezoelectric transducers. Each harvester is first characterized individually in the laboratory and then they are combined through a multi-source power conditioner that is designed to combine the output of each harvester in series to power a small wireless sensor node that has active-sensing capabilities. The advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed, along with the proposed design for a field ready energy harvester that will be deployed on a small-scale 19.8m diameter wind turbine.

  12. Source-term reevaluation for US commercial nuclear power reactors: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Ball, J.R.; Ramaswami, D.

    1984-12-01

    Only results that had been discussed publicly, had been published in the open literature, or were available in preliminary reports as of September 30, 1984, are included here. More than 20 organizations are participating in source-term programs, which have been undertaken to examine severe accident phenomena in light-water power reactors (including the chemical and physical behavior of fission products under accident conditions), update and reevaluate source terms, and resolve differences between predictions and observations of radiation releases and related phenomena. Results from these source-term activities have been documented in over 100 publications to date.

  13. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T.; Galkin, A.; Bachilova, N.; Blynskiy, A.; Maev, V.; Wells, D.; Herrick, A.; Michelbacher, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  14. X-RAYS FROM THE POWER SOURCES OF THE CEPHEUS A STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Tsuboi, Yohko; Uzawa, Akiko; Ezoe, Yuichiro E-mail: tsuboi@phys.chuo-u.ac.j E-mail: ezoe@phys.metro-u.ac.j

    2009-10-20

    We report an observation of X-ray emission from the exciting region of Cepheus A with the Chandra/ACIS instrument. What had been an unresolved X-ray source comprising the putative power sources is now resolved into at least three point-like sources, each with similar X-ray properties and differing radio and submillimeter properties. The sources are HW9, HW3c, and a new source that is undetected at other wavelengths 'h10'. They each have inferred X-ray luminosities >= 10{sup 31} erg s{sup -1} with hard spectra, T >= 10{sup 7} K, and high low-energy absorption equivalent to tens to as much as a hundred magnitudes of visual absorption. The star usually assumed to be the most massive and energetic, HW2, is not detected with an upper limit about seven times lower than the detections. The X-rays may arise via thermal bremsstrahlung in diffuse emission regions associated with a gyrosynchrotron source for the radio emission, or they could arise from powerful stellar winds. We also analyzed the Spitzer/IRAC mid-IR observation from this star formation region and present the X-ray results and mid-IR classifications of the nearby stars. HH 168 is not as underluminous in X-rays as previously reported.

  15. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating.

  16. Noise power spectral density of a fibre scattered-light interferometer with a semiconductor laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T

    2013-10-31

    Spectral characteristics of the noise intensity fluctuations at the output of a scattered-light interferometer, caused by phase fluctuations of semiconductor laser radiation are considered. This kind of noise is one of the main factors limiting sensitivity of interferometric sensors. For the first time, to our knowledge, the expression is obtained for the average noise power spectral density at the interferometer output versus the degree of a light source coherence and length of the scattering segment. Also, the approximate expressions are considered which determine the power spectral density in the low-frequency range (up to 200 kHz) and in the limiting case of extended scattering segments. The expression obtained for the noise power spectral density agrees with experimental normalised power spectra with a high accuracy. (interferometry of radiation)

  17. Method of and system for determining locations of sources of harmonics in a power distribution network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, R.M.; Kirkpatrick, T.L.; Lauletta, J.L.; Shuter, T.C.; Vollkommer, H.T. Jr.

    1987-05-19

    A system is described for determining directions of locations of sources of power harmonics relative to a node interconnecting n branches of a power distribution network, where n is an integer greater than or equal to 2, comprising: voltage transducer means for monitoring voltage waveforms in at least (n-1) of the n branches; current transducer means for monitoring current waveforms in at least (n-1) branches; means for sampling the current and voltage waveforms to obtain analog current and voltage waveform samples; A/D converter means for digitizing the analog waveform samples; and spectrum analyzer means for resolving the digitized samples into their respective harmonic components.

  18. Kickers and power supplies for the Fermilab Tevatron I antiproton source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castellano, T.; Bartoszek, L.; Tilles, E.; Petter, J.; McCarthy, J.

    1985-05-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source Accumulator and Debuncher rings require 5 kickers in total. These range in design from conventional ferrite delay line type magnets, with ceramic beam tubes to mechanically complex shuttered kickers situated entirely in the Accumulator Ring's 10/sup -10/ torr vacuum. Power supplies are thyratron switched pulse forming networks that produce microsecond width pulses of several kiloamps with less than 30 nanoseconds rise and fall times. Kicker and power supply design requirements for field strength, vacuum, rise and fall time, timing and magnetic shielding of the stacked beam in the accumulator by the eddy current shutter will be discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new Berkeley Lab accelerator | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a new Berkeley Lab accelerator March 19, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Erik Gilson with a copper-clad module and chamber for testing the units. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) Erik Gilson with a copper-clad module and chamber for testing the units. Gallery: Interior views of a plasma-source module. (Photo by Elle

  20. United States Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source, 2006 - 2010" "(Megawatts)" "United States" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal",2274,2214,2229,2382,2405 "Hydro Conventional",77821,77885,77930,78518,78825 "Solar",411,502,536,619,941 "Wind",11329,16515,24651,34296,39135 "Wood/Wood Waste",6372,6704,6864,6939,7037 "MSW/Landfill Gas",3166,3536,3644,3645,3690

  1. Vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amirov, R. Kh. Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Lizyakin, G. D.; Polishchuk, V. P.; Samoilov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M.

    2015-10-15

    Results from experimental studies of a vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot on the heated cathode are presented. Such an arc can be used as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The experiments were performed with a gadolinium cathode, the properties of which are similar to those of an uranium arc cathode. The heat flux from the plasma to the cathode (and its volt equivalent) at discharge voltages of 4-15 V and discharge currents of 44-81 A, the radial distribution of the emission intensity of gadolinium atoms and singly charged ions in the arc channel at a voltage of 4.3 V, and the plasma electron temperature behind the anode were measured. The average charge of plasma ions at arc voltages of 3.5-8 V and a discharge current of 52 A and the average rate of gadolinium evaporation in the discharge were also determined.

  2. Condensed Matter Cluster Reactions in LENR Power Cells for a Radical New Type of Space Power Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiaoling; Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz

    2009-03-16

    This paper reviews previous theoretical and experimental study on the possibility of nuclear events in multilayer thin film electrodes (Lipson et al., 2004 and 2005; Miley et al., 2007), including the correlation between excess heat and transmutations (Miley and Shrestha, 2003) and the cluster theory that predicts it. As a result of this added understanding of cluster reactions, a new class of electrodes is under development at the University of Illinois. These electrodes are designed to enhance cluster formation and subsequent reactions. Two approaches are under development. The first employs improved loading-unloading techniques, intending to obtain a higher volumetric density of sites favoring cluster formation. The second is designed to create nanostructures on the electrode where the cluster state is formed by electroless deposition of palladium on nickel micro structures. Power units employing these electrodes should offer unique advantages for space applications. This is a fundamental new nuclear energy source that is environmentally compatible with a minimum of radiation involvement, high specific power, very long lifetime, and scalable from micro power to kilowatts.

  3. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF MEXICO, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Nicholas; Watson, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRIs cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRIs interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexicos largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

  4. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

    2009-10-06

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRIs cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexicos largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRIs interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they

  5. High power water load for microwave and millimeter-wave radio frequency sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.; Schumacher, Richard V.; Pendleton, Rand P.

    1999-01-01

    A high power water load for microwave and millimeter wave radio frequency sources has a front wall including an input port for the application of RF power, a cylindrical dissipation cavity lined with a dissipating material having a thickness which varies with depth, and a rear wall including a rotating reflector for the reflection of wave energy inside the cylindrical cavity. The dissipation cavity includes a water jacket for removal of heat generated by the absorptive material coating the dissipation cavity, and this absorptive material has a thickness which is greater near the front wall than near the rear wall. Waves entering the cavity reflect from the rotating reflector, impinging and reflecting multiple times on the absorptive coating of the dissipation cavity, dissipating equal amounts of power on each internal reflection.

  6. Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Gils, C. A. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Meiden, H. J. van der; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rooij, G. J. van; Schram, D. C.

    2008-09-15

    The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and hydrogen gas flow rate. Measurements of the pressure in the arc channel show that the flow is well described by Poiseuille flow and that the effective heavy particle temperature is approximately 0.8 eV. Interpretation of the measured I-V data in terms of a one-parameter model shows that the plasma production is proportional to the input power, to the square root of the hydrogen flow rate, and is independent of the channel diameter. The observed scaling shows that the dominant power loss mechanism inside the arc channel is one that scales with the effective volume of the plasma in the discharge channel. Measurements on the plasma output with Thomson scattering confirm the linear dependence of the plasma production on the input power. Extrapolation of these results shows that (without a magnetic field) an improvement in the plasma production by a factor of 10 over where it was in van Rooij et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121501 (2007)] should be possible.

  7. A source of high-power pulses of elliptically polarized ultrawideband radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, Yu. A. Efremov, A. M.; Koshelev, V. I.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Petkun, A. A.; Sukhushin, K. N.; Zorkaltseva, M. Yu.

    2014-10-01

    Here, we describe a source of high-power ultrawideband radiation with elliptical polarization. The source consisting of a monopolar pulse generator, a bipolar pulse former, and a helical antenna placed into a radioparent container may be used in tests for electromagnetic compatibility. In the source, the helical antenna with the number of turns N = 4 is excited with a high-voltage bipolar pulse. Preliminary, we examined helical antennas at a low-voltage source aiming to select an optimal N and to estimate a radiation center position and boundary of a far-field zone. Finally, characteristics of the source in the operating mode at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz are presented in the paper as well. Energy efficiency of the antenna is 0.75 at the axial ratio equal to 1.3. The effective potential of radiation of the source at the voltage amplitudes of the bipolar pulse generator equal to -175/+200 kV reaches 280 kV.

  8. Multi-antenna RF Ion Source at a High RF Power Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Asano, E.; Sato, M.; Kondo, T.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.

    2009-03-12

    A multi-antenna radio-frequency ion source with a Faraday shield is newly tested at a high RF power level in a large area negative ion source of 1/5th scale of the Large Helical Device-NNBI ion source. Inductively coupled dense hydrogen plasmas were generated uniformly over an area of 25x25 cm{sup 2} at an RF input power up to 300 kW for a 10 ms pulse duration. A large negative plasma potential for the non-Faraday shielded antenna was remarkably reduced by introducing a Faraday shield. The positive ion saturation current density measured by Langmuir probe reached 148 mA/cm{sup 2} at 174 kW around the center of the plasma. The optimal hydrogen filling pressure ranged around 0.13 Pa- 0.4 Pa for the positive ions. Ion beam extraction with a single hole ({phi} 0.5 cm) extractor has been studied systematically. A maximum H{sup -} ion beam current density of 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained preliminarily. It was confirmed that the plasma profile was controllable by both the number and configuration of the antennas.

  9. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidia, S. M.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D. L.; Yu, S. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Houck, T. L.; Westenskow, G. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.

  10. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidia, S.M.; Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D.L.; Yu, S.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Westenskow, G.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1{percent} energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D E; Eylon, S; Henestroza, E; Houck, T L; Lidia, M; Vanecek, D L; Westenskow, G A; Yu, S S

    1998-10-05

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2&A, l-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-n-n. The prototype accelerator will be used to study physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.

  12. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the

  13. Third user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bolme, Cynthia Anne; Glenzer, Sigfried; Fry, Alan

    2016-03-24

    On October 5–6, 2015, the third international user workshop focusing on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was held in Menlo Park, CA, USA [1 R. Falcone, S. Glenzer, and S. Hau-Riege, Synchrotron Radiation News 27(2), 56–58 (2014)., 2 P. Heimann and S. Glenzer, Synchrotron Radiation News 28(3), 54–56 (2015).]. Here, the workshop was co-organized by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. More than 110 scientists attended from North America, Europe, and Asia to discuss high-energy-density (HED) science that is enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the LCLS X-rays at themore » LCLS-Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation.« less

  14. A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, B.; Weng, Y.W.

    2010-05-15

    A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources is under investigation in this paper. The proposed cycle combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. The ejector is driven by the exhausts from the turbine to produce power and refrigeration simultaneously. A simulation was carried out to analyze the cycle performance using R245fa as the working fluid. A thermal efficiency of 34.1%, an effective efficiency of 18.7% and an exergy efficiency of 56.8% can be obtained at a generating temperature of 395 K, a condensing temperature of 298 K and an evaporating temperature of 280 K. Simulation results show that the proposed cycle has a big potential to produce refrigeration and most exergy losses take place in the ejector. (author)

  15. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  16. Accident source terms for light-water nuclear power plants using high-burnup or MOX fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salay, Michael; Gauntt, Randall O.; Lee, Richard Y.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Representative accident source terms patterned after the NUREG-1465 Source Term have been developed for high burnup fuel in BWRs and PWRs and for MOX fuel in a PWR with an ice-condenser containment. These source terms have been derived using nonparametric order statistics to develop distributions for the timing of radionuclide release during four accident phases and for release fractions of nine chemical classes of radionuclides as calculated with the MELCOR 1.8.5 accident analysis computer code. The accident phases are those defined in the NUREG-1465 Source Term - gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release. Important differences among the accident source terms derived here and the NUREG-1465 Source Term are not attributable to either fuel burnup or use of MOX fuel. Rather, differences among the source terms are due predominantly to improved understanding of the physics of core meltdown accidents. Heat losses from the degrading reactor core prolong the process of in-vessel release of radionuclides. Improved understanding of the chemistries of tellurium and cesium under reactor accidents changes the predicted behavior characteristics of these radioactive elements relative to what was assumed in the derivation of the NUREG-1465 Source Term. An additional radionuclide chemical class has been defined to account for release of cesium as cesium molybdate which enhances molybdenum release relative to other metallic fission products.

  17. High-power linac for a US spallation-neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangler, T.P.; Billen, J.; Jason, A. Krawczyk, F.; Nath, S.; Shafer, R.; Staples, J.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.

    1996-09-01

    We present status of high-power linac design studies for a proposed National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS), based on a linac/accumulator-ring accelerator system. Overall project is a collaboration involving 5 national laboratories. ORNL will be responsible for the target, facilities, and conceptual design; BNL will be responsible for the ring; LBNL will be responsible for the injector, including the RFQ and a low-energy chopper in front of the RFQ; LANL will be responsible for the main linac; and ANL will be responsible for the instrumentation. The facility will be built at Oak Ridge. In the first phase, the dual-frequency linac with 402.5 and 805 MHz frequencies must deliver to the accumulator ring an H{sup -} beam near 1 GeV, with about 1 ms pulse length, a repetition rate 60 Hz, and average beam power {ge} 1 MW. The linac can be upgraded by a factor of 4 in beam power by increasing the dc injector current, and by funneling the beams from two 402.5 MHz low-energy linacs into the 805-MHz high-energy linac. Requirements for low beam loss in both linac and ring have important implications for linac design, including the requirement to provide efficient beam chopping to provide low-loss extraction for the ring. Linac design options and initial parameters are presented together with initial beam-dynamics simulation results.

  18. An Adaptable Multiple Power Source for Mass Spectrometry and other Scientific Instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Anderson, Gordon A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Leach, Franklin E.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2015-09-18

    Power supplies are commonly used in the operation of many types of scientific equipment, including mass spectrometers and ancillary instrumentation. A generic modern mass spectrometer comprises an ionization source, such as electrospray ionization (ESI), ion transfer devices such as ion funnels and multipole ion guides, and ion signal detection apparatus. Very often such platforms include, or are interfaced with ancillary elements in order to manipulate samples before or after ionization. In order to operate such scientific instruments, numerous direct current (DC) channels and radio frequency (RF) signals are required, along with other controls such as temperature regulation. In particular, DC voltages in the range of ±400 V, along with MHz range RF signals with peak-to-peak amplitudes in the hundreds of volts range are commonly used to transfer ionized samples under vacuum. Additionally, an ESI source requires a high voltage (HV) DC source capable of producing several thousand volts and heaters capable of generating temperatures up to 300°C. All of these signals must be properly synchronized and managed in order to carry out ion trapping, accumulation and detection.

  19. Accident source terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soffer, L.; Burson, S.B.; Ferrell, C.M.; Lee, R.Y.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1995-02-01

    In 1962 tile US Atomic Energy Commission published TID-14844, ``Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors`` which specified a release of fission products from the core to the reactor containment for a postulated accident involving ``substantial meltdown of the core``. This ``source term``, tile basis for tile NRC`s Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, has been used to determine compliance with tile NRC`s reactor site criteria, 10 CFR Part 100, and to evaluate other important plant performance requirements. During the past 30 years substantial additional information on fission product releases has been developed based on significant severe accident research. This document utilizes this research by providing more realistic estimates of the ``source term`` release into containment, in terms of timing, nuclide types, quantities and chemical form, given a severe core-melt accident. This revised ``source term`` is to be applied to the design of future light water reactors (LWRs). Current LWR licensees may voluntarily propose applications based upon it.

  20. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-15

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  1. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites: Methodology and data base. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    This manual describes a dose assessment system used to estimate the population or collective dose commitments received via both airborne and waterborne pathways by persons living within a 2- to 80-kilometer region of a commercial operating power reactor for a specific year of effluent releases. Computer programs, data files, and utility routines are included which can be used in conjunction with an IBM or compatible personal computer to produce the required dose commitments and their statistical distributions. In addition, maximum individual airborne and waterborne dose commitments are estimated and compared to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1, design objectives. This supplement is the last report in the NUREG/CR-2850 series.

  2. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  3. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-28

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 new experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.

  4. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-28

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 newmore » experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.« less

  5. Railguns and plasma accelerators: arc armatures, pulse power sources and US patents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, O.M. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    Railguns and plasma accelerators have the potential for use in many basic and applied research projects, such as in creating high-pressures for equation-of-state studies and in impact fusion. A brief review of railguns and plasma accelerators with references is presented. Railgun performance is critically dependent on armature operation. Plasma arc railgun armatures are addressed. Pulsed power supplies for multi-stage railguns are considered. This includes brief comments on the compensated pulsed alternator, or compulsator, rotating machinery, and distributed energy sources for railguns. References are given at the end of each section. Appendix A contains a brief review of the US Patents on multi-staging techniques for electromagnetic accelerators, plasma propulsion devices, and electric guns.

  6. Switchable radioactive neutron source device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanford, G.S.; Rhodes, E.A.; Devolpi, A.; Boyar, R.E.

    1987-11-06

    This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons. 3 figs.

  7. Power combination of two phase-locked high power microwave beams from a new coaxial microwave source based on dual beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yangmei; Zhang, Xiaoping Zhang, Jiande; Dang, Fangchao; Yan, Xiaolu

    2014-10-15

    The new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams has demonstrated two phase-locked output microwave beams generated by its two sub-sources. In order to achieve a single higher output power, we present a three-port waveguide-based power combiner to combine the two microwave beams. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that when the diode voltage is 675?kV and the guiding magnetic field is 0.8?T, a combined microwave with an average power of about 4.0?GW and a frequency of 9.74 GHz is generated; the corresponding power conversion efficiency is 29%. The combination effect of the combiner is further validated in the diode voltage range from 675?kV to 755?kV as well as in the pulse regime. The simulations indicate that the maximum surface axial electric field strength of the electrodynamic structure is 720?kV/cm, which is relatively low corresponding to an output power of 4.0?GW. The stable combined output suggests the probability of long-pulse operation for the combined source.

  8. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Khizhnyak, V. I.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2008-02-15

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 {mu}s, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  9. DOE/NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Proper Characterization and Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources Revision 2, October 1997 Revised by: DOE/NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program and The NTSWAC Working Group EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The "Position Paper on the Proper Characterization and Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources" was originally developed by the NVO-325 Work Group, Sealed Source Waste Characterization Subgroup. The NVO-325 Workgroup, now called the NTSWAC Working Group, is comprised of representatives

  10. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactive material recovered One million curies of radioactive material recovered The accomplishment represents a major milestone in protecting our nation and the world from material that could be used in "dirty bombs" by terrorists. December 22, 2014 Rick Day of Los Alamos National Laboratory's International Threat Reduction group and the Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP) holds a non-radioactive training mockup of what a typical cobalt-60 source might look like. The source is

  11. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  12. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  13. Solid core dipoles and switching power supplies: Lower cost light sources?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benesch, Jay; Philip, Sarin

    2015-05-05

    As a result of improvements in power semiconductors, moderate frequency switching supplies can now provide the hundreds of amps typically required by accelerators with zero-to-peak noise in the kHz region ~ 0.06% in current or voltage mode. Modeling was undertaken using a finite electromagnetic program to determine if eddy currents induced in the solid steel of CEBAF magnets and small supplemental additions would bring the error fields down to the 5ppm level needed for beam quality. The expected maximum field of the magnet under consideration is 0.85 T and the DC current required to produce that field is used in the calculations. An additional 0.1% current ripple is added to the DC current at discrete frequencies 360 Hz, 720 Hz or 7200 Hz. Over the region of the pole within 0.5% of the central integrated BdL the resulting AC field changes can be reduced to less than 1% of the 0.1% input ripple for all frequencies, and a sixth of that at 7200 Hz. Doubling the current, providing 1.5 T central field, yielded the same fractional reduction in ripple at the beam for the cases checked. A small dipole was measured at 60, 120, 360 and 720 Hz in two conditions and the results compared to the larger model for the latter two frequencies with surprisingly good agreement. Thus, for light sources with aluminum vacuum vessels and full energy linac injection, the combination of solid core dipoles and switching power supplies may result in significant cost savings.

  14. SOURCE?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on the direction and maintanence of the core code * The code base is platform- neutral ... Its core function is to allow users to merge multiple sources of building energy data into ...

  15. GeoPowering the West - The Bountiful, Clean Energy Source for the West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-01

    General brochure outlining benefits and activities of DOE Geothermal Technologies Program GeoPowering the West project.

  16. GeoPowering the West - The Bountiful, Clean Energy Source for the West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-04-01

    GeoPowering the West will contribute to the overall increased use of domestic renewable energy resources, as recommended in the National Energy Policy, by: - Doubling the number of states with geothermal electric power facilities from four to eight by 2010, and Supplying the heat or power needs of 5 million Western homes and businesses by 2015.Geothermal Energy Program Office of Energy.

  17. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

  18. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1998-01-01

    An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

  19. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-25

    Disclosed is an illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  20. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, S.W.

    1998-06-16

    An illumination source is disclosed comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  1. Study of the feasibility of distributed cathodic arc as a plasma source for development of the technology for plasma separation of SNF and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amirov, R. Kh.; Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Liziakin, G. D.; Polistchook, V. P.; Samoylov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A. Yartsev, I. M.

    2015-12-15

    One of the key problems in the development of plasma separation technology is designing a plasma source which uses condensed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear wastes as a raw material. This paper covers the experimental study of the evaporation and ionization of model materials (gadolinium, niobium oxide, and titanium oxide). For these purposes, a vacuum arc with a heated cathode on the studied material was initiated and its parameters in different regimes were studied. During the experiment, the cathode temperature, arc current, arc voltage, and plasma radiation spectra were measured, and also probe measurements were carried out. It was found that the increase in the cathode heating power leads to the decrease in the arc voltage (to 3 V). This fact makes it possible to reduce the electron energy and achieve singly ionized plasma with a high degree of ionization to fulfill one of the requirements for plasma separation of SNF. This finding is supported by the analysis of the plasma radiation spectrum and the results of the probe diagnostics.

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom; King, Thomas F

    2006-04-01

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic

  3. Secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor with external power source and data logging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2016-05-31

    A secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor system comprises a passive RFID tag having means for receiving radio signals from at least one base station and for transmitting radio signals to at least one base station, where the tag is capable of being powered exclusively by received radio energy, and an external power and data logging device having at least one battery and electronic circuitry including a digital memory configured for storing and recalling data. The external power and data logging device has a means for powering the tag, and also has a means.

  4. Three-phase uninterruptible power supply maintaining reserve energy sources in idling condition with unbalanced loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boettcher, C.W.; Hamilton, B.H.; Zweig, W.L.

    1980-12-09

    A control arrangement for a three-phase, uninterruptible power supply generates timing signals to drive the static switches of inverters located in each phase. This control arrangement precisely controls the phase differences of the inverter signals with relation to each other so that while the overall three-phase power supplied by the inverters is nulled, power circulation through the inverters compensates for unbalanced output loads thereby maintaining balanced phase angles between the output voltage and a balanced input impedance at the input of the power supply.

  5. NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.: System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

  6. Source terms released into the environment for a station blackout severe accident at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    This study calculates source terms released into the environment at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station after containment failure during a postulated low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Source terms were calculated for three different containment failure modes. The largest environmental releases occur for early containment failure at the drywell liner in contact with the cavity by liner melt-through. This containment failure mode is very likely to occur when the cavity is dry during this postulated severe accident sequence.

  7. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.

    2015-03-14

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.

  8. All-metal metamaterial slow-wave structure for high-power sources with high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yanshuai; Duan, Zhaoyun Tang, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhanliang; Zhang, Yabin; Gong, Yubin; Feng, Jinjun

    2015-10-12

    In this paper, we have proposed a metamaterial (MTM) which is suitable for the compact high-power vacuum electron devices. For example, an S-band slow-wave structure (SWS) based on the all-metal MTMs has been studied by both simulation and experiment. The results show that this MTM SWS is very helpful to miniaturize the high-power vacuum electron devices and largely improve the output power and the electronic efficiency. The simulation model of an S-band MTM backward wave oscillator (BWO) is built, and the particle-in-cell simulated results are presented here: a 2.454 GHz signal is generated and its peak output power is 4.0 MW with a higher electronic efficiency of 31.5% relative to the conventional BWOs.

  9. Solar-powered electrodialysis. Part 2. Design of a solar-powered, electrodialysis system for desalting remote, brackish water sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, J.E.; Socha, M.M.; Lynch, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    The critical components in the design of a solar-powered, electrodialysis (SPED) plant have been evaluated and technology developed to combine ED equipment with a photovoltaic (PV) array. The plant design developed in Part II is simplified from the Part I design in three areas. First, the system uses a flat-panel PV aray rather than PV concentrators. Second, the system voltage is maintained at the voltage corresponding to the peak power output of the array which is essentially independent of the level of solar insolation. The third simplification is in the flow diagram for the plant where the number of pumps and variable flow valves has been reduced to two of each. The proposed system is expected to provide a reliable supply of fresh water from a brackish water source with minimum maintenance. In certain applications where grid power is unavailable and fuel costs exceed $.40 per liter, the solar-powered plant is expected to provide lower cost water today.

  10. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  11. International Power Sources Symposium, 33rd, Cherry Hill, NJ, June 13-16, 1988, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The present conference discusses Li rechargeable batteries, oxyhalide nonrechargeable batteries, reserve and thermal batteries, nonrechargeable thermal batteries, aqueous rechargeable and nonrechargeable batteries, advanced rechargeable batteries, high power/pulse power ambient temperature batteries, Li nonrechargeable batteries, fuel cells, and power generation/conditioning/charging technologies. Attention is given to the layer-formation of Li and its implications for secondary Li batteries, spirally wound Li-TiS2 cells, the electrochemistry of C relative to batteries and fuel cells, glass-seal corrosion in Li-SOCl2 batteries, a lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications, low temperature thermal battery electrolytes, Al-air batteries, ovonic Ni/metal hydride batteries, Na/S cells, ultracapacitor filtering characteristics, long-life 'coin' cells, AgO cathode decomposition, and monolithic fuel-cell designs.

  12. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E. [SUE MosSIA 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  13. Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  14. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2003 through August 2003. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Major accomplishments included: Development of an emission profile for an integrated coke production facility and simulations using PMCAMx for a two week period during July 2001. The emissions from the coke facility are dominated by carbonaceous compounds. Forty seven percent of the organic carbon mass was identified on a compound level basis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant organic compound class in the coke emissions. Initial comparisons with the data collected in Pittsburgh suggest good agreement between the model predictions and observations. Single particle composition data appear useful for identifying primary sources. An example of this unique approach is illustrated using the Fe and Ce particle class with appear associated with steel production.

  15. Material for radioactive protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  16. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

  17. Improving the homogeneity of alternating current-drive atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges in helium with an additional low-amplitude radio frequency power source: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Qi [Dalian Institute of Semiconductor Technology, School of Electronics Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun Jizhong; Zhang Jianhong; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Liu Liying [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)

    2013-04-15

    It was proposed in this paper that the homogeneity of the atmospheric pressure discharge driven by an ac power source could be improved by applying an auxiliary low-amplitude rf power source. To verify the idea, a two-dimensional fluid model then was applied to study the atmospheric discharges in helium driven by ac power, low-amplitude rf power, and combined ac and low-amplitude rf power, respectively. Simulation results confirmed that an auxiliary rf power could improve the homogeneity of a discharge driven by an ac power source. It was further found that there existed a threshold voltage of the rf power source leading to the transition from inhomogeneous to homogeneous discharge. As the frequency of the rf power source increased from 2 to 22 MHz, the magnitude of the threshold voltage dropped first rapidly and then to a constant value. When the frequency was over 13.56 MHz, the magnitude of the threshold voltage was smaller than one-sixth of the ac voltage amplitude under the simulated discharge parameters.

  18. High power 325 MHz vector modulators for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Wildman, David; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    One of the goals of the low energy 60 MeV section of the HINS H{sup -} linac [1] is to demonstrate that a total of {approx}40 RF cavities can be powered by a single 2.5 MW, 325 MHz klystron. This requires individual vector modulators at the input of each RF cavity to independently adjust the amplitude and phase of the RF input signal during the 3.5 ms RF pulse. Two versions of vector modulators have been developed; a 500 kW device for the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a 75 kW modulator for the RF cavities. High power tests showing the vector modulator phase and amplitude responses will be presented.

  19. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-02-06

    To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

  20. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  1. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  2. Microfabricated microengine for use as a mechanical drive and power source in the microdomain and fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.J.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1997-05-20

    A microengine uses two synchronized linear actuators as a power source and converts oscillatory motion from the actuators into rotational motion via direct linkage connection to an output gear or wheel. The microengine provides output in the form of a continuously rotating output gear that is capable of delivering drive torque to a micromechanism. The microengine can be operated at varying speeds and its motion can be reversed. Linear actuators are synchronized in order to provide linear oscillatory motion to the linkage means in the X and Y directions according to a desired position, rotational direction and speed of said mechanical output means. The output gear has gear teeth on its outer perimeter for directly contacting a micromechanism requiring mechanical power. The gear is retained by a retaining means which allows said gear to rotate freely. The microengine is microfabricated of polysilicon on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication. 30 figs.

  3. Microfabricated microengine for use as a mechanical drive and power source in the microdomain and fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.

    1997-01-01

    A microengine uses two synchronized linear actuators as a power source and converts oscillatory motion from the actuators into rotational motion via direct linkage connection to an output gear or wheel. The microengine provides output in the form of a continuously rotating output gear that is capable of delivering drive torque to a micromechanism. The microengine can be operated at varying speeds and its motion can be reversed. Linear actuators are synchronized in order to provide linear oscillatory motion to the linkage means in the X and Y directions according to a desired position, rotational direction and speed of said mechanical output means. The output gear has gear teeth on its outer perimeter for directly contacting a micromechanism requiring mechanical power. The gear is retained by a retaining means which allows said gear to rotate freely. The microengine is microfabricated of polysilicon on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication.

  4. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hänninen, Tuomas Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  5. District of Columbia Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",806,806,790,790,790 " Coal","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",806,806,790,790,790 " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-"

  6. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  7. ORISE: Radiation and Radioactive Contamination FAQ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A: Radiation comes from many sources, some natural and some man-made. Naturally occurring radioactive materials, such as uranium, thorium and radon are found in the Earth's crust. ...

  8. Alabama Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",3271,3272,3272,3272,3272 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-","-","-","-" "Wood/Wood Waste",581,574,593,591,583 "MSW/Landfill

  9. Kansas Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",9592,9709,10017,10355,10302 " Coal",5203,5208,5190,5180,5179 " Petroleum",565,569,564,564,550 " Natural Gas",3824,3932,4262,4611,4573 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear",1166,1166,1160,1160,1160 "Renewables",366,366,815,1014,1082 "Pumped

  10. Kentucky Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",19177,19088,19016,19268,19560 " Coal",14386,14374,14301,14553,14566 " Petroleum",135,77,77,77,70 " Natural Gas",4656,4638,4638,4638,4924 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-" "Renewables",871,880,886,893,893 "Pumped

  11. Texas Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",681,673,673,689,689 "Solar","-","-","-","-",14 "Wind",2738,4490,7427,9378,9952 "Wood/Wood Waste",130,130,180,180,215 "MSW/Landfill Gas",42,72,73,79,88 "Other Biomass",16,21,29,28,28

  12. Utah Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal",23,33,34,34,42 "Hydro Conventional",255,255,256,256,255 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-",19,222,222 "Wood/Wood Waste","-","-","-","-","-" "MSW/Landfill Gas",4,5,5,9,9 "Other

  13. Vermont Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",309,308,322,322,324 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",5,5,5,5,5 "Wood/Wood Waste",76,76,76,76,76 "MSW/Landfill Gas","-","-",3,3,3 "Other

  14. Virginia Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",671,675,677,716,866 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-","-","-","-" "Wood/Wood Waste",410,418,422,409,331 "MSW/Landfill Gas",170,254,269,278,290 "Other

  15. Washington Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",21156,21333,21203,21088,21181 "Solar","-",1,1,1,1 "Wind",821,1162,1365,2006,2296 "Wood/Wood Waste",326,296,314,369,368 "MSW/Landfill Gas",35,36,36,41,39 "Other Biomass",4,"-","-","-","-"

  16. West Virginia Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",264,264,264,264,285 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",66,66,330,330,431 "Wood/Wood Waste","-","-","-","-","-" "MSW/Landfill

  17. Wisconsin Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",476,488,485,492,492 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",53,44,231,430,449 "Wood/Wood Waste",220,232,208,208,239 "MSW/Landfill Gas",62,71,72,72,76 "Other Biomass",1,1,8,11,12

  18. Wyoming Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",303,303,303,304,307 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",287,287,680,1104,1415 "Wood/Wood Waste","-","-","-","-","-" "MSW/Landfill

  19. Louisiana Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",23904,23379,23207,23087,23906 " Coal",3453,3482,3482,3482,3417 " Petroleum",285,346,346,346,881 " Natural Gas",19980,19384,19345,19225,19574 " Other Gases",186,167,34,34,34 "Nuclear",2119,2127,2154,2142,2142 "Renewables",525,586,586,579,517 "Pumped Storage","-","-","-","-","-"

  20. Maine Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",2770,2751,2761,2738,2738 " Coal",85,85,85,85,85 " Petroleum",1030,1031,1031,1008,1008 " Natural Gas",1655,1636,1645,1645,1645 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-" "Renewables",1418,1462,1478,1606,1692 "Pumped

  1. Maryland Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",10071,10028,10125,10050,10012 " Coal",4958,4958,4944,4876,4886 " Petroleum",3140,2965,2991,2986,2933 " Natural Gas",1821,1953,2038,2035,2041 " Other Gases",152,152,152,152,152 "Nuclear",1735,1735,1735,1705,1705 "Renewables",693,723,725,727,799 "Pumped Storage","-","-","-","-","-"

  2. Massachusetts Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",11050,10670,10621,10770,10763 " Coal",1743,1744,1662,1668,1669 " Petroleum",3219,3137,3120,3125,3031 " Natural Gas",6089,5789,5839,5977,6063 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear",685,685,685,685,685 "Renewables",554,560,557,564,566 "Pumped Storage",1643,1643,1643,1680,1680

  3. Michigan Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",23693,23826,23805,23691,23205 " Coal",11860,11910,11921,11794,11531 " Petroleum",1499,673,667,684,640 " Natural Gas",10322,11242,11218,11214,11033 " Other Gases",12,"-","-","-","-" "Nuclear",4006,3969,3969,3953,3947 "Renewables",618,638,773,792,807 "Pumped Storage",1872,1872,1872,1872,1872

  4. Minnesota Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",9714,9550,10548,10752,10519 " Coal",5444,5207,5235,4826,4789 " Petroleum",746,764,782,801,795 " Natural Gas",3524,3579,4531,5126,4936 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear",1668,1668,1668,1668,1594 "Renewables",1259,1658,2008,2192,2588 "Pumped

  5. Nevada Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",8412,8638,9942,9950,9914 " Coal",2657,2689,2916,2916,2873 " Petroleum",45,45,45,45,45 " Natural Gas",5711,5905,6982,6990,6996 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-" "Renewables",1236,1316,1355,1446,1507 "Pumped

  6. New York Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",4307,4301,4299,4310,4314 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",370,425,707,1274,1274 "Wood/Wood Waste",37,37,87,86,86 "MSW/Landfill Gas",313,324,340,344,359 "Other

  7. New York Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",28071,27582,26726,27022,26653 " Coal",4014,3570,2899,2804,2781 " Petroleum",7241,7286,7273,7335,6421 " Natural Gas",16816,16727,16554,16882,17407 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-",45 "Nuclear",5156,5156,5264,5262,5271 "Renewables",5027,5087,5433,6013,6033 "Pumped Storage",1297,1297,1297,1374,1400

  8. North Carolina Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",1954,1960,1952,1952,1956 "Solar","-","-",3,3,35 "Wind","-","-","-","-","-" "Wood/Wood Waste",324,324,318,318,481 "MSW/Landfill Gas",14,18,20,20,27 "Other

  9. North Carolina Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",19673,20247,20305,20230,20081 " Coal",13113,13068,13069,12952,12766 " Petroleum",563,564,558,560,573 " Natural Gas",5997,6616,6679,6718,6742 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear",4975,4975,4958,4958,4958 "Renewables",2292,2301,2294,2294,2499 "Pumped Storage",84,84,90,86,86

  10. North Dakota Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",443,486,486,508,508 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",164,383,776,1202,1423 "Wood/Wood Waste","-","-","-","-","-" "MSW/Landfill

  11. North Dakota Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",4222,4212,4212,4243,4247 " Coal",4127,4119,4119,4148,4153 " Petroleum",77,75,75,71,71 " Natural Gas",10,10,10,15,15 " Other Gases",8,8,8,8,8 "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-" "Renewables",617,879,1272,1720,1941 "Pumped Storage","-","-","-","-","-"

  12. Ohio Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",101,101,101,101,101 "Solar","-","-","-","-",13 "Wind",7,7,7,7,7 "Wood/Wood Waste",64,64,65,65,60 "MSW/Landfill Gas",4,41,41,41,48 "Other Biomass","-","-","-",1,2

  13. Ohio Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",31582,31418,31154,31189,30705 " Coal",22264,22074,21815,21858,21360 " Petroleum",1057,1075,1047,1047,1019 " Natural Gas",8161,8169,8192,8184,8203 " Other Gases",100,100,100,100,123 "Nuclear",2120,2124,2124,2134,2134 "Renewables",175,213,214,216,231 "Pumped Storage","-","-","-","-","-"

  14. Oklahoma Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",851,851,851,854,858 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",594,689,708,1130,1480 "Wood/Wood Waste",63,63,63,58,58 "MSW/Landfill Gas",16,16,16,16,16 "Other

  15. Oklahoma Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",18301,18083,18364,18532,18350 " Coal",5372,5364,5302,5330,5330 " Petroleum",75,70,71,71,69 " Natural Gas",12854,12649,12985,13125,12951 " Other Gases","-","-",6,6,"-" "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-" "Renewables",1524,1618,1637,2057,2412 "Pumped

  16. Oregon Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",8374,8385,8364,8430,8425 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",399,885,1059,1659,2004 "Wood/Wood Waste",195,215,230,241,221 "MSW/Landfill Gas",14,20,20,26,31 "Other Biomass",3,18,3,3,3

  17. Oregon Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",3349,3686,3653,3626,3577 " Coal",585,585,585,585,585 " Petroleum","-","-","-","-","-" " Natural Gas",2764,3101,3068,3041,2992 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-"

  18. Pennsylvania Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",748,748,751,747,747 "Solar","-","-",2,2,9 "Wind",150,293,361,696,696 "Wood/Wood Waste",108,108,108,108,108 "MSW/Landfill Gas",359,379,397,419,424 "Other Biomass","-","-","-","-","-"

  19. Pennsylvania Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",32893,32751,32654,32663,32530 " Coal",18771,18581,18513,18539,18481 " Petroleum",4664,4660,4540,4533,4534 " Natural Gas",9349,9410,9507,9491,9415 " Other Gases",110,100,94,101,100 "Nuclear",9234,9305,9337,9455,9540 "Renewables",1365,1529,1619,1971,1984 "Pumped Storage",1513,1521,1521,1521,1521

  20. Rhode Island Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",4,4,3,3,3 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-","-","-",2 "Wood/Wood Waste","-","-","-","-","-" "MSW/Landfill

  1. Rhode Island Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",1743,1754,1754,1754,1754 " Coal","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",31,29,26,16,16 " Natural Gas",1712,1725,1728,1738,1738 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-"

  2. South Carolina Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",1345,1337,1337,1337,1340 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-","-","-","-" "Wood/Wood Waste",220,220,220,220,255 "MSW/Landfill Gas",29,29,35,23,29 "Other

  3. South Carolina Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",12100,12682,13281,13189,13207 " Coal",6088,6641,7242,7210,7230 " Petroleum",685,685,705,669,670 " Natural Gas",5327,5355,5335,5311,5308 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear",6472,6472,6472,6486,6486 "Renewables",1594,1587,1592,1580,1623 "Pumped Storage",2616,2826,2666,2716,2666

  4. South Dakota Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",1516,1463,1463,1594,1594 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind",43,43,193,320,629 "Wood/Wood Waste","-","-","-","-","-" "MSW/Landfill

  5. South Dakota Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity, by Energy Source

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",1374,1364,1449,1448,1401 " Coal",492,492,497,497,497 " Petroleum",232,226,230,230,228 " Natural Gas",649,645,722,722,676 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-" "Nuclear","-","-","-","-","-" "Renewables",1559,1506,1656,1914,2223 "Pumped

  6. NEPA audits at the Bonneville Power Administration's office of energy sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration has evaluated the environmental performance of its energy resource acquisition programs. To date, these programs have mostly comprised conservation activities in residential and commercial buildings. In its NEPA documentation for these programs, the agency has established a set of mitigation measures that ensure against adverse environmental impacts. The agency uses the environmental audits to evaluate the programs' performance in meeting the NEPA promises, as well as addressing how well NEPA documents meet the programs' needs and how effectively environmental and program staff interact. The audits are inexpensive and unobtrusive, thus they can be repeated as needed and can be used as a tool to facilitate communication rather than simply to meet administrative rules. As Bonneville moves to an aggressive energy resource acquisition mode, these audits will serve as a model for the ongoing evaluation of environmental performance and may be adopted agency-wide to address regulations beyond NEPA.

  7. Operating Experience Level 3 2012-01: Control of Sealed Radioactive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operating Experience Level 3 2012-01: Control of Sealed Radioactive Sources Operating Experience Level 3 2012-01: Control of Sealed Radioactive Sources February 1, 2012 OE-3 ...

  8. Dark matter capture in the first stars: a power source and limit on stellar mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freese, Katherine; Spolyar, Douglas; Aguirre, Anthony E-mail: dspolyar@physics.ucsc.edu

    2008-11-15

    The annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles can provide an important heat source for the first (Pop III, 'Pop' standing for 'population') stars, potentially leading to a new phase of stellar evolution known as a 'dark star'. When dark matter (DM) capture via scattering off baryons is included, the luminosity from DM annihilation may dominate over the luminosity due to fusion, depending on the DM density and scattering cross section. The influx of DM due to capture may thus prolong the dark star phase of stellar evolution as long as the ambient DM density is high enough. Comparison of DM luminosity with the Eddington luminosity for the star may constrain the stellar mass of zero-metallicity stars. Alternatively, if sufficiently massive Pop III stars are found, they might be used to bound dark matter properties.

  9. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-04-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of September 2003 through February 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include chemical fractionation of the organic fraction to quantify the ratio of organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC). The average OM/OC ratio for the 31 samples analyzed so far is 1.89, ranging between 1.62 and 2.53, which is consistent with expectations for an atmospherically processed regional aerosol. Analysis of the single particle data reveals that a on a particles in Pittsburgh consist of complex mixture of primary and secondary components. Approximately 79% of all particles measured with the instrument containing some form of carbon, with Carbonaceous Ammonium Nitrate (54.43%) being the dominant particle class. PMCAMx predictions were compared with data from more than 50 sites of the STN network located throughout the Eastern United States for the July 2001 period. OC and sulfate concentrations predicted by PMCAMx are within {+-}30% of the observed concentration at most of these sites. Spherical Aluminum Silicate particle concentrations (SAS) were used to estimate the contribution of primary coal emissions to fine particle levels at the central monitoring site. Primary emissions from coal combustion contribute on average 0.44 {+-} 0.3 {micro}g/m{sup 3} to PM{sub 2.5} at the site or 1.4 {+-} 1.3% of the total PM{sub 2.5} mass. Chemical mass balance analysis was performed to apportion the primary organic aerosol. About 70% of the primary OC emissions are from vehicular sources, with the gasoline contribution being on average three times greater than the diesel emissions in the summer.

  10. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Geothermal Power Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Power Chapter 4: Technology Assessments Introduction Geothermal power taps into earth's internal heat as an energy source. While geothermal currently constitutes less than 1% of total U.S. electricity generation, 1 it is regionally much more significant in the western United States. Vast amounts of heat are contained in the interior of the earth from the slow decay of radioactive elements and the heat remaining from earth's formation. This heat flows to the surface at low rates

  11. Radioactive waste management treatments: A selection for the Italian scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locatelli, G. [Univ. of Lincoln, Lincoln School of Engineering, Brayford Pool - Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Mancini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Via Lambruschini 4/B, Milano (Italy); Sardini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Energy, Via Lambruschini 4, Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    The increased attention for radioactive waste management is one of the most peculiar aspects of the nuclear sector considering both reactors and not power sources. The aim of this paper is to present the state-of-art of treatments for radioactive waste management all over the world in order to derive guidelines for the radioactive waste management in the Italian scenario. Starting with an overview on the international situation, it analyses the different sources, amounts, treatments, social and economic impacts looking at countries with different industrial backgrounds, energetic policies, geography and population. It lists all these treatments and selects the most reasonable according to technical, economic and social criteria. In particular, a double scenario is discussed (to be considered in case of few quantities of nuclear waste): the use of regional, centralized, off site processing facilities, which accept waste from many nuclear plants, and the use of mobile systems, which can be transported among multiple nuclear sites for processing campaigns. At the end the treatments suitable for the Italian scenario are presented providing simplified work-flows and guidelines. (authors)

  12. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  13. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage

  14. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using low-power laser source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graves, Steven W.; Habbersett, Robert C.

    2014-07-01

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  15. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using a low power laser source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graves, Steven W; Habbersett, Robert C

    2013-10-22

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  16. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Lee, William E.; Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  17. Design of Isotope Heat Source for Automatic Modular Dispersal During Reentry, and Its Integration with Heat Exchangers of 6-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    In late 1986 the Air Force Space Division (AF / SD) had expressed an interest in using a Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) of approximately 6-kWe to power the Boost Surveillance and Tacking System (BSTS) satellites. In support of that objective, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested Fairchild Space Company to perform a conceptual design study of the DIPS heat source and of its integration with the dynamic power conversion system, with particular emphasis on system safety. This paper describes the results of that study. The study resulted in a design for a single heat source of ~30-kWt, employing the standard 250-W General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules which DOE had previously developed and safety-tested for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTS's)

  18. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette Rohr

    2006-03-31

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2005 through February 28, 2006. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, data processing and analyses were completed for exposure and toxicological data collected during the field campaign at Plant 1, located in the Southeast. To recap from the previous progress report, Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, and Stage II assessments were carried out in a compromised model (myocardial infarction-MI-model). Normal rats were exposed to the following atmospheric scenarios: (1) primary particles; (2) oxidized emissions; (3) oxidized emissions + SOA--this scenario was repeated; and (4) oxidized emissions + ammonia + SOA. Compromised animals were exposed to oxidized emissions + SOA (this scenario was also conducted in replicate). Mass concentrations in exposure atmospheres ranged from 13.9 {micro}g/m{sup 3} for the primary particle scenario (P) to 385 {micro}g/m{sup 3} for one of the oxidized emissions + SOA

  19. Power management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  20. Electronic and photonic power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.T.; Renschler, C.L. ); Shepodd, T.J. ); Ellefson, R.E.; Gill, J.T. ); Leonard, L.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Efficient conversion of radioactive decay to electrical power has been the goal of a number of past research efforts. One of these was the Elgin-Kidde nuclear battery. In this concept promethium-147 was used as a beta source which was then mixed with a phosphor to produce a radioluminescent (RL) source of light. The light source was coupled to silicon photovoltaic converters to create electricity. This photoelectric approach is being revisited using tritium based solid state compounds and advanced gas concepts to produce RL light sources being disclosed at this conference. Efficient conversion of the RL light energy to electrical energy imposes certain requirements on the semiconductor converter. These requirements will be discussed. Projections of power source electrical and physical characteristics will be presented based on reasonable design parameter assumptions. The words Power Supply'' usually evoke a vision of a rotating machine or chemical battery. However, today's technology is making increasing use of photonics, where information and even power can be moved through optical fibers. Brighter volumetric RL light sources open a whole new range of photonics-based applications, while solid state tritiated compounds provide the foundation for improved mechanical adaptability and safety. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board`s Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns.

  2. Thin californium-containing radioactive source wires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2012-01-03

    A cermet wire includes at least 1% californium-252 and is characterized by a diameter of no more than 0.0225 inch.

  3. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  4. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  5. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including {sup 14}C, {sup 99}{Tc}, and {sup 129}I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  6. Integrated data base for 1993: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.A.; Storch, S.N.; Ashline, R.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent fuel; also, commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1992. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU), waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) LLW. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year (CY) 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

  7. Integrated Data Base for 1992: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payton, M. L.; Williams, J. T.; Tolbert-Smith, M.; Klein, J. A.

    1992-10-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1991. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

  8. Integrated Data Base report--1993: U.S. spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel; also, commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1993. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 256 refs., 38 figs., 141 tabs.

  9. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  12. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diehl, Roland

    2014-05-02

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ?My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  13. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  14. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

  16. Pulsed Ionization Source for Ion Mobility Spectrometers - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion-limited resolution. In addition, the radioactive ion sources used in many IMSs present potential safety and hazardous waste disposal issues. Other ionization sources...

  17. Power LCAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2012-08-15

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  18. Power LCAT

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2014-06-27

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  19. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

  20. Container for radioactive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  1. Memorandum, Reporting of Radiological Sealed Sources Transactions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The requirements for reporting transactions involving radiological sealed sources are identified in Department of Energy (DOE) Notice (N) 234.1, Reporting of Radioactive Sealed ...

  2. 2013 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nationalmore Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the ...

  3. Radioactive Materials Emergencies Course Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hanford Fire Department has developed this training to assist emergency responders in understanding the hazards in responding to events involving radioactive materials, to know the fundamentals of radioactive contamination, to understand the biological affects of exposure to radioactive materials, and to know how to appropriately respond to hazardous material events involving radioactive materials.

  4. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A. Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A. Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  5. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    radioactive source term released from Panel 7, Room7 Analysis based on: * Simulations ... Sampler Room 7 * CAM-151 at entrance to panel 7 * Fixed air sampler (FAS) at Station A ...

  6. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB{sub 6}-filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2010-02-15

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 {mu}H inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 Ax140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5%(600 {mu}sx25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H{sup -} ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 {mu}s and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  7. Generation of electrical power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  8. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  9. EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO A TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENT INVOLVING RADIOACTIVE...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ransportation ransportation ransportation ransportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Accident Involving Radioactive Material Accident Involving Radioactive ...

  10. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  11. Regulatory Control of Sealed Sources in Germany including Regulations Regarding Spent and Disused Sources - 13176

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dollan, Ralph; Haeusler, Uwe; Czarwinski, Renate

    2013-07-01

    Effective regulatory control is essential to ensure the safe and secure use of radioactive material and the appropriate management of radioactive waste. To ensure a sustainable control of high radioactive sources, the European Commission published the Council Directive 2003/122/EURATOM on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, which had to be transferred into national legislation by all member states of the European Union. Major requirement of the Directive is a system to ensure traceability of high-activity sealed sources from 'cradle to grave' as well as the provision to take back disused sources by the supplier or manufacturer. With the Act on high-activity sealed radioactive sources Germany implemented the requirements of the Directive 2003/122/EURATOM and established a national registry of high-activity sealed sources in 2006. Currently, about 27.000 high-activity sealed sources are recorded in this national registry. (authors)

  12. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  13. Container for radioactive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  14. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, supersedes DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

  15. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  16. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  17. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Supersedes DOE O 5820.2A. Chg 1 dated 8-28-01. Certified 1-9-07.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A

  19. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitley, C.R.; Adams, J.R.; Bounds, J.A.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination.

  20. Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) Department of Energy (DOE) Notice N 234.1 Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources has been superseded by DOE Order O 231.1B Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. O 231.1B identifies the requirements for centralized inventory and transaction reporting for radioactive sealed sources. Each DOE site/facility operator that owns, possesses, uses or maintains in custody those accountable radioactive

  1. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  2. Multi-MW 22.8 GHz Harmonic Multiplier - RF Power Source for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-07-26

    Electrodynamic and particle simulation studies have been carried out to optimize design of a two-cavity harmonic frequency multiplier, in which a linear electron beam is energized by rotating fields near cyclotron resonance in a TE111 cavity in a uniform magnetic field, and in which the beam then radiates coherently at the nth harmonic into a TEn11 output cavity. Examples are worked out in detail for 7th and 2nd harmonic converters, showing RF-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 45% and 88%, respectively at 19.992 GHz (K-band) and 5.712 GHz (C-band), for a drive frequency of 2.856 GHz. Details are shown of RF infrastructure (S-band klystron, modulator) and harmonic converter components (drive cavity, output cavities, electron beam source and modulator, beam collector) for the two harmonic converters to be tested. Details are also given for the two-frequency (S- and C-band) coherent multi-MW test stand for RF breakdown and RF gun studies.

  3. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    2002-12-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  4. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Finck; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; David Chamberlain; Don Dry; George Brooks; Margaret Goldberg

    2012-03-01

    The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a Radioactive Response Training Range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive Br-82 isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics.

  5. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Civilian Radioactive Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Civilian ...

  6. FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SRP radioactive waste releases. Startup through 1959 Ashley, C. 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS;...

  7. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  8. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  9. Channeling of high-power radio waves under conditions of strong anomalous absorption in the presence of an averaged electron heating source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vas'kov, V. V.; Ryabova, N. A.

    2010-02-15

    Strong anomalous absorption of a high-power radio wave by small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the formation of self-consistent channels (solitons) in which the wave propagates along the magnetic field, but has a soliton-like intensity distribution across the field. The structure of a cylindrical soliton as a function of the wave intensity at the soliton axis is analyzed. Averaged density perturbations leading to wave focusing were calculated using the model proposed earlier by Vas'kov and Gurevich (Geomagn. Aeron. 16, 1112 (1976)), in which an averaged electron heating source was used. It is shown that, under conditions of strong electron recombination, the radii of individual solitons do not exceed 650 m.

  10. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  11. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A. Paunska, Ts.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-03-15

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations for electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.

  12. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  13. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-26

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  14. Investigation of the effects of a thin dielectric layer on low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharges driven by combined radio frequency and pulse power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jizhong; Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Wang, Dezhen; Stirner, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Negative hydrogen ion sources, for instance for fusion devices, currently attract considerable attention. To generate the precursors—highly rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules—for negative hydrogen ions effectively by electron excitation, a thin dielectric layer is introduced to cover the surface of the electrically grounded electrode of two parallel metal plates in a low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharge driven by combined rf and pulse power sources. To understand the characteristics of such discharges, particle-in-cell simulations are conducted to study the effects that the single dielectric layer would bring onto the discharges. The simulation results show that the dielectric layer leads to a much higher plasma density and a much larger production rate of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules compared to discharges without the dielectric layer on the electrode. Further investigation indicates that the nonlinear oscillation of the electrons induced by the nanosecond-pulse continues until it is finally damped down and does not show any dependence on the pulse plateau-time, which is in stark contrast to the case without the dielectric layer present. The physical reason for this phenomenon is explored and explained.

  15. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  16. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

  19. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Robert E.; Ziegler, Anton A.; Serino, David F.; Basnar, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  20. Design and Construction of a 500 KW CW, 400 MHZ Klystron To Be Used As RF Power Source For LHC/RF Component Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, Chris

    2003-05-05

    A 500 kW cw klystron operating at 400 MHz was developed and constructed jointly by CERN and SLAC for use as a high-power source at CERN for testing LHC/RF components such as circulators, RF absorbers and superconducting cavities with their input couplers. The design is a modification of the 353 MHz SLAC PEP-I klystron. More than 80% of the original PEP-I tube parts could thus be incorporated in the LHC test klystron which resulted in lower engineering costs as well as reduced development and construction time. The physical length between cathode plane and upper pole plate was kept unchanged so that a PEP-I tube focusing solenoid, available at CERN, could be re-used. With the aid of the klystron simulation codes JPNDISK and CONDOR, the design of the LHC tube was accomplished, which resulted in a tube with noticeably higher efficiency than its predecessor, the PEP-I klystron. The integrated cavities were redesigned using SUPERFISH and the output coupling circuit, which also required redesigning, was done with the aid of MAFIA. Details of the tube development and test results are presented.

  1. Characterization of the LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/FeS(2) System for Potential Use as a Geothermal Borehole Power Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.

    1999-10-18

    We are continuing to study the suitability of modified thermal-battery technology as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications. Previous work focused on the LiSi/FeS{sub 2} couple over a temperature range of 350 C to 400 C with the LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, which melts at 324.5 C. In this work, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures between 250 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. The CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic was selected because of its lower melting point (228.5 C). Incorporation of a quasi-reference electrode allowed the determination of the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization. The results of single-cell tests and limited battery tests are presented, along with preliminary data for battery stacks tested in a simulated geothermal borehole environment.

  2. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-04

    This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Supersedes DOE M 460.2-1.

  4. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  5. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  6. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  7. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense

  8. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A chart detailling the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management More Documents & Publications Reassessment of NAF Mission...

  9. Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document This document specifies the top-level ...

  10. Radioactive Waste Management Complex Wide Review

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This page intentionally blank i Complex-Wide Review of DOE's Radioactive Waste Management ... 1.8 Demonstrated Progress in Radioactive Waste Management ......

  11. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactive material recovered One million curies of radioactive material recovered The accomplishment represents a major milestone in protecting our nation and the world from...

  12. Fiscal Year 2007 Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Fee Adequacy Assessment Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Fee Adequacy Assessment Report is to present an analysis of the adequacy of the fee being paid by nuclear power utilities...

  13. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  14. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  15. Releases of radioactivity at the Savannah River Plant, 1954--1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Lawrimore, I.B.

    1988-07-01

    Radioactive releases from Savannah River Plant (SRP) facilities to air, water and earthen seepage basins have been monitored and tabulated throughout the history of the site. The purpose of this report is to provide a source of data on routine releases of radioactivity to air, water and seepage basins that can be used for analyses of trends, environmental impact, etc. As used in this report, routine radioactive releases means radioactive materials that are released through established effluents from process facilities. This report is not intended to provide interpretation of the release values, their transport and impact or information on spills, leaks, buried waste or special use facilities. These subjects are covered in other SRP publications. This report provides a summary of radioactive releases that reflects the release values contained in records and documents from startup through 1985. Releases are tabulated in the following categories: Annual radioactive releases by emission source and radionuclide for 1954 through 1985; Annual radioactive releases by receptor medium and radionuclide for 1954 through 1985; Monthly releases by emission source and radionuclide for 1981 through 1985. The presentation of all SRP routine radioactive releases data in these categories provides a reference for historic data on SRP releases. 34 refs.

  16. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  17. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  18. The European scene regarding spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1996-06-01

    In Europe, a short pulse spallation neutron source, ISIS, has been operating for over 10 years, working its way up to a beam power level of 200 kW. A continuous source, SINQ, designed for a beam power of up to 1 MW, is scheduled to start operating at the end of 1996, and a detailed feasibility study has been completed for a 410 kW short pulse source, AUSTRON. Each of these sources seems to have settled for a target concept which is at or near the limits of its feasibility: The ISIS depleted uranium plate targets, heavy water cooled and Zircaloy clad, have so far not shown satisfactory service time and operation is likely to continue with a Ta-plate target, which, in the past has been used successfully for the equivalent of one full-beam-year before it was taken out of service due to degrading thermal properties. SINQ will initially use a rod target, made of Zircaloy only, but plans exist to move on to clad lead rods as quickly as possible. Apart from the not yet explored effect of hydrogen and helium production, there are also concerns about the generation of 7-Be in the cooling water from the spallation of oxygen, which might result in undesirably high radioactivity in the cooling plant room. A Liquid metal target, also under investigation for SINQ, would not only reduce this problem to a level of about 10 %, but would also minimize the risk of radiolytic corrosion in the beam interaction zone. Base on similar arguments, AUSTRON has been designed for edge cooled targets, but thermal and stress analyses show, that this concept is not feasible at higher power levels.

  19. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  20. Memorandum, Reporting of Radiological Sealed Sources Transactions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The requirements for reporting transactions involving radiological sealed sources are identified in Department of Energy (DOE) Notice (N) 234.1, Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources. The data reported in accordance with DOE N 234.1 are maintained in the DOE Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) database by the Office of Information Management, within the Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security.

  1. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

  2. Spent Sealed Sources Management in Switzerland - 12011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, H.F.

    2012-07-01

    Information is provided about the international recommendations for the safe management of disused and spent sealed radioactive sources wherein the return to the supplier or manufacturer is encouraged for large radioactive sources. The legal situation in Switzerland is described mentioning the demand of minimization of radioactive waste as well as the situation with respect to the interim storage facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Based on this information and on the market situation with a shortage of some medical radionuclides the management of spent sealed sources is provided. The sources are sorted according to their activity in relation to the nuclide-specific A2-value and either recycled as in the case of high active sources or conditioned as in the case for sources with lower activity. The results are presented as comparison between recycled and conditioned activity for three selected nuclides, i.e. Cs-137, Co-60 and Am-241. (author)

  3. Estimating the releasable source term for Type B packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, B.L.; Carlson, R.W.; Osgood, N.

    1995-11-01

    The release rate criteria for Type B packages designed to transport radioactive materials is given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71). Before the maximum allowable volumetric leakage rate that corresponds to the regulatory release rate can be calculated, estimation of the releasable source term activity density (concentration of releasable radioactive material) is required. This work provides methods for estimating the releasable source term for packages holding various contents types. The contents types considered include: (1) radioactive liquids; (2) radioactive gases; (3) radioactive powders and dispersible solids; (4) non-dispersible radioactive solids and (5) irradiated nuclear fuel rods. The numbers given, especially as related to the source term for packages transporting irradiated fuel rods, are preliminary and are subject to change upon development of improved methods and/or upon review of additional experimental data.

  4. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding ? source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  5. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  6. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2002-08-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  7. Method for making radioactive metal articles having small dimensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohriner, Evan K.

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a radioactive article such as wire, includes the steps of providing a metal article having a first shape, such a cylinder, that is either radioactive itself or can be converted to a second, radioactive isotope by irradiation; melting the metal article one or more times; optionally adding an alloying metal to the molten metal in order to enhance ductility or other properties; placing the metal article having the first shape (e.g., cylindrical) into a cavity in the interior of an extrusion body (e.g., a cylinder having a cylindrical cavity therein); extruding the extrusion body and the article having the first shape located in the cavity therein, resulting in an elongated extrusion body and an article having a second shape; removing the elongated extrusion body, for example by chemical means, leaving the elongated inner article substantially intact; optionally repeating the extrusion procedure one or more times; and then drawing the elongated article to still further elongate it, into wire, foil, or another desired shape. If the starting metal is enriched in a radioactive isotope or a precursor thereof, the end product can provide a more intense radiation source than conventionally manufactured radioactive wire, foil, or the like.

  8. POWER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  9. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  10. Status of Activities on Rehabilitation Of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities and the Site of Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, V. G.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Melkov, E. S; Ryazantsev, E. P.; Dikarev, V. S.; Gorodetsky, G. G.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Kuznetsova, T. I.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the program, the status, and the course of activities on rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated facilities and the territory of temporary radioactive waste (radwaste) disposal at the Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' (RRC KI) in Moscow as performed in 2001-2002. The accumulation of significant amounts of radwaste at RRC KI territory is shown to be the inevitable result of Institute's activity performed in the days of former USSR nuclear weapons project and multiple initial nuclear power projects (performed from 1950's to early 1970's). A characterization of RRC KI temporary radwaste disposal site is given. Described is the system of radiation control and monitoring as implemented on this site. A potential hazard of adverse impacts on the environment and population of the nearby housing area is noted, which is due to possible spread of the radioactive plume by subsoil waters. A description of the concept and project of the RRC KI temporary radwaste disposal site is presented. Specific nature of the activities planned and performed stems from the nearness of housing area. This paper describes main stages of the planned activities for rehabilitation, their expected terms and sources of funding, as well as current status of the project advancement. Outlined are the problems faced in the performance and planning of works. The latter include: diagnostics of the concrete-grouted repositories, dust-suppression technologies, packaging of the fragmented ILW and HLW, soil clean-up, radioactive plume spread prevention, broad radiation monitoring of the work zone and environment in the performance of rehabilitation works. Noted is the intention of RRC KI to establish cooperation with foreign, first of all, the U.S. partners for the solution of problems mentioned above.

  11. Radioactive materials in biosolids : dose modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolbarst, A. B.; Chiu, W. A; Yu, C.; Aiello, K.; Bachmaier, J. T.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J. -J.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhartt, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. EPA; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. DOE; U.S. NRC; NE Ohio Regional Sewer District

    2006-01-01

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible transport of radioactivity from sludge into the local environment and the subsequent exposure of humans. A stochastic environmental pathway model was applied separately to seven hypothetical, generic sludge-release scenarios, leading to the creation of seven tables of Dose-to-Source Ratios (DSR), which can be used in translating from specific activity in sludge into dose to an individual. These DSR values were then combined with the results of an ISCORS survey of sludge and ash at more than 300 publicly owned treatment works, to explore the potential for radiation exposure of sludge workers and members of the public. This paper provides a brief overview of the pathway modeling methodology employed in the exposure and dose assessments and discusses technical aspects of the results obtained.

  12. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  13. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Stephen N; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C

    2014-06-24

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  14. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  15. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.; Dates, Leon R.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive material storage system for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or

  16. Dedication of Radioactive Source Storage Facilities in Tajikistan...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    During the dedication ceremony at the SI-RWDS, Tajikistan's Nuclear and Radiation Safety Agency (NRSA) director Dr. Ulmas Mirsaidov and SI-RWDS director Dr. Asliddin Shonazarov ...

  17. EA-1059: Radioactive Source Recovery Program, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to establish a program to accept and recover surplus americium-241 mixed with beryllium metal (Be) and plutonium-238 mixed with Be sealed...

  18. NNSA Removes Radioactive Sources From University Facility | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Established by Congress in 2000, NNSA is a semi-autonomous agency within the U.S. Department of Energy responsible for maintaining and enhancing the safety, security, reliability ...

  19. Shipping Radioactive Waste by Rail from Brookhaven National Laboratory...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Shipping Radioactive Waste by Rail from Brookhaven National Laboratory Shipping Radioactive Waste by Rail from Brookhaven National Laboratory Shipping Radioactive Waste by Rail ...

  20. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  1. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  2. SRP RADIOACTIVE WASTE RELEASES S

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    . . . . . -- SRP RADIOACTIVE WASTE RELEASES S t a r t u p t h r o u g h 1 9 5 9 September 1 9 6 0 - R E C O R D - W O R K S T E C H N I C A L D E P A R T M E N T 1 J. E. C o l e , ...

  3. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Basics Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a generator to produce electricity. However, a new generation of power plants with concentrating solar power systems uses the sun as a heat source. The three main types of concentrating solar power systems are: linear concentrator, dish/engine, and power tower systems. Linear concentrator systems collect the sun's energy

  5. radioactive waste | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home radioactive waste Y-12 completes waste removal project two years ahead of schedule U.S. Leads Fifth International Review Meeting on the Safety of Spent Fuel and Radioactive ...

  6. Dependence of beam emittance on plasma electrode temperature and rf-power, and filter-field tuning with center-gapped rod-filter magnets in J-PARC rf-driven H{sup ?} ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, A. Koizumi, I.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Yamazaki, S.; Oguri, H.

    2014-02-15

    The prototype rf-driven H{sup ?} ion-source with a nickel plated oxygen-free-copper (OFC) plasma chamber, which satisfies the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) 2nd stage requirements of a H{sup ?} ion beam current of 60 mA within normalized emittances of 1.5 ? mm mrad both horizontally and vertically, a flat top beam duty factor of 1.25% (500 ?s 25 Hz) and a life-time of more than 50 days, was reported at the 3rd international symposium on negative ions, beams, and sources (NIBS2012). The experimental results of the J-PARC ion source with a plasma chamber made of stainless-steel, instead of nickel plated OFC used in the prototype source, are presented in this paper. By comparing these two sources, the following two important results were acquired. One was that the about 20% lower emittance was produced by the rather low plasma electrode (PE) temperature (T{sub PE}) of about 120?C compared with the typically used T{sub PE} of about 200?C to maximize the beam current for the plasma with the abundant cesium (Cs). The other was that by using the rod-filter magnets with a gap at each center and tuning the gap-lengths, the filter-field was optimized and the rf-power necessary to produce the J-PARC required H{sup ?} ion beam current was reduced typically 18%. The lower rf-power also decreases the emittances.

  7. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  9. DC source assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  10. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Signore, John C.

    2015-07-14

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2014.

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Piqua Nuclear Power Facility - OH 08

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Piqua Nuclear Power Facility - OH 08 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Piqua Nuclear Power Facility (OH.08 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Piqua, Ohio, Decommissioned Reactor Site Documents Related to Piqua Nuclear Power Facility

  12. Radioactive Material Transportation Requirements for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, Mark Earl; Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Bolander, Thane Weston

    2000-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) created the National Transportation Program (NTP) whose goal is to ensure the availability of safe, efficient, and timely transportation of DOE materials. The Integration and Planning Group of the NTP, assisted by Global Technologies Incorporated (GTI), was tasked to identify requirements associated with the transport of DOE Environmental Management (EM) radiological waste/material. A systems engineering approach was used to identify source documents, extract requirements, perform a functional analysis, and set up a transportation requirements management database in RDD-100. Functions and requirements for transporting the following DOE radioactive waste/material are contained in the database: high level radioactive waste (HLW), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW), nuclear materials (NM), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and transuranic waste (TRU waste). The requirements will be used in the development of standard transportation protocols for DOE shipping. The protocols will then be combined into a DOE Transportation Program Management Guide, which will be used to standardize DOE transportation processes.

  13. radioactivity | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    radioactivity Department of Energy's chief risk officer visits Nevada National Security Site Earlier this month, Associate Deputy Secretary John MacWilliams visited the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in his role as Chief Risk Officer for the Department of Energy. He reviewed the various ways the NNSS contributes to the department's and NNSA's missions, including radiological... San Francisco Bay Area Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey (SAN JOSE and SAN FRANCISCO, California) - A helicopter

  14. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  15. Explore Water Power Careers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Power Careers Explore Water Power Careers America's oldest and largest source of renewable power is water. To this end, the Water Power Program, part of the Wind and Water ...

  16. Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Roser, T.

    2009-12-01

    A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.

  17. Programmable AC power supply for simulating power transient expected in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focus on control engineering of the programmable AC power source which has capability to simulate power transient expected in fusion reactor. To generate the programmable power source, AC-AC power electronics converter is adopted to control the power of a set of heaters to represent the transient phenomena of heat exchangers or heat sources of a fusion reactor. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma operation scenario is used as the basic reference for producing this transient power source. (authors)

  18. Lesson 7 - Waste from Nuclear Power Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 - Waste from Nuclear Power Plants Lesson 7 - Waste from Nuclear Power Plants This lesson takes a look at the waste from electricity production at nuclear power plants. It considers the different types of waste generated, as well as how we deal with each type of waste. Specific topics covered include: Nuclear Waste Some radioactive Types of radioactive waste Low-level waste High-level waste Disposal and storage Low-level waste disposal Spent fuel storage Waste isolation Reprocessing

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN THE REACTOR VESSEL OF THE HEAVY WATER COMPONENT TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    The Heavy Water Component Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility is a pressurized heavy water reactor that was used to test candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. The reactor operated at nominal power of 50 MW{sub th}. The reactor coolant loop operated at 1200 psig and 250 C. Two isolated test loop were designed into the reactor to provide special test conditions. Fig. 1 shows a cut-away view of the reactor. The two loops are contained in four inch diameter stainless steel piping. The HWCTR was operated for only a short duration, from March 1962 to December 1964 in order to test the viability of test fuel elements and other reactor components for use in a heavy water power reactor. The reactor achieved 13,882 MWd of total power while testing 36 different fuel assemblies. In the course of operation, HWCTR experienced the cladding failures of 10 separate test fuel assemblies. In each case, the cladding was breached with some release of fuel core material into the isolated test loop, causing fission product and actinide contamination in the main coolant loop and the liquid and boiling test loops. Despite the contribution of the contamination from the failed fuel, the primary source of radioactivity in the HWCTR vessel and internals is the activation products in the thermal shields, and to a lesser degree, activation products in the reactor vessel walls and liner. A detailed facility characterization report of the HWCTR facility was completed in 1996. Many of the inputs and assumptions in the 1996 characterization report were derived from the HWCTR decommissioning plan published in 1975. The current paper provides an updated assessment of the radioisotopic characteristics of the HWCTR vessel and internals to support decommissioning activities on the facility.

  20. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  1. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  2. radioactivity

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    application of nuclear science. NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, reliability and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing;...

  3. Production of intense beams of singly charged radioactive ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, G.; Batazova, M.; Gubin, K.; Logachev, P.; Martyshkin, P.

    2006-03-15

    An apparatus for the production of intense beams of singly charged radioactive ions operating in on-line regime is proposed. The radioactive atoms are produced in a uranium-graphite (UC) target bombarded with neutrons. The neutron flux is generated by a graphite neutron converter, which is bombarded with protons. The atoms of the produced isotopes are ionized in the electron beam generated with the electron gun and the ions of interest are extracted in a separator. The apparatus consists of the following parts. (1) Rotating converter dissipating a substantial power of proton beam. (2) UC target placed in a graphite container at high temperature. The atoms of radioactive isotopes can be extracted with a flow of noble gas. (3) Triode electron gun with ionization channel is placed inside the solenoid forming a focusing magnetic field. The cathode of the electron gun is a spout of the graphite container. The atoms of radioactive isotopes are carried with gas flow through the spout into the electron beam. (4) Correction coil located near the gun matches the electron beam with the ionization channel. (5) The first anode has a potential of 1-4 kV with respect to the cathode, and the second anode has some lower potential than the first anode and it is the tube of ionization channel. (6) Electron collector dissipates the electron-beam power. (7) Uranium-graphite target, the gun, the ionization channel as well as solenoid are located on an isolated platform with potential of 30-60 kV with respect to ground. The beam of singly charged ions from the ionization channel passes the collector, goes through the extractor, acquires energy of 30-60 keV, and gets transported to the separator where the required species are selected.

  4. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  5. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gablin, K.; No, Hyo; Herman, J.

    1993-08-01

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage.

  6. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  7. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  8. Science with Beams of Radioactive Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pacifichem 2015 Pacifichem 2015 The International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies Science with Beams of Radioactive Isotopes (# 340) Honolulu, Hawaii, USA December 15-20, 2015 Science with Beams of Radioactive Isotopes (# 340) All of the elements that make up the periodic chart have been created from nuclear reactions. Many of the stable nuclei in the universe are daughters of unstable isotopes, and their true origin lies in the stellar reactions of these radioactive isotopes. Thus

  9. Solium Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc. is dedicated to the research, development and application of Solar Panels and Lithium powered technology as an alternative power source for residential and commercial...

  10. Safety Around Sources of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The

  11. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah.

  12. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

  13. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  14. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  15. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky.

  16. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  17. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  18. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut.

  19. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  20. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  1. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  2. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  3. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

  4. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  5. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  6. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee.

  7. Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Council of State Governments Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee May 15, 2012 Knoxville, Tennessee Revised Agenda 9 - 9:45 am Welcome, Introductions, and...

  8. Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods and Observations from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods & Observations from Savannah River Site Dennis Jackson ...operatingops- experiencetritiumplant-info.html 14 15 DOE Nuclear & NRC ...

  9. Agencies complete comprehensive investigation for radioactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a CERCLA (Superfund) Remedial Investigation and Baseline Risk Assessment and Feasibility Study of a radioactive and hazardous waste landfill at the U.S. Department of...

  10. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ANNUAL TRANSPORTATION REPORT FY 2008 Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) February 2009 United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security...

  11. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  12. Enterprise Assessments Review of Radioactive Waste Management...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gaseous Diffusion Plant - December 2015 Enterprise Assessments Review of Radioactive Waste Management at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - December 2015 December ...

  13. SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE COLUMBIUM TRACER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glendenin, L.E.; Gest, H.

    1958-08-26

    A process is presented for the recovery of radioactive columbium from solutions containing such columbium together with radioactive tellurium. The columbium and tellurium values are separated from such solutions by means of an inorganic oxide carrier precipitate, such as MnO/sub 2/. This oxide carrier precipitate and its associated columbium and telluriuan values are then dissolved in an aqueous acidic solution and nonradioactive tellurium, in an ionic form, is then introduced into such solution, for example in the form of H/sub 2/TeO/sub 3/. The tellurium present in the solution is then reduced to the elemental state and precipitates, and is then separated from the supernataat solution. A basic acetate precipitate is formed in the supernatant and carries the remaining columblum values therefrom. After separation, this basic ferric acetate precipitate is dissolved, and the ferric ions are removed by means of an organic solvent extraction process utilizing ether. The remaining solution contains carrier-free columbium as its only metal ion.

  14. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.; Knutson, B.; Dunne, A. M.; Kasper, J.; Sheehan, T.; Lang, D.; Roberts, V.; Mau, D.

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  15. Sealed source peer review plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR {section} 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  16. OLED area illumination source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  17. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C. N.; Rotarescu, G.; Paunica, I.

    2003-02-25

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  18. Radioactive Dose Assessment and NRC Verification of Licensee Dose Calculation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-09-16

    Version 00 PCDOSE was developed for the NRC to perform calculations to determine radioactive dose due to the annual averaged offsite release of liquid and gaseous effluent by U.S commercial nuclear power facilities. Using NRC approved dose assessment methodologies, it acts as an inspector's tool for verifying the compliance of the facility's dose assessment software. PCDOSE duplicates the calculations of the GASPAR II mainframe code as well as calculations using the methodologices of Reg. Guidemore » 1.109 Rev. 1 and NUREG-0133 by optional choice.« less

  19. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  20. Green Power Purchasing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2003, Maine's governor established a goal for the state government to buy at least 50% of its electricity from "reasonably priced" renewable power sources, paid for by energy conservation...

  1. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

    1988-04-11

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

  2. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, Katherine M.; Starenchak, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which mvoes between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place.

  3. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  4. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  5. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world`s largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  6. Power Plant Modeling and Simulation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory's Office of Research and Development provides open source tools and expetise for modeling and simulating power plants and carbon sequestration technologies.

  7. Power Plant Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-21

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory's Office of Research and Development provides open source tools and expetise for modeling and simulating power plants and carbon sequestration technologies.

  8. People Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    award for behavioral science based controls of energy use; People Power provides open source standards based energy management software to Original Equipment Manufacturers and...

  9. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  10. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  12. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  13. Radioactive targets for neutron-induced cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronenberg, A.; Bond, E. M.; Glover, S. E.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Esch, E. I.; Reifarth, R.; Ullmann, J. L.; Haight, Robert C.; Rochmann, D.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements using radioactive targets are important for the determination of key reaction path ways associated with the synthesis of the elements in nuclear astrophysics (sprocess), advanced fuel cycle initiative (transmutation of radioactive waste), and stockpile stewardship. High precision capture cross-section measurements are needed to interpret observations, predict elemental or isotopical ratios, and unobserved abundances. There are two new detector systems that are presently being commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory for very precise measurements of (n,{gamma}) and (n,f) cross-sections using small quantities of radioactive samples. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments), a 4 {pi} gamma array made up of 160 BaF{sub 2} detectors, is designed to measure neutron capture cross-sections of unstable nuclei in the low-energy range (thermal to {approx}500 keV). The high granularity and high detection efficiency of DANCE, combined with the high TOF-neutron flux available at the Lujan Center provides a versatile tool for measuring many important cross section data using radioactive and isotopically enriched targets of about 1 milligram. Another powerful instrument is the Lead-slowing down spectrometer (LSDS), which will enable the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-section of U-235m and other short-lived actinides in a energy range from 1-200 keV with sample sizes down to 10 nanograms. Due to the short half-life of the U-235m isomer (T{sub 1/2} = 26 minutes), the samples must be rapidly and repeatedly extracted from its {sup 239}Pu parent. Since {sup 239}Pu is itself highly fissile, the separation must not only be rapid, but must also be of very high purity (the Pu must be removed from the U with a decontamination factor >10{sup 12}). Once extracted and purified, the {sup 235m}U isomer would be electrodeposited on solar cells as a fission detector and placed within the LSDS for direct (n,f) cross section measurements. The

  14. Current regulatory and licensing status for byproduct sources, facilities and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingey, G.L.; Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Public use of nuclear byproducts, especially radioactive isotopes, will require approval by various regulatory agencies. Use of cesium-137 as an irradiation source for sterilizing medical products will require US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval. Two applications have been filed with NRC, and approval is expected soon. Widespread use of irradiation for food products depends on a favorable ruling by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A ruling is pending that would permit irradiation of fruits and vegetables up to 100 krad. NRC also controls the use of isotopes in remote power generators, but little regulatory action has been required in recent years. Recent development of radioluminescent (RL) lighting for runway lights has led to interest by commercial manufacturers. At the present time, a license has been issued to at least one manufacturer for sale of tritium-powered runway lights. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  16. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, John B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

  17. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.

    1994-06-28

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

  18. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  19. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  20. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  1. Deep Well #4 Backup Power Systems Project Closeout Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Westwood

    2010-04-01

    The project scope was to install a diesel generated power source to deep well 4 in addition to the existing commercial power source. The diesel power source and its fuel supply system shall be seismically qualified to withstand a Performance Category 4 (PC-4) seismic event. This diesel power source will permit the deep well to operate during a loss of commercial power. System design will incorporate the ability to select and transfer power between the new diesel power source and commercial power sources for the the deep well motor and TRA-672 building loads.

  2. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devgun, J.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Larson, G.S. [Midwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change.

  3. Influence of Radioactivity on Surface Charging and Aggregation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Radioactivity on Surface Charging and Aggregation Kinetics of Particles in the Atmosphere Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Radioactivity on Surface ...

  4. Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments Benefit Multiple Users Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments Benefit Multiple Users ...

  5. Influence of surface potential on the adhesive force of radioactive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of radioactive gold surfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of surface potential on the adhesive force of radioactive gold surfaces Authors: Kweon, Hyojin ...

  6. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer The Model...

  7. Savannah River Site Celebrates Historic Closure of Radioactive...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Celebrates Historic Closure of Radioactive Waste Tanks: Senior DOE Officials and South ... Savannah River Site Celebrates Historic Closure of Radioactive Waste Tanks: Senior DOE ...

  8. Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High- Level Radioactive...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactive Waste March 2015 This page left blank. i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Purpose This report considers whether a separate repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) ...

  9. Management Not Available 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    87 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume I, Part 3, Waste Management Not Available 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 11...

  10. Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments PDF icon Safety and Security Technologies for...

  11. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  12. Ion Sources - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources The 88-Inch Cyclotron is fed by three Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) high-charge-state ion sources, the ECR, the AECR, and VENUS, currently the most powerful ECR ion source in the world. Built to answer the demand for intense heavy ion beams, these high performance ion sources enable the 88-Inch Cyclotron to accelerate beams of ions from hydrogen to uranium. The ECR ion sources allow the efficient use of rare isotopes of stable elements, either from natural or enriched sources. A

  13. Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III

    1994-03-01

    The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing health, environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of international inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of international scrap metal markets; assessment of radiological and non-radiological human health risks; impacts on environmental quality and resources; and investigation of social and political factors. The RSM disposal option is being assessed with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing the metals if they are withdrawn from use. Impact estimates are developed for steel as an illustrative example because steel comprises a major portion of the scrap metal inventory. Current and potential sources of RSM include nuclear power plants, fuel cycle and weapons production facilities, industrial and medical facilities and equipment, and petroleum and phosphate rock extraction equipment. Millions of metric tons (t) of scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper, as well as lesser quantities of aluminum, nickel, lead, and zirconium, are likely to become available in the future as these facilities are withdrawn from service.

  14. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  15. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyta, Cristy L; Matzke, James L; Zarling, John; Tompkin, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  16. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    response to severe nuclear power plant accidents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant ...

  17. Three multimedia models used at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Holtzman, S.; Sun, L.C.; Rambaugh, J.O.; Potter, S.

    1996-02-01

    Multimedia models are used commonly in the initial phases of the remediation process where technical interest is focused on determining the relative importance of various exposure pathways. This report provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing the capabilities of multimedia models. This study focused on three specific models MEPAS Version 3.0, MMSOILS Version 2.2, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG Version 2.0. These models evaluate the transport and fate of contaminants from source to receptor through more than a single pathway. The presence of radioactive and mixed wastes at a site poses special problems. Hence, in this report, restrictions associated with the selection and application of multimedia models for sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes are highlighted. This report begins with a brief introduction to the concept of multimedia modeling, followed by an overview of the three models. The remaining chapters present more technical discussions of the issues associated with each compartment and their direct application to the specific models. In these analyses, the following components are discussed: source term; air transport; ground water transport; overland flow, runoff, and surface water transport; food chain modeling; exposure assessment; dosimetry/risk assessment; uncertainty; default parameters. The report concludes with a description of evolving updates to the model; these descriptions were provided by the model developers.

  18. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wobrauschek, P. Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Streli, C.; Misra, N. L.

    2015-08-15

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm{sup 2} active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  19. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Hungary - 13077

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapitany, Sandor

    2013-07-01

    Since 1976 the spent and disused radioactive sources arisen in Hungary are stored in a central storage facility called Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility operated by Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management. The Facility is responsible for the record keeping, the waste acceptance procedure, the shipment and the storage or disposal (whether a certain source meets the waste acceptance criteria for disposal or not) of sources. Based on the more than 35 year old operation of the facility many experiences have been gathered regarding the technology for long-term storage of sources, the attitude of the users of sources, the evolution of the legislation and the national record keeping system. Recently a new legislation for the security of radioactive materials (including sources) was introduced, first in Central-Europe. It requires special security arrangements from the facility for transport and for storage. Due to the ongoing retrieval of radioactive waste formerly disposed of, partly containing sealed sources, there is a new challenge in the physical inventory control of historical waste. The paper would show the effect of the changes in the legislation system of record keeping or security on the users' attitude for discard of sources and on the management of the sources in the facility. The facility has a unique storage technology (shallow boreholes) in the narrow region. The sealed sources are placed into vertical pipes sunk into the surface. In the beginning, each of the sources were dropped into the pipe directly, recently they are placed in a metal tube first ensuring the retrieval. The lessons learned will be presented. There were several issues to introduce the new security arrangements (partly financially supported by US DOE) for storage and for transportation of sealed sources. These issues are addressed. In the past part of the sealed sources were disposed together with solid radioactive waste packaged in plastic bags. A waste

  20. Radioactive Material or Multiple Hazardous Materials Decontamination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for performing decontamination of individuals who have entered a “hot zone” during transportation incidents involving  radioactive.