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1

Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

2

Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

3

Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish U.S. Department of Energy requirements for inventory reporting, transaction reporting, verification of reporting, and assign responsibilities for reporting of radioactive sealed sources. DOE N 251.86 extends this notice until 5-6-11. No cancellations. Canceled by DOE O 231.1B

2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

4

Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

5

Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Security for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet Mar 23, 2012 Radioactive materials are a critical and beneficial component of global

6

Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Control Guide  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

For use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a sealed radioactive source accountability and control program that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998a), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835. In particular, this Guide provides guidance for achieving compliance with subpart M of 10 CFR 835. Canceled by DOE G 441.1-1B.

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512  

SciTech Connect

The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)] [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Radioactive targets and source development at Argonne National Laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An increased demand for low-level radioactive targets has created the need for a laboratory dedicated to the production of these foils. A description is given of the radioactive targets produced as well as source development work being performed at the Physics Division target facility of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Highlights include equipment used and the techniques employed. In addition, some examples of recent source preparation are given as well as work currently in progress.

John P. Greene; Irshad Ahmad; George E. Thomas

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in EgyptIMPRSS  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Realed Sources (IMPRSS) in Egypt.

Hasan, A.; El-Adham, K.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

11

Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

12

Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

13

Ris-R-1146(EN) Power Production from Radioactively  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the 1986 Chernobyl power plant disaster. The combustion of biomass in an electric-power-producing boilerRisø-R-1146(EN) Power Production from Radioactively Contaminated Biomass and Forest Litter and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in a Belarussian

14

Fusion-A Potential Power Source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fusion-A Potential Power Source ... Nuclear energy, fusion reactions, magnetic confinement, and tokamaks. ...

Torkil H. Jensen

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and correct.

Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

16

Emissivity Tuned Emitter for RTPV Power Sources  

SciTech Connect

Every mission launched by NASA to the outer planets has produced unexpected results. The Voyager I and II, Galileo, and Cassini missions produced images and collected scientific data that totally revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and the formation of the planetary systems. These missions were enabled by the use of nuclear power. Because of the distances from the Sun, electrical power was produced using the radioactive decay of a plutonium isotope. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in the past and currently used Multi-Mission RTGs (MMRTGs) provide power for space missions. Unfortunately, RTGs rely on thermocouples to convert heat to electricity and are inherently inefficient ({approx} 3-7% thermal to electric efficiency). A Radioisotope Thermal Photovoltaic (RTPV) power source has the potential to reduce the specific mass of the onboard power supply by increasing the efficiency of thermal to electric conversion. In an RTPV, a radioisotope heats an emitter, which emits light to a photovoltaic (PV) cell, which converts the light into electricity. Developing an emitter tuned to the desired wavelength of the photovoltaic is a key part in increasing overall performance. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have built a Thermal Photovoltaic (TPV) system, that utilizes a simulated General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) from a MMRTG to heat a tantalum emitter. The GPHS is a block of graphite roughly 10 cm by 10 cm by 5 cm. A fully loaded GPHS produces 250 w of thermal power and weighs 1.6 kgs. The GRC system relies on the GPHS unit radiating at 1200 K to a tantalum emitter that, in turn, radiates light to a GaInAs photo-voltaic cell. The GRC claims system efficiency of conversion of 15%. The specific mass is around 167 kg/kWe. A RTPV power source that utilized a ceramic or ceramic-metal (cermet) matrix would allow for the combination of the heat source, canister, and emitter into one compact unit, and allow variation in size and shape to optimize temperature and emission spectra.

Carl M. Stoots; Robert C. O'Brien; Troy M. Howe

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Compact portable electric power sources  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants on Marine Radioactivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants on Marine Radioactivity ... Discussion of these data has involved many of our colleagues in Japan, including M. Uematsu (Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo), M. Honda and T. Kawano (Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology) and D. Tsumune (Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). ...

Ken Buesseler; Michio Aoyama; Masao Fukasawa

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

19

Conventional power sources for colliders  

SciTech Connect

At SLAC we are developing high peak-power klystrons to explore the limits of use of conventional power sources in future linear colliders. In an experimental tube we have achieved 150 MW at 1 ..mu..sec pulse width at 2856 MHz. In production tubes for SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) we routinely achieve 67 MW at 3.5 ..mu..sec pulse width and 180 pps. Over 200 of the klystrons are in routine operation in SLC. An experimental klystron at 8.568 GHz is presently under construction with a design objective of 30 MW at 1 ..mu..sec. A program is starting on the relativistic klystron whose performance will be analyzed in the exploration of the limits of klystrons at very short pulse widths.

Allen, M.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Current Situation for Management of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in Japan - 13025  

SciTech Connect

As for the Sealed Radioactive Source currently used in Japan, many of them are imported from overseas. The U.S., Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Czech Republic are the main exporting States. Many of disused sealed radioactive sources are being returned to exporting States. The sealed radioactive sources which cannot be returned to exporting States are appropriately kept in the domestic storage facility. So, there are not main problem on the long term management of disused sealed radioactive sources in Japan. However, there are some difficulties on repatriate. One is reservation of a means of transport. The sea mail which conveys radioactive sources owing to reduction of movement of international cargo is decreasing in number. And there is a denial of shipment. Other one is that the manufacturer has already resigned from the work and cannot return disused sealed radioactive sources, or a manufacturer cannot specify and disused sources cannot be returned. The disused sealed radioactive source which cannot be repatriated is a little in term of radioactivity. As for the establishment of national measure of final disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources, in Japan, it is not yet installed with difficulty. Since there are many countries for which installation of a final disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources is difficult, the source manufacture country should respond positively to return the source which was manufactured and sold in the past. (authors)

Kusama, Keiji; Miyamoto, Yoichi [Japan Radioisotope Association, Radiopharmaceutical and Radioisotope Supply Business Promotion Department (Japan)] [Japan Radioisotope Association, Radiopharmaceutical and Radioisotope Supply Business Promotion Department (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sources, classification, and disposal of radioactive wastes: History and legal and regulatory requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: (1) early definitions of different types (classes) of radioactive waste developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations; (2) sources of different classes of radioactive waste; (3) current laws and regulations addressing classification of radioactive wastes; and requirements for disposal of different waste classes. Relationship between waste classification and requirements for permanent disposal is emphasized; (4) federal and state responsibilities for radioactive wastes; and (5) distinctions between radioactive wastes produced in civilian and defense sectors.

Kocher, D.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity radioactive sources Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sealed ... Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, High Redshift Supernova Search Collection: Physics 3 Radioactive Waste Guidance PAGE * MERGEFORMAT June 10, 2011...

23

Geo-neutrinos and the Radioactive Power of the Earth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical and physical Earth models agree little as to the radioactive power of the planet. Each predicts a range of radioactive powers, overlapping slightly with the other at about 24 TW, and together spanning 14-46 TW. Approximately 20 % of this radioactive power (3-8 TW) escapes to space in the form of geo-neutrinos. The remaining 11-38 TW heats the planet with significant geo-dynamical consequences, appearing as the radiogenic component of the 43-49 TW surface heat flow. The non-radiogenic component of the surface heat flow (5-38 TW) is presumably primordial, a legacy of the formation and early evolution of the planet. A constraining measurement of radiogenic heating provides insights to the thermal history of the Earth and potentially discriminates chemical and physical Earth models. Radiogenic heating in the planet primarily springs from unstable nuclides of uranium, thorium, and potassium. The paths to their stable daughter nuclides include nuclear beta decays, producing geo-neutrinos. Large sub-surface detectors efficiently record the energy but not the direction of the infrequent interactions of the highest energy geo-neutrinos, originating only from uranium and thorium. The measured energy spectrum of the interactions estimates the relative amounts of these heat-producing elements, while the intensity estimates planetary radiogenic power. Recent geo-neutrino observations in Japan and Italy find consistent values of radiogenic heating. The combined result mildly excludes the lowest model values of radiogenic heating and, assuming whole mantle convection, identifies primordial heat loss. Future observations have the potential to measure radiogenic heating with better precision, further constraining geological models and the thermal evolution of the Earth.

Steve Dye

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

24

EA-164-A Constellation Power Source, Inc | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Power Source, Inc EA-164-A Constellation Power Source, Inc Order authorizing Constellation Power Source, Inc to export electric energy to Canada. EA-164-A...

25

EA-164 Constellation Power Source, Inc | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Constellation Power Source, Inc EA-164 Constellation Power Source, Inc Order authorizing Constellation Power Source, Inc to export electric energy to Canada. EA-164 Constellation...

26

Property:EnergyAccessPowerSource | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name EnergyAccessPowerSource Property Type String Description Power Source Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:EnergyAccessPowerSource&oldid421179...

27

MARSAME Appendix B B. SOURCES OF BACKGROUND RADIOACTIVITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consideration is given to issues associated with technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive reports on Exposure of the Population in the United States and Canada from Natural Background Radiation.1 Terrestrial Radioactivity The naturally occurring forms of radioactive elements incorporated into the Earth

28

The input power of distributed sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An alternative to the conventional method of calculation of net power radiated by flux integration is presented. This method allows power radiated by distributed sources to be calculated by an integral only over the source region. Furthermore the method is applicable to calculation of radiation from distributed sources in flow. Examples of power radiation for the geometry of the finite cylinder are given for both stationary and moving media. Analytic results are presented for the long wavelength approximation.

Marian Smith

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

RADIOACTIVELY POWERED RISING LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

The rising luminosity of the recent, nearby supernova 2011fe shows a quadratic dependence with time during the first Almost-Equal-To 0.5-4 days. In addition, studies of the composite light curves formed from stacking together many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have found similar power-law indices for the rise, but may also show some dispersion that may indicate diversity. I explore what range of power-law rises are possible due to the presence of radioactive material near the surface of the exploding white dwarf (WD). I summarize what constraints such a model places on the structure of the progenitor and the distribution and velocity of ejecta. My main conclusion is that for the inferred explosion time for SN 2011fe, its rise requires an increasing mass fraction X {sub 56} Almost-Equal-To (4-6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} of {sup 56}Ni distributed between a depth of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} and 0.3 M {sub Sun} below the WD's surface. Radioactive elements this shallow are not found in simulations of a single C/O detonation. Scenarios that may produce this material include helium-shell burning during a double-detonation ignition, a gravitationally confined detonation, and a subset of deflagration to detonation transition models. In general, the power-law rise can differ from quadratic depending on the details of the velocity, density, and radioactive deposition gradients in a given event. Therefore, comparisons of this work with observed bolometric rises of SNe Ia would place strong constraints on the properties of the shallow outer layers, providing important clues for identifying the elusive progenitors of SNe Ia.

Piro, Anthony L., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

30

Special Application Thermoelectric Micro Isotope Power Sources  

SciTech Connect

Promising design concepts for milliwatt (mW) size micro isotope power sources (MIPS) are being sought for use in various space and terrestrial applications, including a multitude of future NASA scientific missions and a range of military applications. To date, the radioisotope power sources (RPS) used on various space and terrestrial programs have provided power levels ranging from one-half to several hundred watts. In recent years, the increased use of smaller spacecraft and planned new scientific space missions by NASA, special terrestrial and military applications suggest the need for lower power, including mW level, radioisotope power sources. These power sources have the potential to enable such applications as long-lived meteorological or seismological stations distributed across planetary surfaces, surface probes, deep space micro-spacecraft and sub-satellites, terrestrial sensors, transmitters, and micro-electromechanical systems. The power requirements are in the range of 1 mW to several hundred mW. The primary technical requirements for space applications are long life, high reliability, high specific power, and high power density, and those for some special military uses are very high power density, specific power, reliability, low radiological induced degradation, and very low radiation leakage. Thermoelectric conversion is of particular interest because of its technological maturity and proven reliability. This paper summarizes the thermoelectric, thermal, and radioisotope heat source designs and presents the corresponding performance for a number of mW size thermoelectric micro isotope power sources.

Heshmatpour, Ben; Lieberman, Al; Khayat, Mo; Leanna, Andrew; Dobry, Ted [Teledyne Energy Systems, Incorporated, 10707 Gilroy Road, Hunt Valley, MD 21031 (United States)

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

31

Sources of Cheap Electric Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... power from factories using industrial steam, power from coke-oven and blast-furnace gas and hydroelectric stations. (5) The cost of transmission of electric power as compared with the ... for the condensation of exhaust steam, in order to produce the high vacuum that the turbine can make use of. But the gain in efficiency due to the high vacuum ...

FRANCIS G. BAILY

1934-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

32

A novel non-radioactive electron source for ion mobility spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Typical ion mobility spectrometers work by employing a radioactive source to provide electrons with high energy to ionize the analytes ... resulted in a need for a different ionization source which on the other h...

Frank Gunzer; Andreas Ulrich…

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Reconstruction of Fluxes of Radioactive Sources with a Medipix2 Pixel Detector using Track Recognition  

SciTech Connect

A Medipix2 device was exposed to radioactive sources ({sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 106}Ru). To test the reliability of track recognition with this device, the activities of the radioactive sources were extracted from the experimental data and compared to the expected activities.

Bouchami, J.; Gutierrez, A.; Houdayer, A.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Macana, J.; Martin, J. P.; Prak, S.; Sabella, P.; Teyssier, C. [Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Quebec) H3C 3J7 (Canada); Holy, T.; Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

34

Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants: An overview  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry, which accounts for about 20% of the total electricity supply, is a vital part of the nation`s energy resource. While it generates approximately one-third of the commercial low-level radioactive waste produced in the country, it has achieved one of the most successful examples in waste minimization. On the other hand, progress on development of new disposal facilities by the state compacts is currently stalled. The milestones have been repeatedly postponed, and the various Acts passed by Congress on nuclear waste disposal have not accomplished what they were intended to do. With dwindling access to waste disposal sites and with escalating disposal costs, the power plant utilities are forced to store wastes onsite as an interim measure. However, such temporary measures are not a permanent solution. A national will is sorely needed to break out of the current impasse.

Devgun, J.S.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

Dr. William F. Brinkman

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

36

NewPipeline-Robot-Power-Source.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Sources for Power Sources for Inspection Robots in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines By Shreekant B. Malvadkar and Edward L. Parsons Office of Systems & Policy Support INTRODUCTION Strategic Center of Natural gas's (SCNG) Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability Product Team has undertaken the development of a prototype robot that would inspect and possibly repair transmission pipelines. NETL has granted a contract for this purpose to New York Gas Group (NYGAS) and Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC). The purpose of this study is to analyze various onboard power supply options for such a commercially viable robot that can operate in a transmission pipeline for extended period. The primary power sources considered are wind turbines, rechargeable batteries,

37

Current Status of Pacemaker Power Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After years during which pacers of very similar design and capabilities were provided by a small number of manufacturers, many different lithium, halogen, rechargeable, and nuclear power sources are now available. The variety of chemistries, methods of construction, and sealing techniques used in the batteries of the different manufacturers is almost unlimited. This has made it necessary for physicians who implant and follow pacers to acquire a general knowledge of the field if they are to make an informed choice of pacemaker power source for implantation and if they are to manage recalls with a minimum of patient and physician trauma. More experience is required before it can be definitely determined which of the new pacer power sources will prove superior, but when coupled with well-designed, hermetically sealed pulse generators, all are capable of providing continuous pacing for at least 5 years and the 10-year pacemaker is now a probability.

G. Frank O. Tyers; Robert R. Brownlee

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Power sources manufactures association : power technology roadmap workshop - 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA) is pleased to announce the release of the latest Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report. This Fifth Edition Workshop Report includes presentations and discussions from the workshop as seen by the participants that included many of the industry's most influential members representing end-users, power supply manufacturers, component suppliers, consultants and academia. This report provides detailed projections for the next three to four years of various technologies in a quantitative form. There was special emphasis on how the increasing use of digital technologies will affect the industry in the next four years. The technology trend analysis and the roadmap is provided for the following specific product families expected to be the areas of largest market growth: (1) Ac-dc front end power supplies--1 kW from a single phase ac source; (2) External ac-dc power supplies; (3) Dc-dc bus converters; and (4) Non-isolated dc-dc converters. Bruce Miller, Chairman of PSMA, stated that 'the Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is an extensive document that analyzes and provides projections for most major technical parameters for a specific power supply. It is a unique document as it contains technology/parametric trends in a roadmap fashion from a variety of diverse sources, giving significant depth to its content. No such information is available from any other source'. The Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is available at no cost as to PSMA Regular and Associate members and at a reduced price to Affiliate members as a benefit of membership. The report will be offered to non-members at a price of $2490. For further information or to buy a copy of the report, please visit the publications page or the PSMA website or contact the Association Office.

Bowers, John S.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Notes Radioactivity of coals and ashes from catalagzi coal-fired...radioactivity contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants...Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report. 14 Aytekin...influence of an underground coal mine in Zonguldak basin, Turkey......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Nuclear Batteries with Tritium and Promethium-147 Radioactive Sources.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Long-lived power supplies for remote and even hostile environmental conditions are needed for space and sea missions. Nuclear batteries can uniquely serve this role. In… (more)

Yakubova, Galina N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Calibration of a DSSSD detector with radioactive sources  

SciTech Connect

The energy calibration of a DSSSD is carried out with the spectra produced by a {sup 207}Bi conversion electron source, a {sup 137}Cs gamma source and a {sup 239}Pu/{sup 241}Am/{sup 244}Cm triple alpha source, as well as employing a precision pulse generator in the whole dynamic range. Multiplicity and coincidence of signals in different strips for the same event are also studied.

Guadilla, V.; Tain, J. L.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Rubio, B. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C.-Univ. Valencia, Ap 22085, E-46071, Valencia (Spain)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

42

Power Sources Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sources Inc Sources Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Power Sources Inc. Place Charlotte, North Carolina Sector Biomass Product US-based operator and developer of biomass-to-energy power plants. Coordinates 35.2225°, -80.837539° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.2225,"lon":-80.837539,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

43

Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

2000-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

44

Benefits of PositionSensitive Detectors for Radioactive Source Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation portal monitors [1], coded aperture imaging systems [2], arrays of scintillating detectors [3, such as using images reconstructed from a coded aperture system to detect a point­source [2]. A mean difference, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--There are many systems for counting photons such as gamma­rays emitted from

Scott, Clayton

45

The JLab high power ERL light source  

SciTech Connect

A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made concerning the physics performance, design optimization, and operational limitations of such a first generation high power ERL light source.

G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

2005-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

46

Simultaneous Sampling of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simultaneous Sampling of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident ... Large amts. of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. ... Proceedings of the International Symposium on Environmental Monitoring and Dose Estimation of Residents after Accident of TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station; Shiran Hall, Kyoto, Japan, Dec 14, 2012; http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/anzen_kiban/outcome/. ...

Tetsuo Ishikawa; Atsuyuki Sorimachi; Hideki Arae; Sarata Kumar Sahoo; Miroslaw Janik; Masahiro Hosoda; Shinji Tokonami

2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

47

Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

Doellner, O.L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Closed source experimental system for soft x-ray spectroscopy of radioactive materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An instrumental and experimental setup for soft x-rayspectroscopy meeting the requirements of a closed source for radioactivity is described. The system consists of a vacuum sealed cell containing the sample mounted on a tubing system to ensure compatibility with most standard manipulators. The soft x rays penetrate a thin x-ray window separating the interior of the cell from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Our first results for single crystal PuO 2 confirm the feasibility of experiments using the setup. The results are consistent with results of first principles calculations and previously recorded spectra obtained using a standard open source setup. The results show that the closed source experimental system can be used to collect valuable experimental data from radioactive materials.

A. Modin; S. M. Butorin; J. Vegelius; A. Olsson; C.-J. Englund; J. Andersson; L. Werme; J. Nordgren; T. Käämbre; G. Skarnemark; B. E. Burakov

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Application/architecture power co-optimization for embedded systems powered by renewable sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Embedded systems are being built with renewable power sources such as solar cells to replenish the energy of batteries. The renewable power sources have a wide range of efficiency levels that depend on environment parameters and the current drawn from ... Keywords: architectural optimization, load matching, power management, power utilization, renewable power source

Dexin Li; Pai H. Chou

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base  

SciTech Connect

This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and {open_quotes}other{close_quotes}. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF{sub 6} conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992.

Loghry, S L; Kibbey, A H; Godbee, H W; Icenhour, A S; DePaoli, S M

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. An infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable's motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

Banks, T I; Wallig, J; Ybarrolaza, N; Gando, A; Gando, Y; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Kishimoto, Y; Koga, M; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Shimizu, I; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takemoto, Y; Tamae, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Xu, B D; Yoshida, H; Yoshida, S; Kozlov, A; Grant, C; Keefer, G; Piepke, A; Bloxham, T; Fujikawa, B K; Han, K; Ichimura, K; Murayama, H; O'Donnell, T; Steiner, H M; Winslow, L A; Dwyer, D A; McKeown, R D; Zhang, C; Berger, B E; Lane, C E; Maricic, J; Miletic, T; Batygov, M; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Sakai, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Downum, K E; Gratta, G; Efremenko, Y; Perevozchikov, O; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Heeger, K M; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources  

SciTech Connect

The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly — due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . ‘Le mieux est l’ennemi du bien’ (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials – particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on solutions that remain economically and/or politically ‘out of reach’.

Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Solar Power as a Source of Noise-free Power for Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Power as a Source of Noise-free Power for ResearchState University Keywords: solar energy, reducing backgroundhas been increasing interest in solar convertors, mostly for

Dutta, Akshita; Chorescu, Irinel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Ion source developments for the production of radioactive isotope beams at TRIUMF  

SciTech Connect

At the ISAC facility at TRIUMF radioactive ions are produced by bombarding solid targets with up to 100 ?A of 500 MeV protons. The reaction products have to diffuse out of the hot target into an ion source. Normally, singly charged ions are extracted. They can be transported either directly to experiments or via an ECR charge state breeder to a post accelerator. Several different types of ion sources have to be used in order to deliver a large variety of rare isotope beams. At ISAC those are surface ion sources, forced electron beam arc discharge (FEBIAD) ion sources and resonant laser ionization sources. Recent development activities concentrated on increasing the selectivity for the ionization to suppress isobaric contamination in the beam. Therefore, a surface ion rejecting resonant laser ionization source (SIRLIS) has been developed to suppress ions from surface ionization. For the FEBIAD ion source a cold transfer line has been introduced to prevent less volatile components from reaching the ion source.

Ames, F., E-mail: ames@triumf.ca; Bricault, P.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Mjøs, A.; Raeder, S.; Teigelhöfer, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3 (Canada)] [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3 (Canada)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Dynamic Power Management with Hybrid Power Sources Jianli Zhuo Chaitali Chakrabarti  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source. Al- ternative power sources such as fuel cells (FCs) have substantially different power-time systems and embedded systems General Terms: Algorithms, Design Keywords: DPM, fuel cell, hybrid power based hybrid source. We develop an optimization framework that explicitly considers the FC system

Kambhampati, Subbarao

57

DYNAMIC MODELLING OF AUTONOMOUS POWER SYSTEMS INCLUDING RENEWABLE POWER SOURCES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(thermal, gas, diesel) and renewable (hydro, wind) power units. The objective is to assess the impact - that have a special dynamic behaviour, and the wind turbines. Detailed models for each one of the power system components are developed. Emphasis is given in the representation of different hydro power plant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Journal of Power Sources xxx (2005) xxxxxx Vehicle-to-grid power fundamentals: Calculating capacity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Vehicle-to-grid power; Ancillary services; V2G 1. Introduction The electric power grid and light vehicle-drive vehicles (EDVs), that is, vehicles with an electric-drive motor powered by batteries, a fuel cellJournal of Power Sources xxx (2005) xxx­xxx Vehicle-to-grid power fundamentals: Calculating

Firestone, Jeremy

59

Model Reduction for Power Electronics Systems with Multiple Heat Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model Reduction for Power Electronics Systems with Multiple Heat Sources A. Augustin, T. Hauck, B demonstrates the model order re- duction procedures applied to semiconductor devices with multiple heat sources. The approach is demonstrated for a device with nine heat sources where some of them are perma- nently active

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

NASA pulls plug on plutonium power source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Generators (MMRTGs) but use four times less plutonium-238, a scarce resource. An MMRTG containing 4.8 kilograms of plutonium is currently powering the Curiosity rover on Mars. ...

Eugenie Samuel Reich

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A pulse power source for tacitron photomultipliers  

SciTech Connect

The circuit of a pulse power supply for a photomultiplier with partial discharge of a capacitor through a divider is described. A TGU1-60/7 hydrogen tacitron is used as a commutator. The circuit parameters are: pulse amplitude, 3-6 kV; duration, 5-50 usec; and the photomultiplier divider current, 100 A. The circuit was used to pulse power an FEU-30 photomultiplier in the single-pulsemode and showed high reliability and simplicity in operation.

Aduev, B.P.; Salomatin, V.I.; Shkatov, V.T.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Numerical simulation of propagation of radioactive pollution in the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulation of the large-scale horizontal mixing and transport of radioactive water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) (141°02? E, 37°27? N, east coast of Honshu Island, Japan) and ...

S. V. Prants; M. Yu. Uleysky; M. V. Budyansky

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Pulsed pyroelectric crystal-powered gamma source  

SciTech Connect

A compact pulsed gamma generator is being developed to replace radiological sources used in commercial, industrial and medical applications. Mono-energetic gammas are produced in the 0.4 - 1.0 MeV energy range using nuclear reactions such as {sup 9}Be(d,n{gamma}){sup 10}B. The gamma generator employs an RF-driven inductively coupled plasma ion source to produce deuterium ion current densities up to 2 mA/mm{sup 2} and ampere-level current pulses can be attained by utilizing an array extraction grid. The extracted deuterium ions are accelerated to approximately 300 keV via a compact stacked pyroelectric crystal system and then bombard the beryllium target to generate gammas. The resulting microsecond pulse of gammas is equivalent to a radiological source with curie-level activity.

Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.; Raber, T. N.; Morse, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

65

Radioactive Releases Impact from Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Bulgaria into the Environment  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the radioactive releases impact generated by Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), Bulgaria to the environment and public. The liquid releases presented are known as the so called controlled water discharges, that are generated after reprocessing of the inevitable accumulated liquid radioactive waste in the plant operation process. The radionuclides containing in the liquid releases are given in the paper as a result of systematic measuring. Database for radiation doses evaluation on the public around Kozloduy NPP site is developed using IAEA LADTAP computerized program. The computer code LADTAP represents realization of a model that evaluates the public dose as a result of NPP releases under normal operation conditions. The results of this evaluation were the basic licensing document for a new liquid release limit.

Genchev, G. T.; Kuleff, I.; Tanev, N. T.; Delistoyanova, E. S.; Guentchev, T.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

66

Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium (137Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and 137Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations (137Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption.

Mayumi Yoshimura; Tetsuya Yokoduka

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

An appraisal of electric automobile power sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Road transportation, as an important requirement of modern society, is presently hindered by restrictions in emission legislations as well as the availability of petroleum fuels, and as a consequence, the fuel cost. For nearly 270 years, we burned our fossil cache and have come to within a generation of exhausting the liquid part of it. Besides, to reduce the greenhouse gases, and to obey the environmental laws of most countries, it would be necessary to replace a significant number of the petroleum-fueled internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs) with electric cars in the near future. In this article, we briefly describe the merits and demerits of various proposed electrochemical systems for electric cars, namely the storage batteries, fuel cells and electrochemical supercapacitors, and determine the power and energy requirements of a modern car. We conclude that a viable electric car could be operated with a 50 kW polymer-electrolyte fuel cell stack to provide power for cruising and climbing, coupled in parallel with a 30 kW supercapacitor and/or battery bank to deliver additional short-term burst-power during acceleration.

A.K Shukla; A.S Aricò; V Antonucci

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Power balance in a helicon plasma source for space propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric propulsion systems provide an attractive option for various spacecraft propulsion applications due to their high specific impulse. The power balance of an electric thruster based on a helicon plasma source is ...

White, Daniel B., Jr

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Breakout Session: Solar as a Base Load Power Source  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Does solar have a future as a base load electricity source? This session explores a vision in which solar power plants can provide dispatchability, predictability, and reliability comparable to...

70

Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth May 29, 2013 - 12:07pm Addthis A sample image from the AWSIS system. A sample image from the AWSIS system. Gayland Barksdale Technical Writer, Office of Fossil Energy Sobering news from experts: Rising populations, regional droughts, and decreasing groundwater levels are draining the nation's fresh water supply. And it's not just that we're using that water for our personal consumption; even the electricity we rely on to power our society requires a lot of water. In fact, major energy producers - like coal-fired power plants, which produce about 40 percent of our electricity - require about 150 billion gallons of fresh water per day to produce the electricity we

71

Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth May 29, 2013 - 12:07pm Addthis A sample image from the AWSIS system. A sample image from the AWSIS system. Gayland Barksdale Technical Writer, Office of Fossil Energy Sobering news from experts: Rising populations, regional droughts, and decreasing groundwater levels are draining the nation's fresh water supply. And it's not just that we're using that water for our personal consumption; even the electricity we rely on to power our society requires a lot of water. In fact, major energy producers - like coal-fired power plants, which produce about 40 percent of our electricity - require about 150 billion gallons of fresh water per day to produce the electricity we

72

Nuclear power pros and cons: A comparative analysis of radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants and thermal power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the basis of the public data statistics of recent years on pollution and emissions from nuclear power plants (NPPs) and thermal power plants...

V. A. Gordienko; S. N. Brykin; R. E. Kuzin…

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express  

SciTech Connect

In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

Underwood, M.L. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

A radiological incident with a radioactive lightning rod source found in a vehicle used by film crewmembers: a case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......due to lack of proper regulatory control. The use of...and implemented action plans to locate, dismantle...RLRs were subject to regulatory control with relatively...the past. Due to weak regulatory control and non-existence...radioactive sources. ACCIDENT REVIEW Upon receiving a request......

Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac; Milojko Kovacevic; Dusko Kosutic; Danijela Arandjic; Djordje Lazarevic

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Tianjin Lantian Power Sources Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lantian Power Sources Co Lantian Power Sources Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Tianjin Lantian Power Sources Co Place Tianjin, Tianjin Municipality, China Zip 300381 Sector Solar Product Dedicated to the research, design and marketing of solar cell, lithium-ion batteries, and rechargable lithium-ion batteries. Coordinates 39.231831°, 117.878502° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.231831,"lon":117.878502,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

76

Power Sources for Wireless Sensor Abstract. Wireless sensor networks are poised to become a very significant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies and currently untapped sources. Power sources are classified as energy reservoirs, power (i.e. a wire), scavenge available ambient power at the node (i.e. a solar cell). Power sources types of power source technologies is difficult. For example, comparing the efficiency of a solar cell

Frechette, Luc G.

77

Nuclear energy is an important source of power, supplying 20  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy is an important source of power, supplying 20 energy is an important source of power, supplying 20 percent of the nation's electricity. More than 100 nuclear power plants are operating in the U.S., and countries around the world are implementing nuclear power as a carbon-free alternative to fossil fuels. We can maximize the climate and energy security benefits provided by responsible global nuclear energy expansion by developing options to increase the energy extracted from nuclear fuel, improve waste management, and strengthen nuclear nonproliferation controls. To develop viable technical solutions, these interdependent challenges must be addressed through tightly integrated multidisciplinary research and development efforts. Los Alamos National Laboratory is playing a key role in

78

Source team evaluation for radioactive low-level waste disposal performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The review identified deficiencies in the information currently being recorded on shipping manifests and the development of a uniform manifest is recommended (the NRC is currently developing a rule to establish a uniform manifest). The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages. From the results, preliminary lists have been prepared of the isotopes which might be the most significant from the aspect of the development of a source term model.

Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Survey on lost and poorly controlled radioactive sources in non-medical applications in Iran  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......provide assurance of long-term safety and security...has now left Iran. The storage place had been burnt...lack of RPO and improper storage. Considering the increasing...Pollutants 0 Radioactive Waste | Humans International...Pollutants Radioactive Waste Risk Assessment Safety......

F. A. Mianji; M. R. Kardan; N. Rastkhah

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Seamless remote dismantling system for heavy and highly radioactive components of Korean nuclear power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A seamless remote system for dismantling heavy and highly radioactive components during the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is proposed. The originality of the dismantling system is in its ability to handle all the processes involved in the dismantling of major components of a nuclear power plant without external intervention. Previous types of dismantling equipment were designed for specific components or a particular process, which required time consuming and risky equipment replacement tasks between different processes. The proposed dismantling system was designed and verified by simulation of all the processes for dismantling the major components of a Korean nuclear power plant. Several challenges such as working in confined spaces and with complex movement lines as well as interference between components were overcome. The proposed system is capable of handling all the dismantling processes without equipment replacement tasks or the need to drain the reactor pool. The system is expected to considerably reduce the time and cost of the entire decommissioning process while also improving safety.

Dongjun Hyun; Sung-Uk Lee; Yong-Chil Seo; Geun-Ho Kim; Jonghwan Lee; Kwan-Seong Jeong; Byung-Seon Choi; Jei-Kwon Moon

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Source term characterization for the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The results of source term characterization studies for the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site show that because of the long residence time of water accumulations in the trenches, prolonged leaching and microbial degradation of waste materials occur continuously, leading to leachate formation. As a result of such interactions for extended time periods, the resultant trench leachates exhibit significant modifications in terms of inorganic, organic, and radionuclide constituents and acquire geochemical properties that are unique, compared to ambient groundwater. The leachates generally exhibit varying degrees of anoxia characterized by negative redox potentials, low dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentrations, high alkalinity, and high ammonia concentrations. The enrichments, to varying degrees, of inorganic, organic, and radionuclide constituents associated with fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level wastes reflect the nature of the leaching process itself and of the waste materials. Elevated concentrations of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Fe/sub TOTAL/, Mn/sub TOTAL/, Cl/sup -/, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, and several organic compounds as well as radionuclides, such as /sup 3/H, /sup 241/Am, /sup 60/Co, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 238/Pu, and /sup 239//sup,/sup 240/Pu are a consequence of waste leaching. Some of the waste-derived organic compounds present in the trenches, such as chelating agents and several carboxylic acids, are strong complexing agents and have the potential to form stable radionuclide complexes and thus enhance nuclide mobility. The consequences of past disposal practices as reflected in the problems associated with the burial of unsegregated, poorly packaged, and unstabilized wastes at the Maxey Flats disposal site indicate the significance of waste segregation, improved stabilization, and proper packaging.

Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.H.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Power from bio-sources in Italy incentives and results  

SciTech Connect

In Italy most of the technologies for producing power from bio-sources, as well as from other non-conventional renewable Energy Sources (RES), are rather mature, but their exploitation is still not completely convenient from the economic point of view. It depends on many factors, such as designing of plants, selection of energy conversion system and components, selection of installation site, size of market still too limited, high production costs of the technologies and lack of adequate financial supports. In the early nineties, in the attempt to overcome this situation, the Italian Government issued a series of measures addressed mainly to the power production from RES. This gives a short description of the regulations in force and some details about an important incentive tool (CIP 6/92 and relative decrees) for RES power plants installation. In particular, it indicates the possible power plant typologies, the criteria to assimilate the fossil fuel plants to RES ones, the present prices of electricity transferred into the grid and the methodology for updating the prices. Furthermore, the paper gives some data concerning submitted proposals, plant operation planning and their geographic distribution according to different bio-sources typologies.

Gerardi, V.; Ricci, A.; Scoditti, E. [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Geothermal, an alternate energy source for power generation  

SciTech Connect

The economic development of nations depends on an escalating use of energy sources. With each passing year the dependence increases, reaching a point where the world will require, in the next six years, a volume of energetics equal to that consumed during the last hundred years. Statistics show that in 1982 about 70% of the world's energy requirements were supplied by oil, natural gas and coal. The remaining 30% came from other sources such as nuclear energy, hydroelectricity, and geothermal. In Mexico the situation is more extreme. For the same year (1982) 85% of the total energy consumed was supplied through the use of hydrocarbons, and only 15% through power generated by the other sources of electricity. Of the 15%, 65% used hydrocarbons somewhere in the power generation system. Geothermal is an energy source that can help solve the problem, particularly in Mexico, because the geological and structural characteristics of Mexico make it one of the countries in the world with a tremendous geothermal potential. The potential of geothermal energy for supplying part of Mexico's needs is discussed.

Espinosa, H.A.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

SHyPIE A NEW SOURCE FOR ON LINE PRODUCTION OF MULTICHARGED RADIOACTIVE CONDENSABLE ION BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chouaib Doukkali, Faculte des Sciences, 24000 El ladida Morocco In order to define the future intensity and reliability of the on line radioactive beams for the SPIRAL project, an intense activity of research, with energies up to 95.A MeV and intensities up to 6 1012 particles/s for the lightest elements. The primary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Sandia National Laboratories` high power electromagnetic impulse sources  

SciTech Connect

Three impulse sources have been developed to cover a wide range of peak power, bandwidth and center frequency requirements. Each of the sources can operate in single shot, rep-rate, or burst modes. These devices are of rugged construction and are suitable for field use. This paper will describe the specifications and principals of operation for each source. The sources to be described are: SNIPER (Sub-Nanosecond ImPulsE Radiator), a coaxial Blumlein pulser with an in-line (series) peaking switch; EMBL (EnantioMorphic BLurfflein), a bipolar parallel plate Blumlein with a crowbar type (parallel) peaking switch; and the LCO (L-C Oscillator) a spark-switched L-C oscillator with damped sinusoidal output. SNIPER and EMBL are ultra-wideband (UWB) sources which produce a very fast high voltage transition. When differentiated by the antenna, an impulse whose width corresponds to the transition time is radiated. The LCO operates with a center frequency up to 800 MHz and up to 100 MHz bandwidth. Because the LCO output is relatively narrow band, high gain antennas may be employed to produce very high radiated field strengths.

Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Denison, G.J.; Lundstrom, J.M.; Crowe, W.R.; Aurand, J.F.; Patterson, P.E.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-voltaic power source Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 2000 Miniaturized Radioisotope Solid State Power Sources Summary: for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectricalpha-voltaic power...

88

EFFECT OF A HIGH OPACITY ON THE LIGHT CURVES OF RADIOACTIVELY POWERED TRANSIENTS FROM COMPACT OBJECT MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

The coalescence of compact objects is a promising astrophysical source of detectable gravitational wave signals. The ejection of r-process material from such mergers may lead to a radioactively powered electromagnetic counterpart signal which, if discovered, would enhance the science returns. As very little is known about the optical properties of heavy r-process elements, previous light-curve models have adopted opacities similar to those of iron group elements. Here we consider the effect of heavier elements, particularly the lanthanides, which increase the ejecta opacity by several orders of magnitude. We include these higher opacities in time-dependent, multi-wavelength radiative transport calculations to predict the broadband light curves of one-dimensional models over a range of parameters (ejecta masses {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and velocities {approx}0.1-0.3 c). We find that the higher opacities lead to much longer duration light curves which can last a week or more. The emission is shifted toward the infrared bands due to strong optical line blanketing, and the colors at later times are representative of a blackbody near the recombination temperature of the lanthanides (T {approx} 2500 K). We further consider the case in which a second mass outflow, composed of {sup 56}Ni, is ejected from a disk wind, and show that the net result is a distinctive two component spectral energy distribution, with a bright optical peak due to {sup 56}Ni and an infrared peak due to r-process ejecta. We briefly consider the prospects for detection and identification of these transients.

Barnes, Jennifer; Kasen, Daniel [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, 366 LeConte Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

89

PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

Bander, T.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Systematics of Dynamical Mass Ejection, Nucleosynthesis, and Radioactively Powered Electromagnetic Signals from Neutron-star Mergers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate systematically the dynamical mass ejection, r-process nucleosynthesis, and properties of electromagnetic counterparts of neutron-star (NS) mergers in dependence on the uncertain properties of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) by employing 40 representative, microphysical high-density EOSs in relativistic, hydrodynamical simulations. The crucial parameter determining the ejecta mass is the radius R 1.35 of a 1.35 M ? NS. NSs with smaller R 1.35 ("soft" EOS) eject systematically higher masses. These range from ~10–3 M ? to ~10–2 M ? for 1.35-1.35 M ? binaries and from ~5 ? 10–3 M ? to ~2 ? 10–2 M ? for 1.2-1.5 M ? systems (with kinetic energies between ~5 ? 1049 erg and 1051 erg). Correspondingly, the bolometric peak luminosities of the optical transients of symmetric (asymmetric) mergers vary between 3 ? 1041 erg s–1 and 14 ? 1041 erg s–1 (9 ? 1041 erg s–1 and 14.5 ? 1041 erg s–1) on timescales between ~2 hr and ~12 hr. If these signals with absolute bolometric magnitudes from –15.0 to –16.7 are measured, the tight correlation of their properties with those of the merging NSs might provide valuable constraints on the high-density EOS. The r-process nucleosynthesis exhibits a remarkable robustness independent of the EOS, producing a nearly solar abundance pattern above mass number 130. By the r-process content of the Galaxy and the average production per event the Galactic merger rate is limited to 4 ? 10–5 yr–1 (4 ? 10–4 yr–1) for a soft (stiff) NS EOS, if NS mergers are the main source of heavy r-nuclei. The production ratio of radioactive 232Th to 238U attains a stable value of 1.64-1.67, which does not exclude NS mergers as potential sources of heavy r-material in the most metal-poor stars.

A. Bauswein; S. Goriely; H.-T. Janka

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Radiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

quarterly · Radioactive waste retrieval, storage, disposal · Dosimetry exchange · Leak tests of sealedRadiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material, Chemistry, Physics, Applied Physiology · Radioactive Material ­ Sealed Sources, Unsealed Sources (liquid

Sherrill, David

92

Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to;Radioactive Waste · Program requires · Generator support · Proper segregation · Packaging · labeling #12;Radioactive Waste · What is radioactive waste? · Anything that · Contains · or is contaminated

Slatton, Clint

93

The spectral structure and energetics of powerful radio sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining the energy spectrum of an electron population can give key insights into the underlying physics of a radio source; however, the lack of high resolution, broad-bandwidth observations has left many ambiguities in our understanding of radio galaxies. The improved capabilities of telescopes such as the JVLA and LOFAR mean that within the bandwidth of any given observation, a detailed spectral shape can now be produced. We present recent investigations of powerful FR-II radio galaxies at GHz and MHz frequencies and show for the first time their small-scale spectral structure. We highlight problems in traditional methods of analysis and demonstrate how these issues can now be addressed. We present the latest results from low frequency studies which suggest a potential increase in the total energy content of radio galaxy lobes with possible implications for the energetics of the population as a whole.

Harwood, J J; Croston, J H; Stroe, A; Morganti, R; Orru, E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Advanced radioisotope power sources for future deep space missions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) has been well established for deep space mission applications. The success of the Voyager Galileo Cassini and numerous other missions proved the efficacy of these technologies in deep space. Future deep space missions may also require Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) technologies to accomplish their goals. In the Exploration of the Solar System (ESS) theme several missions are in the planning stages or under study that would be enabled by ARPS technology. Two ESS missions in the planning stage may employ ARPS. Currently planned for launch in 2006 the Europa Orbiter mission (EO) will perform a detailed orbital exploration of Jupiter’s moon Europa to determine the presence of liquid water under the icy surface. An ARPS based upon Stirling engine technology is currently baselined for this mission. The Pluto Kuiper Express mission (PKE) planned for launch in 2004 to study Pluto its moon Charon and the Kuiper belt is baselined to use a new RTG (F-8) assembled from parts remaining from the Cassini spare RTG. However if this unit is unavailable the Cassini spare RTG (F-5) or ARPS technologies would be required. Future missions under study may also require ARPS technologies. Mission studies are now underway for a detailed exploration program for Europa with multiple mission concepts for landers and future surface and subsurface explorers. For the orbital phase of these missions ARPS technologies may provide the necessary power for the spacecraft and orbital telecommunications relay capability for landed assets. For extended surface and subsurface operations ARPS may provide the power for lander operations and for drilling. Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) will perform a detailed study of Saturn’s rings and ring dynamics. The Neptune Orbiter (NO) mission will perform a detailed multi disciplinary study of Neptune. Titan Explorer (TE) will perform in-situ exploration of Saturn’s moon Titan with both orbital operations and landed operations enabled by ARPS technologies. All of these missions would be enabled by ARPS technology. This paper presents the current status of ongoing studies of future ESS mission concepts and the design assumptions and capabilities required from ARPS technologies. Where specific capabilities have been assumed in the studies the results are presented along with a discussion of the implementation alternatives. No decision on power sources would be made until after completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for each project.

Erik N. Nilsen

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Microsoft PowerPoint - Francfort 41st Power Sources Conference - backup.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing - 41 st Power Sources Conference Jim Francfort INEEL/CON-04-01691 DOE - Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Presentation Outline * AVTA Goal * AVTA Testing Partners * Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing * Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant * Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle Testing * Neighborhood & Urban Electric Vehicles * WWW Information Address DOE - Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity AVTA Goal * Benchmark & validate the performance of light-, medium-, & heavy-duty vehicles that feature one or more advanced technologies, including: - ICE's burning advanced fuels, such as 100% hydrogen and hydrogen/CNG-blended fuels - Hybrid electric, pure electric, & hydraulic drive systems - Advanced batteries & engines -

96

Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14  

SciTech Connect

Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Heat power capacity of the internal source in light-transparent coatings of planar solar collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results are presented of numerical determination of the heat power capacity of the internal source in light-transparent coatings of planar solar collectors; the power results from partial absorption ... of th...

R. R. Avezov; N. R. Avezova; S. L. Lutpullaev; K. A. Samiev…

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Open-Source Software for Power Industry Research, Teaching, and Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Open-Source Software for Power Industry Research, Teaching, and Training: A DC Optimal Power Flow.S. wholesale power markets. About 50% of U.S. electric power generating capacity is now operating under some by an Independent System Operator (ISO) or a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) Day-ahead & real-time markets

Tesfatsion, Leigh

99

Sleep Control for Base Stations Powered by Heterogeneous Energy Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the power grid, some BSs are purely powered by the renewable energy. BS sleep is introduced not only to save grid power, but also to store renewable energy for future use when the temporal traffic variation does is to exploit renewable energy, e.g. solar energy, wind energy and so on. The technology, termed as "energy

100

Review of nuclear power plant offsite power source reliability and related recommended changes to the NRC rules and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The NRC has stated its concern about the reliability of the offsite power system as the preferred emergency source and about the possible damage to a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that could result from a rapid decay of power grid frequency. ORNL contracted with NRC to provide technical assistance to establish criteria that can be used to evaluate the offsite power system for the licensing of a nuclear power plant. The results of many of the studies for this contract are recommendations to assess and control the power grid during operation. This is because most of the NRC regulations pertaining to the offsite power system are related to the design of the power grid, and we believe that additional emphasis on monitoring the power grid operation will improve the reliability of the nuclear plant offsite power supply. 46 refs., 10 figs.

Battle, R.E.; Clark, F.H.; Reddoch, T.W.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......CFPPs installed in Turkey uses lignite, the catalagz CFPP uses the...basin, Turkey. The total reserve of the basin is estimated as...contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants in Western...equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants. J......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Induced Radioactivity and Waste Classification of Reactor Zone Components of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 After Final Shutdown  

SciTech Connect

The dismantlement of the reactor core materials and surrounding structural components is a major technical concern for those planning closure and decontamination and decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Specific issues include when and how dismantlement should be accomplished and what the radwaste classification of the dismantled system would be at the time it is disassembled. Whereas radiation levels and residual radiological characteristics of the majority of the plant systems are directly measured using standard radiation survey and radiochemical analysis techniques, actual measurements of reactor zone materials are not practical due to high radiation levels and inaccessibility. For these reasons, neutron transport analysis was used to estimate induced radioactivity and radiation levels in the Chernobyl NPP Unit 1 reactor core materials and structures.Analysis results suggest that the optimum period of safe storage is 90 to 100 yr for the Unit 1 reactor. For all of the reactor components except the fuel channel pipes (or pressure tubes), this will provide sufficient decay time to allow unlimited worker access during dismantlement, minimize the need for expensive remote dismantlement, and allow for the dismantled reactor components to be classified as low- or medium-level radioactive waste. The fuel channel pipes will remain classified as high-activity waste requiring remote dismantlement for hundreds of years due to the high concentration of induced {sup 63}Ni in the Zircaloy pipes.

Bylkin, Boris K. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Davydova, Galina B. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Zverkov, Yuri A. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Krayushkin, Alexander V. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Neretin, Yuri A. [Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ukraine); Nosovsky, Anatoly V. [Slavutych Division of the International Chernobyl Center (Ukraine); Seyda, Valery A. [Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ukraine); Short, Steven M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Increasing photocell power by quantum coherence induced by external source  

SciTech Connect

We show that photocell power can be substantially enhanced by quantum coherence in the model proposed by [M. O. Scully Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207701 (2010)]. Here coherence is induced by an external microwave drive. We show that although such coherence requires an extra energy input, the amount of extra input power can be much smaller than produced enhancement of the photovoltaic power. We demonstrate that for certain parameters power enhancement is governed by quantum coherence and is not just a result of population transfer due to the driving field. This corroborates and extends the earlier work of Scully.

Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Kim, Moochan B. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Svidzinsky, Anatoly A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Physical features of accumulation and distribution processes of small disperse coal dust precipitations and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical features of absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 at the nuclear power plants are researched. It is shown that the non-homogenous spatial distribution of absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter, probed by the gamma-activation analysis method, is well correlated with the spatial distribution of small disperse coal dust precipitations in the iodine air filter. This circumstance points out to an important role by the small disperse coal dust fractions of absorber in the absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter. The physical origins of characteristic interaction between the radioactive chemical elements and the accumulated small disperse coal dust precipitations in an iodine air filter are considered. The analysis of influence by the researched physical processes on the technical characteristics and functionality of iodine ...

Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Portable power source based on air-hydrogen fuel cells with free-breathing cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Portable power source based on air-hydrogen fuel cells (FCs) operating in a free-breathing cathode regime has been developed. At a volume of 100 cm3, the source has a power capacity of 8.5 W h and generates a pow...

S. A. Gurevich; E. I. Terukov; O. I. Kon’kov; A. A. Tomasov…

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 18411844 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to react with oxygen, forming water. Recent advances in MFCs have increased power produc- tion or modifying the car- bon surface. In an MFC with anaerobic sludge as the inoculum, power was increased from 0Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 1841­1844 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal

107

Multi-source power manager for super-capacitor based energy harvesting WSN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a multi-source power manager (PM) is applied using different types of energy harvesting WSN. Specifically, this PM is embedded in both thermal and solar-powered WSN in order to adapt the consumed energy of the node by changing its wake-up ... Keywords: energy harvesting, energy neutrality, power management

Trong Nhan Le; Alain Pegatoquet; Olivier Berder; Olivier Sentieys

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

High Energy Density Science with High Peak Power Light Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High energy density (HED) science is a growing sub-field of plasma and condensed matter physics. I will examine how recent technological developments in high peak power, petawatt-class...

Ditmire, Todd

109

A power supply unit for discharging the plasma electron source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A power supply unit for discharging a low-temperature plasma generator based on discharge in the crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The unit operates in a stationary mode with a preset stabiliz...

D. A. Antonovich; V. A. Gruzdev; V. G. Zalesskii…

110

Journal of Power Sources vol 203 (2012) p.135139  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power density anodes in lithium ion batteries. Keywords: Silicon nanowires Lithium-ion batteries host materials for lithium insertion. Among anode materials, silicon is an attractive candidate since,10,12], many studies have aimed to improve SiNWs based anodes performance by studying the effect of potential

Boyer, Edmond

111

1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",4,85.9,80.09  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

STATE_CODE","PRODUCER_TYPE","FUEL_SOURCE","GENERATORS","NAMEPLATE_CAPACITY STATE_CODE","PRODUCER_TYPE","FUEL_SOURCE","GENERATORS","NAMEPLATE_CAPACITY (Megawatts)","SUMMER_CAPACITY (Megawatts)" 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",4,85.9,80.09 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","Coal",3,65.5,61.1 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","Petroleum",1,20.4,18.99 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","All Sources",23,229.4,204.21 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","Natural Gas",28,159.32,136.67 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","Petroleum",8,68.28,65.86

112

A study of low level vibrations as a power source for wireless sensor nodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in low power VLSI design, along with the potentially low duty cycle of wireless sensor nodes open up the possibility of powering small wireless computing devices from scavenged ambient power. A broad review of potential power scavenging technologies and conventional energy sources is first presented. Low-level vibrations occurring in common household and office environments as a potential power source are studied in depth. The goal of this paper is not to suggest that the conversion of vibrations is the best or most versatile method to scavenge ambient power, but to study its potential as a viable power source for applications where vibrations are present. Different conversion mechanisms are investigated and evaluated leading to specific optimized designs for both capacitive MicroElectroMechancial Systems (MEMS) and piezoelectric converters. Simulations show that the potential power density from piezoelectric conversion is significantly higher. Experiments using an off-the-shelf PZT piezoelectric bimorph verify the accuracy of the models for piezoelectric converters. A power density of 70 ?W/cm3 has been demonstrated with the PZT bimorph. Simulations show that an optimized design would be capable of 250 ?W/cm3 from a vibration source with an acceleration amplitude of 2.5 m/s2 at 120 Hz.

Shad Roundy; Paul K. Wright; Jan Rabaey

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Study of Power Grid Connection with an Unstable Source from Elevator Energy Regenerative Unit (EERU)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a study of power grid connection with an unstable source from elevator energy regenerative unit (EERU). The investigated system used a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM). The EERU is installed for this system to generate electricity according to the generative mode of the elevator which delivers power to the grid as an unstable power source. To meet standard specifications in term of power quality and safety for grid connection, the phase angle and the amplitude as well as the frequency of the grid voltage are considered for grid connection. Phase lock loop (PLL) algorithm is therefore very important and selected for grid synchronization. The study is done by simulation using Matlab/Simulink program. The simulation used phase lock loop to synchronize between two systems. The results of this simulation will lead to a proper design of the grid connection with EERU as an unstable power source.

A. Noppakant; B. Plangklang; Y. Paraken

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source

Gubin, K V; Bak, P A; Kot, N K; Logatchev, P V

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The Spallation Neutron Source A Powerful Tool for Materials Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The wavelengths and energies of thermal and cold neutrons are ideally matched to the length and energy scales in the materials that underpin technologies of the present and future: ranging from semiconductors to magnetic devices, composites to biomaterials and polymers. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will use an accelerator to produce the most intense beams of neutrons in the world when it is complete at the end of 2005. The project is being built by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy laboratories. It will serve a diverse community of users drawn from academia, industry, and government labs with interests in condensed matter physics, chemistry, engineering materials, biology, and beyond.

Mason, Thomas E; Crawford, R K; Herwig, K W; Klose, F; Ankner, J F

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K (12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22.2 h), and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10{sup 3} particles per second (pps). About 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} pps of 1.4 MeV {sup 14}O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Sector-1, Block-AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharjee, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

J. Power Sources, in press (1998) The Use of Computer Simulation in the Evaluation of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conventional IC­engine automobiles with electric vehicles (EVs) powered by rechargeable batteries. However1 J. Power Sources, in press (1998) The Use of Computer Simulation in the Evaluation of Electric vehicles using a simulation­based design approach. Keywords: Electric vehicle batteries, Dynamic testing

Wang, Chao-Yang

118

J. Power Sources, in press (1998) The Use of Computer Simulation in the Evaluation of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conventional IC-engine automobiles with electric vehicles (EVs) powered by rechargeable batteries. However1 J. Power Sources, in press (1998) The Use of Computer Simulation in the Evaluation of Electric vehicles using a simulation-based design approach. Keywords: Electric vehicle batteries, Dynamic testing

Wang, Chao-Yang

119

What Will Power the Hydrogen Economy? Present and Future Sources of Hydrogen Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What Will Power the Hydrogen Economy? Present and Future Sources of Hydrogen Energy UCD-ITS-RR-04 95616 http://www.its.ucdavis.edu/publication.html #12;What Will Power the Hydrogen Economy? i from the UC Davis Hydrogen Pathways Program. I am appreciative of NRDC's timely support for this study

Kammen, Daniel M.

120

Open-Source Software for Power Industry Research, Teaching, and Training: A DC-OPF Illustration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Open-Source Software for Power Industry Research, Teaching, and Training: A DC-OPF Illustration and forward energy markets managed by indepen- dent system operators or regional transmission organizations of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 USA. 1The power system toolbox PSAT developed by Federico

Tesfatsion, Leigh

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121

Micro Hydro Power: Promising Solution for Off-grid Renewable Energy Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — Micro hydro current power plant studies to date have aimed at finding feasible solution of its realistic implementation to the different parts of the world.This paper will briefly review the micro hydro current power plant?s prospect as a possible off grid source of renewable energy.

Md Tanbhir Hoq; Nawshad U. A; Md. N. Islam; Md. K. Syfullah; Raiyan Rahman

122

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1983  

SciTech Connect

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1983. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 52 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 45 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 170 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk.

Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Comparing batteries to generators as power sources for use with mobile robotics Drew G. Logan a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/range and the greater energy density of liquid fuel sources compared to batteries. For example, diesel fuel hasComparing batteries to generators as power sources for use with mobile robotics Drew G. Logan Available online 13 April 2012 Keywords: Robot Allometry Generator Battery a b s t r a c t This paper

Brennan, Sean

125

PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a new Berkeley Lab accelerator March 19, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One Erik Gilson with a copper-clad module and chamber for testing the units. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) Erik Gilson with a copper-clad module and chamber for testing the units. Gallery: Interior views of a plasma-source module. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) Interior views of a plasma-source module. Technician aligns plasma source with NDCX-II accelerator in background. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) Technician aligns plasma source with NDCX-II accelerator in background. Plainsboro, New Jersey - Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's

126

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10  

SciTech Connect

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

Baker, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 662673 Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-ion battery; Electrochemical modeling; Hybrid-electric vehicles; Transient; Solid-state diffusion; Heat, indicating solid-state diffusion is the limiting mechanism. The 3.9 V cell-1 maximum limit, meant to protect where batteries are used as a transient pulse power source, cycled about a relatively fixed state

128

Measurement of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in fly ash samples from a thermal power plant and estimation of radiation doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fly ash produced by coal-burning in thermal power station has become a subject of world wide interest in recent years because of its diverse uses in construction activities and considerable economic and environmental importance. Fly ash is used in the production of bricks, sheets, cement and also in land filling etc. Indian coals used in thermal power plants are found to have high ash contents, resulting in the production of large amount of fly ash. Coal contains radionuclides including uranium (the source of inert gas radon), Th and K. Thus coal combustion results in enhanced concentration of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. Since these radionuclides concentration in fly ash plays an important role in health physics it is important to measure radionuclides concentration in fly ash. In the present work enhanced radioactivity and radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples collected from a thermal power plant of NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation), Dadri (U.P.) India, have been measured. A high resolution gamma ray spectroscopic system has been used for the measurement of natural radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K). Gamma spectrometric measurements were carried out at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi using a coaxial n-type \\{HPGe\\} detector (EG&G, ORTEC, Oak Ridge, USA). Activity concentration of 226Ra varies from 81.8 ± 2.2 to 177.3 ± 10.0 Bq kg?1 with an average value of 118.6 ± 7.4 Bq kg?1 and of 232Th from 111.6 ± 3.2 to 178.5 ± 3.9 Bq kg?1 with an average value of 147.0 ± 3.4 Bq kg?1. 40K activity was found to be below detection limit in some samples while other samples have shown potassium activity to vary from 365.9 ± 4.8 to 495.9 ± 6.2 Bq kg?1 with an average value of 352.0 ± 4.5 Bq kg?1. Surface radon exhalation rates (EA) and Mass exhalation rates (EM) in these samples were measured by “Sealed can technique” using LR-115 type II track detectors. EA is found to vary from 80.1 ± 9.3 to 242.7 ± 16.3 mBq m?2 h?1 with an average value 155.5 ± 12.8 mBq m?2 h?1, while EM varies from 3.1 ± 0.4 to 9.3 ± 0.6 mBq kg?1 h?1 with an average value of 6.0 ± 0.5 mBq kg?1 h?1. Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), related to the external gamma dose and internal dose due to radon and its daughters range from 283.2 to 422.4 Bq kg?1 with an average value of 353.9 Bq kg?1. The calculated values of external hazard index (Hex) vary from 0.77 to 1.87 with an average value of 1.03. Most of the samples show the value of Raeq close to the allowed upper limit of 370 Bq kg?1 and Hex close to unity respectively except in two samples. Annual effective dose varies from 0.15 to 0.23 mSv y?1 with an average value 0.19 mSv y?1.

Mamta Gupta; Ajay Kumar Mahur; Rati Varshney; R.G. Sonkawade; K.D. Verma; Rajendra Prasad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation sources |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation sources Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation sources Home > Groups > DOE Wind Vision Community In the US DOEnergy, are there calcuations for real cost of energy considering the negative, socialized costs of all commercial large scale power generation soruces ? I am talking about the cost of mountain top removal for coal mined that way, the trip to the power plant, the sludge pond or ash heap, the cost of the gas out of the stack, toxificaiton of the lakes and streams, plant decommision costs. For nuclear yiou are talking about managing the waste in perpetuity. The plant decomission costs and so on. What I am tring to get at is the 'real cost' per MWh or KWh for the various sources ? I suspect that the costs commonly quoted for fossil fuels and nucelar are

130

Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident  

SciTech Connect

The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of {sup 137}Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

Genn Saji [Ex-Secretariate of Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply s  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply sooner or later, renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply sooner or later, as indeed it already has in the casc of United States domestic oil drilling. Recognition also is growing that our air and land can no longer absorb unlimited quantities of waste from fossil fuel extraction and combustion. As that day draws nearer, policymakers will have no realistic alternative but to turn to sources of power that today make up a viable but small part of America's energy picture. And they will be forced to embrace energy efficiencies - those that are within our reach today, and those that will be developed tomorrow. Precisely when they come lo grips with that reality - this year, 10 years from now, or 20 years from now - will determine bow smooth the transition will be for consumers and industry alike.

132

Photovoltaic power without batteries for continuous cathodic protection and an alternate photovoltaic/ultracapacitor combined power source  

SciTech Connect

The Coastal Systems Station (COASTSYSTA) designed, installed, and started up on 20 January 1990, a state-of-the-art stand alone photovoltaic powered impressed current cathodic protection system (PVCPSYS) not requiring any backup power for steel and iron submerged structures. The PVCPSYS, installed on a 775-foot steel sheet piling of a Navy dock bulkhead, provides complete, continuous corrosion protection. The PVCPSYS has been in operation for more than four years, has not required any repair or maintenance, and is environmentally clean. Initial cost savings of the PVCPSYS versus conventional cathodic protection system was $46,000. A second PVCPSYS was installed on another 800-foot bulkhead on 21 May 1993. It is also providing complete corrosion protection without backup power. These systems are considered a major advance by Sandia and the Department of Defense (DOD) Photovoltaic Review Committee. An ultracapacitor, a recent hi-tech development that is environmentally clean, will be incorporated in the PVCPSYS when required to enhance the system`s capability. A photovoltaic/ultracapacitor (or equivalent) combined power source operating under adverse conditions, and/or to satisfy or meet regulations will assure cathodic protection, including pipelines carrying combustibles or other products that could otherwise create environmental problems. Patents are pending on this PVCPSYS and the photovoltaic/ultracapacitor powered systems. The objective of the initial project was to successfully demonstrate that renewable energy can efficiently and economically replace, or be used instead of, continuous nonrenewable power sources. An opportunity to cleanly show that photovoltaic power is practical and reliable was the result of a recommendation to provide cathodic protection to the Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center bulkhead.

Muehl, W.W. Sr. [Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, FL (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources Emily Fisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory esfisher@lbl.gov Joseph H. Eto Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory jheto@lbl.gov Kristina Hamachi LaCommare Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory kshamachi@lbl.gov Abstract Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability. Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders. This

134

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Performance evaluation of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for power applications from low grade heat sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper the performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) module, which was designed and built for a specific power application, is experimentally characterized. The ORC tested satisfies the main specifications for an efficient power system, highlighting a volumetric expander with large built-in volume ratio. For tests development, a monitored test bench has been used and adapted to the planned test procedure, which consisted of varying the thermal power input for different condensing conditions. Thereby, 10 steady state points are achieved and analyzed according to thermal power input, gross and net electrical powers, electrical cycle efficiencies and expander effectiveness. The results show that the ORC performances are improved for higher thermal oil temperatures, capturing more thermal power, producing more electricity and achieving better cycle efficiencies. The maximum gross electrical efficiency obtained is 12.32%, for a heat source temperature about 155 °C and a direct dissipation to the ambient. Moreover, the expander reaches an electrical isentropic effectiveness about 65% for an optimum pressure ratio around 7, being a suitable system for power applications from low grade heat sources.

Bernardo Peris; Joaquín Navarro-Esbrí; Francisco Molés; Roberto Collado; Adrián Mota-Babiloni

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Photovoltaic power without batteries for continuous cathodic protection and an alternate photovoltaic/ultracapacitor combined power source  

SciTech Connect

The Coastal Systems Station (COASTSYSTA) designed, installed, and started up on 20 January 1990, a state-of-the-art stand-alone photovoltaic powered impressed current cathodic protection system (PVCPSYS) not requiring any backup power for steel and iron submerged structures. The PVCPSYS, installed on a 775-foot steel sheet piling of a Navy dock bulkhead, provides complete, continuous corrosion protection. The PVCPSYS has been in operation for more than five years, has not required any repair or maintenance, and is environmentally clean. Initial cost savings of the PVCPSYS versus conventional cathodic protection system was $46,000. A second PVCPSYS was installed on another 800-foot bulkhead on 21 May 1993. It is also providing complete corrosion protection without backup power. Performance is well documented. Other potential applications are moth-balled ships, locks, dams, bridges, pipelines, and similar structures. These systems are considered a major advance by Sandia and the Department of Defense (DOD) Photovoltaic Review Committee. An ultracapacitor, a recent hi-tech development that is environmentally clean, will be incorporated in the PVCPSYS when required to enhance the system`s capability. A photovoltaic/ultracapacitor (or equivalent) combined power source operating under adverse conditions, and/or to satisfy or meet regulations will assure cathodic protection, including pipelines carrying combustibles or other products that could otherwise create environmental problems. Patents are pending on this PVCPSYS and the photovoltaic/ ultracapacitor powered systems.

Muehl, W.W. Sr. [Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, FL (United States). Dahlgren Div.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Journal of Power Sources 174 (2007) 136147  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power source for portable and microelectronic devices because of its high efficiency, high specific and condensation W.W. Yang, T.S. Zhao Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and condensation of methanol and water. The comparison between the present model and other models indicates

Zhao, Tianshou

138

Mats Lindroos, Cristina Oyon and Stevey OECD "A High Power Spallation Source in each Global Region"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ESS Mats Lindroos, Cristina Oyon and Stevey Peggs #12;ESS 2 #12;OECD "A High Power Spallation Source in each Global Region" SNS Oak Ridge J-PARC Tokai ESS in Lund #12;ESS: Site selection process · ESS high up on the ESFRI list Th ti biddi f th it (Bilb L d d· Three consortia bidding for the site

McDonald, Kirk

139

A source of reactive power at a 35-kV substation of the Vankor oilfield  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An SRP-35/10/10 source of reactive power based on a magnetically controlled RTMU-10000/35-UHL1-series shunt reactor and a capacitor bank rated at 10 MV A at voltage 35 kV is described in this work. It was put int...

B. I. Bazylev; M. A. Bryantsev; S. V. Dyagileva…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Journal of Power Sources 128 (2004) 5460 Microfluidic fuel cell based on laminar flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Power Sources 128 (2004) 54­60 Microfluidic fuel cell based on laminar flow Eric R a novel microfluidic fuel cell concept that utilizes the occurrence of multi-stream laminar flow of a Y-shaped microfluidic channel in which two liquid streams containing fuel and oxidant merge

Kenis, Paul J. A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Electric power generation from a geothermal source utilizing a low-temperature organic Rankine cycle turbine  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration project to generate electricity with a geothermal source and low-temperature organic Rankine cycle turbine in a rural Alaskan location is described. Operating data and a set of conclusions are presented detailing problems and recommendations for others contemplating this approach to electric power generation.

Aspnes, J.D.; Zarling, J.P.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Journal of Power Sources 196 (2011) 64736477 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oxide Tin oxide Homogeneous coprecipitation Lithium ion battery Anode a b s t r a c t Reduced graphene of Power Sources journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jpowsour Short communication Reduced graphene oxide/tin oxide composite as an enhanced anode material for lithium ion batteries prepared by homogenous

143

A Self-Adjusting Sinusoidal Power Source Suitable for Driving Capacitive Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-CFPPRI can drive a capacitive load at any frequency within the design range. It will maintain zero voltage Inverter; Variable inductor; Phase comparator; Sinusoidal Power Source. I. INTRODUCTION The favorable drive to the secondary (C1(n2/2n1)2 + C2 + CL). When the gate drive frequency of the CFPPRI, fs, matches the resonant

144

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid liquid radioactive Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460 Summary: radioactive wastes in liquid or solid forms. Oil and gas production, as an example, also results... a radioactive source, plus radioactive...

145

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Semi-Solid Rechargeable Power Sources - Taison Tan, 24M  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SEMI-SOLID RECHARGEABLE POWER SOURCES: FLEXIBLE, HIGH-PERFORMANCE SEMI-SOLID RECHARGEABLE POWER SOURCES: FLEXIBLE, HIGH-PERFORMANCE STORAGE FOR VEHICLES AND GRID AT ULTRALOW COST (<$0.10/Wh) 1. Technology Summary 3. Key Personnel * 24M: T. Tan, T. Wilder * MIT : Y.-M. Chiang, W. C. Carter, A. Belcher, P. Hammond * Rutgers: G. Amatucci This project is made possible in part through generous grants from the Department of Energy ARPA-e and the Defense Department DARPA agencies. * Revolutionary Electrical Energy Storage Concept * Combines best attributes of rechargeable batteries and flow cells * Decouples energy storage from power delivery * Semi-solid Electrodes Deliver High Energy Density, Low Cost 2. Technology Impact * Reduce Greenhouse Gases * Replaces inefficient, polluting gas peakers * Zero point-of-use emissions

146

Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the local political organizations that can influence decisions regarding the use of the alternative source. Often a plan to use reclaimed water will work only if local politics and power plant goals converge. Even then, lengthy negotiations are often needed for the plans to come to fruition. (3) Regulatory requirements for planning and developing associated infrastructure such as pipelines, storage facilities, and back-up supplies that can require numerous approvals, permits, and public participation, all of which can create delays and increased costs. (4) Permitting requirements that may be difficult to meet, such as load-based discharge limits for wastewater or air emissions limitations for particulate matter (which will be in the mist of cooling towers that use reclaimed water high in dissolved solids). (5) Finding discharge options for cooling tower blowdown of reclaimed water that are acceptable to permitting authorities. Constituents in this wastewater can limit options for discharge. For example, discharge to rivers requires National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits whose limits may be difficult to meet, and underground injection can be limited because many potential injection sites have already been claimed for disposal of produced waters from oil and gas wells or waters associated with gas shale extraction. (6) Potential liabilities associated with using alternative sources. A power plant can be liable for damages associated with leaks from reclaimed water conveyance systems or storage areas, or with mine water that has been contaminated by unscrupulous drillers that is subsequently discharged by the power plant. (7) Community concerns that include, but are not limited to, increased saltwater drift on farmers fields; the possibility that the reclaimed water will contaminate local drinking water aquifers; determining the 'best' use of WWTP effluent; and potential health concerns associated with emissions from the cooling towers that use recycled water. (8) Interveners that raise public concerns about the potential for emissions of emergi

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

148

Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

149

FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF MEXICO, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRI’s cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

Butler, Nicholas; Watson, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

150

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District of Columbia" District of Columbia" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",806,806,806,806,806,806,806,806,806,806,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",806,806,806,806,806,806,806,806,806,806,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" "Independent Power Producers and Combined Heat and Power",3,3,3,3,3,3,"-","-","-","-",804,806,806,806,806,806,806,806,790,790,790,100,100

151

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District of Columbia" District of Columbia" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",361043,179814,73991,188452,274252,188862,109809,70661,243975,230003,97423,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",67.5,"-" " Petroleum",361043,179814,73991,188452,274252,188862,109809,70661,243975,230003,97423,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",67.5,"-" "Independent Power Producers and Combined Heat and Power","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",46951,123239,261980,74144,36487,226042,81467,75251,72316,35499,199858,32.5,100

152

FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRI’s cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they traveled to the Dominican Republic and provided briefings and presentations which demonstrated its successful cooperation with the GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Dominican Republic agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Dominican Republic be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians, and the financial and technical support of the United States. As a result, two of Dominican Republic’s largest radioactive sites had security upgrades in place within 90 days of the cooperation visit in December 2008.

Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

153

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 53, NO. 2, APRIL 2006 477 Voltage-Source Active Power Filter Based on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 53, NO. 2, APRIL 2006 477 Voltage-Source Active compensate load current harmonics, keeping better-quality sinusoidal currents from the source. The simulated MODERN power electronics have contributed a great deal to the development of new powerful applications

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

154

High power water load for microwave and millimeter-wave radio frequency sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high power water load for microwave and millimeter wave radio frequency sources has a front wall including an input port for the application of RF power, a cylindrical dissipation cavity lined with a dissipating material having a thickness which varies with depth, and a rear wall including a rotating reflector for the reflection of wave energy inside the cylindrical cavity. The dissipation cavity includes a water jacket for removal of heat generated by the absorptive material coating the dissipation cavity, and this absorptive material has a thickness which is greater near the front wall than near the rear wall. Waves entering the cavity reflect from the rotating reflector, impinging and reflecting multiple times on the absorptive coating of the dissipation cavity, dissipating equal amounts of power on each internal reflection.

Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA); Mizuhara, Yosuke M. (Palo Alto, CA); Schumacher, Richard V. (Sunnyvale, CA); Pendleton, Rand P. (Saratoga, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source  

SciTech Connect

The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and hydrogen gas flow rate. Measurements of the pressure in the arc channel show that the flow is well described by Poiseuille flow and that the effective heavy particle temperature is approximately 0.8 eV. Interpretation of the measured I-V data in terms of a one-parameter model shows that the plasma production is proportional to the input power, to the square root of the hydrogen flow rate, and is independent of the channel diameter. The observed scaling shows that the dominant power loss mechanism inside the arc channel is one that scales with the effective volume of the plasma in the discharge channel. Measurements on the plasma output with Thomson scattering confirm the linear dependence of the plasma production on the input power. Extrapolation of these results shows that (without a magnetic field) an improvement in the plasma production by a factor of 10 over where it was in van Rooij et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121501 (2007)] should be possible.

Vijvers, W. A. J.; Gils, C. A. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Meiden, H. J. van der; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rooij, G. J. van [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schram, D. C. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Analysis of combined cooling, heating, and power systems based on source primary energy consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) is a cogeneration technology that integrates an absorption chiller to produce cooling, which is sometimes referred to as trigeneration. For building applications, CCHP systems have the advantage to maintain high overall energy efficiency throughout the year. Design and operation of CCHP systems must consider the type and quality of the energy being consumed. Type and magnitude of the on-site energy consumed by a building having separated heating and cooling systems is different than a building having CCHP. Therefore, building energy consumption must be compared using the same reference which is usually the primary energy measured at the source. Site-to-source energy conversion factors can be used to estimate the equivalent source energy from site energy consumption. However, building energy consumption depends on multiple parameters. In this study, mathematical relations are derived to define conditions a CCHP system should operate in order to guarantee primary energy savings.

Nelson Fumo; Louay M. Chamra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

14 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 Multiple-LoadSource Integration in a Multilevel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a power management system among multiple sources and loads having dif- ferent operating voltages. Index- tional dc­dc converter is a key element to provide the power for the electrical drive train in future14 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 Multiple

Tolbert, Leon M.

158

High-Power Negative Ion Sources for Neutral Beam Injectors in Large Helical Device  

SciTech Connect

Large-scaled hydrogen negative-ion sources, in which cesium is introduced in the source plasma, have been developed for neutral beam injectors in Large Helical Device, and their operational characteristics are reviewed. For high-efficient negative ion production, configuration of the magnetic filter field and the cusp magnetic field was optimized, resulting in a high arc efficiency for the negative ion production of 0.23A/kW. With use of a multi-slotted grounded grid, the gas pressure in the acceleration gap is lowered, leading to reduction of the heat load of the grounded grid. As a result, the voltage holding ability is much improved, and the rated energy of 180 keV is achieved in a short conditioning period of 4 days. The injection power is increased linearly to the 5/2 power of the beam energy and reached 5.7MW with an energy of 184keV, which exceeds the specified value of 180keV-5MW. Beam uniformity has been improved with an individual control of the local arc discharge by adjusting 12-divided output voltages of the arc and filament power supplies. The injection duration has been extended to 120sec with a reduced power. Spectroscopic measurement has been carried out for the source plasma. The cesium-ion line is observed in the plasma volume, and, however, the negative ion production is not influenced by the cesium ions in the plasma because the negative ions should be produced on the cesium-covered plasma grid surface.

Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Oka, Y.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany)

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

159

The Need for Confirmatory Experiments on the Radioactive Source Term from Potential Sabotage of Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks  

SciTech Connect

A technical review is presented of experiment activities and state of knowledge on air-borne, radiation source terms resulting from explosive sabotage attacks on spent reactor fuel subassemblies in shielded casks. Current assumptions about the behavior of irradiated fuel are largely based on a limited number of experimental results involving unirradiated, depleted uranium dioxide ''surrogate'' fuel. The behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel subjected to explosive conditions could be different from the behavior of the surrogate fuel, depending on the assumptions made by the evaluator. Available data indicate that these potential differences could result in errors, and possible orders-of-magnitude overestimates of aerosol dispersion and potential health effects from sabotage attacks. Furthermore, it is suggested that the current assumptions used in arriving at existing regulations for the transportation and storage of spent fuel in the U.S. are overly conservative. This, in turn, has led to potentially higher-than-needed operating expenses for those activities. A confirmatory experimental program is needed to develop a realistic correlation between source terms of irradiated fuel and unirradiated fuel. The motivations for performing the confirmatory experimental program are also presented.

PHILBIN, JEFFREY S.; HOOVER, MARK D.; NEWTON, GEORGE J.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

Shott, Gregory

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - administered radioactive material Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 The New Orphaned Radioactive Sources Program in the United States International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Summary: on the...

162

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources  

SciTech Connect

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources is under investigation in this paper. The proposed cycle combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. The ejector is driven by the exhausts from the turbine to produce power and refrigeration simultaneously. A simulation was carried out to analyze the cycle performance using R245fa as the working fluid. A thermal efficiency of 34.1%, an effective efficiency of 18.7% and an exergy efficiency of 56.8% can be obtained at a generating temperature of 395 K, a condensing temperature of 298 K and an evaporating temperature of 280 K. Simulation results show that the proposed cycle has a big potential to produce refrigeration and most exergy losses take place in the ejector. (author)

Zheng, B.; Weng, Y.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Power-aware node-disjoint multipath source routing with low overhead in MANET  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the advance of wireless communication technologies, small-size and high-performance computing and communication devices like laptops and personal digital assistants are increasingly used in daily life. After the success of second generation mobile system, more interest was started in wireless communications. This interest had led to two types of the wireless networks such as infrastructure wireless network and infrastructure less wireless network, also called mobile ad hoc network (MANET). The research challenges in MANET are related to the routing, security, reliability, scalability, quality of services, internetworking, power consumption and multimedia applications. All the mobile nodes of MANET operate on the battery power; hence power consumption becomes an important issue in MANET. It proposes a power-aware node-disjoint multipath source routing (PNDMSR) for real-time traffic, which balances the node energy utilisation to increase the network lifetime. It takes the network congestion into account to reduce the routing delay across the network, and increases the reliability of the data packets reaching the destination.

M. Bheemalingaiah; M.M. Naidu; D. Sreenivasa Rao; G. Varaprasad

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Control of plasma uniformity in a capacitive discharge using two very high frequency power sources  

SciTech Connect

Very high frequency (VHF) capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharges are being employed for dielectric etching due to VHF's various benefits including low plasma potential, high electron density, and controllable dissociation. If the plasma is generated using multiple VHF sources, one can expect that the interaction between the sources can be important in determining the plasma characteristics. The effects of VHF mixing on plasma characteristics, especially its spatial profile, are investigated using both computational modeling and diagnostic experiments. The two-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations in their potential formulation. The plasma simulation results show that electron density peaks at the center of the chamber at 180 MHz due to the standing electromagnetic wave. Electrostatic effects at the electrode edges tend to get stronger at lower VHFs such as 60 MHz. When the two rf sources are used simultaneously and power at 60 MHz is gradually increased, the ion flux becomes uniform and then transitions to peak at electrode edge. These results are corroborated by Langmuir probe measurements of ion saturation current. VHF mixing is therefore an effective method for dynamically controlling plasma uniformity. The plasma is stronger and more confined when the 60 MHz source is connected to the smaller bottom electrode compared to the top electrode.

Bera, Kallol; Rauf, Shahid; Ramaswamy, Kartik; Collins, Ken [Applied Materials, Inc., 974 E. Arques Ave., M/S 81517, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Investigation of the sources of residential power frequency magnetic field exposure in the  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is an unexplained association between exposure to the magnetic fields arising from the supply and use of electricity, and increase in risk of childhood leukaemia. The UK Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) provides a large and unique source of information on residential magnetic field exposure in the UK. The purpose of this supplementary study was to investigate a sample of UKCCS homes in order to identify the particular sources that contribute to elevated time-averaged exposure. In all, 196 homes have been investigated, 102 with exposures estimated on the basis of the original study to be above 0.2??T, and 21 higher than 0.4??T, a threshold above which a raised risk has been observed. First, surveys were carried out outside the property boundaries of all 196 study homes, and then, where informed consent had been obtained, assessments were conducted inside the properties of 19 homes. The study found that low-voltage (LV) sources associated with the final electricity supply accounted together for 77% of exposures above 0.2??T, and 57% of those above 0.4??T. Most of these exposures were linked to net currents in circuits inside and/or around the home. High-voltage (HV) sources, including the HV overhead power lines that are the focus of public concern, accounted for 23% of the exposures above 0.2??T, and 43% of those above 0.4??T. Public health interest has focused on the consideration of precautionary measures that would reduce exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Our study provides a basis for considering the options for exposure mitigation in the UK. For instance, in elevated-exposure homes where net currents are higher than usual, if it is possible to reduce the net currents, then the exposure could be reduced for a sizeable proportion of these homes. Further investigations would be necessary to determine whether this is feasible.

M P Maslanyj; T J Mee; D C Renew; J Simpson; P Ansell; S G Allen; E Roman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Studies on the Matching Network of the High Power Radio Frequency Transmitter for the NBI RF Ion Source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radio frequency (RF) driven ion source has been developed at ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS) for the neutral beam injector with a 1 MHz, 25 kW RF power supply system. The paper describes the studies pe...

Renxue Su; Zhimin Liu; Yahong Xie; Yuqian Chen; Yuming Gu…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

UTILIZATION OF SPENT RADIOISOTOPE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS AND INSTALLATION OF SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGY AS POWER SOURCE FOR RUSSIAN LIGHTHOUSES - FINAL REPORT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Northern Fleets hydrographical department has with support from Norway worked on the utilization of spent strontium-containing RTGs used as power sources at lighthouses situated at the Kola Peninsula.

PER-EINAR FISKEBECK

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Effect of Fuel Type on the Attainable Power of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) is a small liquid metal cooled fast reactor that features uniform composition core, at least 20 effective full power years of operation without refueling, nearly zero burnup reactivity swing and heat removal by natural circulation. A number of cores have been designed over the last few years to provide the first three of the above features. The objective of this work is to find to what extent use of nitride fuel, with either natural or enriched nitrogen, affects the attainable power as compared to the reference metallic fueled core. All the compared cores use the same fuel rod diameter, D, and length but differ in the lattice pitch, P, and Pu weight percent. Whereas when using Pb-Bi eutectic for both primary and intermediate coolants the P/D of the metallic fueled core is 1.36, P/D for the nitride cores are, respectively, 1.21 for natural nitrogen and 1.45 for enriched nitrogen. A simple one-dimensional thermal hydraulic model has been developed for the ENHS reactor. Applying this model to the different designs it was found that when the IHX length is at its reference value of 10.4 m, the power that can be removed by natural circulation using nitride fuel with natural nitrogen is 65% of the reference power of 125 MWth that is attainable using metallic fuel. However, using enriched nitrogen the attainable power is 110% of the reference. To get 125 MWth the effective IHX length need be 8.7 m and 30.5 m for, respectively, enriched and natural nitrogen nitride fuel designs. (authors)

Okawa, Tsuyoshi; Greenspan, Ehud [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Energy storage for desalination processes powered by renewable energy and waste heat sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Desalination has become imperative as a drinking water source for many parts of the world. Due to the large quantities of thermal energy and high quality electricity requirements for water purification, the desalination industry depends on waste heat resources and renewable energy sources such as solar collectors, photovoltaic arrays, geothermal and wind and tidal energy sources. Considering the mismatch between the source supply and demand and intermittent nature of these energy resources, energy storage is a must for reliable and continuous operation of desalination facilities. Thermal energy storage (TES) requires a suitable medium for storage and circulation while the photovoltaic/wind generated electricity needs to be stored in batteries for later use. Desalination technologies that utilize thermal energy and thus require storage for uninterrupted process operation are multi-stage flash distillation (MSF), multi-effect evaporation (MED), low temperature desalination (LTD) and humidification–dehumidification (HD) and membrane distillation (MD). Energy accumulation, storage and supply are the key components of energy storage concept which improve process performance along with better resource economics, and minimum environmental impact. Similarly, the battery energy storage (BES) is essential to store electrical energy for electrodialysis (ED), reverse osmosis (RO) and mechanical vapor compression (MVC) technologies. This research-review paper provides a critical review on current energy storage options for different desalination processes powered by various renewable energy and waste heat sources with focus on thermal energy storage and battery energy storage systems. Principles of energy storage (thermal and electrical energy) are discussed with details on the design, sizing, and economics for desalination process applications.

Veera Gnaneswar Gude

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of associated radiation hazards in soil around Baoji second coal-fired thermal power plant, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......10001 g) were sealed in gas-tight, radon-impermeable...concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra...Comparative study of natural radioactivity levels...radioactive samples from Cyprus characteristic geological...Mechanisms of enrichment of natural radioactivity along the......

Xinwei Lu; Xiaoxue Li; Pujun Yun; Dacheng Luo; Lijun Wang; Chunhui Ren; Cancan Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Space Technology and Applications International Forum Proceedings, Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 2000 Miniaturized Radioisotope Solid State Power Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermoelectric generators (RTGs) have been successfully used for a number of deep space missions RTGs. However 2000 Miniaturized Radioisotope Solid State Power Sources J.-P. Fleurial, G.J. Snyder, J. Patel, J-pierre.fleurial@jpl.nasa.gov Abstract. Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range

172

194 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 56, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 PWM Method to Eliminate Power Sources in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Eliminate Power Sources in a Nonredundant 27-Level Inverter for Machine Drive Applications Mauricio Rotella-stage 27-level inverter using "H" converters is analyzed for medium- and high-power machine drive was implemented using DSP controllers, which give flexibility to the system. Index Terms--Drives, multilevel

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

173

Title: Sustainable Communities Based on a New Clean Energy Source -Marine & Hydrokinetic Power: Roosevelt Island and Beyond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Sustainable Communities Based on a New Clean Energy Source - Marine & Hydrokinetic Power Earth Hour "a symbol of our commitment to sustainable energy for all," and underscored the need to "fuel hydrokinetic farm in the U.S. Verdant envisions marine & hydrokinetic (MHK) power as the basis of a new local

Angenent, Lars T.

174

248 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 2002 Modeling, Analysis, and Control of a Current Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

--This paper presents a new approach for the dy- namic control of a current source inverter (CSI)-based STATic-commutated inverters to achieve advanced reactive power control have been confirmed by many researchers [1248 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 2002 Modeling, Analysis

Lehn, Peter W.

175

Increasing the Work-Safety in Nuclear Power Plants through the Use of Preventive Maintenance Policies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear power is being used at an increasing rate as a substitute for scarce and expensive classical energy sources. Controlled nuclear fission generates energy but, at the same time, produces radioactive subs...

Dr. U. Pachow; Prof. Dr. H. Gehring; H. J. Rokohl

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Supply of geothermal power from hydrothermal sources: A study of the cost of power in 20 and 40 years  

SciTech Connect

This study develops estimates for the amount of hydrothermal geothermal power that could be on line in 20 and 40 years. This study was intended to represent a snapshot'' in 20 and 40 years of the hydrothermal energy available for electric power production should a market exist for this power. This does not represent the total or maximum amount of hydrothermal power, but is instead an attempt to estimate the rate at which power could be on line constrained by the exploration, development and support infrastructure available to the geothermal industry, but not constrained by the potential market for power.

Petty, S. (Petty (Susan) Consulting, Solano Beach, CA (United States)); Livesay, B.J. (Livesay Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States)); Long, W.P. (Carlin Gold Co., Inc., Grass Valley, CA (United States)); Geyer, J. (Geyer (John) and Associates, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Radioactivity of the Cooling Water  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

Wigner, E. P.

1943-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Tracking Radioactive Sources in Commerce  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Area Network­mobile phone, ethernet and/or satellite � security--encryption, short broadcast bursts Randy Walker, Robert Abercrombie, Rocky Cline, Sabrina Phillips; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Frederick security by commercial shippers � Knowledge of routes routinely taken � Inability to track location

179

DOE-STD-3003-2000; Backup Power Sources for DOE Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE-STD-3003-2000 January 2000 Superseding DOE-STD-3003-94 September 1994 DOE STANDARD BACKUP POWER SOURCES FOR DOE FACILITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA EDCN Washington, D.C. 20858 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. METRIC This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-STD-3003-2000 iii FOREWORD 1. This Standard is approved for use by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This

180

On-Axis Brilliance and Power of In-Vacuum Undulators for The Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 On-Axis Brilliance and Power of In-Vacuum Undulators for the Advanced Photon Source (formerly MD-TN-2009-004) R. Dejus, M. Jaski, and S.H. Kim - MD Group/ASD Rev. 1, November 25, 2009: Updated the fitted B eff in Tables 1 - 3, and 5 to use two decimals in the fitted equation. Explained chosen gaps. Added clarifications in the text and added additional references. Edited by C. Eyberger for release as cleared document ANL/APS/LS-314; updated in ICMS. Rev. 0a, June 17, 2009: ICMS Initial Release (minor clarifications and corrections of typographical errors, added footnote "d" to Table 4). Rev. 0, June 16, 2009: First Release as Technical Note MD-TN-2009-004. Table of Contents Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Power combination of two phase-locked high power microwave beams from a new coaxial microwave source based on dual beams  

SciTech Connect

The new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams has demonstrated two phase-locked output microwave beams generated by its two sub-sources. In order to achieve a single higher output power, we present a three-port waveguide-based power combiner to combine the two microwave beams. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that when the diode voltage is 675?kV and the guiding magnetic field is 0.8?T, a combined microwave with an average power of about 4.0?GW and a frequency of 9.74 GHz is generated; the corresponding power conversion efficiency is 29%. The combination effect of the combiner is further validated in the diode voltage range from 675?kV to 755?kV as well as in the pulse regime. The simulations indicate that the maximum surface axial electric field strength of the electrodynamic structure is 720?kV/cm, which is relatively low corresponding to an output power of 4.0?GW. The stable combined output suggests the probability of long-pulse operation for the combined source.

Li, Yangmei; Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: plinafly@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; Dang, Fangchao; Yan, Xiaolu [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity radioactive waste Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

waste Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activity radioactive waste...

183

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Idaho" Idaho" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",2282,2282,2357,2304,2500,2559,2553,2576,2576,2571,2585,2659,2690,2439,2394,2558,2558,2547,2686,3029,3035,85.7,76.1 " Petroleum",56,56,56,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,0.2,0.1 " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-",136,136,136,136,136,136,136,212,212,212,212,376,376,376,536,543,543,4.5,13.6 " Hydroelectric",2227,2226,2302,2299,2358,2418,2412,2435,2435,2429,2444,2441,2472,2221,2176,2176,2176,2166,2144,2481,2486,81,62.3 "Independent Power Producers and Combined Heat and Power",314,353,379,404,409,415,434,434,433,433,432,577,574,563,592,602,652,649,692,729,955,14.3,23.9

184

Thermal Analysis of Step 2 GPHS for Next Generation Radioisotope Power Source Missions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Step 2 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a slightly larger and more robust version of the heritage GPHS modules flown on previous Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) missions like Galileo Ulysses and Cassini. The Step 2 GPHS is to be used in future small radioisotope power sources such as the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) and the Multi?Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). New features include an additional central web of Fine Weave Pierced Fabric (FWPF) graphite in the aeroshell between the two Graphite Impact Shells (GIS) to improve accidental reentry and impact survivability and an additional 0.1?inch of thickness to the aeroshell broad faces to improve ablation protection. This paper details the creation of the thermal model using Thermal Desktop and AutoCAD interfaces and provides comparisons of the model to results of previous thermal analysis models of the heritage GPHS. The results of the analysis show an anticipated decrease in total thermal gradient from the aeroshell to the iridium clads compared to the heritage results. In addition the Step 2 thermal model is investigated under typical SRG110 boundary conditions with cover gas and gravity environments included where applicable to provide preliminary guidance for design of the generator. Results show that the temperatures of the components inside the GPHS remain within accepted design limits during all envisioned mission phases.

David R. Pantano; Dennis H. Hill

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

A study of low level vibrations as a power source for wireless sensor nodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in low power VLSI design, along with the potentially low duty cycle of wireless sensor nodes open up the possibility of powering small wireless computing devices from scavenged ambient power. A broad review of potential power scavenging technologies ... Keywords: Energy scavenging, Self powered wireless sensing, Vibration to electricity conversion

Shad Roundy; Paul K. Wright; Jan Rabaey

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

890 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULY 2006 A Self-Adjusting Sinusoidal Power Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mordechai Peretz Abstract--A new self-adjusting current-fed push­pull parallel inverter (SA the amplitude, waveform and efficiency of the power driver. The current-fed push­pull resonant inverter (CFPPRI890 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULY 2006 A Self-Adjusting Sinusoidal

187

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources  

SciTech Connect

The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Heintz, Y.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Ilconich, J.B. (Parsons)

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources  

SciTech Connect

The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Electric Power Distribution Reliability Indices. ISBN 0-to report distribution system reliability for each dataset

Fisher, Emily

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A STUDY OF THE GENERAL PLASMA CHARACTERISTICS OF A HIGH POWER MULTIFILAMENT ION SOURCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fusion could provide civilization with a reasonably clean and virtually inexhaustible source of energy.

Schoenberg, K.F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Several factors must be considered before adopting a full-phase power generation system based on renewable energy sources. Long-term necessary data (for one year if possible) should be collected before making any decisions concerning implementation of such a systems. To accurately assess the potential of available resources, we measured solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature at two high-altitude locations in Nepal: the Lama Hotel in Rasuwa District and Thingan in Makawanpur District. Here, we propose two practical, economical hybridization methods for small off-grid systems consisting entirely of renewable energy sources—specifically solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. One of the methods was tested experimentally, and the results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. Hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic energy are the top renewable energy sources in terms of globally installed capacity. However, no reports have been published about off-grid hybrid systems comprised of all three sources, making this implementation the first of its kind anywhere. This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. Of the four off-grid PV systems installed by the authors for village electrification in Nepal, one was further hybridized with wind and hydro power sources. This paper presents a novel approach for connecting renewable energy sources to a utility mini-grid.

Binayak Bhandari; Kyung-Tae Lee; Caroline Sunyong Lee; Chul-Ki Song; Ramesh K. Maskey; Sung-Hoon Ahn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 5 (1996) 499509. Printed in the UK Spatial distributions of power and ion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 5 (1996) 499­509. Printed in the UK Spatial distributions of power and ion densities in RF excited remote plasma reactors Ir`ene P´er`es and Mark J Kushner University Received 7 February 1995, in final form 24 December 1995 Abstract. Remote plasma systems operating

Kushner, Mark

193

PRECISION CURRENT SOURCE OF THE INVERTER TYPE VCH-3000-12 TO POWER MAGNETIC SYSTEMS OF ACCELERATORS AND CHARGED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PRECISION CURRENT SOURCE OF THE INVERTER TYPE VCH-3000-12 TO POWER MAGNETIC SYSTEMS OF ACCELERATORS, with the help of fans placed on the front boards of the Inverter and Rectifier units. Figure 1 shows through the Inverter, Rectifier, LC filter (the resonance frequency is 800 Hz) and the correction circuit

Kozak, Victor R.

194

Journal of Power Sources 156 (2006) 345354 Development of PtRu-CeO2/C anode electrocatalyst for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Power Sources 156 (2006) 345­354 Development of PtRu-CeO2/C anode electrocatalyst a growing interest in the development of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) because when compared oxidation reac- tion on the anode and the oxygen reduction reaction on the cathode remains as one

Zhao, Tianshou

195

Journal of Power Sources 134 (2004) 16 Synthesis and physical/electrochemical characterization of Pt/C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Power Sources 134 (2004) 1­6 Synthesis and physical/electrochemical characterization Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay alloys on a car- bon support. The high surface area of a Pt and its alloys can be rendered by using

Zhao, Tianshou

196

Journal of Power Sources 165 (2007) 509516 Direct NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Fuel cell; Hydrogen peroxide; Regenerative fuel cell; Sodium) /hydrogen per- oxide (H2O2) fuel cell (FC) is under development jointly by the University of IllinoisJournal of Power Sources 165 (2007) 509­516 Direct NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells George H. Mileya,e,, Nie

Carroll, David L.

197

Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184­191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents an examination of a simple hydrogen sulfide and natural gas-fed solid oxide fuel cell system. The possibility of utilization of hydrogen sulfide

198

Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 388399 Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 388­399 Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems, temporary faults in such systems still might occur/uncertainty of the fuel cell system, and the measurement noise. In this research, we propose a model-based condition

Ding, Yu

199

Journal of Power Sources 126 (2004) 193202 Li-ion microbatteries generated by a laser direct-write method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to fabricate Li-ion microbatteries. The battery electrodes are made by the laser-induced forward transfer. Keywords: Microbattery; Battery; Li-ion; Direct-write; Laser 1. Introduction A current trend in technologyJournal of Power Sources 126 (2004) 193­202 Li-ion microbatteries generated by a laser direct

Arnold, Craig B.

200

(Revised May 25, 2012) Radioactivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Revised May 25, 2012) Radioactivity GOALS (1) To gain a better understanding of naturally-occurring. (3) To measure the amount of "background radiation" from natural sources. (4) To test whether and man-made radiation sources. (2) To use a Geiger-Mueller tube to detect both beta and gamma radiation

Collins, Gary S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Neutron sources and transmutation of nuclear waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intense neutron sources with different energy spectra are of interest for a variety of applications. In my presentation, after briefly touching on the situation of radioactive waste in Italy, I will try to give a broad picture of Italian existing or proposed neutron sources based on accelerators, ranging from thermal to fast neutrons. I will also describe a specific project for a low-power ADS, aimed at studying neutron spectra as well as at demonstrating incineration and transmutation of nuclear waste.

M. Ripani

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

203

Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy Source to Power Mobile Robots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy can provide a viable alternative energy source to meet the special energy demands that are typically required to operate mobile robots. Conventional energy sources cannot fulfil these demands as sati...

Abdusalam Sulaiman; Freddie Inambao…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1983, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 37 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) or projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. 48 figures, 107 tables.

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

Tam, S.W.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

206

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An illumination source is disclosed comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

Tam, S.W.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

209

A literature review of methods of analysis of organic analytes in radioactive wastes with an emphasis on sources from the United Kingdom  

SciTech Connect

This report, compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), examines literature originating through the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear industry relating to the analyses of organic constituents of radioactive waste. Additionally, secondary references from the UK and other counties, including the United States, have been reviewed. The purpose of this literature review was to find analytical methods that would apply to the mixed-waste matrices found at Hanford.

Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Effects of electricity market regulations on the promotion of non-conventional energy sources in Colombia's power mix  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article investigates the regulations and incentives that hinder the development of non-conventional energy sources in Colombia. To this end, the article first discusses the environmental, health and financial benefits to be had from the application of renewable energy sources, both in general terms and in the specific Colombian context. It then describes the available energy resource potential for Colombia. The main part of the article reviews existing Colombian energy regulations related to renewable power sources and provides insights from interviews with representatives of Colombia's public and private energy sector institutions. On this basis, suggestions are made for possible regulatory reform so that Colombia can make greater use of non-conventional energy sources.

Adriana M. Valencia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

22 - Radioactive waste disposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the disposal of radioactive wastes that arise from a great variety of sources, including the nuclear fuel cycle, beneficial uses of isotopes, and radiation by institutions. Spent fuel contains uranium, plutonium, and highly radioactive fission products. The spent fuel is accumulating, awaiting the development of a high-level waste repository. It is anticipated that a multi-barrier system involving packaging and geologic media will provide protection of the public over the centuries. The favored method of disposal is in a mined cavity deep underground. In some countries, reprocessing the fuel assemblies permits recycling of materials and disposal of smaller volumes of solidified waste. Transportation of wastes is done by casks and containers designed to withstand severe accidents. Low-level wastes come from research and medical procedures and from a variety of activation and fission sources at a reactor site. They generally can be given near-surface burial. Isotopes of special interest are cobalt-60 and cesium-137. Transuranic wastes are being disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Decommissioning of reactors in the future will contribute a great deal of low-level radioactive waste.

Raymond L. Murray

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Contamination of Cluster Radio Sources in the Measurement of the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Angular Power Spectrum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a quantitative estimate of the confusion of cluster radio halos and galaxies in the measurement of the angular power spectrum of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. To achieve the goal, we use a purely analytic approach to both radio sources and dark matter of clusters by incorporating empirical models and observational facts together with some theoretical considerations. It is shown that the correction of cluster radio halos and galaxies to the measurement of the thermal SZ angular power spectrum is no more than 20% at $l>2000$ for observing frequencies $\

Wei Zhou; Xiang-Ping Wu

2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

213

Abstract--Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry and it will continue to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Abstract--Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry system operators, this increasing contribution of wind energy to the grid poses new challenges that need of energy. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry

Tolbert, Leon M.

214

NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.: System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems  

SciTech Connect

Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

Not Available

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

NiSource Energy Technologies: Optimizing Combined Heat and Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

Not Available

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

FOREGROUND PREDICTIONS FOR THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM FROM MEASUREMENTS OF FAINT INVERTED RADIO SOURCES AT 5 GHz  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of a population of matched radio sources at 1.4 and 5 GHz down to a flux limit of 1.5 mJy in 7 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Field South. We find a significant fraction of sources with inverted spectral indices that all have 1.4 GHz fluxes less than 10 mJy and are therefore too faint to have been detected and included in previous radio source count models that are matched at multiple frequencies. Combined with the matched source population at 1.4 and 5 GHz in 1 deg{sup -2} in the ATESP survey, we update models for the 5 GHz differential number counts and distributions of spectral indices in 5 GHz flux bins that can be used to estimate the unresolved point source contribution to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. We find a shallower logarithmic slope in the 5 GHz differential counts than in previously published models for fluxes {approx}< 100 mJy as well as larger fractions of inverted spectral indices at these fluxes. Because the Planck flux limit for resolved sources is larger than 100 mJy in all channels, our modified number counts yield at most a 10% change in the predicted Poisson contribution to the Planck temperature power spectrum. For a flux cut of 5 mJy with the South Pole Telescope and a flux cut of 20 mJy with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, we predict a {approx}30% and {approx}10% increase, respectively, in the radio source Poisson power in the lowest frequency channels of each experiment relative to that predicted by previous models.

Schneider, Michael D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808 L-210, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Becker, Robert H. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 08991 (United States); De Vries, Willem [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808 L-211, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); White, Richard L., E-mail: schneider42@llnl.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Journal of Power Sources 196 (2011) 91699175 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

autonomous implantable devices include: microbial and enzymatic bio fuel cells [13­16], abiotic fuel cells-free glucose fuel cell for powering low-power implantable devices Vlad Oncescu, David Erickson Sibley School Available online 29 July 2011 Keywords: Glucose fuel cell Implantable device Enzyme-free Stacked electrode

Erickson, David

218

rf power system for thrust measurements of a helicon plasma source  

SciTech Connect

A rf power system has been developed, which allows the use of rf plasma devices in an electric propulsion test facility without excessive noise pollution in thruster diagnostics. Of particular importance are thrust stand measurements, which were previously impossible due to noise. Three major changes were made to the rf power system: first, the cable connection was changed from a balanced transmission line to an unbalanced coaxial line. Second, the rf power cabinet was placed remotely in order to reduce vibration-induced noise in the thrust stand. Finally, a relationship between transmission line length and rf was developed, which allows good transmission of rf power from the matching network to the helicon antenna. The modified system was tested on a thrust measurement stand and showed that rf power has no statistically significant contribution to the thrust stand measurement.

Kieckhafer, Alexander W.; Walker, Mitchell L. R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, High-Power Electric Propulsion Laboratory, College of Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Optical Variability of Infrared Power Law-Selected Galaxies & X-ray Sources in the GOODS-South Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the use of optical variability to identify and study Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the GOODS-South field. A sample of 22 mid-infrared power law sources and 102 X-ray sources with optical counterparts in the HST ACS images were selected. Each object is classified with a variability significance value related to the standard deviation of its magnitude in five epochs separated by 45-day intervals. The variability significance is compared to the optical, mid-IR, and X-ray properties of the sources. We find that 26% of all AGN candidates (either X-ray- or mid-IR-selected) are optical variables. The fraction of optical variables increases to 51% when considering sources with soft X-ray band ratios. For the mid-IR AGN candidates which have multiwavelength SEDs, we find optical variability for 64% of those classified with SEDs like Broad Line AGNs. While mostly unobscured AGN appear to have the most significant optical variability, some of the more obscured AGNs are also observed as variables. In particular, we find two mid-IR power law-selected AGN candidates without X-ray emission that display optical variability, confirming their AGN nature.

Alison Klesman; Vicki Sarajedini

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Determining the best source of renewable electricity to power a remote site for the National Park Service  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies have economic and environmental advantages in many remote applications. They can provide most of the power to off-grid loads, where batteries and another power source such as a generator or a fuel cell may be required to ensure availability and feasibility. In support of the National Park Service, the Federal Energy Management Program Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has evaluated several methods for providing a renewable source of electricity to a beach campsite at Kirby Cove, Marin County, California. This site requires 2 kWh per day to power a campground host in a motor home five months power year. The existing electricity line to the site is in need of replacement and the NPS is interested in evaluating more cost-effective and environmentally sensitive alternatives. Photovoltaics, tidal current, and wind power systems in combination with a back-up electric system (standard, thermoelectric, and Stirling generator and fuel cell) and an energy storage medium (battery, flywheel, and hydrogen) were analyzed. Multi-objective optimization criteria include initial cost, operating cost, emissions, maintenance requirements, and to be consistent with the NPS requirements, the system must be clean, silent, and sustainable. The best system combination was designed according to these evaluation criteria and a demonstration system is to be constructed. This paper describes the optimization procedure and design. Results indicate that a 800 Watt photovoltaic array with a hydrogen fuel cell best serves the requirements for clean, silent power. Since fuel cells are developmental, a propane generator is recommended as an alternative.

Azerbegl, R.; Mas, C.; Walker, A.; Morris, R.; Christensen, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Journal of Power Sources 196 (2011) 37613765 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the electrochemical performances of each cell. The open circuit voltage (OCV) and peak power densities of all three, application methodology, and firing temperature are all factors impacting elec- trochemical performance

Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.

223

Brackish groundwater as an alternative source of cooling water for nuclear power plants in Israel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of a high population density in the coastal plain, any future nuclear power plants will be located in the sparsely ... no surface water, the only alternatives to cooling water are piped-in Mediterranean. ...

A. Arad; A. Olshina

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power system SAIFI and SAIDI using NERC and DOE reliabilityInterruption Duration Index (SAIDI) are two common metricsa given period of time. SAIDI measures how long the average

Fisher, Emily

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

BINP accelerator based epithermal neutron source V. Aleynik a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Boron neutron capture therapy Epithermal neutron source Accelerator a b s t r a c t Innovative facility in order to prevent the propagation of 7 Be radioactive isotope, (ii) the controlled eva- poration, which is the most power- ful and determines the further beam transport. To exclude the effect of non

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

226

Radioactive Thulium for X-Rays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radioactive power from thulium makes Argonne x-ray unit a potential for medical and industrial use ... Active component of the instrument is a tiny particle (one-fifth gram) of thulium-170 which has been made radioactive in a heavy water nuclear reactor at Arco, Idaho. ...

1954-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

227

Radioactive Fallout in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiopotassium, radium, and other natural sources of radioactivity...Tex. Amarillo, Tex. *Corpus Christi, Tex. *Dallas, Tex...Kr90, which is an inert gas having a half-life of...dispersion of the radioactive gas radon and its daughter...

Merril Eisenbud; John H. Harley

1955-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

228

Development of Lithium?ion Battery as Energy Storage for Mobile Power Sources Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In view of the need to protect the global environment and save energy there has been strong demand for the development of lithium?ion battery technology as a energy storage system especially for Light Electric Vehicle (LEV) and electric vehicles (EV) applications. The R&D trend in the lithium?ion battery development is toward the high power and energy density cheaper in price and high safety standard. In our laboratory the research and development of lithium?ion battery technology was mainly focus to develop high power density performance of cathode material which is focusing to the Li?metal?oxide system LiMO 2 where M=Co Ni Mn and its combination. The nano particle size material which has irregular particle shape and high specific surface area was successfully synthesized by self propagating combustion technique. As a result the energy density and power density of the synthesized materials are significantly improved. In addition we also developed variety of sizes of lithium?ion battery prototype including (i) small size for electronic gadgets such as mobile phone and PDA applications (ii) medium size for remote control toys and power tools applications and (iii) battery module for high power application such as electric bicycle and electric scooter applications. The detail performance of R&D in advanced materials and prototype development in AMREC SIRIM Berhad will be discussed in this paper.

Mohd Ali Sulaiman; Hasimah Hasan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2003 through August 2003. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Major accomplishments included: Development of an emission profile for an integrated coke production facility and simulations using PMCAMx for a two week period during July 2001. The emissions from the coke facility are dominated by carbonaceous compounds. Forty seven percent of the organic carbon mass was identified on a compound level basis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant organic compound class in the coke emissions. Initial comparisons with the data collected in Pittsburgh suggest good agreement between the model predictions and observations. Single particle composition data appear useful for identifying primary sources. An example of this unique approach is illustrated using the Fe and Ce particle class with appear associated with steel production.

Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Rural Electrification Through Solar and Wind Hybrid System: A Self Sustained Grid Free Electric Power Source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In India, more than 200 million people live in rural areas without access to grid-connected power. A convenient & cost-effective solution would be hybrid power systems which can reduce dependency on grid supply, improve reliability. For a typical domestic load a solar –wind hybrid system is designed with charge controller to charge a conventional battery. To optimize system efficiency, a simple algorithm is developed for system sizing. Total cost of unit is calculated using life cycle cost analysis and payback peri

Vadirajacharya; P.K. Katti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Economic applicability of atomic energy as a source of power in underdeveloped countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i'inancial charges) 53 10. Break-even Point for I'Juclear Plants shown at Different Rates of Return on Investment for Various Costs of Conventional Fuel 54 11. Total Cost of Generating Nuclear Power at Various Plant Factor- and at Various... Return on Investment 55 12. Cost of Power, Comparing:Juclear and Oil Plants, at Bodega Bay. . 59 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1, Relationship Between Per Capita Energy Consumption and Per Capita Income of Underdeveloped Countries for the Year...

Ahmed, Sheik Basheer

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

232

Journal of Power Sources 161 (2006) 12881296 Crosslinkable fumed silica-based nanocomposite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in battery technology have not kept pace with the power requirements of these electrical devices. Solid electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries Yangxing Li, Jeffrey A. Yerian, Saad A. Khan, Peter S. Fedkiw Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695

Khan, Saad A.

233

Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 34513462 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/removal of the reactants/products in DMFC operating with highly concentrated methanol are identified. With these strategies technology for powering portable electronic devices. Although extensive efforts have been made in developing of the methanol oxi- dation reaction (MOR) [5­7], the permeation of methanol from the anode to the cathode, which

Zhao, Tianshou

234

Trade-off Analysis of Regenerative Power Source for Long Duration Loitering Airship  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: photovoltaic flat panels, thin film photovoltaic panels, trough solar concentrators, Stirling dish solar by their excessive drag. Flat solar technologies (i.e. thin film, LSC, and flat panel PV) are ranked the highest, the airship needs a reliable, low-weight, renewable power generation system. This analysis is focused on solar

235

Journal of Power Sources 157 (2006) 351357 Effect of cell orientation on the performance of passive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a gas compressor was tested at different orientations. The experimental results showed that the vertical cells (DMFCs) offer many advan- tages over the hydrogen-feed proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs as low cost. Therefore, the DMFC is one of the most promising candidates for powering portable devices

Zhao, Tianshou

236

Radioactivity in man: levels, effects and unknowns  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses the potential for significant human exposure to internal radiation. Sources of radiation considered include background radiation, fallout, reactor accidents, radioactive waste, and occupational exposure to various radioisotopes. (ACR)

Rundo, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Radioactive Waste Management  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

1984-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

238

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

239

Localization of sound sources in rooms using an improved version of steered response power algorithm.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Localization of sound sources inside a room is a challenging problem. The possible applications involving speech?based source localization systems range from teleconferencing to home automation systems. For example the localization of a speaker inside a conference room can be very useful to place the speaker in a remote room by means of a spatial audio reproduction system. Also new applications will appear in home automation if accurate source localization systems are available in the future. One of the most robust approaches to source localization is the SRP?PHAT algorithm which has shown to provide very good localization results inside rooms with moderate reverberation. However the computational cost is highly dependent on the spatial sampling and the number of microphones making very difficult the localization of sound events if a coarse spatial sampling is used. In this paper we propose an improvement of this method where sound events are not missed even if a very coarse grid is used. The improvement is based on a previous calculation of the existent cross?correlation lags between spatially adjacent points in the grid assuring that the non?sampled space is covered in terms of cross?correlation lags between microphone pairs when running the algorithm. Several experiments conducted in different rooms with complex acoustics confirm the validity and benefits of the proposed method.?

Jose J. Lopez; Maximo Cobos; Amparo Marti

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Design Options for Ultra-compact Nuclear Driven Power Sources for Field Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be compact, able to discharge its waste heat into the environment without a local water source, and have low logistical overhead. An air-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton cycle would be a viable and suitable design concept...

Mathis, Dean

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

Ledenyov, Oleg P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

RADIOACTIVITY 1997 BNL Site Environmental Report 4 -1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a few inches. Naturally occurring radioactive elements such as potassium-40 emit beta radiation. Gamma by materials such as paper and have a range in air of only an inch or so. Naturally occurring radioactive 4.3 Sources of Radiation Radioactivity and radiation are part of the earth's natural environment

244

Design of a High Power Continuous Source of Broadband Down-Converted Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the design and experimental proof of principle of a low threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that continuously oscillates over a large bandwidth allowed by phase matching. The large oscillation bandwidth is achieved with a selective two-photon loss that suppresses the inherent mode competition, which tends to narrow the bandwidth in conventional OPOs. Our design performs pairwise mode-locking of many frequency pairs, in direct equivalence to passive mode-locking of ultrashort pulsed lasers. The ability to obtain high powers of continuous \\textit{and} broadband down-converted light enables the optimal exploitation of the correlations within the down-converted spectrum, thereby strongly affecting two-photon interactions even at classically high power levels, and opening new venues for applications such as two-photon spectroscopy and microscopy and optical spread spectrum communication.

Avi Pe'er; Yaron Silberberg; Barak Dayan; Asher A. Friesem

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

245

A new stochastic framework for optimal generation scheduling considering wind power sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper suggests a new stochastic framework based on 2 m+1 point estimate method PEM to solve the mid-term generation scheduling SMGS problem. The new formulation makes use of an adaptive modified bat algorithm and a novel self-adaptive wavelet mutation ... Keywords: Mid-Term Generation Scheduling Mgs, Modified Bat Algorithm, Point Estimate Methods, Self-Adaptive Strategy, Wind Power Generation

Sajad Tabatabaei

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

247

Room-temperature high radio-frequency source power effects on silicon nitride films deposited by using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon nitride films were deposited at room temperature using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. In this study, the effects of radio frequency (RF) source power ranging from 200 W to ... charact...

Byungwhan Kim; Suyeon Kim

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

E-Print Network 3.0 - agent-based national radioactive Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20555. National Biosolids Partnership, 1999, Characteristics of Radioactivity Sources at Wastewater... ) National Air & Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery,...

249

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial radioactive aerosols Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 4 Spatial Data Analysis and Modeling of Radioactively-Contaminated Territories: Lessons...

250

Pilot demonstration of concentrated solar-powered desalination of subsurface agricultural drainage water and other brackish groundwater sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energy–water nexus is addressed with the experimental demonstration of a solar-powered desalination process system. This system was designed for high-recovery treatment of subsurface agricultural drainage water as a reuse strategy as well as other brackish groundwater sources. These water sources may exhibit wide fluctuations in salinity and makeup and pose a high risk for operational troubles due to high scaling potential. A first-of-its-kind open-cycle vapor-absorption heat pump is coupled with a multiple-effect distillation train and a large parabolic trough solar thermal concentrator. Without the heat pump, the distillation operation showed a minimum thermal energy consumption of 261.87 kWhth/m3. With the heat pump, the thermal energy consumption was reduced by more than 49% to 133.2 kWhth/m3. This reduction in thermal energy requirement directly translates into a 49% reduction in solar array area required to power a process with the same freshwater production rate as a system without an integrated heat pump. An optimized design was modeled and the thermal energy performance of a commercial system is projected at 34.9 kWhth/m3 using a 10-effect MED operating at 85% recovery.

Matthew D. Stuber; Christopher Sullivan; Spencer A. Kirk; Jennifer A. Farrand; Philip V. Schillaci; Brian D. Fojtasek; Aaron H. Mandell

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Rhode Island" Rhode Island" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",591756,171457,109308,53740,68641,653076,3301111,3562833,2061351,9436,10823,"-",11836,11771,12402,10805,11008,11075,10612,10612,10827,0.2,0.1 " Petroleum",158154,54218,74715,28582,33836,50334,61675,16609,8827,9436,10823,"-",11836,11771,12402,10805,11008,11075,10612,10612,10827,0.2,0.1 " Natural Gas",433602,117239,34593,25158,34805,602742,3239436,3546224,2052524,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

252

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pennsylvania" Pennsylvania" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",165682846,162366875,166034292,166200686,169029050,168941707,175022081,177166516,173903236,161595988,97075771,27633966,30537243,30099444,33900004,1058313,1311434,1077389,1224597,1159659,1086500,48.1,0.5 " Coal",101996271,100359157,102198817,100390066,93951561,96799645,100857561,105445514,106516740,85580341,36704124,13863092,15935860,15944113,18396944,"-","-","-","-","-","-",18.2,"-" " Petroleum",4013814,3713606,2220932,4559186,5182491,3072153,3212502,2307411,4097006,3063268,1656505,21609,39420,34944,32129,7717,2942,"-",873,710,525,0.8,"*"

253

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nevada" Nevada" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",19286260,20922439,20962974,19820333,20519076,19997354,21362057,22869773,26552567,26485602,29341675,27896065,25008568,24634871,24246391,24112225,19686302,22376989,22979409,26095005,23710917,82.7,67.5 " Coal",15053277,16365730,16443169,15627860,15324714,13971824,14656868,15250606,17161341,16907530,18931521,17736970,16413025,17085959,18257265,18384261,7253521,7090911,6884521,6376887,5584370,53.4,15.9 " Petroleum",284108,238321,327585,246506,166446,26549,93811,31156,50285,35418,64614,911611,25472,16793,95766,20500,17347,11447,9865,8472,7675,0.2,"*"

254

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Minnesota" Minnesota" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",41549628,40427575,37783876,41254101,40917280,42502869,41791506,40302526,43976935,44153826,46615673,44798014,48568719,49576276,47232462,46791349,46710674,47793039,46758314,44442211,45428599,90.7,84.6 " Coal",27587603,26186299,24443013,27110850,26399834,26820765,27329077,27081067,29884402,28366977,31731081,31037544,32200713,33157032,31477117,30514512,30600302,31199099,30771207,28582304,27176478,61.7,50.6 " Petroleum",440740,575916,638979,630166,596987,484708,640427,763764,649866,674398,440264,599557,640129,845239,752362,752774,484235,362765,211633,49502,25870,0.9,"*"

255

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maryland" Maryland" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",9758,10723,10862,10709,10837,10957,10957,11101,10970,10955,753,70,69,70,79,79,79,80,80,80,80,7.2,0.6 " Coal",3975,4617,4617,4628,4631,4636,4636,4647,4647,4647,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",2479,2427,3040,2717,2648,1394,2618,2631,2516,2673,241,70,69,70,79,79,79,80,80,80,80,2.3,0.6 " Natural Gas",1225,1601,1127,1275,1353,2722,1498,1618,1602,1448,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

256

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Connecticut" Connecticut" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",7141,7060,6988,6754,6733,6722,6321,6294,5616,2919,2204,185,34,210,174,25,37,111,111,111,160,34.2,1.9 " Coal",385,385,385,385,385,385,385,385,385,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",3335,3263,3191,2957,2738,2728,2831,2801,2744,756,176,176,25,201,165,16,28,30,30,30,76,2.7,0.9 " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-",214,214,338,341,341,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",71,71,71,75,"-",0.9

257

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Connecticut" Connecticut" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",32155574,23552082,25153644,28714867,27201416,26931900,15773738,13227766,15122925,20484367,16992594,2816826,21463,59812,45095,41709,47612,37217,52334,47137,65570,51.5,0.2 " Coal",2351049,2117781,2148078,1907826,2104045,2269352,2367889,2557934,1482608,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",8632571,7890483,5297424,4206354,3353897,3397400,5255050,8431425,8608001,5793975,7726,11032,928,13955,9253,695,1282,3325,2597,2465,2604,"*","*"

258

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado" Colorado" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",31312872,31038231,31899303,32687317,33324413,32673972,33971688,34375573,35471294,36167349,40108260,41957723,41509933,41226252,40436218,41014609,42055989,42353281,41176711,37467527,39584166,90.8,78 " Coal",29602738,28922906,30001882,30456351,31401250,30276010,31952337,32002082,33079201,32605202,35101982,35654162,35135198,35807527,35570358,35285966,36003331,35722617,34639561,31454143,34386818,79.5,67.8 " Petroleum",25129,37883,39164,8898,8913,10136,15539,14623,36736,32430,91320,158742,22519,33927,11797,15464,17646,14748,18092,12583,17424,0.2,"*"

259

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

California" California" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",114528000,104967938,119309725,125782063,126749186,121881402,114706047,112183063,114926213,87874809,85856285,70132656,74588271,81728209,75177122,89348213,100338454,87348589,83346844,85123706,96939535,41.3,47.5 " Petroleum",4385235,598489,325424,2007674,1862719,488530,674899,141872,121385,51769,144590,316691,43933,50996,51482,57974,58991,65296,58187,50625,40819,0.1,"*" " Natural Gas",45221848,43940427,56609607,46499103,61530357,39089723,30768135,36300778,26385452,13917748,12411961,11918703,8808012,9873371,10759580,12982348,19805412,22896497,26129803,25237449,31251994,6,15.3

260

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wyoming" Wyoming" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",39378154,38667162,41852352,40154595,42337169,39683722,40851631,40765087,44699071,42951057,44585709,43764015,42532420,42261405,43059537,44031568,42905244,43144350,43909400,43182207,44738543,98,93 " Coal",38681220,37862584,41153537,39301199,41380267,38804539,39551555,39315335,43287140,41718548,43355361,42560578,41685278,41490825,42372775,43112061,41948761,42204359,42900080,41040274,42126910,95.3,87.5 " Petroleum",45561,60850,54839,56970,47029,67673,59443,58765,42871,46197,35159,33744,38686,41567,43450,40311,44240,46116,43765,49958,55973,0.1,0.1

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261

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Idaho" Idaho" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",8617977,8281502,6260025,9022654,7303193,10062854,12230805,13511823,11978079,12456120,10114257,6666589,8164140,7732812,7765655,8032438,10495090,8611890,8893983,9977502,8589208,84.9,71.4 " Petroleum",615,311,475,103,31,311,245,95,253,155,2792,3723,65,116,136,5,144,134,120,41,74,"*","*" " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",76168,61229,27775,73353,94504,240504,230189,286865,170231,"-",1.4

262

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oklahoma" Oklahoma" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",45063182,44850089,45942891,48810720,45380625,47955288,47544649,48380102,51454036,50278792,51403249,50413729,51218320,49776514,48298390,54250814,51917155,54177692,60074823,57516914,57421195,92.5,79.5 " Coal",25188557,26027968,27666494,28990113,27453911,29714368,31876730,33036688,31026837,30588375,32852645,32164601,33444114,34200128,31240478,33604628,32324391,31610751,33625415,31645255,29102532,59.1,40.3 " Petroleum",49422,18533,15180,14027,11456,77528,124951,12568,7541,7622,46637,146375,10311,111555,21008,13181,24187,139391,12600,12433,12606,0.1,"*"

263

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Michigan" Michigan" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",89058681,94567383,82679444,92250107,83720636,92478772,95155261,89564616,85146307,87874695,89572141,97067330,100451718,96634055,99608512,104830689,97373706,96785842,94503953,82787341,89666874,86,80.4 " Coal",65295742,65138291,61434530,61558991,67538611,65425002,66097259,65552021,69142807,69118017,66980252,66931691,65389899,66448916,67253690,69158736,66654737,69406550,68421489,65867455,64766712,64.3,58.1 " Petroleum",689461,553863,498159,619777,655860,687264,651860,602053,1005170,1282696,993932,724313,1090767,883847,714881,788563,272106,445915,281604,215189,195180,1,0.2

264

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maryland" Maryland" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",31497406,38215120,39586558,43488284,43765565,44658945,44380543,44552905,48513503,49323828,31783195,88150,30734,51722,30023,44235,11941,23712,5856,2294,2996,62.1,"*" " Coal",23299412,22622989,23625314,24890670,25394481,27369905,27780141,27394342,29077013,29352347,20353004,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",39.8,"-" " Petroleum",3328080,3935221,2611820,3953777,4133533,1407598,1401195,1478623,3311978,3897208,1507860,87790,30734,51722,30023,44235,11941,23712,5856,2294,2832,2.9,"*"

265

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Massachusetts" Massachusetts" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",36478610,35802358,32838301,28163544,27466049,26971667,27758877,33898697,26036881,4359511,1704653,1566491,1156651,2055622,1524169,1622208,942917,493885,507254,447912,802906,4.4,1.9 " Coal",11273069,11861344,10949228,9815909,10209727,10586608,11500536,12488802,8168608,1073628,1094848,1096681,"-",1074514,903789,1025141,"-","-","-","-","-",2.8,"-" " Petroleum",14556403,15612257,13282101,11112574,9561302,5848663,6221378,11586081,10019730,300040,123931,131797,220435,517767,290865,189211,29031,58456,57639,32698,42546,0.3,0.1

266

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oregon" Oregon" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",49171999,46298021,41220343,40743085,37490089,44031261,47883913,49068279,46352310,51698318,46059938,38059649,39731986,38577937,39092958,37407039,43068822,43202516,44590530,42703218,41142684,88.9,74.6 " Coal",1297978,2814199,3682715,3502742,3814009,1527874,1727583,1500879,3348089,3697900,3785462,4423843,3768531,4285697,3535764,3463644,2370628,4351624,4044319,3196902,4126435,7.3,7.5 " Petroleum",26809,9648,9212,32365,5398,4346,6631,10942,33127,7699,52038,92767,5893,44035,20305,47427,4323,5044,9974,2825,3330,0.1,"*"

267

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Delaware" Delaware" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",7099663,7603723,6267492,8306462,8501043,8324101,8121853,6578599,6317738,6239372,4137127,1872053,170994,31107,23751,25989,16558,47830,19068,12768,30059,69.1,0.5 " Coal",4904473,4598301,3813594,5185396,4754309,4226615,4225125,3925643,3811669,2762460,3319195,1626254,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",55.4,"-" " Petroleum",1436186,1899201,1829938,2094383,1619659,917065,1188294,832577,1234464,1234121,398100,209088,154118,9863,10083,6442,113,4132,512,457,843,6.6,"*"

268

Reliability evaluation of electric power generation systems including unconventional energy sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System Used in Case Study Table 5. Interstate Transition Rates of Units in Base System Table 6. Comparison of LOLE Results for January 1982 Table 7. Comparison of LOLE Results for July 1982 . Table 8. Comparison of Frequency Results for January 1982... Table 9. Comparison of Frequency Results for July 1982 Table 10. Comparison of CPU secs Used by III and IV 27 36 50 52 55 55 56 56 57 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Alternative Energy Sources In recent years, the escalation in the cost...

Lago-Gonzalez, Alex

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pennsylvania" Pennsylvania" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",33440,33337,33446,33423,33675,33699,33723,33825,33781,25251,13394,4978,4887,4921,4968,455,455,455,455,455,455,36.3,1 " Coal",17543,16894,17515,17480,17492,17503,17463,17386,17386,10108,3133,2407,2360,2360,2407,"-","-","-","-","-","-",8.5,"-" " Petroleum",5031,5031,4845,4875,4881,4860,4881,3208,3374,3022,1999,3,3,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",5.4,"-"

270

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maine" Maine" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",2407,2417,2405,2402,2433,2432,2387,1498,1457,88,21,17,16,19,19,19,19,19,19,19,19,0.5,0.4 " Petroleum",1126,1126,1115,1111,1109,1109,1069,1064,1025,54,18,17,16,19,19,19,19,19,19,19,19,0.4,0.4 " Nuclear",860,870,870,870,870,870,870,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Hydroelectric",420,420,420,421,422,421,416,404,402,34,3,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",0.1,"-"

271

Integrated Data Base for 1989: Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1988. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning waste, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous, highly radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 45 figs., 119 tabs.

Not Available

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Integrated data base for 1990: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1989. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 22 refs., 48 figs., 109 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Integrated Data Base for 1992: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1991. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Solar powered desalination system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible,renewables for energy sources, including solar power. Also,Requirements Energy Source Natural Gas Nuclear Solar Wind

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Hawaii" Hawaii" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",1487,1521,1560,1602,1602,1602,1610,1595,1616,1608,1626,1622,1622,1624,1691,1705,1730,1730,1730,1859,1828,68.1,72.1 " Petroleum",1483,1518,1556,1598,1598,1598,1607,1592,1612,1605,1621,1616,1618,1620,1687,1699,1724,1724,1724,1740,1711,67.9,67.5 " Hydroelectric",3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,4,3,2,2,2,4,4,4,4,4,4,0.1,0.2 " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,115,113,0.1,4.5

276

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arizona" Arizona" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",14906,14910,14973,15034,15098,15222,15147,15164,15084,15091,15140,15284,15699,16193,16141,18860,19566,19551,19717,20127,20115,98.9,76.2 " Coal",5116,5070,5070,5108,5119,5159,5201,5256,5286,5311,5336,5336,5336,5336,5336,5362,5762,5750,5750,6159,6165,34.9,23.4 " Petroleum",78,78,78,100,100,95,184,248,248,240,244,243,263,191,108,108,86,89,89,89,89,1.6,0.3 " Natural Gas",3306,3236,3236,3236,3236,3273,3126,2989,2924,2919,2939,3080,3444,3908,3955,6566,6897,6891,6987,6987,6969,19.2,26.4

277

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nebraska" Nebraska" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",21630677,22971934,22387247,22724286,21945525,25279277,27322697,28388030,28720209,29980967,29045739,30411669,31550226,30367879,31944127,31391643,31599046,32403289,32355676,33776062,36242921,99.8,98.9 " Coal",12658464,13562815,12402148,14739783,14002015,16079519,16040775,17209080,18335965,17794136,18424799,20193542,19899803,20907970,20414960,20772590,20632855,19611849,21479723,23307746,23214616,63.3,63.4 " Petroleum",12981,13459,9482,19035,18201,26679,19973,31059,41892,28807,53715,25154,18410,47971,21004,30026,18914,35552,34655,22869,30849,0.2,0.1

278

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iowa" Iowa" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",7952,8090,8092,8074,8217,8237,8161,8238,8368,8435,8508,8352,8407,9093,9895,10090,9562,10669,11274,11479,11282,93.5,77.3 " Coal",5860,5912,5909,5818,5975,5995,5807,5573,5717,5702,5920,5668,5620,5666,5741,5705,5666,6535,6528,6529,6389,65.1,43.8 " Petroleum",659,723,714,746,755,755,861,872,877,932,1001,1012,980,912,908,936,935,930,924,921,915,11,6.3 " Natural Gas",779,816,829,870,847,825,835,913,906,938,932,916,1007,1710,2381,2376,2370,2401,2394,2345,2296,10.2,15.7 " Nuclear",530,515,515,515,515,528,520,535,520,520,520,520,566,562,563,581,"-","-","-","-","-",5.7,"-"

279

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

South Carolina" South Carolina" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",69259815,69837984,71478648,75588386,74193685,78439814,76325556,78374450,84396897,87347364,90421081,86734778,93689257,91544429,94406828,99104373,95872763,99997011,97921204,97336653,100610887,96.9,96.6 " Coal",22874805,23165807,23013743,26532193,26993543,25801600,30307236,31042658,32377814,35246389,38664405,36302690,36490769,37065509,38516633,39352428,39140908,41270230,41184319,34146526,37340392,41.4,35.9 " Petroleum",71997,83385,68375,95193,108250,129854,125657,188326,331357,300739,265931,225008,205664,289474,690071,484181,135522,174663,160102,490911,178378,0.3,0.2

280

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mexico" Mexico" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",5042,5045,5062,5062,5078,5078,5077,5183,5294,5299,5250,5250,5463,5398,5393,5692,6223,6324,6324,6344,6345,93.8,78 " Coal",3899,3901,3901,3901,3901,3901,3901,3901,3913,3942,3942,3942,3942,3942,3937,3957,3957,3957,3957,3977,3990,70.4,49.1 " Petroleum",24,24,24,24,24,44,24,23,15,"-","-","-",15,35,35,35,26,26,26,26,20,"-",0.2 " Natural Gas",1063,1063,1079,1079,1096,1076,1094,1200,1285,1275,1226,1226,1425,1339,1339,1619,2158,2259,2259,2259,2253,21.9,27.7

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Georgia" Georgia" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",97565058,90809416,91779352,95737505,98752712,102015724,98729242,101780433,108716930,110536794,116176834,110564676,111855967,115755114,117918895,126444777,127367613,132831987,126031263,115074702,120425913,93.8,87.5 " Coal",67564750,59985395,58235454,63295811,64727519,65880095,63230856,66179551,69871150,74067633,79007166,73443695,77288328,77858022,79185166,86358096,85700960,89532913,84652246,68863420,72550375,63.8,52.7 " Petroleum",164987,107662,128485,237473,161235,218515,292018,200873,670924,662699,641415,275630,233940,278618,156672,189819,86798,82380,67971,64833,70781,0.5,0.1

282

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mexico" Mexico" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",28491171,25064613,27707513,28364368,30018011,29431903,29364389,30568142,31428332,31654480,32855587,32210683,29926241,31770151,32242728,33561875,35411074,34033374,33844547,34245148,30848406,96.6,85.1 " Coal",25826928,22129312,25348413,25507029,26752349,26121447,26357179,27078660,27537426,28067704,29065954,28402187,26902880,28812844,29263899,29947248,29859008,27603647,27014233,29117308,25617789,85.4,70.7 " Petroleum",34081,32240,35614,35337,22929,23073,22452,21075,23020,40133,29529,30210,30710,47860,30321,32528,40634,42969,52012,44599,49394,0.1,0.1

283

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

United States" United States" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",2808151009,2825022865,2797219151,2882524766,2910712079,2994528592,3077442152,3122523144,3212170791,3173673550,3015383376,2629945673,2549457170,2462280615,2505231152,2474845558,2483655548,2504130899,2475366697,2372775997,2471632103,79.3,59.9 " Coal",1559605707,1551166838,1575895394,1639151186,1635492971,1652914466,1737453477,1787806344,1807479829,1767679446,1696619307,1560145542,1514669950,1500281112,1513640806,1484855188,1471421060,1490984698,1466395192,1322092036,1378028414,44.6,33.4 " Petroleum",117016961,111462979,88916308,99538857,91038583,60844256,67346095,77752652,110157895,86929098,72179917,78907846,59124871,69930457,73693695,69722196,40902849,40719414,28123785,25216814,26064909,1.9,0.6

284

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oklahoma" Oklahoma" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",12769,12848,12881,12859,12898,12928,13091,12931,12622,12861,13438,13436,13387,13463,13550,13992,14648,14495,15913,16187,16015,94.6,76.2 " Coal",4850,4865,4874,4874,4868,4831,4848,4848,4837,4808,4856,4856,4896,4941,4949,4964,4981,4975,4912,4940,4940,34.2,23.5 " Petroleum",58,58,58,58,58,58,64,62,61,61,61,60,60,62,68,68,72,68,69,69,67,0.4,0.3 " Natural Gas",6858,6870,6888,6866,6885,6952,7007,6934,6634,6887,7411,7410,7314,7340,7427,7899,8364,8221,9701,9842,9669,52.2,46 " Other Gases1","-",52,52,52,52,52,52,52,55,63,57,57,61,61,58,"-","-","-","-","-","-",0.4,"-"

285

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Michigan" Michigan" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",22315,22275,22374,22412,22413,21981,21985,21909,21943,22374,22752,22831,23279,23345,23314,23029,22734,21894,21885,21759,21639,88.3,72.5 " Coal",11931,11960,11976,11929,11928,11794,11793,11796,11840,11573,11636,11638,11627,11636,11623,11633,11534,11533,11543,11431,11218,45.1,37.6 " Petroleum",3460,3171,3184,3235,3235,2618,2620,2617,2632,2634,1831,1860,1654,1685,1649,1647,1397,616,610,612,568,7.1,1.9 " Natural Gas",702,727,798,800,800,1434,1436,1435,1439,2131,3244,3302,3958,3964,3982,3669,3695,4461,4447,4446,4618,12.6,15.5

286

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vermont" Vermont" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",1065,1091,1094,1094,1093,1090,1092,1094,774,782,777,262,261,260,251,258,259,258,259,257,260,79,23 " Petroleum",117,117,120,120,120,118,119,119,117,117,112,111,107,107,101,100,101,101,101,100,100,11.4,8.9 " Nuclear",496,496,496,496,496,496,496,496,500,506,506,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",51.4,"-" " Hydroelectric",404,430,430,430,430,426,427,423,103,107,106,99,102,96,93,100,101,99,100,100,103,10.8,9.1

287

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wyoming" Wyoming" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",5809,5826,5847,5869,5874,5970,5966,6044,6018,6011,6048,6052,6122,6088,6086,6241,6137,6142,6450,6713,6931,97.1,86.8 " Coal",5525,5545,5545,5567,5567,5662,5662,5737,5710,5709,5710,5710,5692,5692,5692,5817,5747,5747,5832,5829,5935,91.6,74.3 " Petroleum",15,15,15,15,15,15,10,10,10,"-","-",5,5,5,5,"-","-",5,5,5,5,"-",0.1 " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",34,34,119,85,80,113,79,79,79,79,79,0.5,1

288

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Missouri" Missouri" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",59010858,60120689,56627107,53202268,61519090,65400254,67827241,71073239,74894188,73504882,76283550,78990878,79796801,86102107,86419717,90159045,91118304,89925724,89178555,86704766,90176805,99.6,97.7 " Coal",48501751,47907503,46829678,40688696,48592766,53582211,57176084,59903073,62488551,61249846,62624807,65445161,67147996,73904272,74711159,77123580,77113165,74745712,73246599,71401581,74829029,81.8,81.1 " Petroleum",89342,118645,80522,634432,730820,682321,95980,125449,309734,280945,247622,637504,528353,155968,195098,168258,59958,59611,56620,87081,124866,0.3,0.1

289

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

California" California" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",43681,43599,43763,44313,43297,43302,43934,43709,30663,24323,24319,24405,24609,23223,23867,25248,26346,26334,26467,28021,28689,46.5,42.6 " Petroleum",2800,2473,1759,1553,1553,1692,1692,1072,737,526,526,524,296,297,297,297,245,226,222,204,174,1,0.3 " Natural Gas",21815,22074,22810,23285,22208,22040,22365,23193,10581,5671,5670,5733,5954,5042,5567,6850,7917,8188,8134,9629,10333,10.8,15.3 " Nuclear",4746,4746,4310,4310,4310,4310,4746,4310,4310,4310,4310,4324,4324,4324,4324,4324,4390,4390,4390,4390,4390,8.2,6.5

290

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

North Carolina" North Carolina" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",79845217,83520063,83007307,88753614,91454784,96109819,102786590,107371092,113112235,109882388,114433191,109807278,115597653,118433112,118328694,121674733,117797331,123215621,118778090,112961309,121251138,93.6,94.2 " Coal",46631040,46762330,54011457,59383147,53234497,55698342,64097781,70181392,69000633,68569499,71719489,68775284,71223313,70630278,71956852,74915235,72311023,76611703,72625233,62765545,69274374,58.7,53.8 " Petroleum",186899,174136,147134,165175,199418,234263,259252,211974,285902,284400,468482,412765,376170,459947,250402,231141,219114,236042,232446,232119,245987,0.4,0.2

291

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mississippi" Mississippi" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",22923971,23305127,20487946,23234028,26222313,26395165,28838302,31227619,31991676,32212133,33896003,47550273,35099283,31358938,32838145,30619168,34158706,34426533,33796221,34759024,40841436,90.1,75 " Coal",9445584,8750253,7796112,8819755,8889624,9259980,12010196,12500586,11747963,13037100,13877065,19196065,12483658,13742273,14274786,13389906,14907777,14422788,14033627,9610808,10309709,36.9,18.9 " Petroleum",705474,370130,371568,3545055,1106209,23738,1173503,2633109,5417924,3141934,2970676,5120602,26357,1620395,2763630,1432077,395330,397080,71597,12475,76832,7.9,0.1

292

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kansas" Kansas" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",9578,9609,9693,9706,9715,9675,9694,9786,9915,10020,10086,10223,10244,10731,10705,10734,10829,10944,11246,11733,11732,99.5,93.5 " Coal",5064,5091,5149,5189,5220,5244,5256,5364,5407,5325,5295,5295,5310,5265,5222,5250,5203,5208,5190,5180,5179,52.3,41.3 " Petroleum",622,602,613,611,613,579,578,510,494,520,522,652,546,564,587,583,565,569,564,564,550,5.2,4.4 " Natural Gas",2755,2784,2772,2772,2722,2685,2697,2749,2850,3005,3099,3106,3219,3735,3729,3734,3793,3900,4232,4580,4546,30.6,36.2

293

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carolina" Carolina" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",20190,20131,20148,20182,19767,20597,20923,21054,21020,21182,22015,23478,23652,23726,23671,23822,24553,25500,25558,25529,25553,89.9,92.3 " Coal",12500,12500,12500,12503,12438,12440,12440,12440,12440,12440,12440,12440,12440,12440,12495,12487,12439,12394,12411,12294,12271,50.8,44.3 " Petroleum",760,773,773,804,804,1676,776,791,794,791,791,790,836,836,541,540,509,510,507,509,524,3.2,1.9 " Natural Gas",270,257,274,286,286,314,1514,1511,1511,1676,2509,3931,4010,4010,4035,4200,4975,5597,5660,5749,5773,10.2,20.9

294

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Missouri" Missouri" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",15180,15308,15385,15433,15488,15724,15978,16212,16282,16755,17180,17726,18409,18587,18606,18970,19675,19570,19621,19600,20360,99.4,93.7 " Coal",10678,10722,10724,10738,10754,10540,10557,10920,10943,10889,11032,11032,11053,11172,11159,11172,11199,11165,11146,11137,11976,63.8,55.1 " Petroleum",1498,1533,1546,1569,1617,1710,1730,1200,1181,1181,1198,1616,1236,1259,1243,1241,1265,1274,1267,1257,1197,6.9,5.5 " Natural Gas",818,817,878,891,892,1240,1444,1839,1815,2359,2607,2736,3778,3806,3853,4158,4809,4728,4790,4790,4771,15.1,21.9

295

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Virginia" Virginia" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",13661,13652,13772,14054,13763,14342,14806,15291,15314,15311,15606,15761,15818,17128,17567,18091,18166,18376,18828,19135,19434,80.4,80.6 " Coal",4225,4210,4215,4217,4217,5451,5099,5099,5099,5099,4796,4784,4789,4468,4468,4586,4586,4605,4587,4587,4594,24.7,19.1 " Petroleum",2753,2753,2753,2784,2689,1374,2192,2192,2213,2213,2175,2180,2083,2081,2098,2031,2027,2041,2041,2050,2048,11.2,8.5 " Natural Gas",192,198,377,595,400,995,994,1524,1524,1524,2083,2248,2097,3714,4101,4395,4395,4429,4897,5076,5122,10.7,21.2

296

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Illinois" Illinois" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",32602,32643,32636,32769,32952,33139,33164,33549,30367,16992,17495,4420,4151,3007,2994,3987,4742,4642,4691,4830,4800,48.1,10.9 " Coal",14912,14916,14947,15063,15090,14916,14931,15339,14250,5543,5473,2862,2862,1866,1859,1844,1844,1767,1833,1998,1993,15.1,4.5 " Petroleum",4480,4207,3928,2848,2448,2645,2648,2671,1569,989,867,700,406,368,401,399,399,377,381,372,372,2.4,0.8 " Natural Gas",591,901,1143,2236,2792,2963,2963,2917,4006,732,1229,846,871,761,722,1729,2485,2483,2462,2442,2417,3.4,5.5

297

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arkansas" Arkansas" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",37053436,38365135,37369823,38049072,39547768,39526825,43677535,42789637,43198908,44130705,41486451,44728133,42873364,41636514,45055455,40545220,42068467,45522928,45880232,45423149,47108063,94.6,77.2 " Coal",19160989,19573925,20030355,18025615,19780738,21506397,24339185,22760970,23140020,24612079,24073573,24678344,22986650,23422401,25248810,22940659,24095405,25642175,25993257,24986333,26421729,54.9,43.3 " Petroleum",73856,64278,49640,65624,96439,53208,98250,66622,143834,141475,206991,846105,136134,263982,476133,162961,135291,76212,57158,80962,37140,0.5,0.1

298

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Montana" Montana" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",4912,4828,4871,4871,4907,4943,4943,4943,4944,2997,3005,2232,2232,2274,2189,2186,2163,2179,2190,2232,2340,58.2,39.9 " Coal",2260,2260,2260,2260,2260,2260,2260,2294,2300,792,792,52,52,52,52,52,52,52,52,52,52,15.4,0.9 " Petroleum","-","-","-","-","-","-",5,5,5,5,5,"-","-","-","-",2,2,2,2,2,2,0.1,"*" " Natural Gas",120,120,120,120,120,120,120,53,52,53,58,58,58,97,98,100,100,100,100,102,186,1.1,3.2

299

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Minnesota" Minnesota" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",8834,8884,8880,8864,8951,8923,9180,9216,9089,8987,9067,10110,10329,10162,10179,10543,10458,10719,11432,11639,11547,88.4,78.5 " Coal",5757,5786,5771,5708,5742,5630,5779,5811,5657,5605,5613,5729,5726,5342,5260,5087,5083,5048,5077,4667,4630,54.7,31.5 " Petroleum",1004,1020,1026,1070,1065,1044,1112,1102,1056,1013,1019,1051,1020,669,699,711,718,728,746,759,748,9.9,5.1 " Natural Gas",307,305,305,302,353,454,457,464,461,459,475,1373,1637,2276,2336,2852,2719,2974,3528,4118,3929,4.6,26.7

300

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Indiana" Indiana" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",97738497,98199986,97299582,99951149,103485409,105188892,105557018,110466291,112771878,114182827,119721399,114666355,112029989,112395725,114690471,117373699,117643504,116727908,115887993,103594020,107852560,93.7,86.2 " Coal",96012872,96526976,95745949,98776088,102043025,103774522,104413600,108911799,110696190,112336883,117619535,113135350,109441044,109839659,112899892,115413188,116284183,114974642,114321205,101000267,103204599,92,82.4 " Petroleum",673984,354297,287064,197848,209379,213051,320566,606905,821530,813232,845481,371623,470976,407648,393135,244554,134035,155132,165142,132655,137977,0.7,0.1

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301

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Indiana" Indiana" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",20588,20773,20821,20901,20710,20712,20681,20200,20337,20358,20554,20616,20802,21016,21126,22017,22021,22012,23598,23631,23008,85.9,83.2 " Coal",19556,19588,19562,19542,19192,18844,19045,18426,18709,18566,18734,18734,18530,18400,18426,18455,18428,18416,18401,18434,17774,78.3,64.3 " Petroleum",492,490,491,491,492,486,487,486,486,486,471,471,473,474,479,479,487,487,487,486,486,2,1.8 " Natural Gas",473,628,700,799,958,1087,1087,1087,1083,1090,1290,1353,1741,2082,2162,3024,3024,3020,4620,4616,4371,5.4,15.8

302

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vermont" Vermont" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",4992578,5258829,4698045,4300537,5293892,4839820,5004219,5323432,4393537,4734555,5307016,4734002,2971224,626337,643426,673607,802680,701474,752800,711507,720853,84.2,10.9 " Petroleum",2543,5244,2581,4805,5764,13357,3428,9816,41265,22392,60660,31740,9406,22607,17800,10179,7371,7811,4266,2439,4509,1,0.1 " Natural Gas",65281,95341,63120,20558,5806,6593,97,93,827,18291,90790,11000,3275,2029,3224,2240,1875,1889,2655,4431,3783,1.4,0.1 " Nuclear",3616268,4108314,3734594,3372148,4315544,3858509,3798790,4266866,3357696,4059107,4548065,4171120,2367209,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",72.2,"-"

303

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Tennessee" Tennessee" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",73902614,73931670,75396209,71614268,74853548,82277534,88647111,93293232,94142638,89682569,92311813,92937315,92570929,88678127,94371964,93942273,90960035,92474664,88262641,77432806,79816049,96.3,96.9 " Coal",50186951,46671234,49995747,59559596,52132070,57971909,55504189,58899058,55120297,55220519,60675314,58166973,58080553,53376149,56583558,57560600,59146323,58849255,55752210,40426487,42259569,63.3,51.3 " Petroleum",134397,160072,127282,234545,295961,252611,257586,192880,699233,502286,539784,379703,250325,379007,166943,201121,137187,155646,207233,182291,211654,0.6,0.3

304

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oregon" Oregon" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",11236,11236,11237,10133,10166,10446,10526,10537,10449,10293,10337,10354,10348,10338,9555,9839,9971,10502,10491,10683,10846,91.7,76.1 " Coal",530,530,508,508,508,508,508,508,528,530,557,557,557,556,556,585,585,585,585,585,585,4.9,4.1 " Petroleum",109,109,109,109,106,103,103,103,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Natural Gas",493,493,493,493,493,767,849,849,849,706,706,729,753,725,725,967,962,1354,1364,1341,1337,6.3,9.4

305

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wisconsin" Wisconsin" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",45550958,47148818,46463756,47762861,49437481,51012390,51651435,48560127,52529065,54704370,55665471,54959426,54773666,56068698,56142364,55169108,51914755,44284480,45536712,41375366,45579970,93.3,70.9 " Coal",32144557,33489286,32740540,33558049,35282695,36863872,38144842,40819517,39785759,39899142,41057919,40185649,38583501,40579973,40981609,40506086,38866178,38719363,40452933,36238643,39185565,68.8,60.9 " Petroleum",47444,62162,54332,105173,171563,147493,124088,169863,200225,220944,191091,170443,162990,185625,494535,470219,591486,725019,647602,458848,478866,0.3,0.7

306

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota" Dakota" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",26824491,27535034,28592323,28499824,29003713,28842021,30769712,29719764,30518976,31259830,31122917,30135733,31147221,31075012,29526814,31512768,30328375,30402807,30852784,31375152,31343796,99.4,90.2 " Coal",25092696,25750792,26864520,27048924,27099914,26336456,27529906,26314471,28176015,28610457,28952976,28769721,29518865,29298347,27938264,30133242,28761820,29041826,29551647,29486194,28349079,92.5,81.6 " Petroleum",20682,27636,28951,35795,47340,49107,88834,85698,47091,40300,47457,33850,35728,45648,36565,32480,39269,47332,40977,41475,35855,0.2,0.1

307

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kentucky" Kentucky" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",73807286,75505081,77351259,84997718,84097034,86161578,88438224,91558046,86151121,81658150,81349922,83677982,80161524,80696982,82921402,85679912,86816479,85259079,86012151,90029962,97472144,87.5,99.2 " Coal",70500461,71713851,73476309,81722246,79897442,82539467,84659818,87875331,82412216,78544604,78598836,79381504,75308162,76367048,78574428,81188722,83068626,81877334,83197690,84037596,91053858,84.5,92.7 " Petroleum",118646,111558,83886,96727,154819,130598,135437,125625,127062,103755,118876,120418,135412,130280,93651,96557,79520,96733,106853,2016282,2284852,0.1,2.3

308

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Washington" Washington" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",24173,24243,24221,24259,24255,24277,24276,25273,25235,25189,23840,24055,24141,24216,23878,24065,24303,24511,26243,26322,26498,91.5,86.9 " Coal",1310,1360,1360,1390,1390,1340,1390,1390,1390,1340,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",173,173,173,173,88,88,87,62,62,4,4,133,40,39,39,39,39,3,3,3,3,"*","*" " Natural Gas",590,590,590,590,590,590,590,838,838,955,955,987,1146,1153,1184,1141,1138,1111,2768,2782,2849,3.7,9.3

309

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jersey" Jersey" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",13730,13725,13824,13850,13500,13817,13645,13684,13390,12085,1244,1244,1244,1244,1005,1005,1005,558,477,466,460,7.5,2.5 " Coal",1652,1652,1629,1644,1634,1629,1629,1635,1658,1643,387,387,387,387,307,307,307,23,23,23,"-",2.3,"-" " Petroleum",3784,3480,3548,3212,2967,2890,2842,3915,3573,2373,286,286,286,286,232,232,232,69,54,43,49,1.7,0.3 " Natural Gas",4101,4410,4434,4761,4657,5056,4912,3872,3897,3807,171,171,171,171,66,66,66,66,"-","-","-",1,"-"

310

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Florida" Florida" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",123623905,130743964,133976775,140066943,141790885,147156684,145140217,147983676,169447167,166914264,169888638,170966177,182346629,188034719,193383664,196096285,200015227,200533885,196524348,195063261,206062185,88.6,89.9 " Coal",59073203,61122819,61631012,61889050,60770030,61864438,65782399,66034628,65470151,62680522,67143257,63090794,60997142,62094661,60013823,57559411,60413597,62633944,59731231,49942611,56074369,35,24.5 " Petroleum",25092296,30115618,28176184,34277523,33330039,21583186,22890565,25742149,40952580,36697343,34337080,39075398,32449236,35545897,35824155,36122039,22508349,19841026,11830552,9028865,8867397,17.9,3.9

311

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carolina" Carolina" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",14908,16162,16314,16131,16691,16701,17173,17431,17627,17681,17716,18246,19101,19402,20406,20787,21019,21730,22152,22190,22172,94.8,92.5 " Coal",4818,4812,4812,4812,5352,5352,5471,5794,6007,6055,6054,6077,5925,5925,5968,5968,5984,6460,7060,7028,7048,32.4,29.4 " Petroleum",897,894,894,816,828,1192,1488,1192,1163,1163,957,955,955,970,684,689,682,682,699,663,664,5.1,2.8 " Natural Gas",301,396,396,328,336,345,345,585,576,576,779,1279,2150,2437,3712,3708,3923,3956,3919,3964,3966,4.2,16.5

312

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Rhode Island" Rhode Island" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",263,261,156,153,148,442,441,441,7,7,6,7,9,9,9,6,8,8,7,7,7,0.5,0.4 " Petroleum",262,161,155,152,146,20,20,20,5,5,5,6,7,7,7,5,7,7,7,7,7,0.4,0.4 " Natural Gas","-",99,"-","-","-",420,420,420,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Hydroelectric",1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,"-","-","-",0.1,"-"

313

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Tennessee" Tennessee" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",16996,16269,16294,16224,16482,16144,17253,17361,17546,17253,17893,18600,19137,19235,19239,19120,19768,19977,20456,20418,20968,92,97.9 " Coal",9289,8702,8683,8691,8615,8615,8615,8604,8604,8618,8618,8618,8602,8609,8623,8618,8585,8599,8624,8589,8589,44.3,40.1 " Petroleum",1152,1100,1080,1080,1982,1096,1096,1135,1252,784,800,836,56,56,56,58,58,58,58,58,58,4.1,0.3 " Natural Gas",516,480,488,488,"-",472,472,514,571,732,1344,1960,3116,3128,3137,3032,3659,3632,4082,4099,4639,6.9,21.7

314

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Georgia" Georgia" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",20731,20752,21399,21504,22039,22290,22782,23147,23390,23329,24860,24099,25821,24804,25404,26538,26542,26432,26462,26558,26639,89.6,72.7 " Coal",12952,12972,13104,13115,13164,12551,13234,13222,13540,13095,13470,13503,13498,13331,13215,13192,13192,13192,13129,13084,13103,48.5,35.8 " Petroleum",1488,1493,1635,1351,1341,1231,1228,1228,1172,1145,1145,1145,1145,1055,991,991,991,973,991,991,991,4.1,2.7 " Natural Gas",96,103,103,362,841,1274,1276,1281,1273,1564,2647,1974,3386,2827,3470,4618,4609,4577,4577,4652,4646,9.5,12.7

315

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

York" York" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",31224,31349,31108,32731,32824,32147,30060,29985,29585,17679,15806,11572,11675,11902,11386,11927,12046,12056,11784,11871,11032,44.4,28 " Coal",3887,3897,3897,3879,3879,3870,3891,3880,3891,668,668,302,302,302,297,297,297,297,45,45,"-",1.9,"-" " Petroleum",12349,9869,8992,8885,7684,7637,11500,12759,12530,4991,5035,3638,3638,3688,2642,2450,2468,2465,2467,2465,1607,14.1,4.1 " Natural Gas",5065,7634,8304,7895,9194,8469,4718,3249,3131,2600,2227,2682,2783,2908,3894,4628,4628,4644,4623,4629,4619,6.3,11.7

316

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Massachusetts" Massachusetts" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",9910,9771,9494,9461,9287,9288,9365,9442,3385,2214,996,993,1090,981,981,983,837,827,829,930,937,8.1,6.8 " Coal",1723,1692,1684,1679,1675,1707,1730,1737,328,146,145,145,145,145,145,144,"-","-","-","-","-",1.2,"-" " Petroleum",5216,5070,4913,5041,4132,4058,4030,4094,787,547,475,474,771,663,661,661,659,648,624,624,528,3.8,3.9 " Natural Gas",289,330,378,219,953,993,1082,1086,333,302,330,329,130,130,131,131,131,131,157,257,353,2.7,2.6

317

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alabama" Alabama" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",20023,19902,19930,19972,19878,20463,20692,20840,21292,21462,22366,22532,23429,23007,23186,23252,23218,23182,23144,23285,23642,95,72.9 " Coal",11777,11589,11599,11579,11494,11669,11515,11286,11349,11349,11301,11362,11246,11217,11238,11500,11465,11452,11414,11401,11356,48,35 " Petroleum",65,18,18,18,388,18,20,16,16,30,34,34,34,34,34,34,34,34,34,34,34,0.1,0.1 " Natural Gas",400,530,544,586,202,987,1437,1706,1971,2076,3041,3157,4182,3550,3627,3471,3440,3440,3440,3593,3937,12.9,12.1

318

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Ohio" Ohio" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",26996,27540,27130,27186,27192,27365,27278,26630,26768,27083,26302,27081,27885,27694,27684,19312,20147,20012,20340,20356,20179,92.3,61 " Coal",23086,23317,23060,23043,23058,23123,23033,22415,22456,22626,21675,21675,21599,21258,21366,16272,16296,16204,15909,15932,15733,76.1,47.6 " Petroleum",1151,1148,907,907,907,853,856,805,824,891,1031,1381,1000,1017,1008,588,588,596,575,575,577,3.6,1.7 " Natural Gas",501,817,902,980,976,1140,1140,1154,1232,1271,1300,1661,2921,3056,3074,2346,3156,3105,3749,3741,3760,4.6,11.4

319

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Louisiana" Louisiana" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",16751,16795,16699,16885,16873,17019,17150,17079,17014,16339,14317,14165,14233,14090,14176,15137,15176,14756,15755,15615,16471,67.8,61.6 " Coal",3343,3343,3343,3343,3343,2843,3453,3453,3448,3453,1723,1723,1723,1723,1723,1723,1723,1739,1739,1739,1674,8.2,6.3 " Petroleum",17,17,228,212,231,35,35,16,16,11,16,20,16,16,26,239,239,240,240,240,775,0.1,2.9 " Natural Gas",11380,11424,11122,11324,11293,12130,11651,11599,11539,10864,10566,10350,10423,10284,10372,11051,11095,10650,11622,11494,11880,50,44.4

320

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Florida" Florida" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",32714,32708,33411,34814,35487,35857,36898,36727,36472,36536,37264,38240,40313,41996,42619,45196,45184,47224,47222,50781,50853,89.7,86 " Coal",9971,10001,10034,10030,10037,10069,10763,10823,10676,10770,10783,10783,11301,10223,9653,9634,9564,9528,9499,9495,9210,26,15.6 " Petroleum",11107,11117,11590,11598,14724,13478,13653,13493,12222,12153,12431,12552,10650,10063,10715,10611,10593,10586,12043,11549,10980,29.9,18.6 " Natural Gas",7775,7712,7909,9313,6857,8447,8560,8485,9655,9665,10102,10955,14401,17751,18290,20990,21065,23148,21698,25731,26424,24.3,44.7

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321

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arizona" Arizona" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",62288980,66767347,70108979,68025039,71203728,68966538,70877043,78060498,81299241,83095924,88149792,85807868,81710063,80348246,81351521,82914964,84355976,88825573,94452931,89640192,91232664,99.1,81.6 " Coal",31636037,32306088,34602347,37020817,38072165,31710476,30780575,34219281,36225373,37994159,40662627,39731623,37957468,37739559,39419177,39750729,40056468,40911234,43505012,39464060,43347748,45.7,38.8 " Petroleum",116407,88935,72838,59875,128437,63610,65097,60927,61227,46287,189396,311787,51061,46706,39414,41127,71761,46137,48324,61381,63439,0.2,0.1

322

Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Hawaii" Hawaii" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",7996096,7333192,6861255,6083815,6055087,6190584,6420195,6212643,6301169,6452068,6534692,6383088,7513051,6493205,6982469,6915159,7040473,6928397,6700636,6509550,6416068,61.7,59.2 " Petroleum",7967354,7312791,6851432,6070063,6036282,6174627,6402329,6193852,6287107,6429429,6516929,6362846,7502913,6489565,6971259,6904293,7015977,6913231,6682593,6262182,6178666,61.5,57 " Hydroelectric",22743,20401,9823,13752,18805,15957,17866,18791,13750,18844,15114,18132,8533,2078,9724,9169,23656,14729,17872,28608,16719,0.1,0.2

323

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

United States" United States" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",690465,693016,695059,699971,702229,706111,709942,711889,686692,639324,604319,549920,561074,547249,550550,556235,567523,571200,584908,596769,602076,74.4,57.9 " Coal",299781,299444,300385,300634,300941,300569,302420,302866,299739,277780,260990,244451,244056,236473,235976,229705,230644,231289,231857,234397,235707,32.2,22.7 " Petroleum",76390,72393,71266,69046,69549,64451,70421,69557,62704,49020,41032,38456,33876,32570,31415,30867,30419,29115,30657,30174,28972,5.1,2.8 " Natural Gas",121300,126837,128149,132427,133620,142295,139936,141713,130404,123192,123665,112841,127692,125612,131734,147752,157742,162756,173106,180571,184231,15.2,17.7

324

Radio Bridge Structure and Its Application to Estimate the Mach Number and Ambient Gas Temperature of Powerful Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radio bridge shape of very powerful extended (FR II) radio sources has been studied in detail; the sample used here includes 12 radio galaxies and six radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0 and 1.8. Specifically, the width and radio surface brightness of the radio bridge are measured as a function of distance from the radio hot spot on each side of each source. The width as a function of distance from the hot spot agrees very well with theoretical predictions based on the standard model of bridge growth, in which the bridge expands laterally because of a blast wave driven by the large pressure difference between the relativistic plasma in the radio hot spot and surrounding radio lobe and the adjacent ambient gas. The simple assumptions that go into the theoretical prediction are that the lobe radio power and width (measured in the vicinity of the radio hot spot) are roughly constant over the lifetime of a given source, and that the rate at which the bridge lengthens, referred to as the lobe propagation velocity, is roughly constant over the lifetime of a source. These three assumptions appear to be consistent with other independent studies of very powerful extended radio sources of the type studied here, within the present (rather large) observational uncertainties. The radio surface brightness as a function of distance from the hot spot agrees surprisingly well with a simple model in which the radio bridge undergoes adiabatic expansion in the lateral direction, assuming that the initial lobe radio power and lobe width are time independent for a given source. That is, the observed lobe surface brightness and width, and the width as a function of position along the radio bridge, are used to predict the radio surface brightness as a function of position along the radio bridge, assuming adiabatic expansion of the bridge in the lateral direction. The predicted and observed surface brightness along the bridge agree surprisingly well. This suggests that there is little reacceleration of relativistic electrons within the radio bridge and that the backflow velocity of relativistic plasma within the bridge is small compared with the lobe advance velocity. These results are consistent with implications based on the bridge shape and structure discussed by Alexander & Leahy since we consider only very powerful FR II sources here. The Mach number with which the radio lobe propagates into the ambient medium can be estimated using the structure of the radio bridge; this Mach number is the ratio of the lobe propagation velocity to the sound speed of the ambient gas. The lateral expansion of the bridge is driven initially by a blast wave. When the velocity of the blast wave falls to a value of the order of the sound speed of the ambient medium, the character of the expansion changes, and the functional form of the bridge width as a function of position exhibits a break, which may be used to estimate the ratio of the lobe advance velocity to the sound speed of the ambient gas. We observe this break in several sources studied here. The Mach number of lobe advance depends only upon the ratio of the width to the length of the bridge as a function of position, which is purely geometric. Typical Mach numbers obtained range from about 2 to 10 and seem to be roughly independent of redshift and the total size (core-lobe separation) of the radio source. The Mach number can be used to estimate the temperature of the ambient gas if an independent estimate of the lobe propagation velocity is available. Lobe propagation velocities estimated using the effects of synchrotron and inverse Compton aging of the relativistic electrons that produce the radio emission are combined with the Mach numbers in order to estimate ambient gas temperatures. The temperature obtained for Cygnus A matches that indicated by X-ray data for this source. Typical temperatures obtained range from about 1 to 20 keV. This temperature is characteristic of gas in clusters of galaxies at low redshift, which is interesting since we show in a companion paper that the ambient

Greg; Ruth; Lin Wan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation...

326

Chapter 22 - Radioactive Waste Disposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses safe disposal of radioactive waste in order to provide safety to workers and the public. Radioactive wastes arise from a great variety of sources, including the nuclear fuel cycle, and from beneficial uses of isotopes and radiation by institutions. Spent fuel contains uranium, plutonium, and highly radioactive fission products. In the United States spent fuel is accumulating, awaiting the development of a high-level waste repository. A multi-barrier system involving packaging and geological media will provide protection of the public over the centuries the waste must be isolated. The favored method of disposal is in a mined cavity deep underground. In other countries, reprocessing the fuel assemblies permits recycling of materials and disposal of smaller volumes of solidified waste. Transportation of wastes is by casks and containers designed to withstand severe accidents. Low-level wastes (LLWs) come from research and medical procedures and from a variety of activation and fission sources at a reactor site. They generally can be given near-surface burial. Isotopes of special interest are cobalt-60 and cesium-137. Transuranic wastes are being disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Establishment of regional disposal sites by interstate compacts has generally been unsuccessful in the United States. Decontamination of defense sites will be long and costly. Decommissioning of reactors in the future will contribute a great deal of low-level radioactive waste.

Raymond L. Murray

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Utah" Utah" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",4805,4785,4802,4812,4816,4927,4926,4945,5077,5102,5111,5129,5573,5574,5754,6053,6212,6710,6499,6581,6648,97.9,88.7 " Coal",4316,4271,4271,4271,4273,4374,4374,4318,4448,4463,4464,4464,4461,4461,4645,4645,4645,4645,4645,4645,4677,85.5,62.4 " Petroleum",26,28,26,25,25,25,23,33,33,44,44,50,45,46,38,35,35,25,25,25,23,0.8,0.3 " Natural Gas",228,228,228,228,227,231,231,296,296,296,303,332,782,782,796,1098,1257,1755,1542,1624,1660,5.8,22.1 " Hydroelectric",213,236,251,253,257,261,262,263,265,265,265,251,252,252,252,253,253,253,253,253,253,5.1,3.4

328

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota" Dakota" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",4525,4546,4476,4478,4488,4485,4207,4733,4656,4675,4678,4677,4659,4562,4673,4625,4636,4668,4691,4852,4912,99.2,79.4 " Coal",3876,3903,3856,3856,3867,3862,3585,4062,4068,4084,4107,4107,4084,4107,4105,4106,4106,4098,4098,4127,4131,87.1,66.8 " Petroleum",94,88,65,66,67,69,68,117,61,63,65,64,69,72,71,75,75,72,72,68,68,1.4,1.1 " Natural Gas",10,10,10,10,10,10,10,9,9,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,15,15,0.2,0.2 " Hydroelectric",545,545,545,545,545,545,545,545,518,518,497,497,497,371,485,432,443,486,486,508,508,10.5,8.2

329

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nevada" Nevada" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",4944,5125,5119,5235,5478,5556,5643,5642,5642,5434,5434,5388,5384,5323,5389,5611,6771,6998,8741,8741,8713,80.9,76.3 " Coal",2692,2692,2692,2717,2717,2717,2807,2806,2806,2806,2806,2747,2658,2657,2657,2657,2657,2689,2689,2689,2655,41.8,23.2 " Petroleum",79,260,260,260,260,50,46,46,46,46,46,46,43,45,45,45,45,45,45,45,45,0.7,0.4 " Natural Gas",1142,1142,1136,1227,1455,1743,1743,1743,1743,1533,1533,1547,1636,1576,1642,1862,3023,3217,4964,4964,4970,22.8,43.5 " Hydroelectric",1031,1031,1031,1031,1046,1046,1046,1046,1046,1049,1049,1048,1048,1045,1045,1047,1047,1048,1043,1043,1043,15.6,9.1

330

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado" Colorado" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",6633,6610,6642,6648,6675,6647,6794,6850,6937,7254,7269,7479,7603,7883,7954,7955,8034,8008,8142,8454,9114,86.6,66.2 " Coal",4945,4945,4955,4950,4954,4954,4961,4955,4963,4981,4981,4981,4891,4891,4891,4888,4899,4921,4925,4970,5661,59.3,41.1 " Petroleum",221,221,222,222,222,221,177,177,174,180,181,178,193,193,207,181,179,179,181,176,176,2.2,1.3 " Natural Gas",393,387,387,379,369,359,542,541,624,917,917,1142,1333,1612,1662,1684,1752,1704,1832,2105,2078,10.9,15.1 " Hydroelectric",542,524,546,566,598,582,582,615,614,614,614,600,600,601,601,610,609,610,610,610,606,7.3,4.4

331

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arkansas" Arkansas" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",9641,9634,9639,9672,9674,9639,9639,9688,9618,9278,9330,9615,9551,9777,9772,10434,10669,11467,11459,11456,11488,96,71.9 " Coal",3817,3817,3817,3817,3817,3817,3817,3865,3817,3680,3680,3741,3757,3745,3745,3793,3846,3846,3861,3864,3865,37.9,24.2 " Petroleum",221,213,215,216,217,217,217,308,308,29,29,29,25,25,25,23,23,22,22,22,22,0.3,0.1 " Natural Gas",2620,2620,2620,2620,2620,2585,2585,2494,2494,2454,2504,2645,2578,2752,2750,3369,3561,4414,4390,4384,4411,25.8,27.6 " Nuclear",1694,1694,1694,1694,1694,1694,1694,1694,1694,1694,1695,1782,1776,1840,1837,1834,1824,1838,1839,1835,1835,17.4,11.5

332

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mississippi" Mississippi" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",7016,7016,7032,7045,7114,7170,7177,7159,7156,6817,7057,7964,8888,9279,9015,8904,9407,9377,10093,10081,10858,78.3,69.2 " Coal",2244,2246,2227,2238,2228,2255,2255,2131,2136,2121,2208,2208,2225,2231,2220,2123,2108,2102,2115,2115,2086,24.5,13.3 " Petroleum",894,894,894,896,125,31,31,31,40,35,60,54,36,36,32,34,36,36,36,35,35,0.7,0.2 " Natural Gas",2736,2733,2768,2769,3619,3711,3712,3797,3776,3456,3579,4492,5396,5749,5493,5481,5997,5971,6683,6680,7486,39.7,47.7 " Nuclear",1142,1143,1143,1143,1143,1173,1179,1200,1204,1204,1210,1210,1231,1263,1270,1266,1266,1268,1259,1251,1251,13.4,8

333

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota" Dakota" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",2708,2710,2744,2733,2965,2950,2954,2927,2923,2895,2812,2814,2854,2650,2618,2759,2889,2826,2911,3042,2994,100,82.6 " Coal",495,484,499,467,488,475,474,467,477,477,477,477,477,476,477,482,492,492,497,497,497,17,13.7 " Petroleum",298,296,293,293,291,291,297,276,276,278,297,296,238,237,228,221,229,223,227,226,225,10.6,6.2 " Natural Gas",93,110,132,153,366,363,363,363,363,333,360,360,459,385,385,553,649,645,722,722,676,12.8,18.7 " Hydroelectric",1821,1821,1821,1820,1820,1820,1820,1820,1806,1806,1678,1678,1678,1549,1526,1500,1516,1463,1463,1594,1594,59.7,44

334

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alaska" Alaska" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",1542,1547,1672,1711,1737,1732,1734,1750,1721,1744,1794,1770,1740,1753,1722,1769,1736,1820,1847,1868,1889,85.1,91.4 " Coal",56,56,54,54,54,54,54,54,25,25,25,25,25,25,25,52,25,25,25,25,25,1.2,1.2 " Petroleum",494,498,500,539,570,572,569,575,585,593,610,527,522,529,517,526,527,581,601,604,618,28.9,29.9 " Natural Gas",756,756,766,767,762,754,759,759,752,752,762,819,796,803,785,785,785,814,818,818,825,36.2,39.9 " Hydroelectric",236,237,352,352,352,353,353,362,359,374,396,399,396,396,395,397,397,397,400,414,414,18.8,20.1

335

Table 4. Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Throu  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nebraska" Nebraska" "Energy Source",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percentage Share" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2000,2010 "Electric Utilities",5452,5450,5453,5512,5518,5529,5632,5760,5811,5829,5939,6010,6052,6667,6722,7007,7056,6959,7011,7675,7647,99.7,97.3 " Coal",3094,3087,3066,3103,3112,3112,3111,3152,3169,3181,3181,3181,3196,3196,3196,3196,3196,3196,3196,3863,3863,53.4,49.2 " Petroleum",370,311,334,342,342,331,544,547,518,528,636,708,638,637,638,639,641,330,382,387,387,10.7,4.9 " Natural Gas",565,630,631,645,643,666,559,644,712,723,723,721,811,1317,1374,1589,1630,1889,1874,1864,1849,12.1,23.5 " Nuclear",1254,1254,1254,1254,1254,1254,1250,1250,1245,1234,1234,1234,1234,1233,1232,1238,1238,1240,1252,1252,1245,20.7,15.8

336

High power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 1970s technomanic projects such as nuclear power stations were still in vogue. Environmentalists argued that solar power seemed a far safer, cheaper and reassuringly low-tech power source. The technomaniacs ... tech power source. The technomaniacs, fearing that they were losingthis argument, sought to hijack solar power themselves. They proposed an enormously expensive and complicated ...

David Jones

1994-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

337

System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using a low power laser source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

Graves, Steven W; Habbersett, Robert C

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

338

System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using low-power laser source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

Graves, Steven W.; Habbersett, Robert C.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

B-1 2001 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT APPENDIX B: CONCEPTS OF RADIOACTIVITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as paper and have a range in air of only an inch or so. Naturally occurring radioactive elements a range in air of several feet. Naturally occurring radioactive elements such as potassium- 40 (K-40) emit: CONCEPTS OF RADIOACTIVITY SOURCES OF RADIATION Radioactivity and radiation are part of the earths natural

Homes, Christopher C.

340

s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria 6, 7 Sept 2012 1 Geological disposal of radioactive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Edinburgh Professor of Geology Nuclear waste ­ exists and has to be solved Nuclear power ­ is likely_and_Copeland.html #12;Nuclear power s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria 6, 7 Sept 2012 2 First civil nuclear waste Cumbria 6, 7 Sept 2012 15 Thus, the nuclear industry has calculated that the escape of radioactive

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Radioactive Waste Management (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This section regulates the transportation and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Minnesota, and establishes a Nuclear Waste Council to monitor the federal high-level radioactive waste...

342

Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1984, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities and the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions.

Not Available

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Power management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Kris W. (Washington, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL); Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

344

Integrated data base for 1988: Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1987. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reportd for miscellaneous, highly radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 89 refs., 46 figs., 104 tabs.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Integrated data base for 1987: Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1986. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous, highly radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 82 refs., 57 figs., 121 tabs.

Not Available

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Radiological Source Registry and Tracking  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) Home HSS Logo Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) Department of Energy (DOE) Notice N 234.1 Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources has been superseded by DOE Order O 231.1B Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. O 231.1B identifies the requirements for centralized inventory and transaction reporting for radioactive sealed sources. Each DOE site/facility operator that owns, possesses, uses or maintains in custody those accountable radioactive sealed sources identified in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835), Appendix E, and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Categories 1 and 2 radioactive sealed sources identified in Attachment 5, Appendix A of O 321.1B, will submit information to the DOE Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) System.

347

Integrated data base for 1993: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 9  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent fuel; also, commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1992. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU), waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) LLW. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year (CY) 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

Klein, J.A.; Storch, S.N.; Ashline, R.C. [and others

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Integrated Data Base for 1991: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1990. These data are based on the most reliable information available form government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated generally through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 160 refs., 61 figs., 142 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Integrated Data Base for 1991: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 7  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1990. These data are based on the most reliable information available form government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated generally through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 160 refs., 61 figs., 142 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Integrated Data Base report--1993: U.S. spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 10  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel; also, commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1993. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 256 refs., 38 figs., 141 tabs.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Experiment Hazard Class 8.1 - Radioactive Materials/Samples  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 - Radioactive Materials 1 - Radioactive Materials Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving radioactive materials as samples. The requirements of this hazard class also apply to sealed radioactive sources that are used as a sample (i.e. a target for x-ray radiation). Other hazard classifications and their associated hazard controls may also apply to experiments in this hazard class. The current requirements can be found in the APS Policy for Conducting Radioactive Sample Experiments in APS Experiment Enclosures. NOTE: The APS must be notified of shipment of any radioactive materials to the site well in advance of the proposed experiment. All radioactive materials must arrive through Argonne Receiving in Building 46 and the Argonne Materials Control & Accountability group (MC&A). Please contact

352

7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

Bahrami, Majid

353

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is collected by the RSO. 2. Dry radioactive waste must be segregated by isotope. 3. Liquid radioactive waste must be separated by isotope. 4. Liquid frequently and change them if contaminated. 5. Use radioactive waste container to collect the waste. 6. Check

Jia, Songtao

354

Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC: Flat-tube; High power density (HPD); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Simulation; Performance; Optimization 1. Introduction A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), like any other fuel cell, produces electrical

355

Large area self-powered gamma ray detector. Phase 2, Development of a source position monitor for use on industrial radiographic units  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop a large area self-powered gamma detector (LASPGD) capable of detecting the movement of sealed radiation sources into and out of industrial radiographic units and to construct a prototype source position monitor (SPM) for these units utilizing the LASPGD. Prototype isotropic and directional LASPGDs, with solid and inert gas dielectrics, were developed and extensively tested using calibrated gamma sources (i.e., Cs-137, and Co-60). The sensitivities of the isotropic detectors, with inert gas dielectrics, were found to be approximately a factor of ten greater than those measured for the solid dielectric LASPGDs. Directionally sensitive self-powered detectors were found to exhibit a forward-to-back hemispherical sensitivity ratio of approximately 2 to 1. Industrial radiographic units containing Ir-192 sources with different activities were used to test the performance of the SPM. The SPM, which utilized a gas dielectric LASPGD, performed as designed. That is, the current generated in the LASPGD was converted to a voltage, amplified and used to control the on/off state of an incandescent lamp. The incandescent lamp, which functions as the source/out warning indicator, flashes at a rate of one flash per second when the source is in use (i.e. out of its shield).

LeVert, F.E. [K.E.M.P. Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

AN X-RAY COOLING-CORE CLUSTER SURROUNDING A LOW-POWER COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCE 1321+045  

SciTech Connect

We discovered an X-ray cluster in a Chandra observation of the compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio source 1321+045 (z = 0.263). CSS sources are thought to be young radio objects at the beginning of their evolution and can potentially test the cluster heating process. 1321+045 is a relatively low-luminosity source and its morphology consists of two radio lobes on the opposite sides of a radio core with no evidence for jets or hotspots. The optical emission line ratios are consistent with an interstellar medium dominated by active galactic nucleus photoionization with a small contribution from star formation, and no contributions from shocks. Based on these ratios, we classify 1321+045 as a low excitation galaxy (LEG) and suggest that its radioactivity is in a coasting phase. The X-ray emission associated with the radio source is detected with 36.1 {+-} 8.3 counts, but the origin of this emission is highly uncertain. The current X-ray image of the cluster does not show any signatures of a radio source impact on the cluster medium. Chandra detects the cluster emission at >3{sigma} level out to {approx}60'' (240 kpc). We obtain the best-fit beta model parameters of the surface brightness profile of {beta} = 0.58 {+-} 0.2 and a core radius of 9.4{sup +1.1}{sub -0.9} arcsec. The average temperature of the cluster is equal to kT = 4.4{sup +0.5}{sub -0.3} keV, with a temperature and cooling profile indicative of a cooling core. We measure the cluster luminosity L{sub (0.5-2{sub keV)}} = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} and mass 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun}.

Kunert-Bajraszewska, M. [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, NCU, Grudziacka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Siemiginowska, A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Labiano, A., E-mail: magda@astro.uni.torun.pl [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

357

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders  

SciTech Connect

In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solceller som energikälla och solskydd för tält; Solar cells as power source and solar protection roof for shelters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This degree project is an investigation of solar cells and their ability to deliver electric power as well as reducing the need for cooling.… (more)

Lönn, Viktoria

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Energy storage sizing for improved power supply availability during extreme events of a microgrid with renewable energy sources.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A new Markov chain based energy storage model to evaluate the power supply availability of microgrids with renewable energy generation for critical loads is proposed.… (more)

Song, Junseok

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

5 - Fukushima Radioactivity Impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Huge amounts of radioactivity have been released to the environment because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. In order to implement adequate protective actions and to assess the impact of the Fukushima radioactivity on the environment, an environmental monitoring has been conducted by national and local governments, research institutes and universities in Japan and over the world. The environmental monitoring revealed that heavy radioactivity-contaminated areas appeared within about 50 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, controlled by land topography as do meteorological factors. The Fukushima-derived radionuclides, in which dominant nuclides were 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, contaminated food stuffs. The radionuclide levels exceeded the regulation values in a part of food stuffs produced within about 500 km off Fukushima. Based on the comprehensive monitoring data, we describe here levels of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environments and in food products in Japan and over the globe. Temporal and spatial distributions of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in aerosols revealed the presence of two dominant radionuclide maxima which were observed throughout the Europe with decreasing amplitudes from the North to the South, which were associated with different air masses present in the European air. Modeled forward and backward trajectories indicated a preferential transport of air masses between Fukushima and Europe at 500 hPa (5000 m a. s. l.) air heights. The Lagrangian dispersion modeling showed that the horizontal dispersion in the Europe reached about 4000-km-wide belt, however, the entire world has been labeled with the Fukushima radionuclides, although at very low levels. A typical travel time between Fukushima and Europe has been estimated to be of 10–15 days, with an average speed of the plume of 50–70 km/h. An average 131I concentration, which was measured over the Europe (?1 mBq/m3), would result in the total amount of dispersed 131I of about 1 PBq. Although this represents a high release rate (almost 1% of the total amount of 131I released from the Fukushima NPP), as it was distributed over a huge area, it has not been of any radiological significance for European citizens. 134Cs and 137Cs were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major likely pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northeast of the site. High-density observations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the surface water were carried out by 17 cruises of cargo ships and several research-vessel cruises since March 2011 till March 2012. Main body of radioactive surface plume whose activity exceeded 10 Bq/m3 had been traveling along 40° N, and reached International Date Line on March 2012, 1 year after the accident. A zonal speed of the radioactive plume was estimated to be about 8 cm/s which was consistent with the zonal speed derived by Argo floats and satellite observations at the region. The dispersion of Fukushima-derived 137Cs in surface seawater of the North Pacific Ocean was carried out using an ocean global circulation model. The traveling time from the Fukushima coast to the US west coast was estimated to be 4–5 years, and the predicted 137Cs levels will reach ?3 Bq/m3, which are by about a factor of three higher than the present global fallout background levels. After 10 years, the 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean will not be distinguishable over the global fallout background of 1 Bq/m3. The maximum predicted 137Cs activity concentrations in 2012 in the open western North Pacific Ocean will be around 20 Bq/m3, which will be comparable to that observed during the early 1960s after atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. However, after 10 years this concentration will be similar to that from global fallout. The open Pacific Ocean radionuclide concentrations will not pose therefore any radiation risk to the world population from consumption of seafood collected in this region.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

CIVILIAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT 2008 FEE ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT LETTER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CIVILIAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT 2008 FEE ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT CIVILIAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT 2008 FEE ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT LETTER REPORT CIVILIAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT 2008 FEE ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT LETTER REPORT This Fiscal Year 2008 Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Fee Adequacy Letter Report presents an evaluation of the adequacy of the one mill per kilowatt-hour fee paid by commercial nuclear power generators for the permanent disposal of their spent nuclear fuel by the Government. This evaluation recommends no fee change. CIVILIAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT 2008 FEE ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT LETTER REPORT More Documents & Publications FY 2007 Fee Adequacy, Pub 2008 Fiscal Year 2007 Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Fee Adequacy Assessment Report January 16, 2013 Secretarial Determination of the Adequacy of the Nuclear

364

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated radioactive beams Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

beams Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: accelerated radioactive beams Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Physics Division ESH Bulletin...

365

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution radioactive Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution radioactive Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Geology, Society and the...

366

Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Journal of Power Sources 140 (2005) 331339 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a new design developed by Siemens Westinghouse, based on their formerly.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flat-tube; High power density; Solid oxide fuel cell; Simulation; Heat oxide fuel cell Part I. Heat/mass transfer and fluid flow Yixin Lu1, Laura Schaefer, Peiwen Li2

368

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial radioactivity levels Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 16 WM'05 Conference, February 27 March 3, 2005, Tucson, AZ WM-5278 IDENTIFYING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES AT THE DEMOLITION SITE Summary: WM'05 Conference,...

369

Radioactive residues associated with water treatment, use and disposal in Australia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water resources are known to contain radioactive materials, either from natural or anthropogenic sources. Treatment, including wastewater treatment, of water for drinking, domestic, agricultural and… (more)

Kleinschmidt, Ross Ivan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient radioactivity monitoring Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and nonradioactive, are subject to regulation by EPA... and the TDEC Division of Air Pollution Control. Radioactive emissions are regu- lated by EPA under NESHAP Source: Pint,...

371

A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The radioactive waste classification system currently used in the United States primarily relies on a source-based framework. This has lead to numerous issues, such as… (more)

Djokic, Denia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated radioactive ion Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactive Ion Beam Facility A leading international facility with unique... light-ion beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron and ... Source: Controlled Fusion Atomic Data...

373

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

Electron storage ring BESSY as a radiometric source of calculable spectral radiant power between 0.5 and 1000 nm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spectral radiant power of the electron storage ring BESSY was measured absolutely in the infrared and visible, and its angular distribution in the infrared, visible, and soft-x-ray...

Riehle, F; Wende, B

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Power LCAT  

SciTech Connect

POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

Drennen, Thomas

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Power LCAT  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

Drennen, Thomas

2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

377

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

378

Radioactive Dust from Nuclear Detonations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...than the dose received from natural radioactivity in a period of...radioactive particles. The natural radioactivity of the atmosphere...curies/liter. This radioactive gas is present in equilibrium with...With an approximation of the natural radiation dose to the lung as...

Merril Eisenbud; John H. Harley

1953-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

379

X-ray Structure in Cluster Cooling Flows and Its Relationship to Star Formation and Powerful Radio Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyses of Chandra's first images of cooling flow clusters find smaller cooling rates than previously thought. Cooling may be occurring preferentially near regions of star formation in central cluster galaxies, where the local cooling and star formation rates agree to within factors of a few. The radio sources in central cluster galaxies are interacting with and are often displacing the hot, intracluster gas. X-ray ``bubbles'' seen in Chandra images are used to measure the amount of energy radio sources deposit into their surroundings, and they may survive as fossil records of ancient radio activity. The bubbles are vessels that transport magnetic fields from giant black holes to the outskirts of clusters.

B. R. McNamara

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Radioactivity in food crops  

SciTech Connect

Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.

Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

382

High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

Anders, Andre

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Closed Brayton cycle power system with a high temperature pellet bed reactor heat source for NEP applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Capitalizing on past and future development of high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) technology a low mass 15 MWe closed gas turbine cycle power system using a pellet bed reactor heating helium working fluid is proposed for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications. Although the design of this directly coupled system architecture comprising the reactor/power system/space radiator subsystems is presented in conceptual form sufficient detail is included to permit an assessment of overall system performance and mass. Furthermore an attempt is made to show how tailoring of the main subsystem design characteristics can be utilized to achieve synergistic system level advantages that can lead to improved reliability and enhanced system life while reducing the number of parasitic load driven peripheral subsystems.

Albert J. Juhasz; Mohamed S. El?Genk; William Harper

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Department of Energy (DOE) Notice N 234.1 Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources has been superseded by DOE Order O 231.1B Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. O 231.1B identifies the requirements for centralized inventory and transaction reporting for radioactive sealed sources.

385

Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Regional Facility Act (Pennsylvania) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Regional Facility Act Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Regional Facility Act (Pennsylvania) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Regional Facility Act (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Utility Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Environmental Regulations Fees This act establishes a low-level radioactive waste disposal regional facility siting fund that requires nuclear power reactor constructors and operators to pay to the Department of Environmental Resources funds to be utilized for disposal facilities. This act ensures that nuclear facilities and the Department comply with the Low-Level Radioactive Disposal Act. The regional facility siting fund is used for reimbursement of expenses

386

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, cancels DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

387

Container for radioactive materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

Fields, S.R.

1984-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

388

Assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning nuclear power plant in Italy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning Nuclear Power Plant is presented here through the results of an environmental monitoring survey carried out in the area surrounding the Garigliano Power Plant. The levels of radioactivity in soil, water, air and other environmental matrices are shown, in which {\\alpha}, {\\beta} and {\\gamma} activity and {\\gamma} equivalent dose rate are measured. Radioactivity levels of the samples from the Garigliano area are analyzed and then compared to those from a control zone situated more than 100 km away. Moreover, a comparison is made with a previous survey held in 2001. The analyses and comparisons show no significant alteration in the radiological characteristics of the area surroundings the plant, with an overall radioactivity depending mainly from the global fallout and natural sources.

A. Petraglia; C. Sabbarese; M. De Cesare; N. De Cesare; F. Quinto; F. Terrasi; A. D'Onofrio; P. Steier; L. K. Fifield; A. M. Esposito

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

389

Assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning nuclear power plant in Italy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning Nuclear Power Plant is presented here through the results of an environmental monitoring survey carried out in the area surrounding the Garigliano Power Plant. The levels of radioactivity in soil, water, air and other environmental matrices are shown, in which {\\alpha}, {\\beta} and {\\gamma} activity and {\\gamma} equivalent dose rate are measured. Radioactivity levels of the samples from the Garigliano area are analyzed and then compared to those from a control zone situated more than 100 km away. Moreover, a comparison is made with a previous survey held in 2001. The analyses and comparisons show no significant alteration in the radiological characteristics of the area surroundings the plant, with an overall radioactivity depending mainly from the global fallout and natural sources.

Petraglia, A; De Cesare, M; De Cesare, N; Quinto, F; Terrasi, F; D'Onofrio, A; Steier, P; Fifield, L K; Esposito, A M; 10.1051/radiopro/2012010

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Ion Exchange Media for Reduction of Liquid Radwaste in Commercial Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange resins currently make up as much as one-half of all radioactive waste generated by commercial nuclear power plants. A major challenge is reduction of the quantity of ion exchange media requiring disposal. Although the amount of spent ion exchange resins disposed has decreased year after year, a new urgency has arisen with the pending closure of a major disposal site in 2008. This paper explores whether ion exchange resins also can be used to potentially reduce radioactive liquid waste volumes and / or limit them to Class A wastes only. Source term reduction and minimization of manpower exposure to radioactivity are other important goals. Specialty ion exchange products may help to achieve source term reduction of certain radionuclides. Some established operations, data, and process concepts are presented to address these critical issues encountered in liquid radwaste management. (authors)

Yarnell, P.A. [Graver Technologies, LLC, Glasgow, DE (United Kingdom); Tavares, A. [Graver Technologies, LLC, Newark, NJ (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Radioactive ''hot spots'' from nuclear weapons test fallout  

SciTech Connect

In a paper presented on January 8, 1985, at the Health Physics Society Midyear Symposium, Franke and Alvarez claimed that radioactivity observed on the Savannah River Plant site on March 14, 1955, was the result of a reactor accident. The source of the observed radioactivity was, in fact, rainwater containing radioactive products from a nuclear weapon test made two days earlier in Nevada. The weapon test TEAPOT HORNET was shown to be the source of the contamination at the time, and this has been corroborated in two recent papers. The aim of this review is to show that the highly-localized radioactive fallout on the Savannah River Plant site was not unique but part of a widespread phenomenon occurring all over the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Sanders, S.M.

1985-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

392

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

393

Radioactive Waste Management  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

394

All-laser-driven, MeV-energy X-ray source for detection of SNM Sudeep Banerjee, Nathan Powers, Vidya Ramanathan, Nathaniel Cunningham, Nate Chandler-Smith, Shouyuan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All-laser-driven, MeV-energy X-ray source for detection of SNM Sudeep Banerjee, Nathan Powers, MI 48109. A quasi-monoenergetic MeV x-ray source based on laser-driven electron acceleration per laser shot. Characterization of such a high-flux high energy x-ray beam is in progress. Quasi

Umstadter, Donald

395

What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?  

SciTech Connect

Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

DOE

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Properties of Natural Radiation and Radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

Ubiquitous natural sources of radiation and radioactive material (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) have exposed humans throughout history. To these natural sources have been added technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) sources and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. This chapter describes the ubiquitous radiation sources that we call background, including primordial radionuclides such as 40K, 87Rb, the 232Th series, the 238U series, and the 235U series; cosmogenic radionuclides such as 3H and 14C; anthropogenic radionuclides such as 3H, 14C, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I; radiation from space; and radiation from technologically-enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides, particularly the short-lived decay products of 222Rn ("radon") and 220Rn ("thoron") in indoor air. These sources produce radiation doses to people principally via external irradiation or internal irradiation following intakes by inhalation or ingestion. The effective doses from each are given, with a total of 3.11 mSv y-1 (311 mrem y-1) to the average US resident. Over 2.5 million US residents receive over 20 mSv y-1 (2 rem y-1), primarily due to indoor radon. Exposure to radiation from NORM and TENORM produces the largest fraction of ubiquitous background exposure to US residents, on the order of 2.78 mSv (278 mrem) or about 89%. This is roughly 45% of the average annual effective dose to a US resident of 6.2 mSv y-1 (620 mrem y-1) that includes medical (48%), consumer products and air travel (2%), and occupational and industrial (0.1%). Much of this chapter is based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report No. 160, "Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States," for which the author chaired the subcommittee that wrote Chapter 3 on "Ubiquitous Background Radiation."

Strom, Daniel J.

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

397

Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50?kHz/2?MHz dual-frequency power sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50?kHz and 2?MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas namely the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of ? mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation.

Yong-Jie Zhou; Qiang-Hua Yuan; Fei Li; Xiao-Min Wang; Gui-Qin Yin; Chen-Zhong Dong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

STATUS OF THE LIGHT ION SOURCE DEVELOPMENTS AT CEA/SACLAY R. Gobin*, P-Y. Beauvais, D. Bogard, G. Charruau, O. Delferrire, D. De Menezes, A. France, R. Ferdinand, Y. Gauthier,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. Celona, Istituto Nationale de Fisica Nucleare, LNS, via Sofia, Catania, Italy J. Sherman, Los of high power accelerator. The source regularly delivers more than 130 mA protons in CW mode and already, will have to fit in with the SPIRAL 2 accelerator developed at GANIL to produce Radioactive Ion Beams. The H

Boyer, Edmond

399

Thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined power cycle using low grade heat source and LNG cold energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of a combined cycle using a low grade heat source and LNG cold energy was carried out. The combined cycle consisted of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with and without regeneration and a LNG Rankine cycle. A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters, such as ammonia mass fraction, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature. The effects of the ammonia mass fraction on the temperature distributions of the hot and cold streams in heat exchangers were also investigated. The characteristic diagram of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability was proposed to consider the system performance and expenditure of the heat exchangers simultaneously. The simulation showed that the system performance is influenced significantly by the parameters with the ammonia mass fraction having largest effect. The net work output of the ammonia–water cycle may have a peak value or increase monotonically with increasing ammonia mass fraction, which depends on turbine inlet pressure or condensation temperature. The exergy efficiency may decrease or increase or have a peak value with turbine inlet pressure depending on the ammonia mass fraction.

Kyoung Hoon Kim; Kyung Chun Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Finding Aids: Radioactive Fallout  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Guide to Archival Collections Relating to Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapon Testing A Guide to Archival Collections Relating to Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapon Testing Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Argonne National Laboratory Bancroft Library, University of California Boeing Aircraft Company Brookhaven National Laboratory Coordination and Information Center (CIC) Eastman Kodak EG&G, Energy Measurements Holmes and Narver Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory Manuscript Division, Library of Congress National Academy of Sciences Archives Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pacific Northwest Laboratory Sandia National Laboratories Scripps Institution of Oceanography Archives Smithsonian Institution Archives U.S. Air Force Brooks Air Force Base Kirtland Air Force Base USAF Historical Research Center U.S. Army Chemical Corps (Aberdeen Proving Ground)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Radioactive ion detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

402

Radioactive ion detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

GEOMETRIC SOURCE SEPARATION: MERGING CONVOLUTIVE SOURCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adaptive beamforming algorithms by a cross-power criteria, we gain new geometric source separation with convo- lutive blind source separation. We concentrate on cross-power spectral min- imization which is su to ambiguities in the choice of separating lters. There are in theory multiple lters that invert the room

Parra, Lucas C.

404

Radioactive waste storage issues  

SciTech Connect

In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

Kunz, D.E.

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Nuclear Power’s Benefits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear Power’s Benefits ... Using nuclear power in place of fossil-fuel energy sources, such as coal, has prevented some 1.8 million air-pollution-related deaths and 64 gigatons of carbon emissions globally over the past four decades, a study concludes. ... These estimates suggest policymakers should continue to rely on and expand nuclear power in place of fossil fuels to mitigate climate change, the authors say (Environ. ...

MARK SCHROPE

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

Integration of Pipeline Operations Sourced with CO2 Captured at a Coal-fired Power Plant and Injected for Geologic Storage: SECARB Phase III CCS Demonstration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a case study of the design and operation of a fit-for-purpose pipeline sourced with anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) associated with a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) Research & Demonstration Program located in Alabama, USA. A 10.2 centimeter diameter pipeline stretches approximately 19 kilometers from the outlet of the CO2 capture facility, located at Alabama Power Company's James M. Barry 2,657 - megawatt coal-fired electric generating plant, to the point of injection into a saline reservoir within Citronelle Dome. The CO2 pipeline has a 6.5 meter wide easement that primarily parallels an existing high-voltage electric transmission line in undulating terrain with upland timber, stream crossings, and approximately 61,000 square meters of various wetland types. In addition to wetlands, the route transects protected habitat of the Gopher Tortoise. Construction methods included horizontal drilling under utilities, wetlands, and tortoise habitat and ‘open cutting’ trenching where vegetation is removed and silt/storm-water management structures are employed to limit impacts to water quality and ecosystems. A total of 18 horizontal directional borings, approximately 8 kilometers, were used to avoid sensitive ecosystems, roads, and utilities. The project represents one of the first and the largest fully-integrated pulverized coal-fired CCS demonstration projects in the USA and provides a test bed of the operational reliability and risk management for future pipelines sourced with utility CO2 capture and compression operations sole-sourced to injection operations. An update on status of the project is presented, covering the permitting of the pipeline, risk analysis, design, construction, commissioning, and integration with compression at the capture plant and underground injection at the storage site.

R. Esposito; C. Harvick; R. Shaw; D. Mooneyhan; R. Trautz; G. Hill

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How are they moved? What's their construction? Who uses them? Who makes rules? What are the requirements? Safety Record Packagings are used to safely transport radioactive materials across the United States in over 1.6 million shipments per year. [Weiner et. al., 1991, Risk Analysis, Vol. 11, No. 4, p. 663] Most shipments are destined for hospitals and medical facilities. Other destinations include industrial, research and manufacturing plants, nuclear power plants and national defense facilities. The last comprehensive survey showed that less than 1 percent of these shipments involve high-level radioactive material. [Javitz et. al., 1985, SAND84-7174, Tables 4 and 8] The types of materials transported include: Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials, Low-Level Waste (LLW),

408

ScienceDirect JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ontine at wtYw.sciencedlrect.com ontine at wtYw.sciencedlrect.com ^-- 9 e* + - . , * * ScienceDirect JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY Journal o f Environmental Radioactivity 91 (2006) 27-40 www.elsevier.co~nAocate/jenvrad Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring Joanna Burger Michael Gochfeld C-d, David S . Kosson b7e, Charles W. Powers b-d*e7 Stephen Jewett b*f, Barry Friedlander b7d, Heloise Chenelot b=f7 Conrad D. Volz b-8, Christian Jeitner a-b Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 6 0 4 Allison R o a d . Piscataway, N.I 0 8 8 5 4 - 8 0 8 2 , USA Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway. N.I 0 8 8 5 4 . USA Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSZ), Piscataway, NJ 0

409

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sources of Radiation Biological Responses Other Effects History Gallery Glossary of Nuclear Terms [Majority from NRC] Contacts Comments & Questions Radiation is all around us, occurring naturally in the environment. We are always exposed to radiation from: radon in the air uranium, radium and thorium in the earth cosmic rays from outer space and the sun radioactive potassium in our food and water naturally occuring radioactive material within our own bodies. This is commonly called "naturally-occurring background radiation." TYPES OF IONIZING RADIATION Alpha Alpha particles can be shielded by a sheet of paper or by human skin. If alpha emitters are inhaled, ingested, or enter the body through a cut, they can cause cancer. Beta Beta radiation can be stopped by a shield like aluminum foil or wood. If beta emitters are inhaled, ingested, or enter the body through a cut, they can cause cancer.

410

Standard Model tests with trapped radioactive atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the use of laser cooling and trapping for Standard Model tests, focusing on trapping of radioactive isotopes. Experiments with neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques are testing several basic predictions of electroweak unification. For nuclear $\\beta$ decay, demonstrated trap techniques include neutrino momentum measurements from beta-recoil coincidences, along with methods to produce highly polarized samples. These techniques have set the best general constraints on non-Standard Model scalar interactions in the first generation of particles. They also have the promise to test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, to search for tensor interactions, and to search for new sources of time reversal violation. There are also possibilites for exotic particle searches. Measurements of the strength of the weak neutral current can be assisted by precision atomic experiments using traps of small numbers of radioactive atoms, and sensitivity to possible time-reversal violating electric dipole moments can be improved.

J. A. Behr; G. Gwinner

2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

411

High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico Press Release High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico Nov 15, 2013 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

412

NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material Fact Sheet NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material Apr 12, 2013 The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA),

413

High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico Press Release High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico Nov 15, 2013 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

414

Sandia technology used to remove radioactive material at Fukushima |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

technology used to remove radioactive material at Fukushima | technology used to remove radioactive material at Fukushima | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Sandia technology used to remove radioactive material ... Sandia technology used to remove radioactive material at Fukushima Posted By Office of Public Affairs

415

Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070  

SciTech Connect

This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan [SORNS, Frankopanska 11, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)] [SORNS, Frankopanska 11, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

NNSA Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston | National  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston | National Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > NNSA Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston Press Release NNSA Removes High-Activity Radioactive Materials from Boston Nov 22, 2013

417

Bacteria eats radioactive waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria eats radioactive waste Bacteria eats radioactive waste Name: deenaharper Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: In my studies, I have found that everything in this world is balanced. When something dies it is converted into life. Is there anything out there that could convert radioactive material into a harmless substance? Some sort of bacteria that consumes radiation? Replies: The reason why radiation is so harmful is that is produces free radicals in living tissue, that is, it de-stabilizes molecules by tearing off electrons due to intense energies. These free radicals start a chain reaction of destruction, de-stabilizing neighboring molecules. If this continues unchecked, cells die, genetic material are mutated, and tissue aging accelerates. It is somewhat like being burned. Fire oxidizes by a similar free radical reaction. (Hence the term "sun burn.") The natural defenses against free radical reactions in biological systems are antioxidants, which are enzymes, nutrients, and other chemicals, which quench free radical reactions. Without them, life would very quickly cease. To my knowledge, no microorganism has an antioxidant capacity great enough to withstand even minimal exposure to any type of radiation. Microorganisms are actually very susceptible to radiation, which is why heat and gamma irradiation are used to sterilize food, instruments, etc. However, you raise an interesting possibility in that perhaps one can be genetically engineered to have super- antioxidant capacity, but that may be beyond current technology. Plus, if any got loose, given the exponential rate of reproduction, they may become an uncontrollable health hazard, as it would be very difficult to destroy them!

418

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

419

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS  

SciTech Connect

Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Integrated data base for 1986: spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes through December 31, 1985, based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities and the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth. The materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Can solar power deliver?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...technologies, such as wind power, which often peaks...generators such as nuclear power, enabling it be rapidly...exceeded those for wind, nuclear and gas...Contributions from wind, solar and conventional sources to power generation on the...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Experience in operating and upgrading the No. 5 unit of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant – practical base for developing a reliable source of nuclear energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The No. 5 unit of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant, starting commercial operations on September 26, 1980, is the first power-generating unit with a 1000 MW VVER in our country. The assimilation of its power g...

I. L. Vitkovskii

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Coil spring conveyor for positioning an external radioactive standard in a liquid scintillation counter  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a liquid scintillation counter having a counting chamber for receiving a liquid sample containing a liquid scintillator and a sample of a radioactive substance to be counted. An improved apparatus is described for positioning a radioactive source in an operating location to irradiate the liquid sample in the counting chamber comprising the combination of: (1) a flexible conveyor including an elongate, generally tubular coil spring section having an interior tubular bore configured to receive the radioactive source; (2) means for retaining the radioactive source in a predetermined axial position within the coil spring; (3) means supporting the coil spring for movement along a conveyor path between a storage location for the radioactive source remote from the counting chamber and an operating location for the radioactive source proximate the counting chamber; and (4) drive means coupled to the coil spring and operative to drive the coil spring along the conveyor path for conveying the radioactive source between the storage and operating locations.

Kampf, R.S.

1986-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

425

418 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 418-423 (2004) MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the outlets of the first and the second nuclear power plants, suggesting that the dispersal of reactor ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY NEAR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN NORTHERN TAIWAN Chih-An Huh*, Chih-Chieh Su**, Yueh, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keeling, Taiwan, R.O.C. Key words: environmental radioactivity, nuclear

Huh, Chih-An

426

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 CHAPTER 7 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PAGE I. Radioactive Waste Disposal ............................................................................................ 7-2 II. Radiation Control Technique #2 Instructions for Preparation of Radioactive Waste

Slatton, Clint

427

Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation  

SciTech Connect

The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Radioactive waste management in the former USSR  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

Bradley, D.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

FAQ 5-Is uranium radioactive?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is uranium radioactive? Is uranium radioactive? Is uranium radioactive? All isotopes of uranium are radioactive, with most having extremely long half-lives. Half-life is a measure of the time it takes for one half of the atoms of a particular radionuclide to disintegrate (or decay) into another nuclear form. Each radionuclide has a characteristic half-life. Half-lives vary from millionths of a second to billions of years. Because radioactivity is a measure of the rate at which a radionuclide decays (for example, decays per second), the longer the half-life of a radionuclide, the less radioactive it is for a given mass. The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.5 billion years, uranium-235 about 700 million years, and uranium-234 about 25 thousand years. Uranium atoms decay into other atoms, or radionuclides, that are also radioactive and commonly called "decay products." Uranium and its decay products primarily emit alpha radiation, however, lower levels of both beta and gamma radiation are also emitted. The total activity level of uranium depends on the isotopic composition and processing history. A sample of natural uranium (as mined) is composed of 99.3% uranium-238, 0.7% uranium-235, and a negligible amount of uranium-234 (by weight), as well as a number of radioactive decay products.

430

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Cancels DOE M 460.2-1.

2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

431

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

432

Fiscal Year 2007 Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Fee Adequacy Assessment Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Fee Adequacy Assessment Report is to present an analysis of the adequacy of the fee being paid by nuclear power utilities...

433

S. Wasterlain, D. Candusso, F. Harel, X. Franois, D. Hissel. Development of test instruments and protocols for the diagnostic of fuel cell stacks. Accept dans Journal of Power Sources suite 12th  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the integration of fuel cell systems into real applications such as vehicles or stationary gensets and protocols for the diagnostic of fuel cell stacks. Accepté dans Journal of Power Sources suite à 12th Ulm for the diagnostic of fuel cell stacks Sébastien Wasterlain 1,2 , Denis Candusso 1,3,* , Fabien Harel 1,3 , Daniel

Boyer, Edmond

434

CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense application that formed the basis for the commercial nuclear power industry.

Marra, J.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

435

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric radioactivity monitoring Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 41 WM'05 Conference, February 27 March 3, 2005, Tucson, AZ WM-5278 IDENTIFYING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES AT...

436

Spallation reactions for nuclear waste transmutation and production of radioactive nuclear beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spallation reactions are considered an optimum neutron source for nuclear waste transmutation in accelerator-driven systems (ADS). ... They are also used to produce intense radioactive nuclear beams in ISOL facil...

J. Benlliure

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Spallation reactions for nuclear waste transmutation and production of radioactive nuclear beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spallation reactions are considered an optimum neutron source for nuclear waste transmutation in accelerator-driven systems (ADS). ... They are also used to produce intense radioactive nuclear beams in ISOL facil...

J. Benlliurea

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document This document specifies the top-level...

439

Radioactive Waste Management Complex Wide Review | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Radioactive Waste Management Complex Wide Review Radioactive Waste Management Complex Wide Review The main goal of this complex-wide review was to obtain feedback from DOE sites...

440

Energy Sources and Light Curves of Macronovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A macronova (kilonova) was discovered with short gamma-ray burst, GRB 130603B, which is widely believed to be powered by the radioactivity of $r$-process elements synthesized in the ejecta of a neutron star binary merger. As an alternative, we propose that macronovae are energized by the central engine, i.e., a black hole or neutron star, and the injected energy is emitted after the adiabatic expansion of ejecta. This engine model is motivated by extended emission of short GRBs. In order to compare the theoretical models with observations, we analytically formulate the light curves of macronovae. The engine model allows a wider parameter range, especially smaller ejecta mass, and better fit to observations than the $r$-process model. Future observations of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves should distinguish energy sources and constrain the activity of central engine and $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

Kisaka, Shota; Takami, Hajime

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Keys to Successful Feedback - John Settle PowerPoint Presentation...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Transportation of Radioactive Materials Keys to Successful Feedback - John Settle PowerPoint Presentation Leadership Development Readings May 14, 2014 - "Your Brain on Conflict"...

442

Memorandum, Reporting of Radiological Sealed Sources Transactions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The requirements for reporting transactions involving radiological sealed sources are identified in Department of Energy (DOE) Notice (N) 234.1, Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources. The data reported in accordance with DOE N 234.1 are maintained in the DOE Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) database by the Office of Information Management, within the Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security.

443

Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in soils, rocks and water in the vicinity of Chirano Gold Mine in Ghana  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......gamma-ray exposure from natural radioactivity concentrations...drinking water containing natural radioactivity due to...inhalation of airborne radon gas for the area where both...concentrations in surface soils in Cyprus. J. Environ. Radioact...UNSCEAR. Exposures from natural sources of radiation......

A. Faanu; H. Lawluvi; D. O. Kpeglo; E. O. Darko; G. Emi-Reynolds; A. R. Awudu; O. K. Adukpo; C. Kansaana; I. D. Ali; B. Agyeman; L. Agyeman; R. Kpodzro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Spent Sealed Sources Management in Switzerland - 12011  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided about the international recommendations for the safe management of disused and spent sealed radioactive sources wherein the return to the supplier or manufacturer is encouraged for large radioactive sources. The legal situation in Switzerland is described mentioning the demand of minimization of radioactive waste as well as the situation with respect to the interim storage facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Based on this information and on the market situation with a shortage of some medical radionuclides the management of spent sealed sources is provided. The sources are sorted according to their activity in relation to the nuclide-specific A2-value and either recycled as in the case of high active sources or conditioned as in the case for sources with lower activity. The results are presented as comparison between recycled and conditioned activity for three selected nuclides, i.e. Cs-137, Co-60 and Am-241. (author)

Beer, H.F. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Radioactive Kr Isotopes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radioactive isotope of 1.1-hour half-life has been produced in krypton by alpha-particle bombardment of Se74, enriched electromagnetically from 0.9 percent to 14.1 percent. Assignment of the isotope is made to Kr77. Aluminum absorption measurements indicate a positron end point of 1.7 Mev. In addition to annihilation radiation, gamma-rays and K-capture have been observed. The ratio of K-capture to positron emission from the Se74(?,n) reaction is computed as 2.6. The krypton 1.42-day isotope has been produced by an ?,n reaction on electromagnetically enriched Se76. The isotope is located as Kr79 and its half-life confirmed. A positron end point of 1.0 Mev is determined by aluminum absorption measurements. In addition to annihilation radiation, gamma-rays and K-capture have been observed. The ratio of K-capture to positron emission from the Se76(?,n) reaction is computed to be 50. The cross-section ratio for formation of Kr77 compared to Kr79 by alpha-particle bombardment of selenium is computed as 1.4. The 4.6-hour Kr85 isotope has been produced by a Se(?,n) reaction.

L. L. Woodward; D. A. Mccown; M. L. Pool

1948-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

The largest radioactive waste glassification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

largest radioactive waste glassification largest radioactive waste glassification plant in the nation, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the liquid nuclear waste currently stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) into a solid glass form suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Scientists have long considered this glassification process, called "vitrification," as the preferred option for treating liquid nuclear waste. By immobilizing the radioactivity in glass, the DWPF reduces the risks associated with the continued storage of liquid nuclear waste at SRS and prepares the waste for final disposal in a federal repository. About 38 million gallons of liquid nuclear wastes are now stored in 49 underground carbon-steel tanks at SRS. This waste has about 300 million curies of radioactivity, of which the vast majority

447

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

Gray, P. [ed.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

TRIGA MARK-II source term  

SciTech Connect

ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding ? source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

Usang, M. D., E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, N. S., E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abi, M. J. B., E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi, E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abu, M. P., E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Bahagian Teknologi Reaktor, Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

450

SiC Power Module  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy from renewable sources (i.e., solar arrays or wind generators), and provide power for a wide variety of electronics and electronic systems (DC power supplies and...

451

Storage depot for radioactive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Power grid integration using Kalman filtering.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Renewable power sources with a relatively uneven or constant DC power production require synchronization methods to work with the current utility power grid. The… (more)

Djerf, Magnus

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

Marsh, B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative energy sources Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sources Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alternative energy sources...

455

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative energy source Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

source Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alternative energy source...

456

Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources will be presented in the paper. (authors)

Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Solar Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWh/sq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the WIPP site enjoys abundant year-round sunshine. With an average solar power production potential of 6-7 kWh/sq meter per day, one exciting project being studied for location at WIPP is a 30-50 MW Solar Power Tower: The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is is a national trade association promoting solar energy as a clean source of electricity, and provides a comprehensive resource for additional information. DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy is also a comprehensive resource for more information on renewable energy.

458

Photonic-powered cable assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

459

Photonic-powered cable assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

Sanderson, Stephen N; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

460

Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to! We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these radionuclides. We will then review some of the industrial sectors affected by TENORM, followed by a brief discussion on regulatory aspects of the issue.

Egidi, P.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radioactive power source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Spallation Neutron Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D/gim D/gim Spallation Neutron Source SNS is an accelerator-based neutron source. This one-of-a-kind facility pro- vides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world. When ramped up to its full beam power of 1.4 MW, SNS will be eight times more powerful than today's best facility. It will give researchers more detailed snapshots of the smallest samples of physical and biological materials than ever before

462

Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

On the basically single-type excitation source of resonance in the wind tunnel and in the hydroturbine channel of a hydraulic power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated the spectra of pressure pulsations in the near field of the open working section of the wind tunnel with a vortex flow behind the ... the flow behind the hydroturbine of a hydraulic power plant

R. K. Karavosov; A. G. Prozorov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive ...

Thornhill, D. A.

465

Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The radioactive material must then be placed in inner packages that will prevent radioactive contamination during transportation. Dispersible radioactive material must be...

466

DOE Comments on Radioactive Waste | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

on Radioactive Waste DOE Comments on Radioactive Waste 1. Summary Comments on Draft Branch Technical Position on a Performance Assessment Methodology for Low-Level Radioactive...

467

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive...

468

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants and Other Large Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations apply to fossil-fuel fired stationary sources which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a...

469

Disused Radioactive Sources Secured in Georgia | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

and Natural Resources Protection, and the United Kingdom's Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC). This achievement is the culmination of a two-year project with...

470

Radioactive Sources Move From a Concern to a Crisis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...steel-and-aluminum casing and its depleted uranium shielding were gone, and...facilities (Hospital cancer treatment centers...steel-and-aluminum casing and its depleted uranium shielding were...facilities (Hospital cancer treatment centers...

Richard Stone

2003-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

471

EA-1059: Radioactive Source Recovery Program, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to establish a program to accept and recover surplus americium-241 mixed with beryllium metal (Be) and plutonium-238 mixed with Be sealed...

472

RISG-M-2482 COMPUTER MODELLING OF RADIOACTIVE SOURCE TERMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/INTOR workshops. INIS descriptors: M CODES; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEUTRON TRANSPORT; TOKAMAK

473

Radioactive Sources Move From a Concern to a Crisis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...steel-and-aluminum casing and its depleted uranium shielding were gone, and...plucking,” says health physicist Joel Lubenau...steel-and-aluminum casing and its depleted uranium shielding were gone...the plucking, says health physicist Joel Lubenau...

Richard Stone

2003-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

474

DOEE A-1059 Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Safety and Health Division describe the LANL environment, including archaeology, geology, seismology, geographic setting, land use, hydrology, climatology, meteorology and...

475

Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Green Power Network: Green Power Markets Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Green Markets Green Markets Search Search Help More Search Options Search Site Map News TVA Seeks 126 MW of Renewables in 2014 December 2013 More News More News Subscribe to E-Mail Update Subscribe to e-mail update Events EPA Webinar - The Power of Aggregated Purchasing: How to Green Your Electricity Supply & Save Money January 15, 2014 1:00-2:00 p.m. ET Previous Webinars More News Features Green Power Market Status Report (2011 Data) Featured Green Power Reports Green Pricing Green Power Marketing Green Certificates Carbon Offsets State Policies Overview The essence of green power marketing is to provide market-based choices for electricity consumers to purchase power from environmentally preferred sources. The term "green power" is used to define power generated from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, geothermal, hydropower and various forms of biomass. Green power marketing has the potential to expand domestic markets for renewable energy technologies by fostering greater availability of renewable electric service options in retail markets. Although renewable energy development has traditionally been limited by cost considerations, customer choice allows consumer preferences for cleaner energy sources to be reflected in market transactions. In survey after survey, customers have expressed a preference and willingness to pay more, if necessary, for cleaner energy sources. You can find more information about purchase options on our "Buying Green Power" page.

477

New Sources of Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... and new ideas on recent progress in the applications of solar energy, wind power and geothermal energy, and held in Rome during August 21-31. The term 'new is ... power resources. These three forms of energy are very different in their characteristics; a geothermal energy source is a gift for any nation fortunate enough to possess such a site ...

H. HEYWOOD

1961-11-04T23:59:59.000Z