National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radioactive materials transportation

  1. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  2. Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation...

  3. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-04

    This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Supersedes DOE M 460.2-1.

  4. Base Technology for Radioactive Material Transportation Packaging Systems

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-07-08

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) policies and responsibilities for coordinating and planning base technology for radioactive material transportation packaging systems.

  5. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board`s Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns.

  6. Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19

    The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

  7. Use of inelastic design for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinstein, M.W.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    There is much interest within the radioactive material transportation container design community in the use of inelastic analysis. In other industries where inelastic analysis is used in design there is typically an improved knowledge of the capacity of the structure and a more efficient use of material. This report describes the results of a program in which the incentives for inelastic analysis for radioactive material transport container design were investigated to determine if there are similar benefits. Detailed are the elastic and inelastic analyses of two containers subjected to impacts onto a rigid target following a thirty-foot free fall in end-on, side-on, and center-of-gravity- over-corner orientations.

  8. Benchmarking of finite element codes for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    The increased power of computers and computer codes makes the use of nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses attractive for use as a tool used in the design and certification of radioactive material transportation packages. For this analysis technique to be acceptable it must be demonstrated. The technique has the ability to accurately capture the response of the packages to accident environments required by the regulations. The best method of demonstrating this ability is via a series of benchmark analyses. In this paper three benchmark problems involving significant inelastic deformations will be discussed. One of the problems has been analyzed using many different finite element codes. The other two problems involve comparison of finite element calculations to the results form physical tests. The ability of the finite element method to accurately capture the response in these three problems indicates the method should be acceptable for radioactive material transportation package design and certification.

  9. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria for radioactive material transportation containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

    1993-06-01

    The design criteria currently used in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transportation containers are taken from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME, 1992). These load-based criteria are ideally suited for pressure vessels where the loading is quasistatic and all stresses are in equilibrium with externally applied loads. For impact events, the use of load-based criteria is less supportable. Impact events tend to be energy controlled, and thus, energy-based acceptance criteria would appear to be more appropriate. Determination of an ideal design criteria depends on what behavior is desired. Currently there is not a design criteria for inelastic analysis for RAM nation packages that is accepted by the regulatory agencies. This lack of acceptance criteria is one of the major factors in limiting the use of inelastic analysis. In this paper inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on stress and strain-energy density will be compared for two stainless steel test units subjected to impacts onto an unyielding target. Two different material models are considered for the inelastic analysis, a bilinear fit of the stress-strain curve and a power law hardening model that very closely follows the stress-strain curve. It is the purpose of this paper to stimulate discussion and research into the area of strain-energy density based inelastic analysis acceptance criteria.

  10. Structural analysis in support of the waterborne transport of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-08-01

    The safety of the transportation of radioactive materials by road and rail has been well studied and documented. However, the safety of waterborne transportation has received much less attention. Recent highly visible waterborne transportation campaigns have led to DOE and IAEA to focus attention on the safety of this transportation mode. In response, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a program to establish a method to determine the safety of these shipments. As part of that program the mechanics involved in ship-to-ship collisions are being evaluated to determine the loadings imparted to radioactive material transportation packages during these collisions. This paper will report on the results of these evaluations.

  11. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation.

  12. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

  13. Property Valuation and Radioactive Materials Transportation: A Legal, Economic and Public Perception Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, J. A.; Thrower, A. W.; Widmayer, D. A.; Portner, W.

    2003-02-26

    The shipment of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico raised a serious socioeconomic issue - the potential devaluation of property values due to the transportation of TRU waste from generator sites to the disposal facility. In 1992, the New Mexico Supreme Court held in City of Santa Fe v. Komis that a loss in value from public perception of risk was compensable. This issue has become an extremely important one for the development of the Yucca Mountain repository in Nevada for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much research has been conducted about the potential impacts of transportation of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This paper examines the pertinent studies conducted since the Komis case. It examines how the public debate on radioactive materials transportation continues and is now focused on transportation of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Finally, the paper suggests a path forward DOE can take to address this issue.

  14. Legal aspects of the maritime transport of radioactive materials its regulation in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, S

    2001-01-01

    This work has the object to analyse the International as much as National legal frameworks, the scopes and limits of the instruments which form it as well as the congruous that exist between them and the situation which actually prevails in the maritime transport field of radioactive materials in worldwide level and in Mexico taking into account the technical advances, the operational experience and radiological protection principles. In the chapter 1, the background on the uses of nuclear energy are described and its development by more of fifty years. The chapter 2 analyses about the establishment of nuclear technologies in Mexico as well as their evolution in medicine, agriculture, research and electric power generation areas. In chapter 3 it was analysed the role what the International Organizations have been playing for the establish of an International legal framework in the maritime transport of radioactive materials field. In the chapter 4, the International legal framework was analysed which is appli...

  15. Radioactive Material Transportation Considerations with Respect to DOE 3013 Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HENSEL, SJ

    2004-04-15

    This paper evaluates sealed hardware that meets the requirements of DOE-STD-3013, ''Criteria for Preparing and packaging Plutonium Metals and Oxides for Long-Term Storage'' with respect to radioactive material (Type B quantity) transportation requirements. The Standard provides criteria for packaging of the plutonium materials for storage periods of at least 50 years. The standard requires the hardware to maintain integrity under both normal storage conditions and under anticipated handling conditions. To accomplish this, the standard requires that the plutonium be loaded in a minimum of two nested stainless steel sealed containers that are both tested for leak-tightness per ANSI N14.5. As such the 3013 hardware is robust. While the 3013 STD may provide appropriate storage criteria, it is not intended to provide criteria for transporting the material under the requirements of the Department of Transportation (DOT). In this evaluation, it is assumed that the activity of plutonium exceeds A1 and/or A2 curies as defined in DOT 49 CFR 173.431 and therefore must be shipped as a Type B package meeting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements of 10 CFR 71. The evaluation considers Type B shipment of plutonium in the 3013 hardware within a certified package for such contents.

  16. Knowledge Management Initiatives Used to Maintain Regulatory Expertise in Transportation and Storage of Radioactive Materials - 12177

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Haile; Garcia-Santos, Norma; Saverot, Pierre; Day, Neil; Gambone Rodriguez, Kimberly; Cruz, Luis; Sotomayor-Rivera, Alexis; Vechioli, Lucieann; Vera, John; Pstrak, David

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1974 with the mission to license and regulate the civilian use of nuclear materials for commercial, industrial, academic, and medical uses in order to protect public health and safety, and the environment, and promote the common defense and security. Currently, approximately half (?49%) of the workforce at the NRC has been with the Agency for less than six years. As part of the Agency's mission, the NRC has partial responsibility for the oversight of the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. The NRC has experienced a significant level of expertise leaving the Agency due to staff attrition. Factors that contribute to this attrition include retirement of the experienced nuclear workforce and mobility of staff within or outside the Agency. Several knowledge management (KM) initiatives have been implemented within the Agency, with one of them including the formation of a Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation (SFST) KM team. The team, which was formed in the fall of 2008, facilitates capturing, transferring, and documenting regulatory knowledge for staff to effectively perform their safety oversight of transportation and storage of radioactive materials, regulated under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 71 and Part 72. In terms of KM, the SFST goal is to share critical information among the staff to reduce the impact from staff's mobility and attrition. KM strategies in place to achieve this goal are: (1) development of communities of practice (CoP) (SFST Qualification Journal and the Packaging and Storing Radioactive Material) in the on-line NRC Knowledge Center (NKC); (2) implementation of a SFST seminar program where the seminars are recorded and placed in the Agency's repository, Agency-wide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS); (3) meeting of technical discipline group programs to share knowledge within specialty areas; (4) development of written guidance to capture 'administrative and technical' knowledge (e.g., office instructions (OIs), generic communications (e.g., bulletins, generic letters, regulatory issue summary), standard review plans (SRPs), interim staff guidance (ISGs)); (5) use of mentoring strategies for experienced staff to train new staff members; (6) use of Microsoft SharePoint portals in capturing, transferring, and documenting knowledge for staff across the Division from Division management and administrative assistants to the project managers, inspectors, and technical reviewers; and (7) development and implementation of a Division KM Plan. A discussion and description of the successes and challenges of implementing these KM strategies at the NRC/SFST will be provided. (authors)

  17. The Evolution of U.S. Transportation Regulations for Radioactive Materials?A Retrospective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafner, R

    2008-04-28

    The discussion in this Chapter is a highly condensed version of the information presented previously in Chapter 52 of the 2nd Edition of the Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code.[1] The full text of the previous Chapter 52, i.e., Development of U.S. Regulations for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials - A Look Back over the Past 40 Years, could not be reproduced here. Therefore, this Chapter offers a high-level overview of the information presented previously, including all of the appropriate references. For the most part, the material that was not included in this version of Chapter 52 is available in the public domain. Due to the sheer volume of the information, readers interested in the preamble-only versions of the material referenced in this Chapter are redirected to Reference [1]. Readers interested in the full-text versions of the material referenced in this Chapter are redirected to the appropriate Federal Register and/or U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) websites. Because some of the material dates back to pre-website times, readers interested in the full-text versions of some of the references may have to rely on the services of their local libraries.

  18. Development on inelastic analysis acceptance criteria for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The response of radioactive material transportation packages to mechanical accident loadings can be more accurately characterized by non-linear dynamic analysis than by the ``Equivalent dynamic`` static elastic analysis typically used in the design of these packages. This more accurate characterization of the response can lead to improved package safety and design efficiency. For non-linear dynamic analysis to become the preferred method of package design analysis, an acceptance criterion must be established that achieves an equivalent level of safety as the currently used criterion defined in NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6 (NRC 1978). Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting a study of possible acceptance criteria to meet this requirement. In this paper non-linear dynamic analysis acceptance criteria based on stress, strain, and strain-energy-density will be discussed. An example package design will be compared for each of the design criteria, including the approach of NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6.

  19. Study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials in reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amano, Y.; Tashiro, S.; Uchiyama, G.; Abe, H.; Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Kodama, T.

    2013-07-01

    The release and transport characteristics of radioactive materials at a boiling accident of the high active liquid waste (HALW) in a reprocessing plant have been studied for improving experimental data of source terms of the boiling accident. In the study, a heating test and a thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test were conducted. In the heating test using a simulated HALW, it was found that ruthenium was mainly released into the air in the form of gas and that non-volatile elements were released into the air in the form of mist. In the TG-DTA test, the rate constants and reaction heat of thermal decomposition of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate were obtained from TG and DTA curves. (authors)

  20. Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship ABackground Report for the National Dialogue...................................................................................................26 Low Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Regulations on Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship Prepared by the: Product Stewardship Institute University

  1. Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safety Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Presented by Kevin R. Blackwell, Radioactive Materials Program Manager. Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials...

  2. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  3. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a constrained shortest-path Dijkstra algorithm that has an assigned impedance factor. The route constraints modify the various impedance weights to bias or prefer particular network characteristics as desired by the user. Both the basic route model and the constrained impedance function calculations are determined by a series of network characteristics and shipment types. The study examines solutions under various constraints modeled by WebTRAGIS including possible routes from select shut-down reactor sites in the US to specific locations in the US. For purposes of illustration, the designated destinations are Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. To the degree that routes express sameness or variety under constraints serves to illustrate either a) the determinism of particular transport modes by either configuration or regulatory compliance, and/or b) the variety of constrained routes that are regulation compliant but may not be operationally feasible.

  4. Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

  5. Radiation Machines and Radioactive Materials (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These chapters describe general provisions and regulatory requirements; registration, licensure, and transportation of radioactive materials; and exposure standards for radiation protection.

  6. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  7. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  8. Development and evaluation of measurement devices used to support testing of radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uncapher, W. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Stenberg, D.R.; Bronowski, D. R.; Arviso, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has an ongoing program to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of radioactive material packages. Measurement devices developed in support of this activity include evaluation channels, ruggedly constructed linear variable differential transformers, and piezoresistive accelerometers with enhanced measurement capabilities. In addition to developing measurement devices, a method has been derived to evaluate accelerometers and strain gages for measurement repeatability, ruggedness, and manufacturers' calibration data under both laboratory and field conditions. The developed measurement devices and evaluation technique will be discussed and the results of the evaluation will be presented.

  9. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging not exceed the regulatory limits prescribed by 10 CFR 71 for non-exclusive shipments. The mass of each radioisotope presented in this paper is limited by the radiation dose rate on the external surface of the package, which per the regulatory limit should not exceed 200 mrem/hr. The results presented are a compendium of allowable masses of a variety of different isotopes (with varying impurity levels of beryllium in some of the actinide isotopes) that, when loaded in an unshielded packaging, do not result in an external dose rate on the surface of the package that exceeds 190 mrem/hr (190 mrem/hr was chosen to provide 5% conservatism relative to the regulatory limit). These mass limits define the term 'Small Gram Quantity' (SGQ) contents in the context of radioactive material transportation packages. The term SGQ is isotope-specific and pertains to contents in radioactive material transportation packages that do not require shielding and still satisfy the external dose rate requirements. Since these calculated mass limits are for contents without shielding, they are conservative for packaging materials that provide some limited shielding or if the contents are placed into a shielded package. The isotopes presented in this paper were chosen as the isotopes that Department of Energy (DOE) sites most likely need to ship. Other more rarely shipped isotopes, along with industrial and medical isotopes, are planned to be included in subsequent extensions of this work.

  10. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  11. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  12. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  13. Radioactive Materials Emergencies Course Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Hanford Fire Department has developed this training to assist emergency responders in understanding the hazards in responding to events involving radioactive materials, to know the fundamentals of radioactive contamination, to understand the biological affects of exposure to radioactive materials, and to know how to appropriately respond to hazardous material events involving radioactive materials.

  14. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  15. Container for radioactive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  16. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-09-15

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  17. EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Transportation EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities: Continue to manage waste inventories in a safe and compliant...

  18. Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to keep messages focused Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive Materials More Documents & Publications Status and Future of TRANSCOM Department of Energy...

  19. COGEMA operating experience in the transportation of spent fuel, nuclear materials and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, H. [COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1993-12-31

    Were a spent fuel transportation accident to occur, no matter how insignificant, the public outcry could jeopardize both reprocessing operations and power plant operations for utilities that have elected to reprocess their spent fuel. Aware of this possibility, COGEMA has become deeply involved in spent fuel transportation to ensure that it is performed according to the highest standards of transportation safety. Spent fuel transportation is a vital link between the reactor site and the reprocessing plant. This paper gives an overview of COGEMA`s experience in the transportation of spent fuel.

  20. Radioactive Material or Multiple Hazardous Materials Decontamination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for performing decontamination of individuals who have entered a “hot zone” during transportation incidents involving  radioactive.

  1. ETEC - Radioactive Handling Materials Facility (RMHF) Leachfield...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Radioactive Handling Materials Facility (RMHF) Leachfield ETEC - Radioactive Handling Materials Facility (RMHF) Leachfield January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of...

  2. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  3. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  4. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  5. Transporting particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldred, Derek Leslie (North Hollywood, CA); Rader, Jeffrey A. (North Hollywood, CA); Saunders, Timothy W. (North Hollywood, CA)

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  6. Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-04-20

    The Order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials, and for modal transportation.

  7. Transporting Hazardous Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transporting Hazardous Materials The procedures given below apply to all materials that are considered to be hazardous by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Consult your...

  8. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

    1988-04-11

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

  9. The radioactive Substances (Irradiated Material) Exemption Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Keith

    1962-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No. 2647 ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (Irradiated Material) Exemption Order 1962

  10. Entry Survey for Laboratories Using Radioactive Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Entry Survey for Laboratories Using Radioactive Materials Procedure: 7.50 Created: 11 materials or radiation-generating devices is restricted to those facilities, spaces and/or rooms that have materials (RAM) in this location. The entry survey will be performed by Radiation Safety Program personnel

  11. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  12. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  13. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  14. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  15. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. Highway infrastructure report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-02-01

    In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE`s development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE`s Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade.

  16. Working with Radioactive Materials in Clinical Areas -Documentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Working with Radioactive Materials in Clinical Areas - Documentation Procedure: 7.54 Created: 2008 Version: 1.1 Revised: 11/5/2013 10/22/2014 Working with Radioactive Materials in Clinical Areas of the City of New York, Article 175, Radiation Control1 and New York City Department of Health Radioactive

  17. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Activities Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Activities...

  18. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  19. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  20. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  1. Radiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    & XX--RaysRays Office of Radiological Safety Environmental Health & Safety Georgia Institute, Chemistry, Physics, Applied Physiology · Radioactive Material ­ Sealed Sources, Unsealed Sources (liquid · You can help us by informing potential users of the approval process and training! #12;Role of ORS

  2. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  3. DRAFT - DOE O 460.1D, Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials, and for modal transportation.

  4. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    which routes transporters used to reach the NTS. These reports may be found on the Internet at http:www.nv.doe.govemprogramsenvironmentwastemanagementquarterlyrepo...

  5. Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

  6. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conroy U S Department of Transportation - 1 - U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of Hazardous Materials Safety...

  7. Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources will be presented in the paper. (authors)

  8. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.; Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H.; Naghiyev, Jalal A.; Mehdiyeva, Afat A.

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  9. Hazardous Material Packaging for Transport - Administrative Procedures

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1986-09-30

    To establ1sh administrative procedures for the certification and use of radioactive and other hazardous materials packaging by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  10. Regulatory and extra-regulatory testing to demonstrate radioactive material packaging safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Packages for the transportation of radioactive material must meet performance criteria to assure safety and environmental protection. The stringency of the performance criteria is based on the degree of hazard of the material being transported. Type B packages are used for transporting large quantities of radioisotopes (in terms of A{sub 2} quantities). These packages have the most stringent performance criteria. Material with less than an A{sub 2} quantity are transported in Type A packages. These packages have less stringent performance criteria. Transportation of LSA and SCO materials must be in {open_quotes}strong-tight{close_quotes} packages. The performance requirements for the latter packages are even less stringent. All of these package types provide a high level of safety for the material being transported. In this paper, regulatory tests that are used to demonstrate this safety will be described. The responses of various packages to these tests will be shown. In addition, the response of packages to extra-regulatory tests will be discussed. The results of these tests will be used to demonstrate the high level of safety provided to workers, the public, and the environment by packages used for the transportation of radioactive material.

  11. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being shipped, and will otherwise maintain it as nearly as possible in its original condition.The recommendations provided are short-term solutions to the problems of shipping evidence, and have considered only currently commercially available containers. These containers may not be appropriate for all cases. Design, testing, and certification of new transportation containers would be necessary to provide a container appropriate for all cases.Table 1 provides a summary of the recommendations for each class of hazardous material.Table 1: Summary of RecommendationsContainerCost1-quart paint can with ArmlockTM seal ringLabelMaster(r)%242.90 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use4 DraftDraftDraftTable 1: Summary of Recommendations (continued)ContainerCost55-gallon open or closed-head steel drumsAll-Pak, Inc.%2458.28 - %2473.62 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Large Containers95-gallon poly overpack LabelMaster(r)%24194.50 each1-liter glass container with plastic coatingLabelMaster(r)%243.35 - %243.70 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use20 to 55-gallon PIH overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24142.50 - %24170.50 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Large Containers65 to 95-gallon poly overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24163.30 - %24194.50 each1-liter transparent containerCurrently in UseHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Small ContainersInfectious Substance ShipperSource Packaging of NE, Inc.%24336.00 eachNone Commercially AvailableN/AHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Large ContainersNone Commercially Available N/A5

  12. Q A RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Transportation Emergency Preparedness...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (variable) (2 mSvyr) According to NCRP Report 160, the average Annual Dose in the United States from Natural and Man-made Sources is Approximately 620 mrem Radiation exposure or...

  13. Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This booklet was written to answer questions most frequently asked by fire fighters, law enforcement officers, and emergency medical services personnel. The booklet is not intended as a substitute...

  14. Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Communications Work Group Lisa Janairo 9:45 - 10:45 am Committee Discussion Blue Ribbon Commission final report: state reactions, next steps Regional Planning Guide:...

  15. EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    On Closure Success 1 EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Chicago, Illinois May 26, 2010 Frank Marcinowski Acting Chief...

  16. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  17. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Departmental Materials Transportation and Packaging Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-11-18

    Establishes requirements and responsibilities for management of Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration, materials transportation and packaging and ensures the safe, secure, efficient packaging and transportation of materials, both hazardous and non-hazardous.

  19. Modeling of transport and reaction in an engineered barrier for radioactive waste confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Modeling of transport and reaction in an engineered barrier for radioactive waste confinement G bentonite; Radioactive waste; Modelling; KIRMAT code; Chemical transformations; Mass transport 0169;1. Introduction A particular radioactive waste disposal design proposes to store waste in deep geological layers

  20. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  1. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2014-11-15

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA.

  2. Weather and the Transport of Hazardous Materials | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Weather and the Transport of Hazardous Materials Weather and the Transport of Hazardous Materials Weather and the Transport of Hazardous Materials More Documents & Publications The...

  3. Weather and the Transport of Hazardous Materials | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Weather and the Transport of Hazardous Materials Weather and the Transport of Hazardous Materials Weather and the Transport of Hazardous Materials More Documents & Publications...

  4. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  5. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  6. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2014-06-24

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  7. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  8. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.E.

    1984-10-16

    A container is described for storage of radioactive material comprising a container body and a closure member. The closure member being coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open). 1 fig.

  9. Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safety Rail Routing Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Rail Routing Presentation made by Kevin Blackwell for the NTSF annual meeting held from May 14-16,...

  10. RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE 2/97 2-1 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE 2/97 2-1 CHAPTER 2 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS I. AUTHORIZATION TO USE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL A. Initial Approval Any University faculty or staff member needing to utilize radioactive material in research studies, must obtain approval of the Radiation Control Committee. Approval is obtained

  11. Safe Use of Radioactive Materials Procedure: 7.542 Created: 3/7/2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Officer must be consulted before beginning any new use of radioactive material. Eating, drinking, smokingSafe Use of Radioactive Materials Procedure: 7.542 Created: 3/7/2014 Version: 1.0 Revised of radioactive materials (RAM). They are designed to reduce the risk of a significant contamination event

  12. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  13. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  14. Departmental Materials Transportation and Packaging Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-12-22

    The Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for management of Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), materials transportation and packaging to ensure the safe, secure, efficient packaging and transportation of materials, both hazardous and nonhazardous. Cancels DOE O 460.2 and DOE O 460.2 Chg 1

  15. Revk - a Tool for the Fulfilment of Requirements from National Rules for Tracking and Documentation of Radioactive Residual Material and Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, B.; Haeger, M.; Gruendler, D.

    2006-07-01

    According to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance treatment, storage, whereabouts of radioactive material etc. have to be documented. Due to legal requirements an electronic documentation system for radioactive waste has to be installed. Within the framework of the currently largest decommissioning project of nuclear facilities by Energiewerke Nord GmbH, a material flow-waste tracking and control system (ReVK) has been developed, tailored to the special needs of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. With this system it is possible to record radioactive materials which can be released after treatment or decay storage for restricted and unrestricted utilization. Radioactive waste meant for final storage can be registered and documented as well. Based on ORACLE, ReVK is a client/server data base system with the following modules: 1. data registration, 2. transport management, 3. waste tracking, 4. storage management, 5. container management, 6. reporting, 7. activity calculation, 8. examination of technical acceptance criteria for storages and final repositories. Furthermore ReVK provides a multitude of add-ons to meet special user needs, which enlarge the spectrum of application enormously. ReVK is validated and qualified, accepted by experts and authorities and fulfils the requirements for a radioactive waste documentation system. (authors)

  16. Investigation of Shielding Material in Radioactive Waste Management - 13009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)] [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, various waste packages have been prepared by using different materials. Experimental work has been performed on radiation shielding for gamma and neutron radiation. Various materials were evaluated (e.g. concrete, boron, etc.) related to different application areas in radioactive waste management. Effects of addition boric compound mixtures on shielding properties of concrete have been investigated for neutron radiation. The effect of the mixture addition on the shielding properties of concrete was investigated. The results show that negative effects of boric compounds on the strength of concrete decreasing by increasing boric amounts. Shielding efficiency of prepared mixture added concrete up to 80% better than ordinary concretes for neutron radiation. The attenuation was determined theoretically by calculation and practically by using neutron dose rate measurements. In addition of dose rate measurements, strength tests were applied on test shielding materials. (authors)

  17. Radioactive Materials at SSRL | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton DeliveryRadioactive Materials at SSRL Contact

  18. Departmental Materials Transportation and Packaging Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-10-26

    Establishes Department of Energy (DOE) policies and requirements to supplement applicable laws, rules, regulations, and other DOE Orders for materials transportation and packaging operations. Cancels: DOE 1540.1A, DOE 1540.2, and DOE 1540.3A.

  19. Departmental Materials Transportation and Packaging Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes Department of Energy (DOE) policies and requirements to supplement applicable laws, rules, regulations, and other DOE Orders for materials transportation and packaging operations. Cancels DOE 1540.1A, DOE 1540.2, DOE 1540.3A.

  20. Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baugher, Britton William Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials has been a burgeoning field of study since the discovery of isolated single layer graphene in 2004. Graphene, a semi-metal, has a unique gapless Dirac-like band ...

  1. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  2. ELUCIDATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONSITE AND OFFSITE SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.

    2013-06-19

    Federal regulations stipulate how radioactive materials are transported within the United States. However, the Department of Energy, under Department of Energy Order, has the authority to operate, within the boundaries of their physical site, to other stipulations. In many cases the DOE sites have internal reviews for onsite transfers that rival reviews performed by the regulatory authorities for offsite shipments. Most of the differences are in the level or type of packaging that is required, but in some cases it may be in the amount and type of material that is allowed to be transferred. This paper will describe and discuss those differences and it will discuss ways to effectively align the onsite rules for transferring materials with those for offsite shipment.

  3. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described.

  4. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, Richard W.

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and correct.

  5. Modeling of diffusive mass transport in micropores in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuji, E-mail: yamaguchi.tetsuji@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Negishi, Kumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Taiheiyo Consultant Company Limited, 2-4-2, Osaku, Sakura, Chiba 285-8655 (Japan); Hoshino, Seiichi; Tanaka, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    In order to predict long-term leaching behavior of cement constituents for safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal, we modeled diffusive mass transport in micropores in cement based materials. Based on available knowledge on the pore structure, we developed a transport porosity model that enables us to estimate effective porosity available for diffusion (transport porosity) in cement based materials. We microscopically examined the pore structure of hardened cement pastes to partially verify the model. Effective diffusivities of tritiated water in hardened cement pastes were also obtained experimentally, and were shown to be proportional to the estimated transport porosity.

  6. Materials and Heat Transport in Electrical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    EE 271.3 Materials and Heat Transport in Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical of the above concepts in electrical engineering. Practicum based on these topics. Prerequisites: CHEM 114 and Computer Engineering Winter 2015 Description: Basic concepts in materials science. Crystalline and non

  7. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, Donald L. (Saline, MI)

    1987-01-01

    A heat transport system, method and composite material in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure.

  8. FORM RS-2 (Revised 08/05) PERMIT FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Permit No.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    ________________________________________ NMSU Requirements for Sewage Disposal of Aqueous Waste Contaminated with Radioactivity 1. Permittee). Table 13.1 Permittee Limits for Sewage Disposal of Soluble Radioactivity in Aqueous Waste Isotope Radioactive Material" for sewage disposal and restrict facilities personnel from working on such sink until

  9. Section Title Page 1.0 Control of radioactive materials and radiation generating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    .0 ALARA 3 3.0 USF application for use of radioactive material and/or radiation generating equipment 4 4

  10. Proposal for Qualification of Gas-Generating Radioactive Payloads for Transportation within a Type B Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghtaling, T.K.

    2002-06-07

    Characterization data describing radioactive materials (RAM) in storage are likely those associated with the processes that produced the materials or with the mission for which they were produced. Along with impurity data, often absent or unknown as a result of post-processing storage environment is moisture content. Radiolysis of moisture may lead to a hydrogen flammability hazard within a closed volume such as a storage can or a transportation package. This paper offers a practical means of qualifying payloads of unknown moisture content for shipment within Type B packaging, while supporting the DOE program to maintain radworker dose as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA). Specifically, the paper discusses part of a qualification program carried out at the Savannah River Site for onsite shipment of legacy RAM within the DDF-1 package. The DDF-1 is an onsite-only prototype of the currently certified 9975 package. Measurement of storage-can lid bulge can provide an upper bound for pressure within a storage can. Subsequent belljar testing can measure the rate of gas leakage from a storage can. These actions are shown sufficient to ensure that the performance of the 9975 containment vessels can accommodate the deflagration energy from flammable gas mixtures within Normal Conditions of Transport, and, and the consequences of a detonation shock wave within Hypothetical Accident Conditions.

  11. RESRAD-BUILD: A computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.J.; Jones, L.G. [and others

    1994-11-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The transport of radioactive material inside the building from one compartment to another is calculated with an indoor air quality model. The air quality model considers the transport of radioactive dust particulates and radon progeny due to air exchange, deposition and resuspension, and radioactive decay and ingrowth. A single run of the RESRAD-BUILD code can model a building with up to: three compartments, 10 distinct source geometries, and 10 receptor locations. A shielding material can be specified between each source-receptor pair for external gamma dose calculations. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure to materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces of the building compartments. 4 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, D.L.

    1987-04-28

    A heat transport system, method and composite material are disclosed in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure. 1 fig.

  13. Fire and materials modeling for transportation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skocypec, R.D.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Thomas, R.

    1994-10-01

    Fire is an important threat to the safety of transportation systems. Therefore, understanding the effects of fire (and its interaction with materials) on transportation systems is crucial to quantifying and mitigating the impact of fire on the safety of those systems. Research and development directed toward improving the fire safety of transportation systems must address a broad range of phenomena and technologies, including: crash dynamics, fuel dispersion, fire environment characterization, material characterization, and system/cargo thermal response modeling. In addition, if the goal of the work is an assessment and/or reduction of risk due to fires, probabilistic risk assessment technology is also required. The research currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in each of these areas is summarized in this paper.

  14. Hopping charge transport in organic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novikov, S V

    2013-01-01

    General properties of the transport of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in disordered organic materials are discussed. It was demonstrated that the dominant part of the total energetic disorder in organic material is usually provided by the electrostatic disorder, generated by randomly located and oriented dipoles and quadrupoles. For this reason this disorder is strongly spatially correlated. Spatial correlation directly governs the field dependence of the carrier drift mobility. Shape of the current transients, which is of primary importance for a correct determination of the carrier mobility, is considered. A notable feature of the electrostatic disorder is its modification in the vicinity of the electrode, and this modification takes place without modification of the structure of the material. It is shown how this phenomenon affects characteristics of the charge injection. We consider also effect of inter-charge interaction on charge transport.

  15. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Charley; Kamboj, Sunita; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Jing-Jy

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  16. Developing an institutional strategy for transporting defense transuranic waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, J.V.; Kresny, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1988, the US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin emplacing transuranic waste materials in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense program activities. Transuranic wastes are production-related materials, e.g., clothes, rags, tools, and similar items. These materials are contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives of > 20 yr and concentrations > 100 nCi/g. Much of the institutional groundwork has been done with local communities and the State of New Mexico on the siting and construction of the facility. A key to the success of the emplacement demonstration, however, will be a qualified transportation system together with institutional acceptance of the proposed shipments. The DOE's Defense Transuranic Waste Program, and its contractors, has lead responsibility for achieving this goal. The Joint Integration Office (JIO) of the DOE, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is taking the lead in implementing an integrated strategy for assessing nationwide institutional concerns over transportation of defense transuranic wastes and in developing ways to resolve or mitigate these concerns. Parallel prototype programs are under way to introduce both the new packaging systems and the institutional strategy to interested publics and organizations.

  17. Semianalytical Solutions of Radioactive or Reactive Tracer Transport in Layered Fractured Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.J. Moridis; G. S. Bodvarsson

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive tracers (solutes or colloids) through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for straining and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of {sup 3}H, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity. {sup 239}Pu colloid transport problems in multilayered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly sorbing solute species.

  18. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  19. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-10-12

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products.

  20. Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex The EMSL Radiochemistry Annex, located in the 3410 Material Science and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radioactive material. In order to work within 3410 facility radiological limits, potential users must provide can evaluate whether it will meet our facility limits. Note that while the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex

  1. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE A(F)RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    In a coordinated effort, the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed the elimination of the Specification Packaging from 49 CFR 173.[1] In accordance with the Federal Register, issued on October 1, 2004, new fabrication of Specification Packages would no longer be authorized. In accordance with the NRC final rulemaking published January 26, 2004, Specification Packagings are mandated by law to be removed from service no later than October 1, 2008. This coordinated effort and resulting rulemaking initiated a planned phase out of Specification Type B and Type A fissile (F) material transportation packages within the Department of Energy (DOE) and its subcontractors. One of the Specification Packages affected by this regulatory change is the UN1A2 Specification Package, per DOT 49 CFR 173.417(a)(6). To maintain continuing shipments of DOE materials currently transported in UN1A2 Specification Package after the existing authorization expires, a replacement Type A(F) material packaging design is under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of the prototype design effort and testing of the new Type A(F) Package development for the DOE. This paper discusses the progress made in the development of a Type A Fissile Packaging to replace the expiring 49 CFR UN1A2 Specification Fissile Package. The Specification Package was mostly a single-use waste disposal container. The design requirements and authorized radioactive material contents of the UN1A2 Specification Package were defined in 49 CFR. A UN1A2 Specification Package was authorized to ship up to 350 grams of U-235 in any enrichment and in any non-pyrophoric form. The design was specified as a 55-gallon 1A2 drum overpack with a body constructed from 18 gauge steel with a 16 gauge drum lid. Drum closure was specified as a standard 12-gauge ring closure. The inner product container size was not specified but was listed as any container that met Specification 7A requirements per 49 CFR 178.350. Specification 7A containers were required to withstand Type A packaging tests required by 49CFR173.465 with compliance demonstrated through testing, analysis or similarity to other containers. The maximum weight of the 7A product container, the radioactive content, and any internal packaging was limited to 200 lbs. The total gross weight for the UN1A2 Specification Package was limited to 350 lbs. No additional restrictions were applied. Authorization for use did not require the UN1A2 Specification Package to be tested to the Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) required for performance based, Type A(F) packages certified by the NRC or DOE. The Type A(F) Packaging design discussed in this paper is required to be in compliance with the regulatory safety requirements defined in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71.41 through 71.47 and 10 CFR71.71. Sub-criticality of content must be maintained under the Hypothetical Accident Conditions specified under 10 CFR71.73. These federal regulations, and other applicable DOE Orders and Guides, govern design requirements for a Type A(F) package. Type A(F) packages with less than an A2 quantity of radioactive material are not required to have a leak testable boundary. With this exception a Type A(F) package design is subject to the same test requirements set forth for the design of a performance based Type B packaging.

  3. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  4. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  5. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  6. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  7. Emergency Response to a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this User’s Guide is to provide instructors with an overview of the key points covered in the video.  The Student Handout portion of this Guide is designed to assist the instructor...

  8. Decontamination Dressdown at a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this User’s Guide is to provide instructors with an overview of the key points covered in the video. The Student Handout portion of this Guide is designed to assist the instructor in...

  9. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  10. Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, J.; Anderson, S. D.; Wolf, Z.; Volk, J. T.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Pm Superconducting Materials Dy 165 2.33h Current leads, conductors and cavities with minimal Nd 147

  11. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Michael L. (Los Alamos, NM); Menlove, Howard O. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Michael P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  12. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing, and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization This presentation, which focuses on...

  13. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Part of a 100 million fuel cell award...

  14. Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Materials of National Security Interests by Matthew Weber Functional areas: Defense Nuclear Facility Safety and Health Requirement, Packaging and Transportation, Security,...

  15. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  16. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-14

    The order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of DOE, including NNSA, offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials and for modal transportation. Supersedes DOE O 460.1B.

  17. Albert Einstein College of Medicine Amendment to Non-human Use of Radioactive Material License

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Scott

    RSO-2 Rev.0 Albert Einstein College of Medicine Amendment to Non-human Use of Radioactive Material Present Total Quantity (mCi) New Total Quantity (mCi) Max. Amount per Experiment (mCi) Chemical Form: If yes, please explain: 3. Radiation Protection: Check special equipment to be used to control radiation

  18. Rsonbook.doc The University of Connecticut Health Center is authorized to use byproduct radioactive materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    II. Procedures for Obtaining Radioactive Materials ............................. 7 A. Policy and in accordance with federal and state regulations and institutional policies. The procedures contained/her activities in accordance with the procedures contained therein. Raymond W. Ryan, Ph.D., Chairman Radiation

  19. 1 EPA Actions in Response to WIPP Release EPA Actions in Response to Release of Radioactive Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 EPA Actions in Response to WIPP Release EPA Actions in Response to Release of Radioactive Material from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Since the release of radioactive material on February 14, 2014 at the WIPP, EPA has been working closely with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED

  20. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A.; Allen, R.B.; Schofield, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs.

  1. School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy Materials Science &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy Materials Science & Engineering Minor Requirements Why? Engineering or science majors who choose to minor in materials will enhance their education and increase their job opportunities by learning how to design, process, and select the best materials for any

  2. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  3. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  4. Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems Part I: Mathematical derivations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    used to model sites contaminated with radioactive wastes, chlorinated solvents and nitrogenous species Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Analytical solution; Radioactive decay; Contaminant transport include radioactive waste materials, chlorinated solvents, and nitrogenous species [4,8,29]. Several types

  5. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The {sup 132}Sn{sup +} case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osswald, F. Bouquerel, E.; Boutin, D.; Dinkov, A.; Sellam, A.

    2014-12-15

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  6. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  8. Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young,, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. 0.

    1983-03-01

    This report recornmenrls instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two rnonth measurement rnethodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

  9. Radioactivities of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials: Baggage and bonanzas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.R.; Hurley, D.L.

    1991-08-01

    Radioactivities in materials onboard the returned Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite have been studied by a variety of techniques. Among the most powerful is low-background Ge-semiconductor detector gamma-ray spectrometry, illustrated here by results obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Low Bakground Facilities, in a multi-laboratory collaboration coordinated by Dr. Thomas Parnell's team at the Marshall Spacecraft Center, Huntsville, Alabama.

  10. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  11. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  12. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  13. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  14. Assessment of risks and costs associated with transportation of US Department of Energy radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.-Y.; Arnish, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Nieves, L.A.; Folga, S.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of potential human health risks and develops unit risks and costs for transporting radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS) scrap between U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The RCCS would be generated from DOE activities (current or future) and from decontamination and decommissioning of DOE facilities. The estimates of transportation system risk reflect preliminary information regarding the quantities of RCCS at some sites and the spectrum of activity in RCCS at various types of DOE facilities.

  15. Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.WeekProducts >TransportationEHSS A-Z Site Map Organization

  16. Materials and Transportation Services | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDSMaterials and Transportation Services General

  17. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  18. Airborne radioactive material collection, measurement, and data storage for the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Melody Louise

    1982-01-01

    AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL COLLECTION, MEASUREMENT, AND DATA STORAGE FOR THE NUCLEAR SCIENCE CENTER AT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY A Thesis by MELODY LOUISE JONES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL COLLECTION& MEASUREMENT& AND DATA STORAGE FOR THE NUCLEAR SCIENCE CENTER AT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY A Thesis by MELODY LOUISE...

  19. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2010-02-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada” (DOE/EIS 0243). The DOE, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at Area 5 and Area 3. Since 2006, the Area 3 RWMS has been in cold stand-by. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to and from the NTS during FY 2009. In addition, this document provides shipment, volume, and route information on transuranic (TRU) waste shipped from the NTS to the Idaho National Laboratory, near Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  20. Development of a computer model for calculation of radioactive materials into the atmosphere after an accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schershakov, V.

    1997-11-01

    Secondary atmospheric contamination with radioactive dust and chemical species deposited on the ground and resuspended by wind occur very widely. This process is particularly pronounced in case of extensive contamination of soil and under extreme weather conditions, for example, during dust storms. The mechanism of wind dust generation consists in the following. At low wind speed U=2-3 m/s, which is most common in midlatitude, small radioactive dust particles (diameter of hundredth of a micron to 10-20 microns) are lifted from soil surface due to turbulent vortexes. Under the gravitational force the particles of 1-2 micron diameter practically do not settle. Larger dust particles cannot remain in the air for a long time: they are lifted by turbulent vortexes and settle, their motion in the wind flow is jump-wise and the interaction of particles with the flow is called saltation /I/. Saltation is the main mechanism of dust generation up to the wind velocity at which wind erosion starts. The size of dust particles can be as large as 100 pm. When dropping they can be ricocheting from ground or pass the impulse to other particles which begin rolling over and jumping up. The process of dust transport by wind can be compared to a chain reaction. At the velocity of 10 m/s large particles of about 500 pm stop skipping and roll over only, while particles of more than 1 mm remain stationary. Thus, the fine fraction is blown out from the polydispersed soil particles. The intensity of wind resuspension of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized either by a resuspension factor or a resuspension rate.

  1. Study on Shielding Requirements for Radioactive Waste Transportation in a Mo-99 Production Plant - 13382

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melo Rego, Maria Eugenia de; Kazumi Sakata, Solange; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil is currently planning to produce {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The planned end of irradiation activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 185 TBq (5 kCi) per week to meet the present domestic demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators. The radioactive wastes from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the wastes can be predicted based on the yields of fission and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production schedule, etc., which were in principle already established by the project management. The transportation of the wastes from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. An assessment of the shielding required for the packages has been done and the results are presented here, aiming at contributing to the design of the waste management facility for the {sup 99}Mo production plant. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  3. A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross; R. Best

    2001-08-17

    The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as well as non-radioactive traffic fatalities. The Yucca Mountain EIS Transportation Database was developed using Microsoft Access 97{trademark} software and the Microsoft Windows NT{trademark} operating system. The database consists of tables for storing data, forms for selecting data for querying, and queries for retrieving the data in a predefined format. Database queries retrieve records based on input parameters and are used to calculate incident-free and accident doses using unit risk factors obtained from RADTRAN results. The next section briefly provides some background that led to the development of the database approach used in preparing the Yucca Mountain DEIS. Subsequent sections provide additional details on the database structure and types of impacts calculated using the database.

  4. USING A RISK-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR THE TRANSFER OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL WITHIN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.; Loibl, M.

    2010-06-03

    Shipment of radioactive materials (RAM) is discussed in the Code of Federal Regulations in parts of both 49 CFR and 10 CFR. The regulations provide the requirements and rules necessary for the safe shipment of RAM across public highways, railways, waterways, and through the air. These shipments are sometimes referred to as in-commerce shipments. Shipments of RAM entirely within the boundaries of Department of Energy sites, such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), can be made using methodology allowing provisions to maintain equivalent safety while deviating from the regulations for in-commerce shipments. These onsite shipments are known as transfers at the SRS. These transfers must follow the requirements approved in a site-specific Transportation Safety Document (TSD). The TSD defines how the site will transfer materials so that they have equivalence to the regulations. These equivalences are documented in an Onsite Safety Assessment (OSA). The OSA can show how a particular packaging used onsite is equivalent to that which would be used for an in-commerce shipment. This is known as a deterministic approach. However, when a deterministic approach is not viable, the TSD allows for a risk-based OSA to be written. These risk-based assessments show that if a packaging does not provide the necessary safety to ensure that materials are not released (during normal or accident conditions) then the worst-case release of materials does not result in a dose consequence worse than that defined for the SRS. This paper will discuss recent challenges and successes using this methodology at the SRS.

  5. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  7. The design, fabrication and maintenance of semi-trailers employed in the highway transport of weight-concentrated radioactive loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, D.S. [Allied-Signal Inc., Metropolis, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads by truck is an essential part of a safe and economical nuclear industry. This proposed standard presents guidance and performance criteria for the safe transport of these weight-concentrated radioactive loads. ANSI N14.30 will detail specific requirements for the design, fabrication, testing, in-service inspections, maintenance and certification of the semi-trailers to be employed in said service. Furthermore, guidelines for a quality assurance program are also enumerated. This standard would apply to any semi-trailer that may or may not be specifically designed to carry weight-concentrated loads. Equipment not suitable per the criteria established in the standard would be removed from service. The nature of the nuclear industry and the need for a positive public perception of the various processes and players, mandates that the highway transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads be standardized and made inherently safe. This proposed standard takes a giant step in that direction.

  8. University of Connecticut Health Center Policy for Transporting, Shipping, Importing / Exporting Hazardous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    Hazardous Materials Policy The University of Connecticut Health Center requires that all materials classified as "hazardous materials" by the U.S. Department of Transportation and/or the State of Connecticut be transported in approved containers and in compliance with all transportation regulations. Hazardous materials

  9. IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

    2009-06-30

    Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

  10. Modelling Heat Transport Across Nano-scale Material Interfaces for Next-generation Electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    ) thermal boundary resistance between two dissimilar semiconductor materials using a combinationModelling Heat Transport Across Nano-scale Material Interfaces for Next-generation Electronic) with customized thermal transport properties. The scattering of thermal energy carriers at fabricated interfaces

  11. Background radioactivity of construction materials, raw substance and ready-made CaMoO4 crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busanov, O A; Gavriljuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Kazalov, V V; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Moseev, P S; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Yakimenko, S P

    2013-01-01

    The results of measurements of natural radioactive isotopes content in different source materials of natural and enriched composition used for CaMoO4 scintillation crystal growing are presented. The crystals are to be used in the experiment to search for double neutrinoless betas-decay of Mo-100.

  12. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  13. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  14. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  15. A history of major Hanford facilities and processes involving radioactive material. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hall, R.B.

    1991-03-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established in 1987 to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. Hanford Site operations began in 1944 to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. This effort included fabricating fuel elements, irradiating the fuel in nuclear reactors, and separating the resulting plutonium from uranium and fission byproducts. To build a foundation for the first step in estimating radiation doses, HEDR staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory compiled and summarized historical information that describes the processes and facilities in which radioactive material was generated or used at the Hanford Site. This document categorizes nuclear operations under six processes: fuel fabrication, reactor operations, fuel separations, plutonium finishing, research and development, and tank farms and waste recovery. Historical emission controls and effluent monitoring are discussed for each process. Because Hanford Site operations used the first large-scale nuclear facilities of their kind, process development and effluent control measures evolved as knowledge about the processes improved. Over the years, facilities were added or modified to improve processes, accelerate production, and better control emissions to the environment. 25 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  17. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  18. A Regulators' Guide to the Management of Radioactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Innovation); Fred Ferate (U.S. Department of Transportation, Radioactive Materials Branch); and CatherineA Regulators' Guide to the Management of Radioactive Residuals from Drinking Water Treatment (U.S. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Office of Site Remediation and Technology

  19. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  20. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 2: Supporting documents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains presentation material and a transcript of the workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report.

  1. FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SRP radioactive waste releases. Startup through 1959 Ashley, C. 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS;...

  2. Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interests

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-04-20

    The Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for ensuring the safety of packaging and transportation for offsite shipments of Materials of National Security Interest.

  3. The State Regulations for Protection Against Radiation, radioactive material license, certified registration, registration of x-ray producing equipment, and operating & emergency procedures applicable to licensed or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    The State Regulations for Protection Against Radiation, radioactive material license, certified REGULATIONS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION", The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation has established standards for your protection against radiation hazards and certain provisions for the option

  4. Exploring transport and phase behavior in nanoporous carbon materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimizu, Steven (Steven Franklin Esau)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding transport and phase behavior in nanopores has a substantial impact on applications involving membrane fabrication, single-molecule detection, oil reservoir modeling, and drug delivery. While transport and ...

  5. Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transport in the unsaturated zone at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    at Yucca Mountain, Nevada G.J. Moridis *, Q. Hu, Y.-S. Wu, G.S. Bodvarsson Earth Sciences Division in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. In this study we of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered

  6. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³?Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Clark, Sue B.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Watrous, Matthew G.; Olson, John E.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate transport represents an important mechanism for actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface; soil samples taken in the early 1970's near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provide a case study for examining the mechanisms and characteristics of actinide transport under arid conditions. Transuranic waste was disposed via shallow land burial at the SDA until shortly after a flooding event that occurred in 1969. In this study we analyze soils collected in the early 1970's for ¹³?Cs, ²?¹Am, and Pu using a combination of radiometric and mass spectrometric techniques. Two distinct ²??Pu/²³?Pu isotopic ratios are observed for contamination from the SDA, with values ranging from at least 0.059 to 0.069. ²?¹Am concentrations are observed to increase only slightly in 0-4 cm soils over the ~40 year period since soil sampling, contrary to Markham's previous hypothesis that ²?¹Pu is principally associated with the 0-4 cm soil fractions (Markham 1978). The lack of statistical difference in ²?¹Am/²³??²??Pu ratios with depth suggests mechanical transport and mixing discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples beyond the northeastern corner are observed to contain anomalously high Pu concentrations with corresponding low ²??Pu/²³?Pu atoms ratios, suggesting the occurrence of "hot particles;" application of a background Pu subtraction results in calculated Pu atom ratios for the "hot particles" which are statistically similar to those observed in the northeastern corner. Taken together, our data suggests that flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and the flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading resulted from wind transport of discrete particles.

  7. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³?Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Clark, Sue B.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Watrous, Matthew G.; Olson, John E.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate transport represents an important mechanism for actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface; soil samples taken in the early 1970's near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provide a case study for examining the mechanisms and characteristics of actinide transport under arid conditions. Transuranic waste was disposed via shallow land burial at the SDA until shortly after a flooding event that occurred in 1969. In this study we analyze soils collected in the early 1970's for ¹³?Cs, ²?¹Am, and Pu using a combination of radiometric and mass spectrometric techniques. Two distinct ²??Pu/²³?Pu isotopic ratiosmore »are observed for contamination from the SDA, with values ranging from at least 0.059 to 0.069. ²?¹Am concentrations are observed to increase only slightly in 0-4 cm soils over the ~40 year period since soil sampling, contrary to Markham's previous hypothesis that ²?¹Pu is principally associated with the 0-4 cm soil fractions (Markham 1978). The lack of statistical difference in ²?¹Am/²³??²??Pu ratios with depth suggests mechanical transport and mixing discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples beyond the northeastern corner are observed to contain anomalously high Pu concentrations with corresponding low ²??Pu/²³?Pu atoms ratios, suggesting the occurrence of "hot particles;" application of a background Pu subtraction results in calculated Pu atom ratios for the "hot particles" which are statistically similar to those observed in the northeastern corner. Taken together, our data suggests that flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and the flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading resulted from wind transport of discrete particles.« less

  8. 4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING MATERIALS In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of natural uranium concentrations may average as low as about 0.5 ppm (0.34 pCi/g or 13 Bq/kg) total uranium activity in sandstone building materials to as high

  9. UW EH&S Radiation Safety Section Box 354400 201 Hall Health Seattle WA 98195-4400 206-543-0463 206.543.9726 (fax) FORM 160 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DELIVERY AND USAGE RECORD (9/12)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    and that radioactive labels are defaced prior to their disposal into the normal waste stream. RESULT OF WIPE SAMPLE.543.9726 (fax) FORM 160 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DELIVERY AND USAGE RECORD (9/12) AUI Name PO # AUI # Item # Order receiving shipments of radioactive materials to monitor the inside of packages in order to detect a leaking

  10. Packaging and Transfer or Transportation of Materials of National Security Interest

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-09-29

    To establish requirements and responsibilities for the Transportation Safeguards System (TSS) packaging and transportation and onsite transfer of nuclear explosives, nuclear components, Naval nuclear fuel elements, Category I and Category II special nuclear materials, special assemblies, and other materials of national security interest. Cancels: DOE 5610.12 and DOE 5610.14.

  11. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  12. ASSESSING EXPOSURE TO THE PUBLIC FROM LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE (LLW) TRANSPORTATION TO THE NEVADA TEST SITE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.J.; Campbell, S.; Church, B.W.; Shafer, D. S.; Gillespie, D.; Sedano, S.; Cebe, J.J.

    2003-02-27

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is one of two regional sites where low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from approved DOE and U.S. DOD generators across the United States is disposed. In federal fiscal year (FY) 2002, over 57,000 cubic meters of waste was transported to and disposed at the NTS. DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations ensure that radiation exposure from truck shipments to members of the public is negligible. Nevertheless, particularly in rural communities along transportation routes in Utah and Nevada, there is perceived risk from members of the public about incremental exposure from LLW trucks, especially when ''Main Street'' and the LLW transportation route are the same. To better quantify the exposure to gamma radiation, a stationary monitoring array of four pressurized ion chambers (PICs) have been set up in a pullout just before LLW trucks reach the entrance to the NTS. The PICs are positioned at a distance of one meter from the sides of the truck trailer and at a height appropriate for the design of the trucks that will be used in FY2003 to haul LLW to the NTS. The use of four PICs (two on each side of the truck) is to minimize and to correct for non-uniformity where radiation levels from waste packages vary from side to side, and from front to back in the truck trailer. The PIC array is being calibrated by collecting readings from each PIC exposed to a known 137Cs source that was positioned at different locations on a flatbed stationed in the PIC array, along with taking secondary readings from other known sources. Continuous data collection using the PICs, with and without a truck in the array, is being used to develop background readings. In addition, acoustic sensors are positioned on each side of the PIC array to record when a large object (presumably a truck) enters the array. In FY2003, PIC surveys from as many incoming LLW trucks as possible will be made and survey data recorded automatically by dataloggers that will be periodically downloaded. Solar panels provide power for the batteries to run both the dataloggers and PICs. Truck drivers have been asked to park their truck within the PIC array for only the time it takes to complete an information log before moving on to one of two Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) on the NTS. On the log, the truck drivers record their shipment identification number, the time of day, where the waste originated, and information on the route they used to reach the NTS. This data will facilitate comparison of PIC readings with waste manifests and other waste disposal operations data collected at the RWMSs. Gamma radiation measurements collected from the PICs will be analyzed using standard health physics and statistical methods for comparison to DOT standards, but with the added benefit of obtaining an improved understanding of the variability of readings that can occur in the near vicinity of a LLW truck. The data collected will be combined with measurements of street width and other information about transportation routes through towns to develop realistic dose scenarios for citizens in Nevada and Utah towns.

  13. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  14. Assessing Potential Exposure from Truck Transport of Low-level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Miller; D. Shafer; K. Gray; B. Church; S. Campbell; B. Holz

    2005-08-01

    Since 1980, over 651,558 m{sup 3} (23,000,000 ft{sup 3}) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been disposed of at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by shallow land burial. Since 1988, the majority of this waste has been generated at other United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DoD) sites and facilities in the U.S. Between fiscal year (FY) 2002 and the publication date, the volumes of LLW being shipped by truck to the NTS increased sharply with the accelerated closure of DOE Environmental Management (EM) Program sites (DOE, 2002). The NTS is located 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in the U.S. There continue to be public concerns over the safety of LLW shipments to the NTS. They can be broadly divided into two categories: (1) the risk of accidents involving trucks traveling on public highways; and (2) whether residents along transportation routes receive cumulative exposure from individual LLW shipments that pose a long-term health risk. The DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations ensure that radiation exposure from truck shipments to members of the public is negligible. Nevertheless, particularly in rural communities along transportation routes in Utah and Nevada, there is a perceived risk from members of the public about cumulative exposure, particularly when ''Main Street'' and the routes being used by LLW trucks are one in the same. To provide an objective assessment of gamma radiation exposure to members of the public from LLW transport by truck, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) established a stationary and automated array of four pressurized ion chambers (PICs) in a vehicle pullout for LLW trucks to pass through just outside the entrance to the NTS. The PICs were positioned at a distance of 1.0 m (3.3 ft) from the sides of the truck trailer and at a height of 1.5 m (5.0 ft) to simulate conditions that a member of the public (Turner, 1995) might experience if a truck were to pass while the person was on the side of the road, or if a truck were to come to a stop at a stoplight in one of the smaller towns along the transportation routes. The 1.0-m (3.3-ft) distance also allowed for comparison with gamma readings of trucks taken with portable, hand-held instruments at the two LLW disposal sites at the NTS: the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The purpose in automating the system was to provide the most objective and consistent measurement and calculation of radiation exposure from the trucks possible. The array was set up in November 2002 and equipment was tested and calibrated over the next two months. Data collection on trucks began on February 13, 2003, and continued to the end of December 2003. In all, external gamma readings were collected from 1,012 of the 2,260 trucks that delivered LLW to the NTS during this period. Because DOE could not contractually require waste generators to participate in the study, the database is biased toward voluntary participants; however, data were collected from the 10 generators that represented 92 percent of the LLW shipments to the NTS during the study period, with another eight generators accounting for the balance of the shipments. Because of the voluntary nature of the participation, the identity of the waste generators is not used in the report. Previous studies on potential exposure to the public from transporting LLW to the NTS either relied on calculated exposures (Davis et al., 2002) or was based on a small population of trucks (e.g., 88) where a relatively high-background value of 50 microRoentgens per hour (R/h) (background value measured at the LLW disposal sites) were subtracted from the gross reading of the truck trailer as measured by portable, handheld instruments (Gertz, 2001). The dataset that resulted from the DRI study is the largest collection of measurements of LLW trucks in transit of which the authors are aware.

  15. Assessing Potential Exposure from Truck Transport of Low-level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J; Shafer, D; Gray, K; Church, B; Campbell, S; Holtz, B.

    2005-08-15

    Since 1980, over 651,558 m{sup 3} (23,000,000 ft{sup 3}) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been disposed of at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by shallow land burial. Since 1988, the majority of this waste has been generated at other United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DoD) sites and facilities in the U.S. Between fiscal year (FY) 2002 and the publication date, the volumes of LLW being shipped by truck to the NTS increased sharply with the accelerated closure of DOE Environmental Management (EM) Program sites (DOE, 2002). The NTS is located 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in the U.S. There continue to be public concerns over the safety of LLW shipments to the NTS. They can be broadly divided into two categories: (1) the risk of accidents involving trucks traveling on public highways; and (2) whether residents along transportation routes receive cumulative exposure from individual LLW shipments that pose a long-term health risk. The DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations ensure that radiation exposure from truck shipments to members of the public is negligible. Nevertheless, particularly in rural communities along transportation routes in Utah and Nevada, there is a perceived risk from members of the public about cumulative exposure, particularly when ''Main Street'' and the routes being used by LLW trucks are one in the same. To provide an objective assessment of gamma radiation exposure to members of the public from LLW transport by truck, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) established a stationary and automated array of four pressurized ion chambers (PICs) in a vehicle pullout for LLW trucks to pass through just outside the entrance to the NTS. The PICs were positioned at a distance of 1.0 m (3.3 ft) from the sides of the truck trailer and at a height of 1.5 m (5.0 ft) to simulate conditions that a member of the public (Turner, 1995) might experience if a truck were to pass while the person was on the side of the road, or if a truck were to come to a stop at a stoplight in one of the smaller towns along the transportation routes. The 1.0-m (3.3-ft) distance also allowed for comparison with gamma readings of trucks taken with portable, hand-held instruments at the two LLW disposal sites at the NTS: the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The purpose in automating the system was to provide the most objective and consistent measurement and calculation of radiation exposure from the trucks possible. The array was set up in November 2002 and equipment was tested and calibrated over the next two months. Data collection on trucks began on February 13, 2003, and continued to the end of December 2003. In all, external gamma readings were collected from 1,012 of the 2,260 trucks that delivered LLW to the NTS during this period. Because DOE could not contractually require waste generators to participate in the study, the database is biased toward voluntary participants; however, data were collected from the 10 generators that represented 92 percent of the LLW shipments to the NTS during the study period, with another eight generators accounting for the balance of the shipments. Because of the voluntary nature of the participation, the identity of the waste generators is not used in the report. Previous studies on potential exposure to the public from transporting LLW to the NTS either relied on calculated exposures (Davis et al., 2002) or was based on a small population of trucks (e.g., 88) where a relatively high-background value of 50 microRoentgens per hour ({micro}R/h) (background value measured at the LLW disposal sites) were subtracted from the gross reading of the truck trailer as measured by portable, handheld instruments (Gertz, 2001). The dataset that resulted from the DRI study is the largest collection of measurements of LLW trucks in transit of which the authors are aware.

  16. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  17. Multibounce light transport analysis using ultrafast imaging for material acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naik, Nikhil, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis introduces a novel framework for analysis of multibounce light transport using time-of-flight imaging for the applications of ultrafast reflectance acquisition and imaging through scattering media. Using ultrafast ...

  18. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  19. Transportation scenarios for risk analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Ruth F.

    2010-09-01

    Transportation risk, like any risk, is defined by the risk triplet: what can happen (the scenario), how likely it is (the probability), and the resulting consequences. This paper evaluates the development of transportation scenarios, the associated probabilities, and the consequences. The most likely radioactive materials transportation scenario is routine, incident-free transportation, which has a probability indistinguishable from unity. Accident scenarios in radioactive materials transportation are of three different types: accidents in which there is no impact on the radioactive cargo, accidents in which some gamma shielding may be lost but there is no release of radioactive material, and accident in which radioactive material may potentially be released. Accident frequencies, obtainable from recorded data validated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, are considered equivalent to accident probabilities in this study. Probabilities of different types of accidents are conditional probabilities, conditional on an accident occurring, and are developed from event trees. Development of all of these probabilities and the associated highway and rail accident event trees are discussed in this paper.

  20. North American Standard Level VI Inspection Program Update: Ensuring Safe Transportation of Radioactive Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation made by Carlisle Smith for the NTSF annual meeting held from May 14-16, 2013 in Buffalo, NY

  1. PTS 13.1 Radioactive And Hazardous Material Transportation 4/13/00 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT P - .Energy 5 - In theEnergy

  2. GNEP Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal Analysis FY-08 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halsey, W

    2009-01-15

    This report provides a summary for FY-2008 of activities, analyses and products from the Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal (M-TSD) sub-task of Systems Analysis within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Research & Development area of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. The objective of this work is to evaluate near-term material management requirements for initial GNEP facilities and activities, long-term requirements for large-scale GNEP technology deployment, and alternatives and paths forward to meet these needs. For FY-08, the work expanded to include the Integrated Waste Management Strategy as well as integration with the newly formed Waste Forms Campaign. The M-TSD team was expanded with the addition of support from Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) to the existing team of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL), Argonne National Lab (ANL), Idaho National Lab (INL), Sandia National Lab (SNL) and University of Nevada - Reno (UN-R). During the first half of the year, analysis was focused on providing supporting technical analysis and documentation to support anticipated high-level decisions on program direction. A number of analyses were conducted and reports prepared as program deliverables. This work is briefly summarized in this report. Analyses provided informally to other program efforts are included in this report to provide documentation. This year-end summary was planned primarily as a compilation of activities following the anticipated programmatic decisions. These decisions were deferred beyond the end of the year, and funds were reallocated in a number of areas, thus reducing the M-TSD activities. This report summarizes the miscellaneous 'ad-hoc' work conducted during the later part of the year, such as support to the draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), and support to other program studies. Major programmatic contributions from the M-TSD team during the year included: (1) Completion of the IWMS in March 2008 as the baseline for waste management calculations for the GNEP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The IWMS represents a collaborative effort between the Systems Analysis, Waste Forms, and Separations Campaigns with contributing authors from multiple laboratories. The IWMS reference is: 'Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Integrated Waste Management Strategy, D. Gombert, INL, et al, GNEP-WAST-WAST-AI-RT-2008-000214, March 2008'. (2) As input to the IWMS and support for program decisions, an evaluation of the current regulatory framework in the U.S. pertaining to the disposal of radioactive wastes under an advanced nuclear fuel cycle was completed by ANL. This evaluation also investigated potential disposal pathways for these wastes. The entire evaluation is provided in Appendix A of this report. (3) Support was provided to the development of the GNEP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement from INL, SNL and ANL M-TSD staff. (4) M-TSD staff prepared input for DSARR (Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle) report. The DSARR is an INL led report to examine the time-dependent dynamics for a transition from the current open fuel cycle to either a 1-tier or 2-tier closed fuel cycle. Section 5.3 Waste Management Impacts was provided to INL for incorporation into the DSARR. (5) SNL M-TSD staff prepared a M2 milestone report 'Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal Contribution for Secretarial Decision Package'. The report purpose was to comprehensively evaluate and discuss packaging, storage, and transportation for all potential nuclear and radioactive materials in the process and waste streams being considered by the GNEP program. In particular, a systems view was used to capture all packaging, storage, and transport operations needed to link the various functional aspects of the fuel cycle. (6) SRNL M-TSD staff developed a deliverable report 'Management of Decay Heat from Spent Nuclear Fuel'. This report evaluated a range of options for managing the near-term decay heat associated with Cs and Sr in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing waste

  3. Evaluation of solid-based separation materials for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Wester, D.W.; Morrey, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    Separation science will play an important role in pretreating nuclear wastes stored at various US Department of Energy Sites. The application of separation processes offers potential economic and environmental benefits with regards to remediating these sites. For example, at the Hanford Site, the sizeable volume of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks could be partitioned into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW). After waste separation, only the smaller volume of HLW would require costly vitrification and geologic disposal. Furthermore, the quality of the remaining LLW form (e.g., grout) would be improved due to the lower inventory of radionuclides present in the LLW stream. This report investigates extraction chromatography as a possible separation process for Hanford wastes.

  4. Experimental and Computer Simulation Study of Radioactivity of Materials Irradiated by Intermediate Energy Protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. E. Titarenko; O. V. Shvedov; V. F. Batyaev; E. I. Karpikhin; V. M. Zhivun; R. D. Mulambetov; S. G. Mashnik; R. E. Prael; W. B. Wilson

    1999-08-23

    The results of measurements and computer simulations of radioactivities and dose rates as functions of decay time are presented for Pb-nat and Bi-209 irradiated by 1.5-GeV protons, Co-59, Cu-63, and Cu-65 irradiated by 0.13- and 1.2-GeV protons, and Th-232 and U-nat irradiated by 0.1- and 0.8-GeV protons. The activities and dose rates are measured by direct high-precision gamma spectrometry. The irradiations were made using external beams extracted from the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. Simulations made using the LCS and CINDER'90 code systems are compared with measurements.

  5. An evaluation of current hazardous material management procedures for the Texas Department of Transportation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovell, Cheryl Alane

    1993-01-01

    with all current regulatory requirements. This study evaluates the current hazardous material management procedures that the Texas Department of Transportation (TXDOT) is utilizing to ensure that if falls within the legal scope of the law and to provide...

  6. Implementation Guide for Use with DOE O 460.2 Departmental Materials Transportation and Packaging Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-11-15

    The purpose of this guide is to assist those responsible for transporting and packaging Department materials, and to provide an understanding of Department policies on activities which supplement regulatory requirements. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  7. Disposed Material Mobility and Transport in the Vicinity of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voulgaris, George

    after the day of deployment. A 1-D sediment resuspension and transport model was verified using to be in suspension for the majority of the time and in particular following a resuspension event. The low settling velocities allow them to be in resuspension for long times (over 24 hours). Finally, we recommend monitoring

  8. MATERIALS WITH ENGINEERED MESOPOROSITY FOR PROGRAMMED MASS TRANSPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    , artificial photosynthesis and energy storage. This thesis will present work on the transport of molecular electrode. Finally, a model !-bactiophage was developed to study the electromigration of charged molecules porous gold film and a higher surface area than a gold opal. An equivalent circuit model was presented

  9. U.S. Works With Kazakhstan to Stop Nuclear and Radioactive Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - As part of the overall U.S. strategy to prevent nuclear and dangerous radiological materials from falling into the hands of terrorists, the Department of...

  10. Multiscale Defect Formation and Transport in Materials in Extreme Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seif, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    material symmetry (Iso, Anis) in the defect dipole tensors (through the [110]: Iso. P , Iso. ? (a) [110]: Anis. P ,Iso. ? [110]: Anis. P (1) , Anis. ? [100]: Iso. P , Iso. ? (

  11. Framework for a flexible, real-time controller for automated material transport systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edlabadkar, Abhay

    1995-01-01

    The functions of a material transport system (MTS) in a manufacturing facility is to move raw materials, work-in-process, finished parts, tools and supplies from one location to another in an efficient and timely manner. This thesis presents a...

  12. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  13. Reducing the Risk of Rail Transport of Hazardous Materials by Route Rationalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Reducing the Risk of Rail Transport of Hazardous Materials by Route Rationalization Athaphon;Kawprasert & Barkan 08-2801 2 ABSTRACT Hazardous materials traffic originates and terminates at numerous different locations throughout the North American railroad network. Rerouting of this traffic, especially

  14. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  15. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  16. FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELS: ADVANCED MATERIALS TO CAPTURE AND IMMOBILIZE RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Fryxell, Glen E.; Busche, Brad J.; Wallace, Krys; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2011-11-16

    To support the future expansion of nuclear energy, an effective method is needed to capture and safely store radiological iodine-129 released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Various materials have been investigated to capture and immobilize iodine. In most cases, however, the materials that are effective for capturing iodine cannot subsequently be sintered/densified to create a stable composite that could be a viable waste form. We have developed chemically modified, highly porous, silica aerogels that show sorption capacities higher than 440 mg of I2 per gram at 150 C. An iodine uptake test in dry air containing 4.2 ppm of iodine demonstrated no breakthrough after 3.5 h and indicated a decontamination factor in excess of 310. Preliminary densification tests showed that the I2-loaded aerogels retained more than 92 wt% of I2 after thermal sintering with pressure assistance at 1200 C for 30 min. These high capture and retention efficiencies for I2 can be further improved by optimizing the functionalization process and the chemistry as well as the sintering conditions.

  17. Development of a container for the transportation and storage of plutonium bearing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.; Geinitz, R.; Thorp, D.; Rivera, M.

    1998-03-01

    There is a large backlog of plutonium contaminated materials at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado, USA. The clean-up of this site requires this material to be packaged in such a way as to allow for efficient transportation to other sites or to a permanent geologic repository. Prior to off-site shipment of the material, it may be stored on-site for a period of time. For this reason, it is desirable to have a container capable of meeting the requirements for storage as well as the requirements for transportation. Most of the off-site transportation is envisioned to take place using the TRUPACT-II Type B package, with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as the destination. Prior to the development of this new container, the TRUPACT-II had a limit of 325 FGE (fissile gram equivalents) of plutonium due to criticality control concerns. Because of the relatively high plutonium content in the material to be transported, transporting 325 FGE per TRUPACT-II is uneconomical. Thus, the purpose of the new containers is to provide criticality control to increase the allowed TRUPACT-II payload and to provide a safe method for on-site storage prior to transport. This paper will describe the analysis and testing used to demonstrate that the Pipe Overpack Container provides safe on-site storage of plutonium bearing materials in unhardened buildings and provides criticality control during transportation within the TRUPACT-II. Analyses included worst-case criticality analyses, analyses of fork-lift time impacts, and analyses of roof structure collapse onto the container. Testing included dynamic crush tests, bare pipe impact tests, a 30-minute totally engulfing pool-fire test, and multiple package impact tests in end-on and side-on orientations.

  18. Regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    Potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees were analyzed. The most potentially hazardous accident, by a large margin, was determined to be the sudden rupture of a heated multi-ton cylinder of UF/sub 6/. Acute fatalities offsite are probably not credible. Acute permanent injuries may be possible for many hundreds of meters, and clinically observable transient effects of unknown long term consequences may be possible for distances up to a few miles. These effects would be caused by the chemical toxicity of the UF/sub 6/. Radiation doses would not be significant. The most potentially hazardous accident due to radiation exposure was determined to be a large fire at certain facilities handling large quantities of alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244) or radioiodines (I-125 and I-131). However, acute fatalities or injuries to people offsite due to accidental releases of these materials do not seem plausible. The only other significant accident was identified as a long-term pulsating criticality at fuel cycle facilities handling high-enriched uranium or plutonium. An important feature of the most serious accidents is that releases are likely to start without prior warning. The releases would usually end within about half an hour. Thus protective actions would have to be taken quickly to be effective. There is not likely to be enough time for dose projections, complicated decisionmaking during the accident, or the participation of personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the site. The appropriate response by the facility is to immediately notify local fire, police, and other emergency personnel and give them a brief predetermined message recommending protective actions. Emergency personnel are generally well qualified to respond effectively to small accidents of these types.

  19. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)] [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)] [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  20. DRAFT - DOE O 461.1C, Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interest

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for ensuring the safety of packaging and transportation for offsite shipments of Materials of National Security Interest.

  1. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization J. Vernon Cole and Ashok Gidwani CFDRC Prepared for: DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cell Kickoff MeetingWater Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design fuel cell design and operation; Demonstrate improvements in water management resulting in improved

  2. Emergency response planning for railroad transportation related spills of oil or other hazardous materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeder, Geoffrey Benton

    1995-01-01

    In December 1984 an unintentional release of poison gas from a chemical plant in Bhopal, India killed over 2,500 people. Thousands of others were injured. Although this material was not in transportation at the time, this accident raised public...

  3. POLICY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Effective Date: February 15, 2010 Originating Office: Office of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    is responsible for the safe handling and disposal of hazardous waste (including transport as per TDG regulations. For the purposes of this Policy, hazardous materials includes chemicals, biological, and radioactive materials. Radiation Safety Policy (VPS-46) outlines the management of radioactive materials as required

  4. Operating Experience and Lessons Learned in the Use of Soft-Sided Packaging for Transportation and Disposal of Low Activity Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, A.; Gordon, S.; Goldston, W.

    2013-07-08

    This paper describes the operating experience and lessons learned at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a result of an evaluation of potential trailer contamination and soft-sided packaging integrity issues related to the disposal of low-level and mixed low-level (LLW/MLLW) radioactive waste shipments. Nearly 4.3 million cubic meters of LLW/MLLW will have been generated and disposed of during fiscal year (FY) 2010 to FY 2015—either at commercial disposal sites or disposal sites owned by DOE. The LLW/MLLW is packaged in several different types of regulatory compliant packaging and transported via highway or rail to disposal sites safely and efficiently in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations and DOE orders. In 1999, DOE supported the development of LLW containers that are more volumetrically efficient, more cost effective, and easier to use as compared to metal or wooden containers that existed at that time. The DOE Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), working in conjunction with the plastic industry, tested several types of soft-sided waste packaging systems that meet U.S. Department of Transportation requirements for transport of low specific activity and surface contaminated objects. Since then, soft-sided packaging of various capacities have been used successfully by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects to package, transport, and dispose D&D wastes throughout the DOE complex. The joint team of experts assembled by the Energy Facility Contractors Group from DOE waste generating sites, DOE and commercial waste disposal facilities, and soft-sided packaging suppliers conducted the review of soft-sided packaging operations and transportation of these packages to the disposal sites. As a result of this evaluation, the team developed several recommendations and best practices to prevent or minimize the recurrences of equipment contamination issues and proper use of soft-sided packaging for transport and disposal of waste.

  5. PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

  6. Radioactive Material License.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the Weldon Spring,7=cr5rnP 7694PerformedDecemberr*ROGER

  7. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, K.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  9. Ferromagnetism and Nonmetallic Transport of Thin-Film ? - FeSi 2 : A Stabilized Metastable Material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, D.?J.; Zhang, X.-G.; Samolyuk, German; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; et al

    2015-04-07

    A metastable phase ?-FeSi? was epitaxially stabilized on a silicon substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Nonmetallic and ferromagnetic behaviors are tailored on ?-FeSi? (111) thin films, while the bulk material of ?-FeSi? is metallic and nonmagnetic. The transport property of the films renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K, which is accompanied by the onset of a ferromagnetic transition as well as a substantial magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of ?-FeSi? obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our finding shedsmore »light on achieving ferromagnetic semiconductors through both their structure and doping tailoring, and provides an example of a tailored material with rich functionalities for both basic research and practical applications.« less

  10. Ferromagnetism and Nonmetallic Transport of Thin-Film ? - FeSi 2 : A Stabilized Metastable Material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, D.?J.; Zhang, X.-G.; Samolyuk, German; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; Wang, Wenbin; Yi, Jieyu; Cantoni, Claudia; Siemons, Wolter; Payzant, E. Andrew; Biegalski, Michael; Ward, T.?Z.; Mandrus, David; Stocks, G.?M.; Gai, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    A metastable phase ?-FeSi? was epitaxially stabilized on a silicon substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Nonmetallic and ferromagnetic behaviors are tailored on ?-FeSi? (111) thin films, while the bulk material of ?-FeSi? is metallic and nonmagnetic. The transport property of the films renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K, which is accompanied by the onset of a ferromagnetic transition as well as a substantial magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of ?-FeSi? obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our finding sheds light on achieving ferromagnetic semiconductors through both their structure and doping tailoring, and provides an example of a tailored material with rich functionalities for both basic research and practical applications.

  11. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  12. Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interest

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-12-20

    The purpose of this Order is to make clear that the packaging and transportation of all offsite shipments of materials of national security interest for DOE must be conducted in accordance with DOT and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations that would be applicable to comparable commercial shipments, except where an alternative course of action is identified in this Order. Supersedes DOE O 461.1A.

  13. Hole-transport material variation in fully vacuum deposited perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polander, Lauren E.; Pahner, Paul; Schwarze, Martin; Saalfrank, Matthias; Koerner, Christian; Leo, Karl

    2014-08-01

    This work addresses the effect of energy level alignment between the hole-transporting material and the active layer in vacuum deposited, planar-heterojunction CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub x?3}Cl{sub x} perovskite solar cells. Through a series of hole-transport materials, with conductivity values set using controlled p-doping of the layer, we correlate their ionization potentials with the open-circuit voltage of the device. With ionization potentials beyond 5.3 eV, a substantial decrease in both current density and voltage is observed, which highlights the delicate energetic balance between driving force for hole-extraction and maximizing the photovoltage. In contrast, when an optimal ionization potential match is found, the open-circuit voltage can be maximized, leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 10.9%. These values are obtained with hole-transport materials that differ from the commonly used Spiro-MeO-TAD and correspond to a 40% performance increase versus this reference.

  14. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  15. Solid low-level radioactive waste radiation stability studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Arnold Andre?

    1989-01-01

    MANAGEMENT . . . Historical background Characteristics of radioactive wastes Classification of radioactive wastes Disposal methodology and criteria Handling and storage of radioactive wastes SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES Historical background... Characteristics of the solidified wastes Storage and handling of solid radioactive wastes Shipment of solid radioactive wastes Solidification of waste solutions MATERIALS AND METHODS Ion-exchange methods. High integrity containers (HIC). . tv tx 15 15...

  16. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Controlling charge transport in blue organic light-emitting devices by chemical functionalization of host materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polikarpov, Evgueni; Koech, Phillip K.; Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Rainbolt, James E.; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2011-01-18

    Generation of white light from OLEDs for general lighting applications requires a highly efficient blue component. However, a stable and power efficient blue OLED component with simple device architecture remains a significant challenge partly due to lack of appropriate host materials. Here we report the photophysical and device properties of ambipolar host phosphine oxide based materials. In this work, we studied the effect of the structural modification made to phosphine oxide-based hosts on the charge balance. We observed significant changes in charge transport within the host occurred upon small modifications to their chemical structure. As a result, an alteration of the chemical design of these materials allows for the control of charge balance of the OLED.

  18. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara H. Dolphin; William D. RIchins; Stephen R. Novascone

    2010-10-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision points such as; crash, location, etc. For each pass through the routines, when a crash is randomly selected, crash parameters are then used to determine if failure has occurred using either external look up tables, correlations functions from deterministic calculations, or built in data libraries. The effectiveness of the software was recently demonstrated in safety analyses of the transportation of radioisotope systems for the US Dept. of Energy. These methods are readily adaptable to estimating risks associated with a variety of hazardous shipments such as spent nuclear fuel, explosives, and chemicals.

  19. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: Net recovery and transport intensity indexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning.

  20. Radiation shielding materials and containers incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirsky, Steven M. (Greenbelt, MD); Krill, Stephen J. (Arlington, VA); Murray, Alexander P. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound ("PYRUC") shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  1. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  2. Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interest

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2016-01-05

    The Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for ensuring the safety of packaging and transportation for offsite shipments of Materials of National Security Interest. DOE Order 461.1C received a significant number of major and suggested comments the first time it was reviewed in RevCom. As a result of the number of comments received, the OPI have a second RevCom review. This revision of DOE O 461.1C incorporates changes which resulted from the comment resolution process of the initial draft.

  3. Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interests

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-09-25

    The Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for ensuring the safety of packaging and transportation for offsite shipments of Materials of National Security Interest. DOE Order 461.1C received a significant number of major and suggested comments the first time it was reviewed in RevCom. As a result of the number of comments received, the OPI have a second RevCom review. This revision of DOE O 461.1C incorporates changes which resulted from the comment resolution process of the initial draft.

  4. UW EH&S Radiation Safety Section Box 354400 201 Hall Health Seattle WA 98195-4400 206-543-0463 FORM 160T RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL TRANSFER AND USAGE RECORD (9/12)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    for 5 calendar years after disposal of material! Collected by RSS mCi A. Animal Carcasses & Waste B to delete previously reported disposal en 160T RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL TRANSFER AND USAGE RECORD (9/12) I. Transferred From AUI transferring

  5. ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 90, No. 3, 241 256 (2010) / DOI 10.1002/zamm.200900314 Dynamic materials with formation of clots: optimal mass transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weekes, Suzanne L.

    2010-01-01

    materials with formation of clots: optimal mass transport in one spatial dimension without takeover K. A Key words Dynamic materials, clots, no takeover transport. The concept of dynamic materials (DM 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1 Introduction Heterogeneous material structures

  6. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  7. Quantitative transportation risk analysis based on available data/databases: decision support tools for hazardous materials transportation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Yuanhua

    2007-09-17

    raised questions about the potential consequences of incidents involving LNG transportation. One of those consequences, rapid phase transition (RPT), is studied in this dissertation. The incidents and experiments of LNG-water RPT and theoretical analysis...

  8. Railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooden, D.G.

    1986-03-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of rail operations that are important for assessing the risk of transporting high-level nuclear waste. The major emphasis of the discussion is towards ''general freight'' shipments of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for selecting models and parameters that are appropriate for assessing the risk of rail transportation of nuclear waste.

  9. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  10. Researchers at Montana State University and Idaho National Lab have developed a process to effectively and efficiently clean natural and man-made porous material of radioactive contamination. The system eliminates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    to effectively and efficiently clean natural and man-made porous material of radioactive contamination. The system eliminates the practice of full demolition and removal of contaminated objects and can address contaminated substrate. Thus, building walls (interior or exterior), floors and ceilings can be remediated

  11. RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PROCEDURES 1. Radioactive waste is accepted for disposal by Radiation Safety on Monday, Wednesday and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    attire including lab coats when transporting radioactive waste. LABS OUTSIDE SANGER HALL 1RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PROCEDURES 1. Radioactive waste is accepted for disposal by Radiation are required and may be scheduled by calling 8289131. 2. Segregate and package radioactive waste according

  12. A simulation of the transport and fate of radon-222 derived from thorium-230 low-level waste in the near-surface zone of the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE, 1988) requires performance assessments on all new and existing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Data needs pointed out by mathematical models drive site characterization. They provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. Thorium-230 waste, consisting largely of thorium hydroxide and thorium oxides, has been approved for disposal in shallow trenches and pits at the LLW Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. A sophisticated gas transport model, CASCADR8 (Lindstrom et al., 1992b), was used to simulate the transport and fate of radon-222 from its source of origin, nine feet below a closure cap of native soil, through the dry alluvial earth, to its point of release into the atmosphere. CASCADR8 is an M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. It has been tailored to the site-specific needs of the dry desert environment of southern Nevada. It is based on the mass balance principle for each radionuclide and uses gas-phase diffusion as well as barometric pressure-induced advection as its main modes of transport. CASCADR8 uses both reversible and irreversible sorption kinetic rules as well as the usual classical Bateman (1910) M-chain decay rules for its kinetic processes. Worst case radon-222 gas-phase concentrations, as well as surface fluxes, were estimated over 40 days. The maximum flux was then used in an exposure assessment model to estimate the total annual dose equivalent received by a person residing in a standard 2500-square-foot house with 10-foot walls. Results are described.

  13. Open literature review of threats including sabotage and theft of fissile material transport in Japan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, John Russell; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2005-06-01

    This report is a review of open literature concerning threats including sabotage and theft related to fissile material transport in Japan. It is intended to aid Japanese officials in the development of a design basis threat. This threat includes the external threats of the terrorist, criminal, and extremist, and the insider threats of the disgruntled employee, the employee forced into cooperation via coercion, the psychotic employee, and the criminal employee. Examination of the external terrorist threat considers Japanese demographics, known terrorist groups in Japan, and the international relations of Japan. Demographically, Japan has a relatively homogenous population, both ethnically and religiously. Japan is a relatively peaceful nation, but its history illustrates that it is not immune to terrorism. It has a history of domestic terrorism and the open literature points to the Red Army, Aum Shinrikyo, Chukaku-Ha, and Seikijuku. Japan supports the United States in its war on terrorism and in Iraq, which may make Japan a target for both international and domestic terrorists. Crime appears to remain low in Japan; however sources note that the foreign crime rate is increasing as the number of foreign nationals in the country increases. Antinuclear groups' recent foci have been nuclear reprocessing technology, transportation of MOX fuel, and possible related nuclear proliferation issues. The insider threat is first defined by the threat of the disgruntled employee. This threat can be determined by studying the history of Japan's employment system, where Keiretsu have provided company stability and lifetime employment. Recent economic difficulties and an increase of corporate crime, due to sole reliability on the honor code, have begun to erode employee loyalty.

  14. National Transportation Stakeholders Forum

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Fuel Grand BC and High-Level Radioactive Waste - Jeff Williams, Director, Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Planning Project, DOEOffice of Nuclear Energy National...

  15. Calcium niobate nanosheets as a novel electron transport material for solution-processed multi-junction polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    Calcium niobate nanosheets as a novel electron transport material for solution-processed multi-junction polymer solar cells Lilian Chang,a Michael A. Holmes,b Mollie Waller,b Frank E. Osterlohb and Adam J-processed tandem polymer solar cells are demonstrated using stacked perovskite, (TBA,H) Ca2Nb3O10 (CNO

  16. US Department of Transportation specification packages evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Specification packages are broad families of package designs and approved by the Department of Transportation (DOT) for transport of certain classes of radioactive materials, with each specification containing a number of designs of various sizes. Many of the individual package designs are not supported by reasonably current safety analyses. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) asked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff to collect all related information, perform analyses, and identify alternative actions that will enable NRC and DOT to make informed decisions on whether to retain, withdraw, or modify the existing regulatory permission for the use of specification packages to transport radioactive and fissile materials. This paper presents the background, issues, and progress made in this activity.

  17. US Department of Transportation specification packages evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-03-01

    Specification packages are broad families of package designs and approved by the Department of Transportation (DOT) for transport of certain classes of radioactive materials, with each specification containing a number of designs of various sizes. Many of the individual package designs are not supported by reasonably current safety analyses. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) asked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff to collect all related information, perform analyses, and identify alternative actions that will enable NRC and DOT to make informed decisions on whether to retain, withdraw, or modify the existing regulatory permission for the use of specification packages to transport radioactive and fissile materials. This paper presents the background, issues, and progress made in this activity.

  18. Releases of radioactivity at the Savannah River Plant, 1954--1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Lawrimore, I.B.

    1988-07-01

    Radioactive releases from Savannah River Plant (SRP) facilities to air, water and earthen seepage basins have been monitored and tabulated throughout the history of the site. The purpose of this report is to provide a source of data on routine releases of radioactivity to air, water and seepage basins that can be used for analyses of trends, environmental impact, etc. As used in this report, routine radioactive releases means radioactive materials that are released through established effluents from process facilities. This report is not intended to provide interpretation of the release values, their transport and impact or information on spills, leaks, buried waste or special use facilities. These subjects are covered in other SRP publications. This report provides a summary of radioactive releases that reflects the release values contained in records and documents from startup through 1985. Releases are tabulated in the following categories: Annual radioactive releases by emission source and radionuclide for 1954 through 1985; Annual radioactive releases by receptor medium and radionuclide for 1954 through 1985; Monthly releases by emission source and radionuclide for 1981 through 1985. The presentation of all SRP routine radioactive releases data in these categories provides a reference for historic data on SRP releases. 34 refs.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS; CONTAMINATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    audit of SRP radioactive waste Ashley, C. 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS; CONTAMINATION; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION; HIGH-LEVEL...

  1. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  2. Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum Sign InTransportation

  3. The Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S. Y.; Kapoor, A. K.

    2003-02-27

    In an attempt to bring forth increased efficiency and effectiveness in assessing transportation risks associated with radioactive materials or wastes, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Transportation Program (NTP) published a resource handbook in 2002. The handbook draws from the broad technical expertise among DOE national laboratories and industry, which reflects the extensive experience gained from DOE's efforts in conducting assessments (i.e., environmental impact assessments) within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in the past 20 years. The handbook is intended to serve as a primary source of information regarding the approach and basis for conducting transportation risk assessments under normal or accidental conditions that are associated with shipping radioactive materials or wastes. It is useful as a reference to DOE managers, NEPA assessors, technical analysts, contractors, and also stakeholders. It provides a summary of pertinent U.S. policies and regulations on the shipment of radioactive materials, existing guidance on preparing transportation risk assessments, a review of previous transportation risk assessments by DOE and others, a description of comprehensive and generally accepted transportation risk assessment methodologies, and a compilation of supporting data, parameters, and assumptions. The handbook also provides a discussion paper on an issue that has been identified as being important in the past. The discussion paper focuses on cumulative impacts, illustrating the ongoing evolution of transportation risk assessment. The discussion may be expanded in the future as emerging issues are identified. The handbook will be maintained and periodically updated to provide current and accurate information.

  4. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  5. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  6. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binning, P. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia); Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

  7. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics in porous media : battery degradation, and sorption and transport in porous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinson, Matthew Bede

    2015-01-01

    Porous media offer many interesting problems in physics and engineering due to the interaction of phase transitions, surface effects and transport. In this thesis I examine two such problems: the degradation of lithium-ion ...

  8. Computational study of the transport mechanisms of molecules and ions in solid materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingchun

    2009-06-02

    Transport of ions and molecules in solids is a very important process in many technological applications, for example, in drug delivery, separation processes, and in power sources such as ion diffusion in electrodes or in ...

  9. International Experience in Transportation Analysis and Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and disposal system for hazardous materials between different US military bases on Okinawa, Japan. Radioactive active radioactive sources from their current dispersed locations to a centralized storage facility

  10. NMR and Transport Studies on Group IV Clathrates and Related Intermetallic Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Xiang

    2012-10-19

    thermoelectric materials are the intermetallic clathrates. Clathrates are cage-structured materials with guest atoms enclosed. Previous studies have shown lower thermal conductivities compared with many other bulk compounds, and it is believed that guest atom...

  11. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  12. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 arc estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for the low, medium and high scenarios. Total investment requirements for the three modes and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $46.3 to $47.0 billion range depending on the scenario. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past. Despite the overall decrease in traffic some investment in crude oil and LPG pipelines is necessary to reach new sources of supply. Although natural gas production and consumption is projected to decline through 1990, new investments in carrying capacity also are required due to locational shifts in supply. The Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System is the dominant investment for energy transportation in the next ten years. This year's report focuses attention on waterborne coal transportation to the northeast states in keeping with a return to significant coal consumption projected for this area. A resumption of such shipments will require a completely new fleet. The investment estimates given in this report identify capital required to transport projected energy supplies to market. The requirement is strategic in the sense that other reasonable alternatives do not exist or that a shared load of new growth can be expected. Not analyzed or forecasted are investments in transportation facilities made in response to local conditions. The total investment figures, therefore, represent a minimum necessary capital improvement to respond to changes in interregional supply conditions.

  13. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. (Unified Lab. of Food and Drug Control, Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  14. Preliminary characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, M.D.; Ward, D.B.; Cheng, W.C.; Bryant, C.; Chocas, C.S.; Reynolds, C.G.

    1993-03-01

    The geochemical properties of a porous sand and several tracers (Ni, Br, and Li) have been characterized for use in a caisson experiment designed to validate sorption models used in models of inactive transport. The surfaces of the sand grains have been examined by a combination of techniques including potentiometric titration, acid leaching, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The surface studies indicate the presence of small amounts of carbonate, kaolinite and iron-oxyhydroxides. Adsorption of nickel, lithium and bromide by the sand was measured using batch techniques. Bromide was not sorbed by the sand. A linear (K{sub d}) or an isotherm sorption model may adequately describe transport of Li; however, a model describing the changes of pH and the concentrations of other solution species as a function of time and position within the caisson and the concomitant effects on Ni sorption may be required for accurate predictions of nickel transport.

  15. Gas Generation Test Support for Transportation and Storage of Plutonium Residue Materials - Part 1: Rocky Flats Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.R.

    1999-08-24

    The purpose of this report is to present experimental results that can be used to establish one segment of the safety basis for transportation and storage of plutonium residue materials.

  16. Packaging and Transfer or Transportation of Materials of National Security Interest

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-04-26

    To establish requirements and responsibilities for offsite shipments of naval nuclear fuel elements, Category I and Category II special nuclear material, nuclear explosives, nuclear components, special assemblies, and other materials of national security interest. Cancels DOE O 461.1. Canceled by DOE O 461.1B and DOE O 461.2.

  17. Understanding and engineering molecular interactions and electronic transport at 2D materials interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Chih-Jen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    2D materials are defined as solids with strong in-plane chemical bonds but weak out-of-plane, van der Waals (vdW) interactions. In order to realize potential applications of 2D materials in the areas of optoelectronics, ...

  18. Harmonization - Two Years' of Transportation Regulation Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colborn, K.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation issued modifications to the Hazardous Materials Regulations in October, 2004 as part of an ongoing effort to 'harmonize' U.S. regulations with those of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The harmonization effort had several predictable effects on low level radioactive materials shipment that were anticipated even prior to their implementation. However, after two years' experience with the new regulations, transporters have identified several effects on transportation which were not entirely apparent when the regulations were first implemented. This paper presents several case studies in the transportation of low level radioactive materials since the harmonization rules took effect. In each case, an analysis of the challenge posed by the regulatory revision is provided. In some cases, more than one strategy for compliance was considered, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. In several cases, regulatory interpretations were sought and obtained, and these are presented to clarify the legitimacy of the compliance approach. The presentation of interpretations will be accompanied by reports of clarifying discussions with the U.S. DOT about the interpretation and scope of the regulatory change. Specific transportation issues raised by the revised hazardous materials regulations are reviewed, including: The new definition of radioactive material in accordance with isotope-specific concentration and total activity limits. The new hazardous materials regulations (HMR) created a new definition for radioactive material. A case study is presented for soils contaminated with low levels of Th-230. These soils had been being shipped for years as exempt material under the old 2,000 pCi/g concentration limit. Under the new HMR, these same soils were radioactive material. Further, in rail-car quantities their activity exceeded an A2 value, so shipment of the material in gondolas appeared to require an IP-2 package. Interpretations, discussions, and an exemption were obtained to secure the continued shipment of this material. A provision to allow 'natural' radioactive materials to be exempt from the requirements of the HMR at up to 10x the listed isotopic concentrations. The revised HMR exempts certain natural materials and ores from regulation as radioactive material at concentrations up to 10x that allowed if the materials are not natural. The term 'natural' is not well defined, and initial attempts to qualify for this exemption were thwarted by concerns over what degree of material processing, if any, materials could experience and still be considered 'natural'. The presentation includes an example from a project involving post-processed tungsten ore, and includes interpretations from the US DOT as well as clarifying language from current and drafted IAEA regulation and guidance. New packaging descriptions allowing the use of cargo containers as IP-2 and IP-3 packages in some applications. The revised HMR provides an alternate certification procedure under which standard cargo containers can be used as IP-2 and IP-3 containers. There has been some confusion about how this high level of certification can apply to standard cargo containers when other sections of the regulations make this certification available only to considerably more stout containers after rigorous testing. The discussion includes interpretive guidance from the US DOT, and from the UK Department of Transport clarifying the same provision in IAEA regulations. A new definition of contamination with apparently broad impact on the shipment of empty containers and conveyances. The revised HMR presented a definition of contamination not referenced by any other part of the HMR. The preamble to the revised HMR provides confusing guidance on the application of the definition to shipment of empty containers, and subsequent interpretive guidance letters appear to conflict with the preamble as well as with each other. The definition also has the effect of regulating materials for transport as radioactive even when US

  19. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  20. Effect of flow oscillations on axial energy transport in a porous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, R. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1987-02-01

    It has been shown analytically and experimentally that flow oscillations of a fluid within a channel can enhance the axial transfer of energy. The transport arises from an axial gradient in fluid temperature resulting from having reservoirs at different temperatures at either end of the channel. The present analysis develops relations for axial energy diffusion in a porous medium with oscillating flow. In some devices, such as the Sterling engine, there are regenerators with oscillating flow. Axial transport in the regenerator provides an energy loss; hence it is desirable to determine what factors can limit this diffusion. A regenerator in the form of a porous medium is difficult to model since the flow is continually disrupted by the irregularities of the porous structure. The formulation here will employ an internal heat transfer coefficient that couples the fluid and solid temperatures. The final result shows how the diffusion depends on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient and the maximum fluid displacement.

  1. Revealing origin of quasi-one dimensional current transport in defect rich two dimensional materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotz, Mikkel R.; Boll, Mads; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H., E-mail: dirch.petersen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG), Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Ole [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Danish National Research Foundation's Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kjær, Daniel [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); CAPRES A/S, Scion-DTU, Building 373, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-08-04

    The presence of defects in graphene have for a long time been recognized as a bottleneck for its utilization in electronic and mechanical devices. We recently showed that micro four-point probes may be used to evaluate if a graphene film is truly 2D or if defects in proximity of the probe will lead to a non-uniform current flow characteristic of lower dimensionality. In this work, simulations based on a finite element method together with a Monte Carlo approach are used to establish the transition from 2D to quasi-1D current transport, when applying a micro four-point probe to measure on 2D conductors with an increasing amount of line-shaped defects. Clear 2D and 1D signatures are observed at low and high defect densities, respectively, and current density plots reveal the presence of current channels or branches in defect configurations yielding 1D current transport. A strong correlation is found between the density filling factor and the simulation yield, the fraction of cases with 1D transport and the mean sheet conductance. The upper transition limit is shown to agree with the percolation threshold for sticks. Finally, the conductance of a square sample evaluated with macroscopic edge contacts is compared to the micro four-point probe conductance measurements and we find that the micro four-point probe tends to measure a slightly higher conductance in samples containing defects.

  2. Transport of Technetium and Rhenium into Refractory Materials during Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Elliott, Michael L.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Matyas, Josef; Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schweiger, Michael J.; Campbell, Brett E.; Beck, Andrew E.

    2006-02-21

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected as a potential supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. In the BV process, low-activity waste, soil, and glass forming chemicals are mixed, dried and placed in a metal box lined with a castable refractory block (CRB). Electric current, supplied by two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed and produces a durable glass waste form. During engineering-scale (ES) tests of BV, a small fraction of radioactive technetium-99 (Tc) (and rhenium [Re], a nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the CRB. Tc is a primary risk driver for long-term performance of immobilized LAW; therefore, even small fractions of Tc present in a readily leachable form rather than immobilized in a glass matrix can impact long-term performance.

  3. Molten Salt Heat Transport Loop: Materials Corrosion and Heat Transfer Phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Mark Anderson; Dr. Michael Corradini; Dr. Todd Allen; Luke Olson; James Ambrosek; Daniel Ludwig

    2008-07-09

    An experimental system for corrosion testing of candidate materials in molten FLiNaK salt at 850 degree C has been designed and constructed. While molten FLiNaK salt was the focus of this study, the system can be utilized for evaluation of materials in other molten salts that may be of interest in the future. Using this system, the corrosion performance of a number of code-certified alloys of interest to NGNP as well as the efficacy of Ni-electroplating have been investigated. The mechanisums underlying corrosion processes have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the materials after the corrosion tests, as well as by the post-corrosion analysis of the salts using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques.

  4. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Pope, R.B.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  5. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 ARC estimates. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-13

    This report contains TERA's estimates of capital requirements to transport natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, and coal in the United States by 1990. The low, medium, and high world-oil-price scenarios from the EIA's Mid-range Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), as used in the 1979 Annual Report to Congress (ARC), were provided as a basis for the analysis and represent three alternative futures. TERA's approach varies by energy commodity to make best use of the information and analytical tools available. Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given. Total investment requirements for three modes (pipelines, rails, waterways and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $49.9 to $50.9 billion range depending on the scenario. The scenarios are distinguished primarily by the world price of oil which, given deregulation of domestic oil prices, affects US oil prices even more profoundly than in the past. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past.

  6. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  7. New Alkali Doped Pillared Carbon Materials Designed to Achieve Practical Reversible Hydrogen Storage for Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    and room temperature. This satisfies the DOE (Department of Energy) target of hydrogen-storage materials single-wall nanotubes can lead to a hydrogen-storage capacity of 6.0 mass% and 61:7 kg=m3 at 50 bars of roughly 1­20 bars and ambient temperature. Chen et al. reported remarkable hydrogen-storage capacities

  8. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-02-06

    To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

  9. WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

    2012-10-02

    Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

  10. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  11. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS onBudgetMaterialMaterials Materials Access to

  12. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world`s largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  13. Design and optimization of a multi-particle accelerator beam transport and delivery system for material irradiation in nuclear and fusion science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sordelet, Tyler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A beam delivery and transport system were designed for the use in MIT Materials Test Facility (M2TF). The purpose of this beam delivery system was to design a 36 MeV Proton Cyclotron for DPA accumulation and a 100 MeV ...

  14. To be presented at ACI Fall 2009 Session on "Material Science Modeling as a Solution to Concrete Problems" (New Orleans) Virtual Testing of Concrete Transport Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    To be presented at ACI Fall 2009 Session on "Material Science Modeling as a Solution to Concrete permeability test (RCPT) that simulates the standard ASTM test method for conductivity of concrete cylinders; durability; microstructure; permeability; transport; virtual testing. #12;Biography: ACI member Dale P. Bentz

  15. Notice of Intent to Revise Department of Energy Order 461.1B, Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interest

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this memorandum is to provide justification for the proposed revision of DOE O 461.1B, Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interest, dated 12-16-2010, as part of the the quadrennial review and recertification as required by DOE O 251.1C, Departmental Directives Program.

  16. The effect of cargo on the crush loading of RAM transportation packages in ship collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radloff, H.D.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent intercontinental radioactive material shipping campaigns have focused public and regulatory attention on the safety of transport of this material by ocean-going vessels. One major concern is the response of the vessel and onboard radioactive material (RAM) packages during a severe ship-to-ship collision. These collisions occur at velocities less than the velocity obtained in the Type B package regulatory impact event and the bow of the striking ship is less rigid than the unyielding target used in those tests (Ammerman and Daidola, 1996). This implies that ship impact is not a credible scenario for damaging the radioactive material packages during ship collisions. It is possible, however, for these collisions to generate significant amounts of crush force by the bow of the impacting ship overrunning the package. It is the aim of this paper to determine an upper bound on the magnitude of this crush force taking into account the strength of the radioactive material carrying vessel and any other cargo that may be stowed in the same hold as the radioactive material.

  17. Radioactive Waste Management Procedures and Guidelines See Radiation Manual 1997 for further details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1-24-03 Radioactive Waste Management Procedures and Guidelines See Radiation Manual 1997 PART I. Radioactive Waste A. Dry Waste 1. Labs must request a box from the Radioactive Waste program, and use only this box for accumulating their waste. 2. Place only radioactive material contaminated

  18. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  19. Data and methods for the assessment of the risks associated with the maritime transport of radioactive materials: Results of the SeaRAM program studies. Volume 2 -- Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J.; Kanipe, F.L. [and others

    1998-05-01

    This report describes ship accident event trees, ship collision and ship fire frequencies, representative ships and shipping practices, a model of ship penetration depths during ship collisions, a ship fire spread model, cask to environment release fractions during ship collisions and fires, and illustrative consequence calculations. This report contains the following appendices: Appendix 1 -- Representative Ships and Shipping Practices; Appendix 2 -- Input Data for Minorsky Calculations; Appendix 3 -- Port Ship Speed Distribution; and Appendix 4 -- Cask-to-Environment Release Fractions.

  20. 1 INSTRODUCTION In the concept of geological radioactive waste disposal,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 INSTRODUCTION In the concept of geological radioactive waste disposal, argillite is being-hydro-mechanical characterization of Opalinus clay are presented. The material is one of the argillites being studied in several research projects in Europe in the context of geological radioactive waste disposal. 2 MATERIAL STUDIED

  1. The New Orphaned Radioactive Sources Program in the United States International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , insufficient accountability, and improper disposal of radioactive materials. The US Environmental Protection end up in municipal waste disposal facilities. Scrap metal handlers and some landfill operators have1 The New Orphaned Radioactive Sources Program in the United States International Conference

  2. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  3. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS onBudgetMaterial

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation: An Examination of Potential Lessons Learned From Prior Shipping Campaigns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsha Keister; Kathryn McBride

    2006-08-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, assigned the Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing and managing a Federal system for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for accepting, transporting, and disposing of SNF and HLW at the Yucca Mountain repository in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. OCRWM faces a near-term challenge—to develop and demonstrate a transportation system that will sustain safe and efficient shipments of SNF and HLW to a repository. To better inform and improve its current planning, OCRWM has extensively reviewed plans and other documents related to past high-visibility shipping campaigns of SNF and other radioactive materials within the United States. This report summarizes the results of this review and, where appropriate, lessons learned.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

  6. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    2002-12-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  7. Materials Science & Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Science & Engineering The development of new high-performance materials for energy Use of Advanced Characterization Techniques for Materials Development in Energy and Transportation and composition of materials at higher spatial resolution, with greater efficiency, and on real materials

  8. FABRICATION AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE 9979 TYPE AF RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2013-10-10

    This paper summarizes the development, testing, and certification of the 9979 Type A Fissile Packaging that replaces the UN1A2 Specification Shipping Package eliminated from Department of Transportation (DOT) 49 CFR 173. The DOT Specification Package was used for many decades by the U.S. nuclear industry as a fissile waste container until its removal as an authorized container by DOT. This paper will discuss stream lining procurement of high volume radioactive material packaging manufacturing, such as the 9979, to minimize packaging production costs without sacrificing Quality Assurance. The authorized content envelope (combustible and non-combustible) as well as planned content envelope expansion will be discussed.

  9. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. (Laboratorio Unificado de Control de Alimentos y Medicamentos (LUCAM) (Guatemala))

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  10. Optimization of the Transport Shield for Neutrinoless Double Beta-decay Enriched Germanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.

    2012-04-15

    This document presents results of an investigation of the material and geometry choice for the transport shield of germanium, the active detector material used in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches. The objective of this work is to select the optimal material and geometry to minimize cosmogenic production of radioactive isotopes in the germanium material. The design of such a shield is based on the calculation of the cosmogenic production rate of isotopes that are known to cause interfering backgrounds in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  12. Baseline requirements of the proposed action for the Transportation Management Division routing models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important to shippers, carriers, and the general public. This is particularly true for shipments of radioactive material. The shippers are primarily concerned with safety, security, efficiency, and equipment requirements. The carriers are concerned with the potential impact that radioactive shipments may have on their operations--particularly if such materials are involved in an accident. The general public has also expressed concerns regarding the safety of transporting radioactive and other hazardous materials through their communities. Because transportation routes are a central concern in hazardous material transport, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward resolution of these issues. In response to these routing needs, several models have been developed over the past fifteen years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HIGHWAY routing model is used to predict routes for truck transportation, the INTERLINE routing model is used to predict both rail and barge routes, and the AIRPORT locator model is used to determine airports with specified criteria near a specific location. As part of the ongoing improvement of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Transportation Management Division`s (EM-261) computer systems and development efforts, a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models was held at ORNL on April 27, 1994. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the existing capabilities of the models and data bases and to review enhancements of the models and data bases to expand their usefulness. The results of the Baseline Requirements Assessment Section will be discussed in this report. The discussions pertaining to the different models are contained in separate sections.

  13. ONSITE TRANSPORTATION AUTHORIZATION CHALLENGES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R.; Loftin, B.; Hoang, D.; Maxted, M.

    2012-05-30

    Prior to 2008, transfers of radioactive material within the Savannah River Site (SRS) boundary, referred to as onsite transfers, were authorized by Transportation Safety Basis (TSB) documents that only required approval by the SRS contractor. This practice was in accordance with the existing SRS Transportation Safety Document (TSD). In 2008 the Department of Energy Savannah River Field Office (DOE-SR) requested that the SRS TSD be revised to require DOE-SR approval of all Transportation Safety Basis (TSB) documents. As a result, the primary SRS contractor embarked on a multi-year campaign to consolidate old or generate new TSB documents and obtain DOE-SR approval for each. This paper focuses on the challenges incurred during the rewriting or writing of and obtaining DOE-SR approval of all Savannah River Site Onsite Transportation Safety Basis documents.

  14. Transportation Packages to Support Savannah River Site Missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opperman, E.

    2001-08-20

    The Savannah River Site's missions have expanded from primarily a defense mission to one that includes environmental cleanup and the stabilization, storage, and preparation for final disposition of nuclear materials. The development of packaging and the transportation of radioactive materials are playing an ever-increasing role in the successful completion of the site's missions. This paper describes the Savannah River Site and the three strategic mission areas of (1) nuclear materials stewardship, (2) environmental stewardship, and (3) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship. The materials and components that need to be shipped, and associated packaging, will be described for each of the mission areas. The diverse range of materials requiring shipment include spent fuel, irradiated target assemblies, excess plutonium and uranium materials, high level waste canisters, transuranic wastes, mixed and low level wastes, and nuclear weapons stockpile materials and components. Since many of these materials have been in prolonged storage or resulted from disassembly of components, the composition, size and shape of the materials present packaging and certification challenges that need to be met. Over 30 different package designs are required to support the site's missions. Approximately 15 inbound shipping-legs transport materials into the Savannah River Site and the same number (15) of outgoing shipment-legs are carrying materials from the site for further processing or permanent disposal.

  15. Examination of radioactive decay methodology in the HASCAL code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffler, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ryman, J.C.; Gehin, J.C.; Worley, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The HASCAL 2.0 code provides dose estimates for nuclear, chemical, and biological facility accident and terrorist weapon strike scenarios. In the analysis of accidents involving radioactive material, an approximate method is used to account for decay during transport. Rather than perform the nuclide decay during the atmospheric transport calculation, the decay is performed a priori and a table look up method is used during the transport of a depositing tracer particle and non depositing (gaseous) tracer particle. In order to investigate the accuracy of this decay methodology two decay models were created using the ORIGEN2 computer program. The first is a HASCAL like model that treats decay and growth of all nuclide explicitly over the time interval specified for atmospheric transport, but does not change the relative mix of depositing and non-depositing nuclides due to deposition to the ground, nor does it treat resuspension. The second model explicitly includes resuspension as well as separate decay of the nuclides in the atmosphere and on the ground at each deposition time step. For simplicity, both of these models uses a one-dimensional layer model for the atmospheric transport. An additional investigation was performed to determine the accuracy of the HASCAL like model in separately following Cs-137 and I-131. The results from this study show that the HASCAL decay model compares closely with the more rigorous model with the computed doses are generally within one percent (maximum error of 7 percent) over 48 hours following the release. The models showed no difference for Cs-137 and a maximum error of 2.5 percent for I-131 over the 96 hours following release.

  16. VOLUME 81, NUMBER 20 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 16 NOVEMBER 1998 Essential Role of Correlations in Governing Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenkre, V.M.

    of Correlations in Governing Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Materials S. V. Novikov,1,2 D. H. Dunlap,2 V (Received 26 May 1998) The transport of photoinjected charges in disordered organic films is often interpreted using a formula based on a Gaussian disorder model (GDM) that neglects spatial correlations due

  17. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

  19. Radioactive Waste Characterization Strategies; Comparisons Between AK/PK, Dose to Curie Modeling, Gamma Spectroscopy, and Laboratory Analysis Methods- 12194

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singledecker, Steven J.; Jones, Scotty W.; Dorries, Alison M.; Henckel, George; Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In the coming fiscal years of potentially declining budgets, Department of Energy facilities such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will be looking to reduce the cost of radioactive waste characterization, management, and disposal processes. At the core of this cost reduction process will be choosing the most cost effective, efficient, and accurate methods of radioactive waste characterization. Central to every radioactive waste management program is an effective and accurate waste characterization program. Choosing between methods can determine what is classified as low level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste (TRU), waste that can be disposed of under an Authorized Release Limit (ARL), industrial waste, and waste that can be disposed of in municipal landfills. The cost benefits of an accurate radioactive waste characterization program cannot be overstated. In addition, inaccurate radioactive waste characterization of radioactive waste can result in the incorrect classification of radioactive waste leading to higher disposal costs, Department of Transportation (DOT) violations, Notice of Violations (NOVs) from Federal and State regulatory agencies, waste rejection from disposal facilities, loss of operational capabilities, and loss of disposal options. Any one of these events could result in the program that mischaracterized the waste losing its ability to perform it primary operational mission. Generators that produce radioactive waste have four characterization strategies at their disposal: - Acceptable Knowledge/Process Knowledge (AK/PK); - Indirect characterization using a software application or other dose to curie methodologies; - Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) tools such as gamma spectroscopy; - Direct sampling (e.g. grab samples or Surface Contaminated Object smears) and laboratory analytical; Each method has specific advantages and disadvantages. This paper will evaluate each method detailing those advantages and disadvantages including; - Cost benefit analysis (basic materials costs, overall program operations costs, man-hours per sample analyzed, etc.); - Radiation Exposure As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) program considerations; - Industrial Health and Safety risks; - Overall Analytical Confidence Level. The concepts in this paper apply to any organization with significant radioactive waste characterization and management activities working to within budget constraints and seeking to optimize their waste characterization strategies while reducing analytical costs. (authors)

  20. RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT REMOVAL FROM WATER USING GRAPHENE OXIDE (GO) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concklin, Joshua Paul

    2013-12-19

    and uranium. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are abundant throughout the earth's crust. Human manipulation of NORM for economic ends, such as mining, ore processing, fossil fuel extraction, and commercial aviation, may lead to what is known...

  1. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  2. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  3. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This job aid is a quick reference to assist emergency responders in identifying preliminary safety precautions that should be taken during the initial response phase after arrival at the scene of...

  4. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  5. NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) in the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation to, as quickly as possible, identify, secure, remove andor...

  6. Disposal of Specific Articles Containing Radioactive Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Am-241 3. NRC: United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission 4. Sodium Iodide (NaI) Detector: Uses. Disposal of these signs is governed by United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations, 10

  7. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientificOmbuds OfficeOne Vaccine Leads

  8. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Canceled by DOE 460.1A

  9. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials andor modal transport. Cancels DOE 1540.2 and DOE 5480.3

  10. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-10-02

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1.

  11. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  12. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

  13. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Finck; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; David Chamberlain; Don Dry; George Brooks; Margaret Goldberg

    2012-03-01

    The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a Radioactive Response Training Range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive Br-82 isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics.

  14. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  15. Electronic transport in Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide, a high-voltage cathode material for Lithium-Ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ransil, Alan Patrick Adams

    2013-01-01

    Potential routes by which the energy densities of lithium-ion batteries may be improved abound. However, the introduction of Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide (LixNi1i/2Mn3/2O4, or LNMO) as a positive electrode material appears ...

  16. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  17. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  18. Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohl, P.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) materials research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs.

  19. EIS-0250-S2: Supplemental EIS for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada- Nevada Rail Transportation Corridor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This SEIS is to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating a railroad for shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from an existing rail line in Nevada to a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The purpose of the evaluation is to assist the Department in deciding whether to construct and operate a railroad in Nevada, and if so, in which corridor and along which specific alignment within the selected corridor.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    TRANSPORTATION ment of Oil Shale Technology. Washing- ton,interest and investments in oil shale, ethanol, coal liquidsbiomass materials, coal, oil shale, tar sands, natural gas,

  1. Radioactive Contamination Control Work Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2002-10-01

    At Hanford, loose radioactive material can be found in plant systems, rooms, ventilation ducts, fuel pools, and outside radiological work facilities. Work practices used to accomplish radiological work in nuclear facilities often concern keeping radioactive contamination from spreading. This is not an easy task as the contamination activity levels can be very high and the material can be very unstable. Most of the time, the contamination is not visible, so we have to rely on surveys taken by Radiological Controls personnel to tell workers where the contamination is located and the activity levels present. The work practices used by workers are critical in controlling contamination spread, but it is impossible to document all of the work practices a worker should use. Many times, something will happen during the job that could result in a contamination spread. We rely on the workers knowledge and experience to realize when a potential spread of contamination is occurring, and take the actions necessary to prevent it from happening. It is important that a worker understand the concepts of contamination control in order to make the right decisions when work is accomplished. In facilities that work with ''fissile'' materials there is increased concern that nothing be done that increases the chance that a ''criticality accident'' might occur during work. Criticality safety personnel need to be consulted and approve contamination control practices that could increase the potential for a criticality accident. This Workshop includes a discussion of fundamental contamination control practices and new techniques used for radiological work. This is intended to be very informative and include hands-on exercises to provide the attendees with an appreciation of the methods being used to confine contamination spread.

  2. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  3. Transportation Safety Excellence in Operations Through Improved Transportation Safety Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Michael A. Lehto; MAL

    2007-05-01

    A recent accomplishment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Nuclear Safety analysis group was to obtain DOE-ID approval for the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantity radioactive/fissionable waste in Department of Transportation (DOT) Type A drums at MFC. This accomplishment supported excellence in operations through safety analysis by better integrating nuclear safety requirements with waste requirements in the Transportation Safety Document (TSD); reducing container and transport costs; and making facility operations more efficient. The MFC TSD governs and controls the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials in non-DOT approved containers. Previously, the TSD did not include the capability to transfer payloads of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials using DOT Type A drums. Previous practice was to package the waste materials to less-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantities when loading DOT Type A drums for transfer out of facilities to reduce facility waste accumulations. This practice allowed operations to proceed, but resulted in drums being loaded to less than the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance criteria (WAC) waste limits, which was not cost effective or operations friendly. An improved and revised safety analysis was used to gain DOE-ID approval for adding this container configuration to the MFC TSD safety basis. In the process of obtaining approval of the revised safety basis, safety analysis practices were used effectively to directly support excellence in operations. Several factors contributed to the success of MFC’s effort to obtain approval for the use of DOT Type A drums, including two practices that could help in future safety basis changes at other facilities. 1) The process of incorporating the DOT Type A drums into the TSD at MFC helped to better integrate nuclear safety requirements with waste requirements. MFC’s efforts illustrate that utilizing the requirements of other disciplines, beyond nuclear safety, can provide an efficient process. Analyzing current processes to find better ways of meeting the requirements of multiple disciplines within a safety basis can lead to a more cost-effective, streamlined process. 2) Incorporating the DOT Type A drums into the MFC TSD was efficient because safety analysts utilized a transportation plan that provided analysis that could also be used for the change to the TSD addendum. In addition, because the plan they used had already been approved and was in use by the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) at the INL, justification for the change to the TSD was more compelling. MFC safety analysts proved that streamlining a process can be made more feasible by drawing from analysis that has already been completed.

  4. Langevin and Fokker-Planck analyses of inhibited molecular passing processes controlling transport and reactivity in nanoporous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chi-Jen [Ames Laboratory; Ackerman, David M. [Ames Laboratory; Slowing, Igor I. [Ames Laboratory; Evans, James W. [Ames Laboratory

    2014-07-14

    Inhibited passing of reactant and product molecules within the linear pores of nanoporous catalytic materials strongly reduces reactivity. The dependence of the passing propensity P on pore radius R is analyzed utilizing Langevin dynamics to account for solvent effects. We find that P?(R?Rc)?, where passing is sterically blocked for R?Rc, with ? below the transition state theory value. Deeper insight comes from analysis of the corresponding high-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation, which facilitates an effective small-P approximation, and dimensional reduction enabling utilization of conformal mapping ideas. We analyze passing for spherical molecules and also assess the effect of rotational degrees of freedom for elongated molecules.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, supersedes DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

  6. Quality assurance in the transport of UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravenscroft, N.L. [Edlow International Company, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Edlow International`s primary business is the international transportation of radioactive materials. Therefore, Edlow has the responsibility to ensure that shipments are performed in compliance with regulatory requirements. In this regard, Edlow maintains a Quality Assurance (QA) Program. A major part of this Program is the establishment and use of QA Procedures. This paper addresses QA procedural requirements and how they are applied to a routine international shipment of low enriched UF{sub 6}. Only the major requirements for scheduling shipments will be addressed.

  7. Managing Category I and II Asbestos-Containing Materials During...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    18, 2003, at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Type B Accident Investigation Board Report Subcontractor Radioactive Release During Transportation...

  8. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  9. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, David R. (Bothel, WA); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Macdonald, John M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  10. Fields of View for Environmental Radioactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    The gamma component of air radiation dose rates is a function of the amount and spread of radioactive nuclides in the environment. These radionuclides can be natural or anthropogenic in origin. The field of view describes the area of radionuclides on, or below, the ground that is responsible for determining the air dose rate, and hence correspondingly the external radiation exposure. This work describes Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations for the field of view under a variety of situations. Presented first are results for natural 40K and thorium and uranium series radionuclides distributed homogeneously within the ground. Results are then described for atmospheric radioactive caesium fallout, such as from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Various stages of fallout evolution are considered through the depth distribution of 134Cs and 137Cs in soil. The fields of view for the natural radionuclides and radiocaesium are different. This can affect the responses of radiation monitors to th...

  11. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Supersedes DOE O 5820.2A. Chg 1 dated 8-28-01. Certified 1-9-07.

  12. New Proton Radioactivity Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    New Proton Radioactivity Measurements Richard J. Irvine Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor to search for examples of proton emission from ground and low­lying states in odd­Z nuclei at the proton into a double­sided silicon strip detector system, where their subsequent particle decays (proton or alpha) were

  13. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1991-12-24

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

  14. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-12-22

    This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A

  16. Sandia Energy - Materials Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Chemistry Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Clean FuelsPower Materials Chemistry Materials ChemistryAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:42:21+00:00...

  17. Proceedings of ICEM'03: International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    and Radioactive Waste Management September 21 - 25, 2003, Examination Schools, Oxford, England ICEM03-4509 VITRIFIED WASTE CORROSION RATES FROM FIELD EXPERIMENT AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING Diana H. Bacon for the U.S. strategic defense arsenal. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste has accumulated

  18. Application to Use Radioactive Procedure: 7.502 Created: 5/9/2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Application to Use Radioactive Materials Procedure: 7.502 Created: 5/9/2014 Version: 1.0 Revised: Environmental Health & Safety Page 1 of 4 A. Purpose Use of radioactive materials (RAM) for non-human research Lab Barnard College New York State Psychiatric Institute C. Definitions CUMC: Medical Center Campus

  19. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    The infrastructure for transportation in the United States allows for a high level of mobility and freight activity for the current population of 300 million residents, and several million business establishments. According to a Department of Transportation study, more than 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroads cars were used on 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways in 1998. Pipelines and storage tanks were considered to be part of this deteriorating infrastructure. The annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category was estimated to be approximately $22.6 billion in 1998. There were 583,000 bridges in the United States in 1998. Of this total, 200,000 bridges were steel, 235,000 were conventional reinforced concrete, 108,000 bridges were constructed using pre-stressed concrete, and the balance was made using other materials of construction. Approximately 15 percent of the bridges accounted for at this point in time were structurally deficient, primarily due to corrosion of steel and steel reinforcement. Iron-based amorphous metals, including SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been developed, and have very good corrosion resistance. These materials have been prepared as a melt-spun ribbons, as well as gas atomized powders and thermal-spray coatings. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stabilities of these materials were found to be comparable to that of more expensive high-performance alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. These materials also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. These amorphous alloys appear to maintain their corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature. Visionary research is proposed to extend the application of corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous metal coatings, and variants of these coatings, to protection of the Nation's transportation infrastructure. Specific objectives of the proposed work are: (1) fabrication of appropriate test samples for evaluation of concept; (2) collection of production and test data for coated steel reinforcement bars, enabling systematic comparison of various coating options, based upon performance and economic considerations; and (3) construction and testing of concrete structures with coated steel reinforcement bars, thereby demonstrating the value of amorphous-metal coatings. The benefits of ceramic coatings as thermal barriers will also be addressed.

  20. Hazardous and radioactive substances in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazardous and radioactive substances in danisH Marine Waters Ingela Dahllöf & Jesper H. Andersen University #12;#12;Hazardous and radioactive substances in danisH Marine Waters #12;#12;Hazardous Hazardous and radioactive substances in danisH Marine Waters status and teMporal trends #12;Hazardous

  1. Cesium-137 inventories in Alaskan Tundra, lake and marine sediments: An indicator of recent organic material transport?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grebmeier, J.M.; Cooper, L.W. |; Larsen, I.L.; Solis, C.; Olsen, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    Tundra sampling was accomplished in 1989--1990 at Imnavait Creek, Alaska (68{degree}37` N, 149{degree}17` W). Inventories of {sup 137}Cs (102--162 mBq/cm{sup 2}) are close to expectations, based upon measured atmospheric deposition for this latitude. Accumulated inventories of {sup 137}Cs in tundra decrease by up to 50% along a transect to Prudhoe Bay (70{degree}13` N, 148{degree}30` W). Atmospheric deposition of {sup 137}Cs decreased with latitude in the Arctic, but declines in deposition would have been relatively small over this distance (200 km). This suggests a recent loss of {sup 137}Cs and possibly associated organic matter from tundra over the northern portions of the transect between Imnavait Creek and Prudhoe Bay. Sediments from Toolik Lake (68{degree}38` N, 149{degree}38` W) showed widely varying {sup 137}Cs inventories, from a low of 22 mBq/cm{sup 2} away from the lake inlet, to a high between 140 to >200 mBq/cm{sup 2} near the main stream inflow. This was indicative of recent accumulation of cesium and possibly organic material associated with it in arctic lakes, although additional sampling is needed.

  2. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  3. Recent Theoretical Results for Advanced Thermoelectric Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Results for Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Recent Theoretical Results for Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Transport theory and first principles calculations...

  4. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  5. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-20

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE`s and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ({sup 238}Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ({sup 241}Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ({sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}). The proposed action would include placing the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2} in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility.

  6. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-02-25

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research.

  7. A quasilinear model for solute transport under unsaturated flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Leem, J.

    2009-05-15

    We developed an analytical solution for solute transport under steady-state, two-dimensional, unsaturated flow and transport conditions for the investigation of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The two-dimensional, unsaturated flow problem is treated using the quasilinear flow method for a system with homogeneous material properties. Dispersion is modeled as isotropic and is proportional to the effective hydraulic conductivity. This leads to a quasilinear form for the transport problem in terms of a scalar potential that is analogous to the Kirchhoff potential for quasilinear flow. The solutions for both flow and transport scalar potentials take the form of Fourier series. The particular solution given here is for two sources of flow, with one source containing a dissolved solute. The solution method may easily be extended, however, for any combination of flow and solute sources under steady-state conditions. The analytical results for multidimensional solute transport problems, which previously could only be solved numerically, also offer an additional way to benchmark numerical solutions. An analytical solution for two-dimensional, steady-state solute transport under unsaturated flow conditions is presented. A specific case with two sources is solved but may be generalized to any combination of sources. The analytical results complement numerical solutions, which were previously required to solve this class of problems.

  8. WM '04 Conference, February 29 March 4, 2004, Tucson, AZ WM-4085 METAL MATRIX IMMOBILISATION OF SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES FOR SAFE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    OF SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES FOR SAFE STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION AND DISPOSAL M. I. Ojovan, W. E. Lee of radiation fields and concentrations of radionuclides from SRS may far exceed high-level radioactive waste OF SRS The classification of radioactive wastes in the Russian Federation is based on the nature

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  10. Assessment of the US regulations for fissile exemptions and fissile material general licenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, C.V.; Hopper, C.M.; Lichtenwalter, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Easton, E.P.; Brochman, P.G. [NRC, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The paragraphs for general licenses for fissile material and exemptions (often termed exceptions in the international community) for fissile material have long been a part of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 71, Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material. More recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a final rule on Part 71 via emergency rule-making procedures in order to address an identified deficiency related to one of the fissile exemptions. To address the specified deficiency in a general fashion, the emergency rule adopted the approach of the 1996 Edition of the IAEA: Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA 1996), which places restrictions on certain moderating materials and limits the quantity of fissile material in a consignment. The public comments received by the NRC indicated general agreement with the need for restrictions on certain moderators (beryllium, deuterium, and graphite). The comments indicated concern relative to both the degree of restriction imposed (not more than 0.1% of fissile material mass) and the need to limit the fissile material mass of the consignment, particularly in light of the subsequent NRC staff position that the true intent was to provide control for limiting the fissile mass of the conveyance. The purpose of the review is to identify potential deficiencies that might be adverse to maintaining adequate subcriticality under normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. In addition, ORNL has been asked to identify changes that would address any identified safety issues, enable inherently safe packages to continue to be unencumbered in transport, and seek to minimize the impact on current safe practices.

  11. Management of Transuranic Contaminated Material

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1982-09-30

    To establish guidelines for the generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) contaminated material.

  12. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  13. Transport in Porous Media 50: 267305, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    recovery, exploitation of geothermal energy, storage of radioactive waste, soil pollution, etc. MostTransport in Porous Media 50: 267­305, 2003. © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed

  14. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  15. Development of a pilot safety information document (PSID) for the replacement of radioactive liquid waste treatment facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selvage, Ronald Derek

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. The PSID documents risk analysis for the proposed facility and some of the alternatives, accident analysis, radioactive and hazardous material doses to off-site individuals, and the cumulative safety risk from...

  16. Material transport method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  17. Material transport method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  18. Charge Transport Across Insulating Self-Assembled Mono layers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: catalysis (homogeneous), solar (photovoltaic), bio-inspired, charge transport, mesostructured materials, materials...

  19. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  20. A New Charge Transporting Host Material for Short Wavelength Organic Electrophosphorescence: 2,7–Bis(diphenylphosphine oxide)–9,9–dimethylfluorene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Sapochak, Linda S.; Burrows, Paul E.

    2006-05-01

    We report the synthesis, crystal structure, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of a new charge transporting host material for short wavelength phosphor-doped organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) based on 2,7-bis(diphenylphosphine oxide)-9,9-dimethylfluorene (PO6). The P=O moiety is used as a point of saturation between the fluorene bridge and outer phenyl groups so that the triplet exciton energy of PO6 is 2.72 eV, similar to that of a dibromo substituted fluorene, but it is more amenable to vacuum sublimation and has good film forming properties. Computational analysis (B3LYP/6-31G*) predicts the HOMO and LUMO energies of PO6 to be lower by 1.5 eV and 0.59 eV, respectively, compared to a similar diphenylamino substituted derivative. In a simple bilayer OLED device, PO6 exhibits structured UV electroluminescence (EL) at a peak wavelength of 335 nm and structured lower energy emission with peaks at 380 nm and 397 nm, similar to the solid film and crystalline solid photoluminescence spectra. The longer wavelength peaks are attributed to aggregate formation via strong intermolecular interactions (P-O---H-C and edge-to-face C-H---??contacts?) and longer range electrostatic interactions between P=O moieties leading to ordered regions in the film. Devices incorporating PO6 as the host material doped with iridium(III)bis(4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2.)picolinate (FIrpic) exhibited sky blue emission with peak external quantum efficiency (?ext,max) of 8.1 % and luminous power efficiency (?p,max) of 25.3 lm/W. At a brightness of 800 cd/m2, generally considered to be sufficient for lighting applications, the ?ext and ?p are 6.7 % and 11.8 lm/W and the operating voltage is 5.6 V, which is significantly lower than has been demonstrated previously using this dopant.

  1. Silicon-Polymer Encapsulation of High-Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. G. Loomis; C. M. Miller; J. A. Giansiracusa; R. Kimmel; S. V. Prewett

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: (1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; (2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, (3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

  2. Polysiloxane Encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, Guy George

    2000-03-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: 1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; 2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, 3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

  3. Handling Radioactive Waste from the Proton Accelerator Facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) - Always Surprising? - 13320

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueth, Joachim [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is the largest national research centre in Switzerland. Its multidisciplinary research is dedicated to a wide field in natural science and technology as well as particle physics. In this context, PSI is operating, amongst others, a large proton accelerator facility since more than 30 years. In two cyclotrons, protons are accelerated to high speeds and then guided along roughly 100 m of beam line to three different target stations to produce secondary particles like mesons and neutrons for experiments and a separately beam line for UCN. The protons induce spallation processes in the target materials, and also at other beam loss points along the way, with emission of protons, neutrons, hydrogen, tritium, helium, heavier fragments and fission processes. In particular the produced neutrons, due to their large penetration depth, will then interact also with the surrounding materials. These interactions of radiation with matter lead to activation and partly to contamination of machine components and the surrounding infrastructures. Maintenance, operation and decommissioning of installations generate inevitably substantial amounts of radioactive operational and dismantling waste like targets, magnets, collimators, shielding (concrete, steel) and of course secondary waste. To achieve an optimal waste management strategy for interim storage or final disposal, radioactive waste has to be characterized, sorted and treated. This strategy is based on radiation protection demands, raw waste properties (size, material, etc.), and requirements to reduce the volume of waste, mainly for legal and economical reasons. In addition, the radiological limitations for transportation of the waste packages to a future disposal site have to be taken into account, as well as special regulatory demands. The characterization is a task of the waste producer. The conditioning processes and quality checks for radioactive waste packages are part of an accredited waste management process of PSI, especially of the Section Dismantling and Waste Management. Strictly proven and accepted methods needed to be developed and enhanced for safe treatment, transport, conditioning and storage. But in the field of waste from research activities, individual and new solutions have to be found in an increasingly growing administrative environment. Furthermore, a wide variety of components, with a really large inventory of radioactive nuclides, has to be handled. And there are always surprising challenges concerning the unusual materials or the nuclide inventory. In case of the operational and dismantling radioactive accelerator waste, the existing conditioning methods are in the process of a continuous enhancement - technically and administratively. The existing authorized specifications of conditioning processes have to be extended to optimize and fully describe the treatment of the inevitably occurring radioactive waste from the accelerator facility. Additional challenges are the changes with time concerning the legal and regulatory requirements - or do we have to consider it as business as usual? This paper gives an overview of the current practices in radioactive waste management and decommissioning of the existing operational accelerator waste. (authors)

  4. Sustainable Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    THOUGHT PIECE Sustainable Transport by Melvin M. Webberwant to sustain any mode of transport only if we judge it todraconian in rejecting transport modes that have failed in

  5. Reliability of Transport Properties for Bulk Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents international round-robin study to ensure quality of transport data and figure of merit of thermoelectric materials

  6. Transport in granular systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendell, Dawn M. (Dawn Marie), 1983-

    2011-01-01

    There are many situations in which a continuum view of granular systems does not fully capture the relevant mechanics. In order for engineers to be able to design systems for transporting granular materials, there needs ...

  7. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W. (13237 W. 8th Ave., Golden, CO 80401); Brugger, Ronald P. (Lafayette, CO)

    1985-02-19

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  9. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, David G. (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  10. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  11. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-04-04

    To establish safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1A. Canceled by DOE O 460.1C.

  12. Generalized solution to multispecies transport equations coupled with a first-order reaction network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    nuclear waste sites contaminated with radioactive species and their daughter products and hazardous wasteGeneralized solution to multispecies transport equations coupled with a first-order reaction for deriving analytical solutions to multispecies transport equations coupled with multiparent, serial

  13. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D.; Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Jordan, H.; Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H.; Reardon, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs.

  14. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.

  15. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  16. Safety and Security of Radioactive Sealed and Disused/Orphan Sources in Ukraine - German Contribution - 13359

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brasser, Thomas; Hertes, Uwe; Meyer, Thorsten; Uhlenbruck, Hermann; Shevtsov, Alexey

    2013-07-01

    Within the scope of 'Nuclear Security of Radioactive Sources', the German government implemented the modernization of Ukrainian State Production Company's transport and storage facility for radioactive sources (TSF) in Kiev. The overall management of optimizing the physical protection of the storage facility (including the construction of a hot cell for handling the radioactive sources) is currently carried out by the German Federal Foreign Office (AA). AA jointly have assigned Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Germany's leading expert institution in the area of nuclear safety and waste management, to implement the project and to ensure transparency by financial and technical monitoring. Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research. Their life cycle starts with the production and finally ends with the interim/long-term storage of the disused sources. In Ukraine, IZOTOP is responsible for all radioactive sources throughout their life cycle. IZOTOP's transport and storage facility (TSF) is the only Ukrainian storage facility for factory-fresh radioactive sources up to an activity of about 1 million Ci (3.7 1016 Bq). The TSF is specially designed for the storage and handling of radioactive sources. Storage began in 1968, and is licensed by the Ukrainian state authorities. Beside the outdated state of TSF's physical protection and the vulnerability of the facility linked with it, the lack of a hot cell for handling and repacking radioactive sources on the site itself represents an additional potential hazard. The project, financed by the German Federal Foreign Office, aims to significantly improve the security of radioactive sources during their storage and handling at the TSF site. Main tasks of the project are a) the modernization of the physical protection of the TSF itself in order to prevent any unauthorized access to radioactive sources as well as b) the construction of a hot cell to reduce the number of transports of radioactive sources within the city of Kiev. In future, the new established hot cell at IZOTOP's transport and storage facility will be useful for identification and characterization of orphan/disused radioactive sources. The projects implemented are performed in accordance with international recommendations (e. g. IAEA) and national normative documents and will make a crucial contribution towards an improved safety and security management of radioactive sources in Ukraine. (authors)

  17. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  18. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ``Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,`` (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  19. Bagless transfer process and apparatus for radioactive waste confinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, D.N.; Hones, R.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1998-04-14

    A process and apparatus are provided for removing radioactive material from a glovebox, placing the material in a stainless steel storage vessel in communication with the glovebox, and sealing the vessel with a welded plug. The vessel is then severed along the weld, a lower half of the plug forming a closure for the vessel. The remaining welded plug half provides a seal for the remnant portion of the vessel and thereby maintains the sealed integrity of the glovebox. 7 figs.

  20. Bagless transfer process and apparatus for radioactive waste confinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, David N. (Aiken, SC); Hones, Robert H. (Evans, GA); Rogers, M. Lane (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01

    A process and apparatus is provided for removing radioactive material from a glovebox, placing the material in a stainless steel storage vessel in communication with the glovebox, and sealing the vessel with a welded plug. The vessel is then severed along the weld, a lower half of the plug forming a closure for the vessel. The remaining welded plug half provides a seal for the remnant portion of the vessel and thereby maintains the sealed integrity of the glovebox.

  1. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  2. Numerical Analysis of a Mixed Finite Element Method for a FlowTransport Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, So-Hsiang

    a waste­ disposal problem in which high level radioactive waste is buried in a salt dome, the salt dissolves to create a brine, radioactive elements decay to generate heat, and radionuclides are transportedNumerical Analysis of a Mixed Finite Element Method for a Flow­Transport Problem S. H. CHOU AND Q

  3. Parameter Estimates for High-Level Nuclear Transport in Fractured Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Jr., Jim

    for the transport of a chain of radioactive waste products in certain fractured porous media. The formulation begins of radioactive waste prod- ucts in certain fractured porous media. The model is intended to be a reason- ablyParameter Estimates for High-Level Nuclear Transport in Fractured Porous Media Jim Douglas, Jr. #3

  4. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  5. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K. (Broomfield, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO)

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  6. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  7. Standard guide for sampling radioactive tank waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses techniques used to obtain grab samples from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste created during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Guidance on selecting appropriate sampling devices for waste covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1). Vapor sampling of the head-space is not included in this guide because it does not significantly affect slurry retrieval, pipeline transport, plugging, or mixing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. On the solute transport in an aquifer-aquitard system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bian, Aiguo

    2009-05-15

    in the aquitard, retardation and radioactive decay in the aquifer and aquitard are taken into account. Mass exchange via diffusion between the aquifer and aquitard are investigated. The effects of hydrologic properties of the aquitard on solute transport...

  9. Hanford Site Wide Transportation Safety Document [SEC 1 Thru 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCCALL, D L

    2002-06-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) to approve the Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document (TSD) for onsite Transportation and Packaging (T&P) at Hanford. Hanford contractors, on behalf of DOE-RL, prepared and submitted the Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document, DOE/RL-2001-0036, Revision 0, (DOE/RL 2001), dated October 4, 2001, which is referred to throughout this report as the TSD. In the context of the TSD, Hanford onsite shipments are the activities of moving hazardous materials, substances, and wastes between DOE facilities and over roadways where public access is controlled or restricted and includes intra-area and inter-area movements. The TSD sets forth requirements and standards for onsite shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials and wastes within the confines of the Hanford Site on roadways where public access is restricted by signs, barricades, fences, or other means including road closures and moving convoys controlled by Hanford Site security forces.

  10. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN) [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05

    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  11. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense application that formed the basis for the commercial nuclear power industry.

  12. The Effect of Sedimentation on Plutonium Transport in Fourmile Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-02-21

    The major mechanisms of radioactive material transport and fate in surface water are sources, dilution, advection and dispersion of radionuclides by flow and surface waves, radionuclide decay, and interaction between sediment and radionuclides. STREAM II, an aqueous transport module of the Savannah River Site emergency response WIND system, accounts for the source term, and the effects of dilution, advection and dispersion. Although the model has the capability to account for nuclear decay, due to the short time interval of interest for emergency response, the effect of nuclear decay is very small and so it is not employed. The interactions between the sediment and radionuclides are controlled by the flow conditions and physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the sediment constituents. The STREAM II version used in emergency response must provide results relatively quickly; it therefore does not model the effects of sediment deposition/resuspension. This study estimates the effects of sediment deposition/resuspension on aqueous plutonium transport in Fourmile Branch. There are no measured data on plutonium transport through surface water available for direct model calibration. Therefore, a literature search was conducted to find the range of plutonium partition coefficients based on laboratory experiments and field measurements. A sensitivity study of the calculated plutonium peak concentrations as a function of the input parameter of partition coefficient was then performed. Finally, an estimation of the plutonium partition coefficient was made for the Fourmile Branch.

  13. Data and methods for the assessment of the risks associated with the maritime transport of radioactive materials: Results of the SeaRAM program studies. Volume 1 -- Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J.; Kanipe, F.L. [and others

    1998-05-01

    This report describes ship accident event trees, ship collision and ship fire frequencies, representative ships and shipping practices, a model of ship penetration depths during ship collisions, a ship fire spread model, cask to environment release fractions during ship collisions and fires, and illustrative consequence calculations.

  14. Wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-11-16

    A wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector and monitor capable of measuring radioactive-gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude is described. The device is designed to have an ionization chamber sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel-plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel-plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization-chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  15. An issue paper on the use of hydrogen getters in transportation packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-02-01

    The accumulation of hydrogen is usually an undesirable occurrence because buildup in sealed systems pose explosion hazards under certain conditions. Hydrogen scavengers, or getters, can avert these problems by removing hydrogen from such environments. This paper provides a review of a number of reversible and irreversible getters that potentially could be used to reduce the buildup of hydrogen gas in containers for the transport of radioactive materials. In addition to describing getters that have already been used for such purposes, novel getters that might find application in future transport packages are also discussed. This paper also discusses getter material poisoning, the use of getters in packaging, the effects of radiation on getters, the compatibility of getters with packaging, design considerations, regulatory precedents, and makes general recommendations for the materials that have the greatest applicability in transport packaging. At this time, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory composite getter, DEB [1,4-(phenylethylene)benzene] or similar polymer-based getters, and a manganese dioxide-based getter appear to be attractive candidates that should be further evaluated. These getters potentially can help prevent pressurization from radiolytic reactions in transportation packaging.

  16. 1995 revisions to the DOT/NRC transport regulations and their impact on nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grella, A.W.

    1996-10-01

    On September 28, 1995, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published major amendments to the nuclear transportation regulations of the US. The amendments culminated an approximate 8-year effort of the two agencies to conform US regulations (to the extent practicable) to the international transport standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series N. 6, {open_quotes}Regulations For The Safe Transport of Radioactive Material{close_quotes}, 1985 Edition (Revised 1990). This paper identifies the major revisions to the regulations which have taken place and discusses not only their probable future impacts but also identifies certain issues and early impacts which have been emerging since publication of the final rules late in 1995. The discussion is summarized with respect to these impacts and issues on transportation of radioactive material by the nuclear power industry. Many of the revisions which are more minor in nature are also identified. The generic effective date for mandatory compliance with the revised regulations was April 1, 1996, however two of the major revisions of interest to the utilities have later effective dates for mandatory compliance. The use of the so-called {open_quotes}NRC-Certified Type A LSA Packages{close_quotes} are authorized until April 1, 1999 and mandatory compliance with the new radiation protection program requirements of 49 CFR 172 Subpart I is not until October 1, 1997. This paper is based to a large extent on the EPRI report bearing the same title as this paper, which is currently in draft.

  17. Metals and Ceramics Division Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    (NIST) IEA Annex on Materials for Transportation Applications (ORNL) IEA ­ Rolling Contact Fatigue (ORNL

  18. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  19. Thermoelectric transport in the coupled valence-band model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramu, Ashok; Cassels, Laura; Hackman, Nathan; Lu, Hong; Zide, Joshua; Bowers, John E.

    2011-01-01

    109, 033704 ?2011? Thermoelectric transport in the coupledapplied to the problem of thermoelectric transport in p-typeef?ciency p-type thermoelectric material, are calculated and

  20. Transportation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

    1999-12-01

    The National Transportation Program 1999 Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste and materials transportation. In addition, this Report provides a summary overview of DOE’s projected quantities of waste and materials for transportation. Data presented in this report were gathered as a part of the IPABS Spring 1999 update of the EM Corporate Database and are current as of July 30, 1999. These data were input and compiled using the Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) which is used to update all stream-level components of the EM Corporate Database, as well as TSD System and programmatic risk (disposition barrier) information. Project (PBS) and site-level IPABS data are being collected through the Interim Data Management System (IDMS). The data are presented in appendices to this report.

  1. Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation: Second Worldwide Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    radioactive waste disposal programme; Nagra Technical Reportfor radioactive waste disposal; and • a summary report onof Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities, O E C D , Report,

  2. Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    using a variety of templates designed to keep messages focused May 2010 Page 3 The Chinese word for crisis contains two symbols One for danger One for danger The...

  3. Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Maine Yankee ISFSI Eric Howes, Public and Government Affairs Director, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company 2:00 p.m. DOE WIPP Update Carlsbad Field Office Report Bill Mackie,...

  4. Advanced materials research areas | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy, national security, and industrial competitiveness. For instance, lightweight materials are fundamental to the future of transportation and in other energy-related...

  5. Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Appropriations Subcommittee, is shown some of the technology in the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility by Warehousing and Transportation Operations Manager Byron...

  6. Molecular-Flow Properties of RIB Type Vapor-Transport Systems Using a Fast-Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Gerald D [ORNL] [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Liu, Yuan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the fast-valve device, described previously, permits measurement of molecular-flow times of chemically active or inactive gaseous species through radioactive ion beam (RIB) target ion source systems, independent of size, geometry and materials of construction. Thus, decay losses of short-half-life RIBs can be determined for a given target/vapor-transport system in advance of on-line operation, thereby ascertaining the feasibility of the system design for successful processing of a given isotope. In this article, molecular-flow-time theory and experimentally measured molecular-flow time data are given for serial- and parallel-coupled Ta metal RIB vapor-transport systems similar to those used at ISOL based RIB facilities. In addition, the effect of source type on the molecular-flow time properties of a given system is addressed, and a chemical passivation method for negating surface adsorption enthalpies for chemically active gaseous species on Ta surfaces is demonstrated.

  7. SRP RADIOACTIVE WASTE RELEASES S

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    . . . . . -- SRP RADIOACTIVE WASTE RELEASES S t a r t u p t h r o u g h 1 9 5 9 September 1 9 6 0 - R E C O R D - W O R K S T E C H N I C A L D E P A R T M E N T 1 J. E. C o l e ,...

  8. Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-02-27

    To establish U.S. Department of Energy requirements for inventory reporting, transaction reporting, verification of reporting, and assign responsibilities for reporting of radioactive sealed sources. DOE N 251.86 extends this notice until 5-6-11. No cancellations. Canceled by DOE O 231.1B

  9. The Radioactive Beam Program at Argonne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back

    2006-06-06

    In this talk I will present selected topics of the ongoing radioactive beam program at Argonne and discuss the capabilities of the CARIBU radioactive ion production facility as well as plans for construction of a novel superconducting solenoid spectrometer.

  10. Comparison and Analysis of Regulatory and Derived Requirements for Certain DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments; Lessons Learned for Future Spent Fuel Transportation Campaigns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, George L., Ph.D.; Fawcett, Rick L.; Rieke, Philip C.

    2003-02-27

    Radioactive materials transportation is stringently regulated by the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to protect the public and the environment. As a Federal agency, however, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must seek State, Tribal and local input on safety issues for certain transportation activities. This interaction has invariably resulted in the imposition of extra-regulatory requirements, greatly increasing transportation costs and delaying schedules while not significantly enhancing the level of safety. This paper discusses the results an analysis of the regulatory and negotiated requirements established for a July 1998 shipment of spent nuclear fuel from foreign countries through the west coast to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Staff from the INEEL Nuclear Materials Engineering and Disposition Department undertook the analysis in partnership with HMTC, to discover if there were instances where requirements derived from stakeholder interactions duplicate, contradict, or otherwise overlap with regulatory requirements. The study exhaustively lists and classifies applicable Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. These are then compared with a similarly classified list of requirements from the Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) and those developed during stakeholder negotiations. Comparison and analysis reveals numerous attempts to reduce transportation risk by imposing more stringent safety measures than those required by DOT and NRC. These usually took the form of additional inspection, notification and planning requirements. There are also many instances of overlap with, and duplication of regulations. Participants will gain a greater appreciation for the need to understand the risk-oriented basis of the radioactive materials regulations and their effectiveness in ensuring safety when negotiating extra-regulatory requirements.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Complex Wide Review

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This page intentionally blank i Complex-Wide Review of DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Summary Report TABLE OF CONTENTS Acronyms ......

  12. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risø National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 27 #12;4 #12;5 Preface This project for investigation of radioactivity in drinking water shall

  13. FY2008 Report on GADRAS Radiation Transport Methods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattingly, John K.; Mitchell, Dean James; Harding, Lee; Varley, Eric S.; Hilton, Nathan R.

    2008-10-01

    The primary function of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) is the solution of inverse radiation transport problems, by which the con-figuration of an unknown radiation source is inferred from one or more measured radia-tion signatures. GADRAS was originally developed for the analysis of gamma spec-trometry measurements. During fiscal years 2007 and 2008, GADRAS was augmented to implement the simultaneous analysis of neutron multiplicity measurements. This report describes the radiation transport methods developed to implement this new capability. This work was performed at the direction of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development. It was executed as an element of the Proliferation Detection Program's Simulation, Algorithm, and Modeling element. Acronyms BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory CSD Continuous Slowing-Down DU depleted uranium ENSDF Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files GADRAS Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software HEU highly enriched uranium LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NA-22 Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development NNDC National Nuclear Data Center NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration ODE ordinary differential equation ONEDANT One-dimensional diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PARTISN Parallel time-dependent SN PDP Proliferation Detection Program RADSAT Radiation Scenario Analysis Toolkit RSICC Radiation Safety Information Computational Center SAM Simulation, Algorithms, and Modeling SNL Sandia National Laboratories SNM special nuclear material ToRI Table of Radioactive Isotopes URI uniform resource identifier XML Extensible Markup Language

  14. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations.

  15. An overview of airborne radioactive emissions at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, F.A.; Dvorak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Strict control is essential over any emissions of radioactivity in the ventilation exhaust from facilities where radioactive materials may become airborne. At Los Alamos National Laboratory there are 87 stacks exhausting ventilation air to the environment from operations with a potential for radioactive emissions. These stacks cover the diverse operations at all Laboratory facilities where radioactive materials are handled and require continuous sampling/monitoring to detect levels of contamination. An overview is presented of the operations, associated ventilation exhaust cleanup systems, and analysis of the emissions. In keeping with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable concept, emissions of radionuclides are reduced whenever practicable. A specific example describing the reduction of emissions from the linear accelerator beam stop area at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility during 1985 by a factor of 8 over previous emissions is presented.

  16. The Approximation of Nuclear Contaminant Transport in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Jr., Jim

    of a chain of radioactive waste products and to present the results of some typical simulationsThe Approximation of Nuclear Contaminant Transport in Porous Media Jim Douglas, Jr. #3; Chieh;ective and eÆcient numerical method for approximating the solution of equations that govern the transport

  17. Non-Tracial Free Transport and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Brent Andrew

    2015-01-01

    tracial transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .the transport element . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Free Transport . . . . . . . . . . . .

  18. The radioactive Substances (Testing Instruments) Exemption Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith, Joseph

    1962-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No. 2643 ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (Testing Instruments) Exemption Order 1962

  19. The radioactive Substances (Civil Defence) Exemption Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith, Joseph

    1962-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No. 2641 ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (Civil Defence) Exemption Order 1962

  20. The radioactive Substances (Uranium and Thorium) Exemption Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Keith

    1962-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No.2710 ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (Uranium and Thorium) Exemption Order 1962

  1. An analysis of parameters affecting slapdown of transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergmann, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1991-06-01

    In the certification of packages for transport of radioactive material, the issue of slapdown must be addressed. Slapdown is a secondary impact of the body caused by rotational accelerations induced during eccentric primary impact. In this report, several parameters are evaluated that affect slapdown severity of packages for the transport of nuclear material. The nose and tail accelerations in a slapdown event are compared to those experienced by the same cask in a side-drop configuration, in which there is no rotation, for a range of initial impact angles, impact limiter models, and friction coefficients for two existing cask geometries. In some cases, the rotation induced during a shallow-angle impact is sufficient to cause accelerations at the tail during secondary impact to be greater than those at the nose during initial impact. Furthermore, both nose and tail accelerations are often greater than the side-on accelerations. The results described here have been calculated using the code SLAPDOWN, which approximates the impact response of deformable bodies. Finally, SLAPDOWN has been used to estimate the coefficient of friction acting at the nose and tail for one particular cask during one specific slapdown drop test by comparison of results with experimental data. 2 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan [JAVYS, PLc. - Nuclear and Decommisioning Company, PLc. (Slovakia)

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  3. Sediment transport in the Mississippi Canyon: the role of currents and storm events on optical variability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burden, Cheryl A

    1999-01-01

    Two modes of sediment transport were found to exist in the Mississippi Canyon: the offshelf transport of material in intermediate nepheloid layers originating at depths of 50-175 m and the resuspension and transport of material within the canyon...

  4. Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  6. Electrical and Thermoelectrical Transport Properties of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deqi

    2011-01-01

    IV Large Memory Effect in Graphene Based Devices IV-1Transport Properties of Graphene A Dissertation submitted into study the new material, graphene. By investigating the

  7. In-facility transport code review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spore, J.W.; Boyack, B.E.; Bohl, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    The following computer codes were reviewed by the In-Facility Transport Working Group for application to the in-facility transport of radioactive aerosols, flammable gases, and/or toxic gases: (1) CONTAIN, (2) FIRAC, (3) GASFLOW, (4) KBERT, and (5) MELCOR. Based on the review criteria as described in this report and the versions of each code available at the time of the review, MELCOR is the best code for the analysis of in-facility transport when multidimensional effects are not significant. When multi-dimensional effects are significant, GASFLOW should be used.

  8. Use of Technical Standards in Regulation of Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hazmat Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Rail Routing Kevin R. Blackwell Radioactive Materials Program Manager Hazardous Materials Division Federal...

  9. Radioactive waste management treatments: A selection for the Italian scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locatelli, G. [Univ. of Lincoln, Lincoln School of Engineering, Brayford Pool - Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Mancini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Via Lambruschini 4/B, Milano (Italy); Sardini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Energy, Via Lambruschini 4, Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    The increased attention for radioactive waste management is one of the most peculiar aspects of the nuclear sector considering both reactors and not power sources. The aim of this paper is to present the state-of-art of treatments for radioactive waste management all over the world in order to derive guidelines for the radioactive waste management in the Italian scenario. Starting with an overview on the international situation, it analyses the different sources, amounts, treatments, social and economic impacts looking at countries with different industrial backgrounds, energetic policies, geography and population. It lists all these treatments and selects the most reasonable according to technical, economic and social criteria. In particular, a double scenario is discussed (to be considered in case of few quantities of nuclear waste): the use of regional, centralized, off site processing facilities, which accept waste from many nuclear plants, and the use of mobile systems, which can be transported among multiple nuclear sites for processing campaigns. At the end the treatments suitable for the Italian scenario are presented providing simplified work-flows and guidelines. (authors)

  10. Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, J.; Anderson, S. D.; Wolf, Z.; Volk, J. T.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.

    2007-01-01

    were doped differently. Shin Etsu clearly made signi?cantdemagnetization curves from Shin-Etsu for block types N50Mand changing e.g. Shin-Etsu considers N34Z to be a 5 th

  11. Film Badge Application Radioactive Material Package Receipt Log

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    of Radiation Control & Radiological Services P.O. Box 118340, 212 Nuclear Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL: ____________________________________________________________ FACILITY: __________________ BLDG: _____________________ ROOM: __________ MAILING ADDRESS Principal Investigator Dept. Facility Building Lab Room Radionuclide Activity (mCi) Date Received

  12. DOE/NNSA Recovers One Millionth Curie of Radioactive Material...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters...

  13. Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technologies Study Emerging Technologies Continued 7. Nanopiezoelectronics. 8. Plastic thin-film organic solar cells. 9. Container integrity. Safety & Security Technologies...

  14. Radioactive Material Inspection/Survey Guidelines SIGNAGE AND POSTINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and be converted to dpm or pCi units. Cleaning will be required if contamination is found in excess of 100 pCi/100 in survey, and be converted to dpm or pCi units. Cleaning will be required if contamination is found in excess of 100 #12;pCi/100 cm2 (220 dpm/100 cm2 ). If cleaning is required, cleaning methods and follow

  15. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministrationTechnicalTechnical InformationFrequentlyEnergy,|THE

  16. NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12 National SecurityDevelopment Flight

  17. NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12 National SecurityDevelopment

  18. Simulation of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the central detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xinying Li; Ziyan Deng; Liangjian Wen; Weidong Li; Zhengyun You; Chunxu Yu; Yumei Zhang; Tao Lin

    2015-05-13

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is an experiment proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and probe the fundamental properties of neutrino oscillation. The JUNO central detector is a spherical liquid scintillator detector with 20 kton fiducial mass. It is required to achieve a $3\\%/\\sqrt{E(MeV)}$ energy resolution with very low radioactive background, which is a big challenge to the detector design. In order to ensure the detector performance can meet the physics requirements, reliable detector simulation is necessary to provide useful information for detector design. A simulation study of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the JUNO central detector has been performed to guide the detector design and set requirements to the radiopurity of detector materials.

  19. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gablin, K.; No, Hyo; Herman, J.

    1993-08-01

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage.

  20. Effect of doping, microstructure, and CO{sub 2} on La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}-based oxygen-transporting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klande, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.klande@pci.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Efimov, Konstantin [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Cusenza, Salvatore; Becker, Klaus-Dieter [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 10, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Feldhoff, Armin [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Alkaline earth-free La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} based materials were synthesized by a sol-gel method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques as well as oxygen permeation experiments. Effects of doping the nickel position with a variety of cations (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ta, and Zr) were investigated with regards to oxygen flux and microstructure. Doping was always found to diminish the oxygen flux as compared to the reference composition. However, larger grains, which were achieved by longer annealing times at 1723 K have a minor negative impact on oxygen permeation flux in case of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} system. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that the iron-doped system exhibits a secondary phase, which was identified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as a higher Ruddlesden-Popper phase. In-situ XRD in an atmosphere containing 50 vol% CO{sub 2} and long-term oxygen permeation experiments using pure CO{sub 2} as the sweep gas revealed a high tolerance of the materials towards CO{sub 2}. - Graphical Abstract: The vibrational polished La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} membrane revealed formation of secondary phases, which were confirmed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} systematically doped with different valent cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large grains have a negative impact on oxygen-permeation performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2}-stability proved by in-situ XRD in 50 vol% CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constant long-term permeation in presence of CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moessbauer and TEM reveal multiple phases in La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} system.

  1. Unsaturated flow and transport through a fault embedded in fractured welded tuff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    in locations where there is environmental contamination or the poten- tial for disposal of radioactive waste [Native et al., 1995], and the proposed radioactive waste repository in the tuff forma- tions at YuccaUnsaturated flow and transport through a fault embedded in fractured welded tuff Rohit Salve, Hui

  2. Shale disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassani, David Carl; Stone, Charles Michael; Hansen, Francis D.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Martinez, Mario J.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gaither, Katherine N.; Holland, John Francis; Brady, Patrick Vane

    2010-05-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in shale within the United States. The U.S. has many possible clay/shale/argillite basins with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar geologic formations have been extensively studied by international programs with largely positive results, over significant ranges of the most important material characteristics including permeability, rheology, and sorptive potential. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in shale media. We develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes identified by international investigators, to support a generic conclusion regarding post-closure safety. Requisite assumptions for these analyses include waste characteristics, disposal concepts, and important properties of the geologic formation. We then apply lessons learned from Sandia experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project to develop a disposal strategy should a shale repository be considered as an alternative disposal pathway in the U.S. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste in suitable shale formations is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable and self-sealing, conditions are chemically reducing, and sorption tends to prevent radionuclide transport. Vertically and laterally extensive shale and clay formations exist in multiple locations in the contiguous 48 states. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical calculations indicate that temperatures near emplaced waste packages can be maintained below boiling and will decay to within a few degrees of the ambient temperature within a few decades (or longer depending on the waste form). Construction effects, ventilation, and the thermal pulse will lead to clay dehydration and deformation, confined to an excavation disturbed zone within a few meters of the repository, that can be reasonably characterized. Within a few centuries after waste emplacement, overburden pressures will seal fractures, resaturate the dehydrated zones, and provide a repository setting that strongly limits radionuclide movement to diffusive transport. Coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations indicate maximum extents of radionuclide transport on the order of tens to hundreds of meters, or less, in a million years. Under the conditions modeled, a shale repository could achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios. The performance analyses described here are based on the assumption that long-term standards for disposal in clay/shale would be identical in the key aspects, to those prescribed for existing repository programs such as Yucca Mountain. This generic repository evaluation for shale is the first developed in the United States. Previous repository considerations have emphasized salt formations and volcanic rock formations. Much of the experience gained from U.S. repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, is applied here to scoping analyses for a shale repository. A contemporary understanding of clay mineralogy and attendant chemical environments has allowed identification of the appropriate features, events, and processes to be incorporated into the analysis. Advanced multi-physics modeling provides key support for understanding the effects from coupled processes. The results of the assessment show that shale formations provide a technically advanced, scientifically sound disposal option for the U.S.

  3. FLOW AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING IN THE GTS-HPF EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    repositories for L/IL radioactive waste ·Hyperalkaline solutions #12;GTS-HPF Grimsel Test Site - HyperalkalineFLOW AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING IN THE GTS-HPF EXPERIMENT Grimsel Test Site ­ Hyperalkaline

  4. Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods and Observations from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods & Observations from Savannah River Site Dennis Jackson P.E. & Timothy Jannik - Savannah River National Laboratory Teresa Eddy - Savannah...

  5. Sustainable Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  6. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

  7. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diehl, Roland [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Excellence Cluster Origin and Evolution of the Universe', D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-05-02

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ?My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  8. Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilger, Fred; Halstead, Robert J.; Ballard, James D.

    2013-07-01

    Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail routes for hazardous materials transport. The paper concludes that while the HM 164 regime is sufficient for certain applications, it does not provide an adequate basis for a national plan to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to centralized storage and disposal facilities over a period of 30 to 50 years. (authors)

  9. Procedure for the Recycling Material and Disposal of Waste from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    that waste is produced, stored, transported and disposed of without harming the environment. This is your, transport and disposal of wastes produced by UCL as requested by Facilities Services waste managers Clinical Wastes Radioactive Wastes Laboratory Wastes of Unknown Hazard Non-Hazardous Laboratory Wastes

  10. UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-08-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during extended storage. The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage system SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Hanson et al. 2011). Other sources of information surveyed to develop the list of SSCs and their degradation mechanisms included references such as Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel (NWTRB 2010), Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification, Revision 1 (OCRWM 2008), Data Needs for Long-Term Storage of LWR Fuel (EPRI 1998), Technical Bases for Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (EPRI 2002), Used Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Extended Storage Collaboration Program (EPRI 2010a), Industry Spent Fuel Storage Handbook (EPRI 2010b), and Transportation of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, Issues Resolution (EPRI 2010c). SSCs include items such as the fuel, cladding, fuel baskets, neutron poisons, metal canisters, etc. Potential degradation mechanisms (FEPs) included mechanical, thermal, radiation and chemical stressors, such as fuel fragmentation, embrittlement of cladding by hydrogen, oxidation of cladding, metal fatigue, corrosion, etc. These degradation mechanisms are discussed in Section 2 of this report. The degradation mechanisms have been evaluated to determine if they would be influenced by extended storage or high burnup, the need for additional data, and their importance to transportation. These categories were used to identify the most significant transportation degradation mechanisms. As expected, for the most part, the transportation importance was mirrored by the importance assigned by the UFD Storage Task. A few of the more significant differences are described in Section 3 of this report

  11. NREL Simulations Provide New Insight on Polymer-Based Energy Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    Atomistic simulations correlate molecular packing and electron transport in polymer-based energy storage materials.

  12. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  13. Hazardous Material Code Identification NFPA 704, 1996 Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    Hazardous Material Code Identification NFPA 704, 1996 Edition Identification of Health Hazard Color offer no hazard. 00 Materials that will not burn. 00 Materials that in themselves are normally stable DAMAGE TO LIVING TISSUE. MATERIALS POSSESSING RADIOACTIVITY HAZARDS. The identification systems

  14. An evaluation of Department of Transportation specification packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Specification packages are broad families of package designs developed and authorized by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for transport of certain Type B and fissile radioactive materials, with each specification containing a number of designs of various sizes. The specification package designs have remained essentially unchanged in a changing regulatory environment. Changes to package designs or authorized contents under the DOT system can be accomplished by rule making action, but there has been little updating of the designs over the years. Many of the individual package designs are no longer supported by reasonably current safety analyses. Since the publication of these specifications, there have been changes in regulatory requirements and improvements in methods of testing and analysis. Additionally, contemplated revisions to the DOT and NRC regulations to bring design requirements into accord with IAEA Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition would eliminate fissile classes and require resistance to a crush test for small Type B packages meeting certain criteria. The NRC has requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff review the safety documentation of the specification packages to determine the possible need for further testing and analysis, modifications to the designs, and, perhaps, elimination of any designs for which there is insufficient demonstration of compliance with current and proposed requirements. This paper will present a summary of the technical data and information concerning the use of the packages that has been received to date.

  15. An evaluation of Department of Transportation specification packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-11-01

    Specification packages are broad families of package designs developed and authorized by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for transport of certain Type B and fissile radioactive materials, with each specification containing a number of designs of various sizes. The specification package designs have remained essentially unchanged in a changing regulatory environment. Changes to package designs or authorized contents under the DOT system can be accomplished by rule making action, but there has been little updating of the designs over the years. Many of the individual package designs are no longer supported by reasonably current safety analyses. Since the publication of these specifications, there have been changes in regulatory requirements and improvements in methods of testing and analysis. Additionally, contemplated revisions to the DOT and NRC regulations to bring design requirements into accord with IAEA Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition would eliminate fissile classes and require resistance to a crush test for small Type B packages meeting certain criteria. The NRC has requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff review the safety documentation of the specification packages to determine the possible need for further testing and analysis, modifications to the designs, and, perhaps, elimination of any designs for which there is insufficient demonstration of compliance with current and proposed requirements. This paper will present a summary of the technical data and information concerning the use of the packages that has been received to date.

  16. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLS,G. SCOTT; NEUHAUSER,SIEGLINDE

    2000-04-12

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale.

  17. The Polymers for Liquid Radioactive Waste Solidification: a Lost Chapter in the History of Engineering or a Step Forward? - 13529

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokhitonov, Yury [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kelley, Dennis [Pacific Nuclear Solutions, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)] [Pacific Nuclear Solutions, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Ideas on the application of polymers for the liquid radioactive waste immobilization go a way back, and the first studies in the area were published 30-40 years ago. One should admit that regardless of the fairly large number of publications appeared in the past years currently the interest in this work came down greatly. It was the successful assimilation and worldwide implementation of the LRW cementation technology caused a slump in the interest in polymers. But today it's safe to say that the situation slowly changes, particularly due to the market appearance of the high-tech polymers manufactured by Nochar Company, and unique properties of these polymers gradually raise the demand in various countries. The results of multiple experiments performed with the simulated solutions have passed the comprehensive tests with actual waste. The economic effect from the implementation of the new technology is defined by the volume reduction of waste coming onto the repository, by the decline in the cost of transportation and of the repository construction on account of cutting down the construction volume. Interesting results have been obtained during the search for the technical decisions that would allow using the polymer materials in the processing technology of the industrial toxic waste. One more promising area of the possible application of polymers should be pointed out. It is the application of polymer materials as the assets for the emergency damage control when the advantages of the polymers become obvious. (authors)

  18. Bioindicators for Monitoring Radioactive Pollution of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    * IK s Dfc2looX|o Risø-R-443 Bioindicators for Monitoring Radioactive Pollution of the Marine-R-443 BIOINDICATORS FOR MONITORING RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT Experiments Dahlgaard Abstract. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) are globally used as bio- indicators for pollution of coastal

  19. Storage of nuclear materials by encapsulation in fullerenes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A method of encapsulating radioactive materials inside fullerenes for stable long-term storage. Fullerenes provide a safe and efficient means of disposing of nuclear waste which is extremely stable with respect to the environment. After encapsulation, a radioactive ion is essentially chemically isolated from its external environment.

  20. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  1. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  2. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  3. Introduction to Nuclear Waste Management Nuclear Waste is a type of radioactive waste that is usually the by-product of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auerbach, Scott M.

    that is usually the by-product of a nuclear technology. -Nuclear Technology includes: -Nuclear ReactorsIntroduction to Nuclear Waste Management Nuclear Waste is a type of radioactive waste -Nuclear Medicine Chemicals Nuclear reactors -Radioactive materials are placed in a reactor vessel

  4. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, Clay C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  6. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, C.C.

    1999-08-31

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

  7. Radioactive targets for neutron-induced cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronenberg, A. (Andreas); Bond, E. M. (Evelyn M.); Glover, S. E. (Samuel E.); Rundberg, R. S. (Robert S.); Vieira, D. J. (David J.); Esch, E. I. (Ernst-Ingo); Reifarth, R. (Rene); Ullmann, J. L. (John L.); Haight, Robert C.; Rochmann, D. (Dimitri)

    2004-01-01

    Measurements using radioactive targets are important for the determination of key reaction path ways associated with the synthesis of the elements in nuclear astrophysics (sprocess), advanced fuel cycle initiative (transmutation of radioactive waste), and stockpile stewardship. High precision capture cross-section measurements are needed to interpret observations, predict elemental or isotopical ratios, and unobserved abundances. There are two new detector systems that are presently being commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory for very precise measurements of (n,{gamma}) and (n,f) cross-sections using small quantities of radioactive samples. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments), a 4 {pi} gamma array made up of 160 BaF{sub 2} detectors, is designed to measure neutron capture cross-sections of unstable nuclei in the low-energy range (thermal to {approx}500 keV). The high granularity and high detection efficiency of DANCE, combined with the high TOF-neutron flux available at the Lujan Center provides a versatile tool for measuring many important cross section data using radioactive and isotopically enriched targets of about 1 milligram. Another powerful instrument is the Lead-slowing down spectrometer (LSDS), which will enable the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-section of U-235m and other short-lived actinides in a energy range from 1-200 keV with sample sizes down to 10 nanograms. Due to the short half-life of the U-235m isomer (T{sub 1/2} = 26 minutes), the samples must be rapidly and repeatedly extracted from its {sup 239}Pu parent. Since {sup 239}Pu is itself highly fissile, the separation must not only be rapid, but must also be of very high purity (the Pu must be removed from the U with a decontamination factor >10{sup 12}). Once extracted and purified, the {sup 235m}U isomer would be electrodeposited on solar cells as a fission detector and placed within the LSDS for direct (n,f) cross section measurements. The production of radioactive targets of a few milligrams will be described as well as the containment for safe handling of these targets at the Lujan Center at LANSCE. To avoid any contamination, the targets are electrochemically fixed onto thin Ti foils and two foils are placed back to back to contain the radioactive material within. This target sandwich is placed in a cylinder made of aluminum with thin translucent windows made of Kapton. Actinides targets, such as {sup 234,235,236,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu are prepared by electrodeposition or molecular plating techniques. Target thicknesses of 1-2 mg/cm{sup 2} with sizes of 1 cm{sup 2} or more have been made. Other targets will be fabricated from separation of irradiated isotopically enriched targets, such as {sup 155}Eu from {sup 154}Sm,{sup 171}Tm from {sup 170}Er, and {sup 147}Pm from {sup 146}Nd, which has been irradiated in the high flux reactor at ILL, Grenoble. A radioactive sample isotope separator (RSIS) is in the process of being commissioned for the preparation of other radioactive targets. A brief summary of these experiments and the radioactive target preparation technique will be given.

  8. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G. [Waste Control Specialists LLC, Andrews, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from the more mobile radionuclides occur. The EPA National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants limits radionuclide doses through the air pathway to 10 mrem/yr. Gaseous radionuclide doses from the CWF and the FWF, due to decomposition gases, are a small fraction of the dose limit. The radon flux from the CWF and FWF were compared to the flux limit of 20 pCi/m{sup 2}-s from 40 CFR 192. Because of the thick cover system, the calculated radon flux was a very small fraction of the limit. (authors)

  9. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle; Wagner, John C.

    2013-07-01

    The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup fuel storage and transportation. This paper discusses the staff's preliminary considerations on the safety implication of fuel reconfiguration with respect to nuclear safety (subcriticality control), radiation shielding, containment, the performance of the thermal functions of the packages, and the retrievability of the contents from regulatory perspective. (authors)

  10. Portsmouth Site Delivers First Radioactive Waste Shipment to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Portsmouth Site Delivers First Radioactive Waste Shipment to Disposal Facility in Texas Portsmouth Site Delivers First Radioactive Waste Shipment to Disposal Facility in Texas...

  11. The radioactive Substances (Testing Instruments) Exemption (Scotland)Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Michael

    1962-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No. 2764 (S. 124) ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (Testing instruments) Exemption (Scotland) Order 1962

  12. RESRAD Computer Code- Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989.

  13. THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY...

  14. Letter to Congress RE: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Congress RE: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's Annual Financial Report Letter to Congress RE: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's Annual Financial...

  15. Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation: Second Worldwide Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan. DOE/RW-Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan. DraftBasis for Nuclear Waste Management X V I , Mat. Res. Soc.

  16. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson editor, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    level radioactive waste disposal, 1993–1996, Annual Reportradioactive waste disposal programme, Nagra Technical ReportDisposal concepts for radioactive wastes, Final Report,

  17. Management Not Available 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    87 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume I, Part 3, Waste Management Not Available 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 11...

  18. Study finds radioactivity around Los Alamos largely due to natural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactivity largely due to natural sources Study finds radioactivity around Los Alamos largely due to natural sources The study was subsequently peer reviewed externally by...

  19. Transportation Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boreo, Andrea; Li, Wei; Wunnenbuger, Douglas; Giusti, Cecilia; Cooper, John T.; Masterson, Jaimie

    2015-01-01

    Mobility throughout a community ensures freedom of movement and enhances quality of life. Traffic congestion, pollution, urban sprawl, social exclusion, safety and health can decrease mobility and should be a part of a sustainable transportation...

  20. electrifyingthefuture transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    programme of electrification and the potential introduction of diesel hybrids. The Department for Transport vehicles Wind turbine systems Industrial equipment The lab has full ethernet capability which will enable