National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radiator heating systems

  1. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  2. Radiative heat transfer in anisotropic many-body systems: Tuning and enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikbakht, Moladad, E-mail: mnik@znu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan 45371-38791 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-07

    A general formalism for calculating the radiative heat transfer in many body systems with anisotropic component is presented. Our scheme extends the theory of radiative heat transfer in isotropic many body systems to anisotropic cases. In addition, the radiative heating of the particles by the thermal bath is taken into account in our formula. It is shown that the radiative heat exchange (HE) between anisotropic particles and their radiative cooling/heating (RCH) could be enhanced several order of magnitude than that of isotropic particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the HE and RCH can be tuned dramatically by particles relative orientation in many body systems.

  3. Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. ); Silverstein, C.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.

  4. Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Silverstein, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.

  5. CONVERGENCE OF A NUMERICAL SCHEME FOR A NONLINEAR COUPLED SYSTEM OF RADIATIVE---CONDUCTIVE HEAT TRANSFER EQUATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henri Poincaré -Nancy-Université, Université

    . Introduction And Main Results Radiative heat transfer coupled with conduction through semi---transparent media---state combined radiative---conductive heat transfer. The media studied were assumed to be homogeneous, grey1 CONVERGENCE OF A NUMERICAL SCHEME FOR A NONLINEAR COUPLED SYSTEM OF RADIATIVE---CONDUCTIVE HEAT

  6. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  7. Heat pipes for NEP spacecraft radiators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Reliable, low mass, passive radiators for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Spacecraft require innovative system designs and the use of high performance, high temperature liquid metal heat pipes. This paper covers the evolution of the NEP spacecraft and radiator. 1 ref.

  8. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  9. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  10. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ living --- HEATER??ACTIVE --- ACTIVATING??HEATER --- HEATER??RUNNING ; #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

  11. Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Elder, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance(kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of lightweight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

  12. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heat arriving in the radiators. As a result, steam systems make it difficult to implement control strategies such as a night setback system. The first central heating systems for...

  13. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    and J.R. Howell, Thermal radiation heat transfer, Hemispheremade: 1. The heat, mass, and radiation transfer are treatedOne- dimensional heat, mass, and radiation transfers were

  14. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  16. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  17. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  18. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  19. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Kaviany and B.P. Singh, Radiative heat transfer in porousmedia, Advances in Heat Transfer, vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 133Thermal radiation heat transfer, Hemisphere Publishing Co. ,

  20. Radiative heat transfer between dielectric bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs

    2011-03-16

    The recent development of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) has led to measurements of radiative heat transfer between a heated sensor and a cooled sample down to the nanometer range. This allows for comparision of the known theoretical description of radiative heat transfer, which is based on fluctuating electrodynamics, with experiment. The theory itself is a macroscopic theory, which can be expected to break down at distances much smaller than 10-8m. Against this background it seems to be reasonable to revisit the known macroscopic theory of fluctuating electrodynamics and of radiative heat transfer.

  1. Integrated heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, W.R.

    1988-03-01

    An integrated heat pump and hot water system is described that includes: a heat pump having an indoor heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger that are selectively connected to the suction line and the discharge line respectively of a compressor by a flow reversing means, and to each other by a liquid line having an expansion device mounted therein, whereby heating and cooling is provided to an indoor comfort zone by cycling the flow reversing means, a refrigerant to water heat exchanger having a hot water flow circuit in heat transfer relation with a first refrigerant condensing circuit and a second refrigerant evaporating circuit, a connection mounted in the liquid between the indoor heat exchanger and the expansion device, control means for regulating the flow of refrigerant through the refrigerant to water heat exchanger to selectively transfer heat into and out of the hot water flow circuit.

  2. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  3. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  4. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  5. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  6. Heat pipe radiation cooling evaluation: Task 2 concept studies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverstein, C.C.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents the result of Task 2, Concept Studies for Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC), which was performed for Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract 9-XT1-U9567. Studies under a prior contract defined a reference HPRC conceptual design for hypersonic aircraft engines operating at Mach 5 and an altitude of 80,000 ft. Task 2 involves the further investigation of heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) systems for additional design and operating conditions.

  7. Radiative Heat Transfer between Neighboring Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier Garcia de Abajo

    2012-01-26

    The near-field interaction between two neighboring particles is known to produce enhanced radiative heat transfer. We advance in the understanding of this phenomenon by including the full electromagnetic particle response, heat exchange with the environment, and important radiative corrections both in the distance dependence of the fields and in the particle absorption coefficients. We find that crossed terms of electric and magnetic interactions dominate the transfer rate between gold and SiC particles, whereas radiative corrections reduce it by several orders of magnitude even at small separations. Radiation away from the dimer can be strongly suppressed or enhanced at low and high temperatures, respectively. These effects must be taken into account for an accurate description of radiative heat transfer in nanostructured environments.

  8. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  9. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  10. Integrated heat pump and heat storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, A.

    1983-09-13

    An integrated heat pump and heat storage system is disclosed comprising a heat pump, a first conduit for supplying return air from an enclosure to the heat pump, a second conduit for supplying heated air from the heat pump to the enclosure, heat storage apparatus. A first damper is operative in a first orientation to permit return air from the enclosure to enter the first conduit and to prevent return air from passing through the heat storage apparatus and operative in a second orientation to cause return air to pass through the heat storage apparatus for being heated thereby before entering the first conduit. A second damper is operative in a first orientation to cause heated air from the second conduit to pass through the heat storage apparatus for giving up a portion of its heat for storage and operative in a second orientation to prevent heated air from the second conduit from passing through the heat storage apparatus and to permit the heated air from the second conduit to reach the enclosure. The heat storage apparatus may comprise phase change materials.

  11. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  12. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  13. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  14. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    2008-01-15

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  15. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  16. Heat transport system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, Samuel D. (McMurray, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  17. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Philip D. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  18. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  19. Laboratory Heat Recovery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burrows, D. B.; Mendez, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    that they will be considerable. The system has been in successful operation since October 1979. 724 ESL-IE-81-04-123 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 Conoco R&D West The award-winning laboratory heat-recovery... stream_source_info ESL-IE-81-04-123.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11112 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-81-04-123.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LABORATORY HEAT...

  20. RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI-MONTE CARLO METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI-MONTE CARLO METHODS A. Kersch1 W. Moroko2 A. Schuster1 1Siemens of Quasi-Monte Carlo to this problem. 1.1 Radiative Heat Transfer Reactors In the manufacturing of the problems which can be solved by such a simulation is high accuracy modeling of the radiative heat transfer

  1. Radiative heat transfer in inhomogeneous, nongray, and anisotropically scattering media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Radiative heat transfer in inhomogeneous, nongray, and anisotropically scattering media Zhixiong Radiative heat transfer in three-dimensional inhomogeneous, nongray and anisotropically scattering of an application of engineering interest, radiative heat transfer in a boiler model with non-isothermal, nongray

  2. [Waste water heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  3. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Rodriguez-Lopez; Wang-Kong Tse; Diego A. R. Dalvit

    2015-02-02

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  4. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01

    operating solar heating and cooling systems covering a widepractical heating and cooling system configurations andexperimental heating and cooling system, the main purpose of

  5. RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASIMONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASIMONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda A. Kersch 1 W. Morokoff 2 A accuracy modeling of the radiative heat transfer from the heater to the wafer. Figure 1 shows the draft Carlo simulation is often used to solve radiative transfer problems where complex physical phenomena

  6. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  7. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  8. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  9. Impact of the Position of a Radiator to Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    Heating energy consumption in winter is an important component of the whole building energy consumption in the severe cold zone in north China. This paper presents a heating water system of a hotel building in Harbin, finishes the testing of its...

  10. Thermal self-oscillations in radiative heat exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyakov, Sergey; Yan, Min; Qiu, Min

    2014-01-01

    We report the effect of relaxation-type self-induced temperature oscillations in the system of two parallel plates of SiO$_2$ and VO$_2$ which exchange heat by thermal radiation in vacuum. The nonlinear feedback in the self-oscillating system is provided by metal-insulator transition in VO$_2$. Using the method of fluctuational electrodynamics we show that under the action of external laser of a constant power, the temperature of VO$_2$ plate oscillates around its phase transition value.

  11. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  12. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified...

  13. Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular method are adopted to solve the global heat transfer and the radiative heat exchange, respectively rate QJ diffuse radiation heat transfer rate QX net rate of radiative heat loss QT heat generation rate

  14. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar...

  15. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because...

  16. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights First university owned district heating system using biomass heat Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  17. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That...

  18. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USFs PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  19. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Sren stergaard Jensen

  20. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. PLEASE HELP SAVE ENERGY!! Learn how to control the heating system for your room.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernndez-Juricic, Esteban

    PLEASE HELP SAVE ENERGY!! Learn how to control the heating system for your room. Meredith Hall Steam Heating System Manual steam heat control valve Steam and condensate piping are run to each room. The heat is controlled by a manually adjustable heat control valve on the radiator, which appears in every

  2. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  3. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  4. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01

    solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen insolar heating and cooling system, showing plumbing runs containing solenoid valves, auxiliary heater (

  5. Triple integrated heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackshaw, A.L.; Robinson, G.P. Jr.

    1987-03-03

    A heat pump system is described comprising: a first heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a second heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a third heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a refrigerant pressurizing device having a suction inlet and a high pressure outlet; a reversible refrigerant expansion means for expanding refrigerant from condenser to evaporator pressure connected between the second refrigerant connections on the first and second heat exchange means; an alternate refrigerant expansion means for expanding refrigerant from condenser to evaporator pressure connected to the second refrigerant connection on the third heat exchange means; check valve means connecting the alternate refrigerant expansion means to the common points between the reversible expansion means and each of the first and second heat exchange means so that refrigerant can flow from the alternate expansion means to the first and second heat exchange means but flow of refrigerant from the first and second heat exchange means is prevented; and control valve means.

  6. Enhanced radiative heat transfer between nanostructured gold plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Gurout; J. Lussange; F. S. S. Rosa; J. -P. Hugonin; D. A. R. Dalvit; J. -J. Greffet; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

    2012-03-07

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between nanostructured gold plates in the framework of the scattering theory. We predict an enhancement of the heat transfer as we increase the depth of the corrugations while keeping the distance of closest approach fixed. We interpret this effect in terms of the evolution of plasmonic and guided modes as a function of the grating's geometry.

  7. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V. Bogy, David B.

    2014-02-10

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  8. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Murphy, Richard W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  9. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  10. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM) are of great interest due to their ability to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. Here we demonstrate that an annular, transparent HMM enables selective heating of a sub-wavelength plasmonic nanowire by controlling the angular mode number of a plasmonic resonance. A nanowire emitter, surrounded by an HMM, appears dark to incoming radiation from an adjacent nanowire emitter unless the second emitter is surrounded by an identical lens such that the wavelength and angular mode of the plasmonic resonance match. Our result can find applications in radiative thermal management.

  11. Trace formulae for non-equilibrium Casimir interactions, heat radiation and heat transfer for arbitrary objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Krger; Giuseppe Bimonte; Thorsten Emig; Mehran Kardar

    2012-07-16

    We present a detailed derivation of heat radiation, heat transfer and (Casimir) interactions for N arbitrary objects in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics in thermal non-equilibrium. The results can be expressed as basis-independent trace formulae in terms of the scattering operators of the individual objects. We prove that heat radiation of a single object is positive, and that heat transfer (for two arbitrary passive objects) is from the hotter to a colder body. The heat transferred is also symmetric, exactly reversed if the two temperatures are exchanged. Introducing partial wave-expansions, we transform the results for radiation, transfer and forces into traces of matrices that can be evaluated in any basis, analogous to the equilibrium Casimir force. The method is illustrated by (re)deriving the heat radiation of a plate, a sphere and a cylinder. We analyze the radiation of a sphere for different materials, emphasizing that a simplification often employed for metallic nano-spheres is typically invalid. We derive asymptotic formulae for heat transfer and non-equilibrium interactions for the cases of a sphere in front a plate and for two spheres, extending previous results. As an example, we show that a hot nano-sphere can levitate above a plate with the repulsive non-equilibrium force overcoming gravity -- an effect that is not due to radiation pressure.

  12. High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    transmitter radiates a strong beam of high- frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates-frequency (HF) radiation in the megahertz range [7]. This heating modulates the electron's temperature in the D

  13. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel Ruggirello RachelRadiationRadiative

  14. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel Ruggirello RachelRadiationRadiative Bands

  15. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generates hot and cold water rather than air, allowing it to be used with radiant floor heating systems in heating mode. Geothermal (ground-source or water-source) heat...

  16. Waste Heat Utilization System Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Waste heat utilization systems arefacilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elect...

  17. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  18. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  19. An Evaluation of Shadow Shielding for Lunar System Waste Heat Rejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worn, Cheyn

    2012-07-16

    Shadow shielding is a novel and practical concept for waste heat rejection from lunar surface spacecraft systems. A shadow shield is a light shield that shades the radiator from parasitic thermal radiation emanating from the sun or lunar surface...

  20. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    radiative heat transfer, since radiation was neglectedradiation striking the floor makes up the majority of the total heat transferheat transfer processes: conduction through the slab and floor panels and into the supply plenum via convection; radiation

  1. A Radiative Transport Model for Heating Paints using High Density Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Duty, Chad E; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Nichols, Mark; Blue, Craig A; Ott, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The energy distribution and ensuing temperature evolution within paint-like systems under the influence of infrared radiation was studied. Thermal radiation effects as well as those due to heat conduction were considered. A complete set of material properties was derived and discussed. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the temperature in the paint film. The heat flux of the incident radiation from the plasma arc lamp was measured using a heat flux sensor with a very short response time. The comparison between the computed and experimental results for temperature show that the models that are based on spectral four-flux RTE and accurate optical properties yield accurate results for the black paint systems.

  2. Radiative heat transfer in a hydrous mantle transition zone Sylvia-Monique Thomas a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    Radiative heat transfer in a hydrous mantle transition zone Sylvia-Monique Thomas a,n , Craig R contribute significantly to heat transfer in the mantle and demonstrate the importance of radiative heat, radiative heat transfer was considered relatively unimportant in the mantle. Earlier experimental work

  3. Demonstration of Strong Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Integrated Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipson, Michal

    Demonstration of Strong Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Integrated Nanostructures-polariton Recently, there has been a growing interest in controlling radiative heat transfer in the near-field,1 ultrahigh contrast rectification of heat transfer.27 Here we show strong near-field radiative heat transfer

  4. Numerical Passage from Radiative Heat Transfer to Nonlinear Diffusion Models \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeiser, Christian

    Numerical Passage from Radiative Heat Transfer to Nonlinear Diffusion Models \\Lambda A. Klar y C. Schmeiser z Abstract Radiative heat transfer equations including heat conduction are consid­ ered situations are presented. Keywords. radiative heat transfer, asymptotic analysis, nonlinear diffusion limit

  5. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Menguc, Thermal radiation heat transfer, CRC Press, 2011.convection and radiation heat transfer are compared to theused for this study. Radiation Heat Transfer In the ASHRAE

  6. A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    RANA 9906 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden --- R, The Netherlands email: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12; Abstract In the production of glass, temperature Conclusion 25 2 #12; Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

  7. A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    RANA 99-06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden -- R, The Netherlands e-mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12;Abstract In the production of glass, temperature plays Conclusion 25 2 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

  8. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  9. Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed.

  10. Heating System Modernization, Management of Peripheral Scope...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    System Modernization, Management of Peripheral Scope Lessons Learned Report, NNSA, Dec 2010 Heating System Modernization, Management of Peripheral Scope Lessons Learned Report,...

  11. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, David

    2013-01-01

    System for Waste Heat Recovery. Journal of Heat Transfer,Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery. Energy, 29:1207Strategy of Waste Heat Recovery Organic Rankine Cycles.

  12. The multiple absorption coefficient zonal method (MACZM), an efficient computational approach for the analysis of radiative heat transfer in multidimensional inhomogeneous nongray media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, W W

    2006-01-01

    the effect of radiation heat transfer in multi-dimensionaleffects of the radiation heat transfer, particularly in3-D Surface Radiation Calculation, Numerical heat Transfer,

  13. Heat engine generator control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajashekara, Kaushik (Carmel, IN); Gorti, Bhanuprasad Venkata (Towson, MD); McMullen, Steven Robert (Anderson, IN); Raibert, Robert Joseph (Fishers, IN)

    1998-01-01

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power.

  14. Heat engine generator control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajashekara, K.; Gorti, B.V.; McMullen, S.R.; Raibert, R.J.

    1998-05-12

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power. 8 figs.

  15. Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific James H radiative fluxes and heating rates. Maxima in cloud occurrence are found in the boundary layer and the upper radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D05201, doi:10.1029/2006JD

  16. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER USING DISCRETE ORDINATES METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    TWO-DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER USING DISCRETE ORDINATES METHOD Zhixiong Guo for the first time to solve transient radiative heat transfer in a two-dimensional rectangular enclosure of solution method of radiative heat transfer in participating media in recent decades. However, the analysis

  17. Dual-scale 3-D approach for modeling radiative heat transfer in fibrous insulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    Dual-scale 3-D approach for modeling radiative heat transfer in fibrous insulations R. Arambakam 2013 Keywords: Radiative heat transfer Dual-scale modeling Insulation media Fibrous media a b s t r a c a fiber diameter for which radiation heat transfer through a fibrous media is min- imal, ranging between 3

  18. Modeling the role of microstructural parameters in radiative heat transfer through disordered fibrous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    Modeling the role of microstructural parameters in radiative heat transfer through disordered high-tempera- tures. Traditional studies of radiative heat transfer in fibrous materials have been the performance of fibrous materials used as radiative heat transfer insulation media. Although effective

  19. Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer Andrei G models for thermophysical and transport properties and heat, mass, and radiation transfer in glass foams. In addition, the new results on simulation of combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in glass foams

  20. Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer in an Axisymmetric Closed Chamber: An Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer in an Axisymmetric Closed Chamber: An Application to Crystal University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook N.Y. 11794 ABSTRACT Radiative heat transfer plays simulating radiative heat transfer in the crystal and in the region above the melt containing gas under

  1. Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Macroscopic Planar Surfaces R. S. Ottens,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, David B.

    Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Macroscopic Planar Surfaces R. S. Ottens,1 V. Quetschke-field, blackbody radiation. Although heat transfer via near-field effects has been discussed for many years.014301 PACS numbers: 44.40.+a, 78.20.Ci Humans knew of radiative heat transfer at least as early

  2. An Investigation of the Radiative Heat Transfer through Nonwoven Fibrous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    An Investigation of the Radiative Heat Transfer through Nonwoven Fibrous Materials Imad Qashou1 of the Fluent CFD code is used to investigate the response of a fibrous material to the radiative heat transfer in agreement with our experimental study. INTRODUCTION Radiative heat transfer through fibrous media has been

  3. Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Fibrous Insulation Materials Using the ZonalGEF Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Walter W.

    Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Fibrous Insulation Materials Using the ZonalGEF Method Walter to analyze radiative heat transfer in high porosity insulation materials which have a large scattering. Radiative heat transfer in this class of material is nonlocalized in the optically thick limit

  4. Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped Emmanuel Rousseau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near- field heat transfer. We also

  5. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  6. Heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for Felix Spa, Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosca, Marcel; Maghiar, Teodor

    1996-01-24

    The paper presents a pre-feasibility type study of a proposed heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for an average hotel in Felix Spa, Romania. After a brief presentation of the geothermal reservoir, the paper gives the methodology and the results of the technical and economical calculations. The technical and economical viability of the proposed system is discussed in detail in the final part of the paper.

  7. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Comstock, Jennifer

    2013-11-07

    A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.

  8. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Comstock, Jennifer

    A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.

  9. Advanced Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    BED WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS G. R. PETERSON Project Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office Idaho Falls, Idaho ABSTRACT The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industri al Programs, has sponsored the development of a... Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery System (FBWHRS) and a higher temperature variant, the Ceramic Tubular Distributor Plate (CTOP) Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger (FBHX) system. Both systems recover energy from high-temperature flue gases and produce steam...

  10. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar observations to evaluate model simulations In cooperation with Profs. Bob Houze at University of Washington and Steven Rutledge at Colorado State University, numerical model results were evaluated with observations from W- and C-band radars and CloudSat/TRMM satellites. These studies exhibited some shortcomings of current numerical models, such as too little of thin anvil clouds, directing the future improvement of cloud microphysics parameterization in CRMs. Two papers of Powell et al (2012) and Zeng et al. (2013), summarizing these studies, were published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 4. Analyzed the water budgets of MCSs Using ARM data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP and other field campaigns, the Goddard CRM simulations were carried out to analyze the water budgets of clouds from TWP-ICE and AMMA. The simulations generated a set of datasets on clouds and radiation, which are available http://cloud.gsfc.nasa.gov/. The cloud datasets were available for modelers and other researchers aiming to improve the representation of cloud processes in multi-scale modeling frameworks, GCMs and climate models. Special datasets, such as 3D cloud distributions every six minutes for TWP-ICE, were requested and generated for ARM/ASR investigators. Data server records show that 86,206 datasets were downloaded by 120 users between April of 2010 and January of 2012. 5. MMF simulations The Goddard MMF (multi-scale modeling framework) has been improved by coupling with the Goddard Land Information System (LIS) and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GOES5). It has also been optimized on NASA HEC supercomputers and can be run over 4000 CPUs. The improved MMF with high horizontal resolution (1 x 1 degree) is currently being applied to cases covering 2005 and 2006. The results show that the spatial distribution pattern of precipitation rate is well simulated by the MMF through comparisons with satellite retrievals from the CMOPRH and GPCP data sets. In addition, the MMF results were compared with three reanalyses (MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR). Although the MMF tends

  11. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, Donald L. (Saline, MI)

    1987-01-01

    A heat transport system, method and composite material in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure.

  12. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  13. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

  14. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    is little radiative heat transfer and little impact on thereturn air extrac- tion and heat transfer to the plenum. ItUFAD is often used and heat transfer out of the room through

  15. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedel, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Wintenberg, Alan L. (Knoxville, TN); Clonts, Lloyd G. (Knoxville, TN); Cooper, Ronald G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  16. Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2013-01-31

    Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day?km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by the cloud radiative heating profiles. However, the height of the radiative heating maxima and gradient of the heating profiles are important to determine the sign and patterns of the horizontal circulation anomaly driven by radiative heating at upper levels.

  17. AOSC 621AOSC 621 Radiative Heating/CoolingRadiative Heating/Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    ? Why drop off near sfc? 4 #12;Net flux Net flux: F = F+ - F- 1 2 F-(1) F+(1) F-(2) F+(2) Net energy at the top of the atmosphere is zero. Then we can write 1' ' )',( )'()0,()( 0 * dz dz zzdT zBzTBzF z z F F The heating rate at z is defined as follows: )( )( d zdF zH net four termsofconsistwilland dz A

  18. Specific heat anomalies of open quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gert-Ludwig Ingold; Peter Hnggi; Peter Talkner

    2009-05-21

    The evaluation of the specific heat of an open, damped quantum system is a subtle issue. One possible route is based on the thermodynamic partition function which is the ratio of the partition functions of system plus bath and of the bath alone. For the free damped particle it has been shown, however, that the ensuing specific heat may become negative for appropriately chosen environments. Being an open system this quantity then naturally must be interpreted as the change of the specific heat obtained as the difference between the specific heat of the heat bath coupled to the system degrees of freedom and the specific heat of the bath alone. While this difference may become negative, the involved specific heats themselves are always positive; thus, the known thermodynamic stability criteria are perfectly guaranteed. For a damped quantum harmonic oscillator, instead of negative values, under appropriate conditions one can observe a dip in the difference of specific heats as a function of temperature. Stylized minimal models containing a single oscillator heat bath are employed to elucidate the occurrence of the anomalous temperature dependence of the corresponding specific heat values. Moreover, we comment on the consequences for the interpretation of the density of states based on the thermal partitionfunction.

  19. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  20. JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS). This data allows for observationally-based calculations ofradiative heating rate profiles within the Arctic atmosphere. In this paper we define cloud radiative heating rate forcing (CRHF) as the difference between

  1. Modeling ofHybrid (Heat Radiation and Microwave) High Temperature Processing ofLimestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    Modeling ofHybrid (Heat Radiation and Microwave) High Temperature Processing ofLimestone Shawn M (electromagnetic and thermal) modeling to cover practically valuable scenarios of hybrid (heat radiation is applied to the process of hybrid heating of cylindrical samples of limestone in Ceralink's MAT TM kiln

  2. Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

  3. Designing Optimal Heat and Power Systems for Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutkowski, M. A.; Witherell, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    . It must facilitate understanding the tradeoffs among the components of the heat and power system including steam generation, furnaces used for process heating, steam and gas turbines, heat exchange networks, heat pumps, refrigeration systems, and purchased...

  4. Thermal heat radiation, near-field energy density and near-field radiative heat transfer of coated materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the thermal radiation and thermal near-field energy density of a metal-coated semi-infinite body for different substrates. We show that the surface polariton coupling within the metal coating leads to an enhancement of the TM-mode part of the thermal near-field energy density when a polar substrate is used. In this case the result obtained for a free standing metal film is retrieved. In contrast, in the case of a metal substrate there is no enhancement in the TM-mode part, as can also be explained within the framework of surface plasmon coupling within the coating. Finally, we discuss the influence of the enhanced thermal energy density on the near-field radiative heat transfer between a simple semi-infinite and a coated semi-infinite body for different material combinations.

  5. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  6. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and...

  7. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zerosimulation tool for ground- source heat pump system designflow systems and ground source heat pump systems Abstract

  8. SYSTEM PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    AUG 1979 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. Richards W The development of the first prototype heat activated heat pump (HAHP) jointly sponsored by the Gas Research to supplement the heating capacity in addition to the heat pump effect would enable a HAHP system

  9. ITER HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM SYSTEM & PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. Ren

    in-vessel component cooling systems malfunction. Therefore, special design criteria are requestedITER HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM SYSTEM & PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN Y. Hoshi 1 , Y. Kataoka 2 , V. Tanchuk 1 the vacuum vessel cooling system has a safety role of providing the ultimate decay heat removal system ,when

  10. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, D.L.

    1987-04-28

    A heat transport system, method and composite material are disclosed in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure. 1 fig.

  11. Heat and Power Systems Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spriggs, H. D.; Shah, J. V.

    1987-01-01

    variable pattern of energy consumption as individual batches are started up or turned down. Important management considerations are product quality and operating flexiblity. The first step is to identify individual heating and cooling requirements... stream_source_info ESL-IE-87-09-05.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19552 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-87-09-05.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 HEAT AND POWER...

  12. The radiative heat transfer between a rotating nanoparticle and a plane surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahid Ameri; Mehdi Shafei Aporvari; Fardin Kheirandish

    2015-06-03

    Based on a microscopic approach, we propose a Lagrangian for the combined system of a rotating dielectric nanoparticle above a plane surface in the presence of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations. In the framework of canonical quantization, the electromagnetic vacuum field is quantized in the presence of dielectric fields describing the nanoparticle and a semi-infinite dielectric with planar interface. The radiative heat power absorbed by the rotating nanoparticle is obtained and the result is in agreement with previous results when the the rotational frequency of the nanoparticle is zero or much smaller than the relaxation frequency of the dielectrics. The well known near field effect is reexamined and discussed in terms of the rotational frequency. The radiative heat power absorbed by the nanoparticle for well-known peak frequencies, is plotted in terms of the rotational frequency showing an interesting effect resembling a phase transition around a critical frequency, determined by the relaxation frequency of the dielectrics.

  13. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    with lamp heating than with furnace heating and (2) hydrogensilica tube and heated in a furnace or by an incandescentan incandescent lamp than within furnace. Here, sample and

  14. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    the same heat input, the maximum release rate from samplesThe same heat (a) Normalized hydrogen release rate Numericalrelease rate under otherwise identical heat input. 5. Lamp

  15. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  16. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  17. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  18. Heat Recovery Design Considerations for Cogeneration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquinelli, D. M.; Burns, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    The design and integration of the heat recovery section, which includes the steam generation, auxiliary firing, and steam turbine modules, is critical to the overall performance and economics of cogeneration, systems. In gas turbine topping...

  19. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01

    LBL buildings, with the solar collectors on the roof, theCBB 757-5496 Figure 3: Solar Collectors Mounted on the RoofSolar Heating and Cooling Systems. The components include Collectors (

  20. Near field radiative heat transfer between two nonlocal dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We explore in the present work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel nonlocal dielectric planes by means of fluctuational electrodynamics. We use atheory for the nonlocal dielectric permittivityfunction proposed byHalevi and Fuchs. This theory has the advantage to includedifferent models performed in the literature. According to this theory, the nonlocal dielectric function is described by a Lorenz-Drude like single oscillator model, in which the spatial dispersion effects are represented by an additional term depending on the square of the total wavevector k. The theory takes into account the scattering of the electromagneticexcitation at the surface of the dielectric material, which leads to the need of additional boundary conditions in order to solve Maxwell's equations and treat the electromagnetic transmission problem. The additional boundary conditions appear as additional surface scattering parameters in the expressions of the surface impedances. It is shown that the...

  1. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System December 14, 2014 - 2:46pm Addthis Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need...

  2. Radiometer System to Map the Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorenstein, Marc V.; Muller, Richard A.; Smoot, George F.; Tyson, J. Anthony

    1977-01-01

    SYSTEM TO MAP THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION RECEIVEDSystem to Map the Cosmic Background Radiation* Marc V.

  3. Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Scott W.; Houze, R.; Kumar, Anil; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-06

    Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six different microphysical schemes. The radar data provide the statistical distribution of the radar reflectivity values as a function of height and anvil thickness. These statistics are compared to the statistics of the modeled anvil cloud reflectivity at all altitudes. Requiring the model to be statistically accurate at all altitudes is a stringent test of the model performance. The typical vertical profile of radiative heating in the anvil clouds is computed from the radar observations. Variability of anvil structures from the different microphysical schemes provides an estimate of the inherent uncertainty in anvil radiative heating profiles. All schemes underestimate the optical thickness of thin anvils and cirrus, resulting in a bias of excessive net anvil heating in all of the simulations.

  4. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Process Heating Systems Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the...

  5. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices 2012 DOE...

  6. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by...

  7. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair May 30, 2012 - 2:35pm Addthis Rooftop solar water heaters need regular...

  8. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  9. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  10. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty...

  11. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions This brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best...

  12. Dynamics of heat transfer between nano systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs; Girish S. Agarwal

    2012-10-18

    We develop a dynamical theory of heat transfer between two nano systems. In particular, we consider the resonant heat transfer between two nanoparticles due to the coupling of localized surface modes having a finite spectral width. We model the coupled nanosystem by two coupled quantum mechanical oscillators, each interacting with its own heat bath, and obtain a master equation for the dynamics of heat transfer. The damping rates in the master equation are related to the lifetimes of localized plasmons in the nanoparticles. We study the dynamics towards the steady state and establish connection with the standard theory of heat transfer in steady state. For strongly coupled nano particles we predict Rabi oscillations in the mean occupation number of surface plasmons in each nano particle.

  13. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER IN TISSUE WELDING AND SOLDERING WITH ULTRAFAST LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER IN TISSUE WELDING AND SOLDERING WITH ULTRAFAST LASERS Kyunghan Kim to incorporate transient radiation heat transfer in tissue welding and soldering with use of ultrafast lasers are performed between laser welding and laser soldering. The use of solder is found to substantially enhance

  14. Simultaneous radiation pressure induced heating and cooling of an opto-mechanical resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afshari, Ehsan

    Simultaneous radiation pressure induced heating and cooling of an opto- mechanical resonator://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Simultaneous radiation pressure induced heating and cooling of an opto-mechanical resonator to a combination of large mechanical oscillations and necessary saturation of amplification, the noise floor

  15. Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior Y. Fan National the e ect of radiative heating on the evolution of thin magnetic ux tubes in the solar interior Solar Observatoryy, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719. G. H. Fisher Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ

  16. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commonly used as the heat transfer fluid in refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps. They generally have a low boiling point and a high heat capacity. This enables a...

  17. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph (Arvada, CO); Heben, Michael J. (Denver, CO)

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  18. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  19. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  20. Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milorad Boji?; Dragan Cvetkovi?; Marko Mileti?; Jovan Maleevi?; Harry Boyer

    2012-12-18

    The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

  1. Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Solar Heat-Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Y.; Wang, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a solar energy heat-pump system and analyzes the thermoeconomics. The results show that the solar energy heat-pump system can be operated in different modes and used for room heating in winter and ...

  2. Heating programmer Controls the times the system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carletta, Jean

    #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Heating programmer Controls the times the system that will do that for you. #12;Boiler thermostat Controls the temperature of the water in the system -- which? #12;Why don't we already have room thermostats? Because the building regs only specify the controls

  3. Author's personal copy Thermal radiators with embedded pulsating heat pipes: Infra-red thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    Author's personal copy Thermal radiators with embedded pulsating heat pipes: Infra-red thermography December 2010 Accepted 9 January 2011 Available online 18 January 2011 Keywords: Pulsating heat pipes t With the aim of exploring potential applications of Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHP), for space/terrestrial sectors

  4. Preliminary Analysis of a Solar Heat Pump System with Seasonal Storage for Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, G.; Chen, P.; Dalenback, J.

    2006-01-01

    For higher solar fraction and suitability for both heating and cooling, a solar heat pump system with seasonal storage was studied in this paper. The system scheme and control strategy of a solar heat pump system with seasonal storage for heating...

  5. Heat pump system with hot water defrost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes an integrated heat pump and hot water system that includes, a heat pump having an indoor heat exchanger unit and an outdoor heat exchanger unit that are selectively connected to a compressor inlet and a compressor outlet by a flow reversing means and to each other by a flow reversing means and to each other by a refrigerant liquid line containing a bi-flow expansion valve for metering refrigerant moving in either direction through the liquid line, and bi-flow expansion valve having a positive shut off means to prevent refrigerant from flowing therethrough, a refrigerant to water heat exchanger having a water flow circuit that is in heat transfer relation with a first refrigerant condensing circuit and a second refrigerant evaporating circuit. The refrigerant condensing circuit is connected into a discharge line connecting the outlet of the compressor to the reversing means whereby all the refrigerant discharged by the compressor passes through the condensing circuit. The refrigerant evaporating circuit is connected at one end to the inlet of the compressor and at the other end to an evaporator line that is operatively joined to the liquid line at a point between the bi-flow expansion valve and the outdoor heat exchanger, a metering valve in the evaporator line that is selectively movable between a first closed position whereby refrigerant is prevented from moving through the evaporator line and an open position whereby refrigerant is throttled from the liquid line into the evaporator circuit.

  6. Radiative heat transfer between two dielectric nanogratings in the scattering approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Lussange; R. Gurout; F. S. S. Rosa; J. -J. Greffet; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

    2012-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transfer between dielectric nanogratings in the scattering approach. As a comparision with these exact results, we also evaluate the domain of validity of Derjaguin's Proximity Approximation (PA). We consider a system of two corrugated silica plates with various grating geometries, separation distances, and lateral displacement of the plates with respect to one another. Numerical computations show that while the PA is a good approximation for aligned gratings, it cannot be used when the gratings are laterally displaced. We illustrate this by a thermal modulator device for nanosystems based on such a displacement.

  7. Modulation and amplification of radiative far field heat transfer : towards a simple radiative thermal transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jeremie; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We show in this article that phase change materials (PCM) exhibiting a phase transition between a dielectric state and a metallic state are good candidates to perform modulation as well as amplification of radiative thermal flux. We propose a simple situation in plane parallel geometry where a so-called radiative thermal transistor could be achieved. In this configuration, we put a PCM between two blackbodies at different temperatures. We show that the transistor effect can be achieved easily when this material has its critical temperature between the two blackbody temperatures. We also see, that the more the material is reflective in the metallic state, the more switching effect is realized whereas the more PCM transition is stiff in temperature, the more thermal amplification is high. We finally take the example of VO2 that exhibits an insulator-metallic transition at 68{\\textdegree}C. We show that a demonstrator of a radiative transistor could easily be achieved in view of the heat flux levels predicted. F...

  8. Optimization of the Heating System Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, W.; Mao, S.

    2006-01-01

    and the flowrate as the target variables. In order to deduce the function between the input variable and the target variable, the exergy loss of the system can serve as the intermediate target variable, and the function between the exergy loss of the system... 2 ()()nw pn KFt ttt F ? ? +?? ?= ? + ?4 ? 2.2 The Relation between the Exergy Loss and the Temperature Difference of the Supply-return Water Based on the simplification and suppositions of heating system, the following two...

  9. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    hydro- gen [10]. The authors suggested that infrared radiation is contributing the activation energy

  10. Hanford waste treatment plant Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) canister radiation dose rate and radiolytic heat load analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIERSON, R.M.

    2003-09-02

    This document provides an analysis of anticipated radiation dose rates and heat loads for immobilized high level waste (IHW) canisters

  11. ELSEVIER Earth and PlanetaryScienceLetters 125(1994)255-266 The potential influence of radiative heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    1994-01-01

    of radiative heat transfer on the formation of megaplumes in the lower mantle Ctirad Matyska a, Ji~i Moser influence from radiative heat transfer on mantle upwellings and the production of extremely hot thermal and cold regions in lower mantle dynamics. We have considered the possible impact from radiative heat

  12. Analytical Monte Carlo Ray Tracing simulation of radiative heat transfer through bimodal fibrous insulations with translucent fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    Analytical Monte Carlo Ray Tracing simulation of radiative heat transfer through bimodal fibrous-state radiative heat transfer through fibrous insulation materials. The simulations are conducted in 3-D disor radiation and conduc- tion to be the only modes of heat transfer in fibrous insulation materials

  13. I: Heat equation II: Schrdinger equation III: Wave equation IV: Radiative transfer equation Quantitative uniqueness for some PDE's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phung, Kim-dang.- Le Laboratoire de Mathématiques

    I: Heat equation II: Schrödinger equation III: Wave equation IV: Radiative transfer equation;I: Heat equation II: Schrödinger equation III: Wave equation IV: Radiative transfer equation QUCP: Heat equation II: Schrödinger equation III: Wave equation IV: Radiative transfer equation QUCP

  14. Dual Loop Parallel/Series Waste Heat Recovery System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This system captures all the jacket water, intercooler, and exhaust heat from the engine by utilizing a single condenser to reject leftover heat to the atmosphere.

  15. An Integrated Low Level Heat Recovery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra, A. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A large amount of low level thermal energy is lost to air or water in a typical petroleum refinery. This paper discusses a complex integrated low level heat recovery system that is being engineered for installation in a large petroleum refinery...

  16. Application Study of a Single House Horizontal Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hang, Y.; Ying, D.

    2006-01-01

    It is imperative to get new heating systems into the market and implement rate structures with heat meters for the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. Based on analysis of current heating technology, this paper analyzes...

  17. Waste Heat Utilization System Income Tax Deduction (Personal)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Waste heat utilization system means facilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elec...

  18. Waste Heat Utilization System Income Tax Deduction (Corporate)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Waste heat utilization system means facilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elec...

  19. March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ____________________________ March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System. Today Decentralisation of the heating plant Introduction of an Energy Loop Geothermal 4. Results 5 Decentralisation of the heating plant Introduction of an Energy Loop Geothermal 4. Results 5. Tomorrow 6

  20. Heating and current drive systems for TPX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, D.; Goranson, P.; Halle, A. von; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.

    1994-05-24

    The heating and current drive (H and CD) system proposed for the TPX tokamak will consist of ion cyclotron, neutral beam, and lower hybrid systems. It will have 17.5 MW of installed H and CD power initially, and can be upgraded to 45 MW. It will be used to explore advanced confinement and fully current-driven plasma regimes with pulse lengths of up to 1,000 s.

  1. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-70.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 27871 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-70.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT... RECOVERY FOR BOILER SYSTEMS James R. Shook & David B. Luttenberger FLUE GAS RESOURCES, INC. Toledo, Ohio ABSTRACT Low temperature corrosion proof heat exchangers desbgned to reduce boiler flue gas temperatures to 170 F or lower are now being...

  2. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  3. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hundal, Rolv (Greensburg, PA); Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1988-01-01

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  4. Electrically tunable near-field radiative heat transfer via ferroelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yi

    We explore ways to actively control near-field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces that relies on electrical tuning of phonon modes of ferroelectric materials. Ferroelectrics are widely used for tunable electrical ...

  5. Convective heat transport in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1986-08-01

    Most geothermal systems under exploitation for direct use or electrical power production are of the hydrothermal type, where heat is transferred essentially by convection in the reservoir, conduction being secondary. In geothermal systems, buoyancy effects are generally important, but often the fluid and heat flow patterns are largely controlled by geologic features (e.g., faults, fractures, continuity of layers) and location of recharge and discharge zones. During exploitation, these flow patterns can drastically change in response to pressure and temperature declines, and changes in recharge/discharge patterns. Convective circulation models of several geothermal systems, before and after start of fluid production, are described, with emphasis on different characteristics of the systems and the effects of exploitation on their evolution. Convective heat transport in geothermal fields is discussed, taking into consideration (1) major geologic features; (2) temperature-dependent rock and fluid properties; (3) fracture- versus porous-medium characteristics; (4) single- versus two-phase reservoir systems; and (5) the presence of noncondensible gases.

  6. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01

    water (solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen in

  7. Home Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    separately, many homes use the following approaches: Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental heat source. Electric...

  8. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105-125E, 20-35N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. themoredifferent heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.less

  9. Heat flux dynamics in dissipative cascaded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvatore Lorenzo; Alessandro Farace; Francesco Ciccarello; G. Massimo Palma; Vittorio Giovannetti

    2015-03-24

    We study the dynamics of heat flux in the thermalization process of a pair of identical quantum system that interact dissipatively with a reservoir in a {\\it cascaded} fashion. Despite the open dynamics of the bipartite system S is globally Lindbladian, one of the subsystems "sees" the reservoir in a state modified by the interaction with the other subsystem and hence it undergoes a non-Markovian dynamics. As a consequence, the heat flow exhibits a non-exponential time behaviour which can greatly deviate from the case where each party is independently coupled to the reservoir. We investigate both thermal and correlated initial states of $S$ and show that the presence of correlations at the beginning can considerably affect the heat flux rate. We carry out our study in two paradigmatic cases -- a pair of harmonic oscillators with a reservoir of bosonic modes and two qubits with a reservoir of fermionic modes -- and compare the corresponding behaviours. In the case of qubits and for initial thermal states, we find that the trace distance discord is at any time interpretable as the correlated contribution to the total heat flux.

  10. Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2007-12-20

    A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

  11. ON THE SPECIFIC HEAT OF FERMI--PASTA--ULAM SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ON THE SPECIFIC HEAT OF FERMI--PASTA--ULAM SYSTEMS Andrea CARATI, Luigi GALGANI Universit`a di)@mat.unimi.it ABSTRACT The specific heat of Fermi Pasta Ulam systems was up to now estimated through the energy, the specific heat is found to vanish for vanishing temperatures. Key Words: Fermi--Pasta--Ulam; specific heat

  12. ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Fueling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fredd, E.; Goulding, R.H.; Hosea, J.; Swain, D.W.

    2005-04-15

    The ITER burning plasma and advanced operating regimes require robust and reliable heating and current drive and fueling systems. The ITER design documents describe the requirements and reference designs for the ion cyclotron and pellet fueling systems. Development and testing programs are required to optimize, validate and qualify these systems for installation on ITER.The ITER ion cyclotron system offers significant technology challenges. The antenna must operate in a nuclear environment and withstand heat loads and disruption forces beyond present-day designs. It must operate for long pulse lengths and be highly reliable, delivering power to a plasma load with properties that will change throughout the discharge. The ITER ion cyclotron system consists of one eight-strap antenna, eight rf sources (20 MW, 35-65 MHz), associated high-voltage DC power supplies, transmission lines and matching and decoupling components.The ITER fueling system consists of a gas injection system and multiple pellet injectors for edge fueling and deep core fueling. Pellet injection will be the primary ITER fuel delivery system. The fueling requirements will require significant extensions in pellet injector pulse length ({approx}3000 s), throughput (400 torr-L/s,) and reliability. The proposed design is based on a centrifuge accelerator fed by a continuous screw extruder. Inner wall pellet injection with the use of curved guide tubes will be utilized for deep fueling.

  13. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment; Industrial Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in which opening size cannot be reduced, you can use flexible materials such as ceramic strips, chains, or ceramic textiles as "curtains." These generally reduce heat loss...

  14. Heating System Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources....

  15. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth

  16. Radiative heat transfer in a parallelogram shaped cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dez, V Le

    2015-01-01

    An exact analytical description of the internal radiative field inside an emitting-absorbing gray semi-transparent medium enclosed in a two-dimensional parallelogram cavity is proposed. The expressions of the incident radiation and the radiative flux field are angularly and spatially discretized with a double Gauss quadrature, and the temperature field is obtained by using an iterative process. Some numerical solutions are tabulated and graphically presented as the benchmark solutions. Temperature and two components of the radiative flux are finally sketched on the whole domain. It is shown that the proposed method gives perfectly smooth results.

  17. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  18. Predictive control of supply temperature in district heating systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predictive control of supply temperature in district heating systems Torben Skov Nielsen Henrik This report considers a new concept for controlling the supply temperature in district heating systems using stochastic modelling, prediction and control. A district heating systems is a di#30;cult system to control

  19. Home Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMSHome EnergyHeating Systems Home

  20. Heat flux splitter for near-field thermal radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Frechette, Luc; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility to efficiently split the near-field heat flux exchanged between graphene nano-disks by tuning their doping. This result paves the way for the developement of an active control of propagation directions for heat fluxes exchanged in near-field throughout integrated nanostructures networks.

  1. Modulation of radiative heating by the MaddenJulian Oscillation and convectively coupled Kelvin waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    of radiative heating affects the moist static energy budget and potentially the maintenance and propagation are clearly seen in the Outgoing Long- wave Radiation (OLR) data, and its temperature, moisture and wind buoyancy driven convectively coupled waves, processes that alter the column integrated moist static energy

  2. Waste Heat Recovery System: Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery (LIGHTER) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GM is using shape memory alloys that require as little as a 10C temperature difference to convert low-grade waste heat into mechanical energy. When a stretched wire made of shape memory alloy is heated, it shrinks back to its pre-stretched length. When the wire cools back down, it becomes more pliable and can revert to its original stretched shape. This expansion and contraction can be used directly as mechanical energy output or used to drive an electric generator. Shape memory alloy heat engines have been around for decades, but the few devices that engineers have built were too complex, required fluid baths, and had insufficient cycle life for practical use. GM is working to create a prototype that is practical for commercial applications and capable of operating with either air- or fluid-based heat sources. GMs shape memory alloy based heat engine is also designed for use in a variety of non-vehicle applications. For example, it can be used to harvest non-vehicle heat sources, such as domestic and industrial waste heat and natural geothermal heat, and in HVAC systems and generators.

  3. ULTRAFAST RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER IN LASER TISSUE WELDING AND SOLDERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    , respectively. 1. INTRODUCTION The study of short-pulsed laser radiation transport and ultrafast matter radiation interactions is of great scientific and technological significance and is attracting increasing9], to name a few. Due to the very short time duration of the radia- tionmatter interaction and transport

  4. Thermal radiation of laser heated niobium clusters Nb{sub N}{sup +}, 8 ? N ? 22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Klavs [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Li, Yejun; Kaydashev, Vladimir; Janssens, Ewald [Laboratory of Solid State Physics and Magnetism, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-14

    The thermal radiation from small, laser heated, positively charged niobium clusters has been measured. The emitted power was determined by the quenching effect on the metastable decay, employing two different experimental protocols. The radiative power decreases slightly with cluster size and shows no strong size-to-size variations. The magnitude is 4050 keV/s at the timescale of several microseconds, which is the measured crossover time from evaporative to radiative cooling.

  5. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-03-16

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  6. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    analysis of above flow resistance and energy cost, we know that the economy flux ratio of transfer heat-transfer means is between 0.54 and 0.85, namely sewage flux is smaller, and minC Cr min wwCVc?= . It is necessary to point out that though depending... efficiency of contranatant two pass thimble: ()213 1 11 21wwNn wz tt Cr tt 1n? ?? ?==?+ ? (1) Fig.1 Reverse-flow heat efficiency of TDHTS Contranatant single pass heat-transfer efficiency: ( ) ()1 1exp (1 ) 1exp (1)n Cr NTU Cr? = ?? ? ? Put...

  7. Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly News Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly News April 13, 2009 - 11:24am Addthis NBC Nightly News...

  8. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems July 27, 2014 - 5:41pm Addthis Install a new energy-efficient furnace to save money over the long...

  9. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair May 30, 2012 - 2:35pm Addthis Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to...

  10. Development of a Computer Heating Monitoring System and Its Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Shen, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a computer heating monitoring system, introduces the components and principles of the monitoring system, and provides a study on its application to residential building heating including analysis of indoor and outdoor air...

  11. Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

    2006-01-01

    Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

  12. A Coupled AtmosphereOcean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    of the ocean. Shortwave radiation from the sun contributes most of the heat fluxes that penetrate the airA Coupled AtmosphereOcean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation WEI-LIANG LEE AND K. N. LIOU Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California

  13. Computer Control for IGBT Based Heat Load System with Rapid Response and Large Heat Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yangmin

    system. So it can acquire the satisfactory performance, what is more, the heat load system combined heat flux within very short time, but it needs a very complicated welding power supply, and meantime, heating coils, etc. There are three power amplifiers: linear amplifier, on-off amplifier, and pulse width

  14. Design of Heat Exchanger for Heat Recovery in CHP Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Kaur, B.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01

    . Before the design process can begin, product specifications, such as steam or water pressures and temperatures, and equipment, such as absorption chillers and heat exchangers, need to be identified and defined. The Energy Engineering Laboratory...

  15. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a high boiling point. Viscosity and thermal capacity determine the amount of pumping energy required. A fluid with low viscosity and high specific heat is easier to pump, because...

  16. Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

  17. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, David

    2013-01-01

    141 Open ORC Systemfor Open Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)138 Evaporatorof an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) System for Waste Heat

  18. Weather network computer to control deck-heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roe, A.

    1997-04-07

    A ground-source heating system for bridge deicing is briefly described in this article. The deck heating system will be controlled by the Oklahoma state weather network. Warm ground air will be pumped from more than 100 boreholes at least 200 feet deep. The heat transfer fluid, possibly propylene glycol, will be circulated through a sealed tube system in the bridge deck. Costs are estimated at $200,000 for the heating system and $840,000 for the total redecking project.

  19. [Waste water heat recovery system]. Final report, September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  20. Influence of Infrared Radiation on Attic Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; Turner, W. D.; Murphy, W. E.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study concerned with different modes of heal transfer in fibrous and cellulose insulating material is presented. A series of experiments were conducted using an attic simulator to determine the effects of ventilation on attic heat...

  1. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerof solar combined heat and power systems . . . . . . .

  2. System Modeling of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01

    To improve the system performance of the GHP, modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated by using ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Software, which is used to predict steady-state heating and cooling performance of variable-speed vapor compression air-to-air heat pumps for a wide range of operational variables. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine, the SHR can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% in rated operating conditions.

  3. Radiation Heat Transfer in Particle-Laden Gaseous Flame: Flame Acceleration and Triggering Detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine influence of the radiation heat transfer on the combustion regimes in the mixture, formed by suspension of fine inert particles in hydrogen gas. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for the thermal radiation, while the radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding gas. The particles and gas ahead of the flame is assumed to be heated by radiation from the original flame. It is shown that the maximum temperature increase due to the radiation preheating becomes larger for a flame with lower velocity. For a flame with small enough velocity temperature of the radiation preheating may exceed the crossover temperature, so that the radiation heat transfer may become a dominant mechanism of the flame propagation. In the case of non-uniform distribution of particles, the temperature gradient formed due to the radiation preheating can initiate either deflagration or detonation ahead of the original flame via the Zel'dovich's gradient mechanism. Th...

  4. APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO BUILDINGS AND BRIDGE DECKS. By MAHADEVAN Chapter Page 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview of hybrid ground source heat pump systems 1.2. Literature review 1.3. Thesis objective and scope 2. Optimal sizing of hybrid ground source heat pump system

  5. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  6. Radiation augmentation energy storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christe, K.O.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a method of converting radiation energy into chemical energy to produce a high-performance propellant. It comprises: photolytically converting oxygen to ozone; storing and stabilizing the ozone in liquid oxygen to form an ozone/liquid oxygen solution; and combusting the ozone/liquid oxygen solution with hydrogen.

  7. Method and device for predicting wavelength dependent radiation influences in thermal systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kee, Robert J. (864 Lucille St., Livermore, CA 94550); Ting, Aili (7329 Stonedale Dr., Pleasanton, CA 94558)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for predicting the spectral (wavelength-dependent) radiation transport in thermal systems including interaction by the radiation with partially transmitting medium. The predicted model of the thermal system is used to design and control the thermal system. The predictions are well suited to be implemented in design and control of rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactors. The method involves generating a spectral thermal radiation transport model of an RTP reactor. The method also involves specifying a desired wafer time dependent temperature profile. The method further involves calculating an inverse of the generated model using the desired wafer time dependent temperature to determine heating element parameters required to produce the desired profile. The method also involves controlling the heating elements of the RTP reactor in accordance with the heating element parameters to heat the wafer in accordance with the desired profile.

  8. Design Considerations for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bywaters, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    recovery design considerations as well as a summary of typical "waste heat" sources and application sites. A procedure for conducting industrial waste heat surveys is presented. Thermodynamic and heat transfer factors are discussed. Problems associated...

  9. Home Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A variety of technologies are available for heating your house. In addition to heat pumps, which are discussed separately, many homes use the following approaches:...

  10. Adaptable radiation monitoring system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Daniel E. (Livermore, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA); Mauger, G. Joseph (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Mercer, Michael B. (Manteca, CA); Pletcher, David C. (Sacramento, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Schek, James L. (Tracy, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-06-20

    A portable radioactive-material detection system capable of detecting radioactive sources moving at high speeds. The system has at least one radiation detector capable of detecting gamma-radiation and coupled to an MCA capable of collecting spectral data in very small time bins of less than about 150 msec. A computer processor is connected to the MCA for determining from the spectral data if a triggering event has occurred. Spectral data is stored on a data storage device, and a power source supplies power to the detection system. Various configurations of the detection system may be adaptably arranged for various radiation detection scenarios. In a preferred embodiment, the computer processor operates as a server which receives spectral data from other networked detection systems, and communicates the collected data to a central data reporting system.

  11. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  12. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Remove unusable antiquated existing equipment and systems from the campus heating and cooling system, but utilize ductwork, piping, etc. where feasible. The campus is served by...

  13. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Operating a Gas Turbine CHP System on Syngas from Biomass Gasification This project will develop and demonstrate a...

  14. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography, NREL Active Solar...

  15. An Engine System Approach to Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07kruiswyk.pdf More Documents & Publications An Engine System Approach to Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Engine System Approach to Exhaust Energy...

  16. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  17. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    the effect of heating and cooling system inefficiencies onwith inefficient heating and cooling systems in CaliforniaForced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems May 2002 Walker, I. ,

  18. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign, Phase II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel Ruggirello RachelRadiationRadiative

  19. 2005 ASHRAE. 109 Groundwater heat pump systems using standing column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    borehole that is filled with groundwater up to the level of the water table. Water is circulated from in growing numbers since the advent of geothermal heat pump systems and are recently receiving much more benefits, low maintenance, etc., as other forms of geothermal heat pump systems. The heat exchange rate

  20. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  1. CONTROL OF SUPPLY TEMPERATURE IN DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTROL OF SUPPLY TEMPERATURE IN DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS T.S. Nielsen, H. Madsen Informatics the supply temperature in district heating systems using stochastic modelling, prediction and control at Roskilde Varmeforsyning. The results obtained for the Roskilde district heating utility are evaluated

  2. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  3. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  4. 14th International Heat Pipe Conference (14th IHPC), Florianpolis, Brazil, April 22-27, 2007. EMBEDDED PULSATING HEAT PIPE RADIATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    14th International Heat Pipe Conference (14th IHPC), Florianpolis, Brazil, April 22-27, 2007. EMBEDDED PULSATING HEAT PIPE RADIATORS Sameer Khandekar and Ashish Gupta Department of Mechanical heat pipe (PHP) technology for space as well as terrestrial sectors, experimental study of embedded

  5. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zrich, Switzerland,of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero energy

  6. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zrich, Switzerland,Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero

  7. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the simulation and the analysis of a solar flat plate collectors combined with a compression heat pump is carried out. The system suggested must ensure the heating of a building without the recourse to an ...

  8. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

  9. Three-axis asymmetric radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martini, Mario Pierangelo (Oak Ridge, TN); Gedcke, Dale A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raudorf, Thomas W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sangsingkeow, Pat (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A three-axis radiation detection system whose inner and outer electrodes are shaped and positioned so that the shortest path between any point on the inner electrode and the outer electrode is a different length whereby the rise time of a pulse derived from a detected radiation event can uniquely define the azimuthal and radial position of that event, and the outer electrode is divided into a plurality of segments in the longitudinal axial direction for locating the axial location of a radiation detection event occurring in the diode.

  10. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs SearchAMERICA'S FUTURE. regulators02-03Heat Management Options

  11. Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.Y.

    1988-05-24

    A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

  12. Asymptotic solution for heat convection-radiation equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabood, Fazle; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Khan, Waqar A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, PN Engineering College, Karachi, 75350 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, we employ a new approximate analytical method called the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) to solve steady state heat transfer problem in slabs. The heat transfer problem is modeled using nonlinear two-point boundary value problem. Using OHAM, we obtained the approximate analytical solution for dimensionless temperature with different values of a parameter ?. Further, the OHAM results for dimensionless temperature have been presented graphically and in tabular form. Comparison has been provided with existing results from the use of homotopy perturbation method, perturbation method and numerical method. For numerical results, we used Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. It was found that OHAM produces better approximate analytical solutions than those which are obtained by homotopy perturbation and perturbation methods, in the sense of closer agreement with results obtained from the use of Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method.

  13. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  14. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  15. Nonlocal study of the near field radiative heat transfer between two n-doped semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We study in this work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel planes of highly n-doped semiconductors. Using a nonlocal model of the dielectric permittivity, usually used for the case of metallic planes, we show that the radiative heat transfer coefficientsaturates as the separation distance is reduced for high doping concentration. These results replace the 1/d${}^2$ infinite divergence obtained in the local model case. Different features of the obtained results are shown to relate physically to the parameters of the materials, mainly the doping concentration and the plasmon frequency.

  16. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  17. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  18. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoLordRunar. A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air...

  19. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless...

  20. A uniformly moving and rotating polarizable particle in thermal radiation field: frictional force and torque, radiation and heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

    2015-04-07

    We study the fluctuation-electromagnetic interaction and dynamics of a small polarizable particle with own rotation and relativistic velocity moving in a vacuum background of arbitrary temperature. A full set of equations describing decelerating tangential force, frictional torque (at arbitrary direction of angular velocity) and intensity of nonthermal and thermal radiation is obtained, along with equations describing the particle dynamics and kinetics of heating. An interplay between different parameters is discussed. Numerical calculations are given in the case of graphite particles.

  1. Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics - Energy InnovationOscillationSensitivity of Radiative Fluxes

  2. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Common Passive and Hybrid Heating Cooling Systems Michael].THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

  3. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01

    Modeling with Combined Heat and Power Applications. LawrenceASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM PREMIUM POWER2010 ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM PREMIUM

  4. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  5. Optimization of Advanced Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems A heat pump is a technology in which heating and cooling are provided by a single piece of equipment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Optimization of Advanced Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems A heat pump is a technology in which heating and cooling are provided by a single piece of equipment. In a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system a length of pipe is buried in the ground and the ground acts as a reservoir to store the heat

  6. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Edward C. (Woodinville, WA); Huxtable, Douglas D. (Bothell, WA)

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  7. PARALLEL COMPUTATIONS OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER USING THE DISCRETE ORDINATES METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    of the important radiatively active species (CO2, H2O, soot) and temperature, which are calculated on the spatially increasingly tractable. Issues relating to the use of high-performance computing in participating media heat properties. First we summarize previous applications of spatial decomposition strategies to finite

  8. AEROSOL-CLOUD INTERACTIONS CONTROL OF EARTH RADIATION AND LATENT HEAT RELEASE BUDGETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    AEROSOL-CLOUD INTERACTIONS CONTROL OF EARTH RADIATION AND LATENT HEAT RELEASE BUDGETS D. ROSENFELD simulations show that cloud development is strongly mod- ulated by the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on precipitation forming processes. New insights into the mechanisms by which aerosols dominate the cloud cover

  9. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    AE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporative cooling and heating systems. Ventilation a ventilation system is not operating properly, the results can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling

  10. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-28

    Description of CHHP system which utilizes a high-temperature fuel cell to provide on-site process reducing gas, clean power, and heat.

  11. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, David

    2013-01-01

    State Estimation for Open Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)138optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat powerand Simulation of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) System for

  12. Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems Industrial Technologies Program DOEGO-102007-2413 September 2007 A Strong Energy Portfolio for a Strong America...

  13. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    buildings on nearly 1,000 acres. Photo courtesy of Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus Recovery Act...

  14. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    campus, which includes 750 buildings. Photo courtesy of Texas A&M University Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University Recovery Act...

  15. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Inc., in collaboration with Abbott Furnace Company, is developing a combined heat, hydrogen, and power (CHHP) system that utilizes reducing gas produced by a high-temperature...

  16. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special...

  17. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision...

  18. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  19. Heat recovery and the economizer for HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anantapantula, V.S. . Alco Controls Div.); Sauer, H.J. Jr. )

    1994-11-01

    This articles examines why a combined heat reclaim/economizer system with priority to heat reclaim operation is most likely to result in the least annual total HVAC energy. PC-based, hour-by-hour simulation programs evaluate annual HVAC energy requirements when using combined operation of heat reclaim and economizer cycle, while giving priority to operation of either one. These simulation programs also enable the design engineer to select the most viable heat reclaim and/or economizer system for any given type of HVAC system serving the building internal load level, building geographical location and other building/system variables.

  20. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 as Heat Transmission...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Enhanced...

  1. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  2. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Zelipsky, Steven A. (Tinley Park, IL); Rezmer, Ronald R. (Lisle, IL); Smelser, Peter (Bruner, MO)

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  3. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01

    E. Inc. 1990. Residential Water Heating Study: TechnicalScott. 2007. HWSIM Hot Water Distribution Model Validationand Simulation of a Smart Water Heater. In Workshop in

  4. Modeling of Residential Buildings and Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masy, G.; Lebrun, J.

    2004-01-01

    of the central heating plant, with measurements of water temperatures and flow rates is used to adjust the parameters of the boiler model....

  5. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  6. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mc Fee, Matthew C. (New Ellenton, SC); Kirkham, Tim J. (Beech Island, SC); Johnson, Tippi H. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

  7. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

  8. Using Bayesian statistics in the estimation of heat source in radiation Jingbo Wang and Nicholas Zabaras1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    Using Bayesian statistics in the estimation of heat source in radiation Jingbo Wang and Nicholas distributed (i.i.d.) Gauss random variables. `Maximum A Posteriori' (MAP) and posterior mean estimates of the inverse radiation problem. 1 Introduction Study of thermal radiation has been stimulated by a wide range

  9. Tangential force, Frictional Torque and Heating Rate of a Small Neutral Rotating Particle Moving through the Equilibrium Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

    2013-02-04

    For the first time, based on the fluctuation-electromagnetic theory, we have calculated the drug force, the radiation heat flux and the frictional torque on a small rotating particle moving at a relativistic velocity through the equilibrium background radiation (photon gas). The particle and background radiation are characterized by different temperatures corresponding to the local thermodynamic equilibrium in their own reference frames.

  10. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  11. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  12. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    turbine, a 210,000-pound-per-hour (pph) heat recovery steam generator, and an 11 MW steam turbine generator. The system can operate as a baseload system to serve 75% of Texas...

  13. Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabowiecki, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in these systems allows for the survival of ...

  14. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

  15. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  16. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoorhydronic solar and space that heating adjusts the storagethe heat source is solar heated water at the storage tank

  17. Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgen, Gerald P.; Peterson, William W.

    2009-06-11

    Testing and valuation of the Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package for the US Coast Guard.

  18. On stochastic heating of electrons by intense laser radiation in the presence of electrostatic potential well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-10-15

    A simple model developed by Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)] for the study of synergistic effects of electrostatic potential well and laser radiation is extended for the case where electric field of the well is accelerating electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. It was found that in these cases, the rate of stochastic heating of energetic electrons remains virtually the same as in Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)], where electric field in electrostatic potential was slowing down electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. However, the heating of electrons with relatively low energy can be sensitive to the orientation of the electrostatic potential well with respect to the direction of the laser radiation propagation.

  19. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle.

  20. A parametric study of shock jump chemistry, electron temperature, and radiative heat transfer models in hypersonic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greendyke, Robert Brian

    1988-01-01

    will examine the radiance model and various step models in order to determine their appropriateness to the flight regime of the AOTV. The final area to be investigated will be the effect of nonequilibrium corrections on the radiative heat transfer models... of T and e T will be valid as long as there is a reasonable amount vNs of nitrogen molecules in the flow. Radiative Heat Transfer Models For this study, four radiative heat transfer models were examined. One of these models is an optically thin radiance...

  1. Shape-independent limits to near-field radiative heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Owen D; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2015-01-01

    We derive shape-independent limits to the spectral radiative heat-transfer rate between two closely spaced bodies, generalizing the concept of a black body to the case of near-field energy transfer. By conservation of energy, we show that each body of susceptibility $\\chi$ can emit and absorb radiation at enhanced rates bounded by $|\\chi|^2 / \\operatorname{Im} \\chi$, optimally mediated by near-field photon transfer proportional to $1/d^2$ across a separation distance $d$. Dipole--dipole and dipole--plate structures approach restricted versions of the limit, but common large-area structures do not exhibit the material enhancement factor and thus fall short of the general limit. By contrast, we find that particle arrays interacting in an idealized Born approximation exhibit both enhancement factors, suggesting the possibility of orders-of-magnitude improvement beyond previous designs and the potential for radiative heat transfer to be comparable to conductive heat transfer through air at room temperature, and s...

  2. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS Michael J. Holtzmost common passive cooling systems and a representativepassive space heating and cooling systems. It is based upon

  3. Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Metamaterials coated with Silicon Carbide Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Soumyadipta; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC.By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonance for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

  4. Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Silverstein, C.C.

    1994-03-25

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.

  5. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  6. System and method for assaying radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DiPrete, David P; Whiteside, Tad; Pak, Donald J; DiPrete, Cecilia C

    2013-11-12

    A system for assaying radiation includes a sample holder configured to hold a liquid scintillation solution. A photomultiplier receives light from the liquid scintillation solution and generates a signal reflective of the light. A control circuit biases the photomultiplier and receives the signal from the photomultiplier reflective of the light. A light impermeable casing surrounds the sample holder, photomultiplier, and control circuit. A method for assaying radiation includes placing a sample in a liquid scintillation solution, placing the liquid scintillation solution in a sample holder, and placing the sample holder inside a light impermeable casing. The method further includes positioning a photomultiplier inside the light impermeable casing and supplying power to a control circuit inside the light impermeable casing.

  7. Residential Vertical Geothermal Heat Pump System Models: Calibration to Data:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Jeff W.; McDowell, T. P.; Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Pahud, D.; Hellstrom, G.

    1997-06-01

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was 'tuned' to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnect to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonatrate its capabilities.

  8. Residential vertical geothermal heat pump system models: Calibration to data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Pahud, D.; Hellstroem, G.A.J.

    1997-12-31

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was tuned to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnected to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonstrate its capabilities.

  9. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  10. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  11. The Sensitivity of Latent Heat Flux to Changes in the Radiative Forcing: A Framework for Comparing Models and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    A climate model must include an accurate surface physics scheme in order to examine the interactions between the land and atmosphere. Given an increase in the surface radiative forcing, the sensitivity of latent heat flux ...

  12. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  13. Spectrally enhancing near-field radiative heat transfer by exciting magnetic polariton in SiC gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we theoretically demonstrate, for the first time, that near field radiative transport between 1D periodic grating microstructures separated by subwavelength vacuum gaps can be significantly enhanced by exciting magnetic resonance or polariton. Fluctuational electrodynamics that incorporates scattering matrix theory with rigorous coupled wave analysis is employed to exactly calculate the near field radiative heat flux between two SiC gratings. Besides the well known coupled surface phonon polaritons (SPhP), an additional spectral radiative heat flux peak, which is due to magnetic polariton, is found within the phonon absorption band of SiC. The mechanisms, behaviors and interplays between magnetic polariton, coupled SPhP, single interface SPhP, and Wood's anomaly in the near field radiative transport are elucidated in detail. The findings will open up a new way to control near field radiative heat transfer by magnetic resonance with micro or nanostructured metamaterials.

  14. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector....

  15. Parallel Condensing System As A Heat Sink For Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhtar, S. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper...

  16. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstrati...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heating and more electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of 600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the...

  17. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve- Online Bidding System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed an on-line bidding system - an anonymous auction program - for the sale of product from the one million barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve.

  18. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System DE-EE0003679 FuelCell Energy, Inc. 1012010 - 9302011 Pinakin Patel FuelCell Energy Inc. ppatel@fce.com 203-825-6072...

  19. Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers and Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Someah, K.

    1991-01-01

    The on-line Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems (ATCS) for condensers and heat exchangers provide a positive means for automatic cleaning on a continuous basis, while the exchanger or condenser remains "on stream" and at ...

  20. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more about energy-efficient furnaces and boilers. Addthis Related Articles Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Energy Saver Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home...

  1. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri (Houston, TX)

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  2. Nuclear reactor heat transport system component low friction support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wade, Elman E. (Ruffs Dale, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A support column for a heavy component of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor heat transport system which will deflect when the pipes leading coolant to and from the heavy component expand or contract due to temperature changes includes a vertically disposed pipe, the pipe being connected to the heavy component by two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles and the pipe being supported through two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles, each of the cylindrical surfaces bearing on a flat and horizontal surface.

  3. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS Policy HQDepartmentHeat Pump

  4. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    type air-source VRF system and a GSHP system that uses single-stage scroll compressors and vertical ground loop heat exchanger (

  5. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  6. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Passive and Hybrid Heating Cooling Systems Michael]. Holtz,PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS Michael J.of passive and hybrid space heating and cooling systems are

  7. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01

    System Piping Time, Water, and Energy Waste- Phase I: TestSystem Piping Time, Water, and Energy Waste - Phase II TestSystem Piping Time, Water, and Energy Waste Phase III: Test

  8. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but ...

  9. Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    eld radiative heat transfer dominates radiation transferstudy Far field radiation Heat transfer coefficient, h r (W/nanoscale radiation to enhance radiative heat transfer. The

  10. Topic 14. Retrofit and optimal operation of the building energy systems Performances of Low Temperature Radiant Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , wall heating, floor heating, ceiling heating, EnergyPlus SUMMARY Low temperature heating panel systems. It is found that the floor-ceiling heating system has the lowest energy, exergy, CO2 emissions, operating and the surrounding areas, and the heat conduction between the floor and the ground. The main essence of the low

  11. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space Heating & Cooling »

  12. Eurotherm Seminar N81 Reactive Heat Transfer in Porous Media, Ecole des Mines d'Albi, France June 4-6, 2007 ET81-1 HEAT TRANSFER BY SIMULTANEOUS RADIATION-CONDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Eurotherm Seminar N81 Reactive Heat Transfer in Porous Media, Ecole des Mines d'Albi, France June 4-6, 2007 ET81- 1 HEAT TRANSFER BY SIMULTANEOUS RADIATION-CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION IN A HIGH for the packed bed. The comparison between the radiative heat transfer and the exchanges by conduction and forced

  13. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators This guide presents useful information for...

  14. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of Energy Facilities ByDepartmentOfficeThe newRadiators are used in

  15. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of Energy Facilities ByDepartmentOfficeThe newRadiators are used inA

  16. Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Lu [Oklahoma State University; Cullin, James [Oklahoma State University; Spitler, Jeffery [Oklahoma State University; Im, Piljae [ORNL; Fisher, Daniel [Oklahoma State University

    2011-01-01

    A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

  17. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    load and capacity; solar heat gain; Radiant design standardssignificance of solar radiation in the design process andthe magnitude of solar impacts under various design/control

  18. A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, Thomas E; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Curran, Scott; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

  19. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  20. Performance of a hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phetteplace, G.; Sullivan, W.

    1998-10-01

    In climates dominated by air conditioning, a few so-called hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been built. The hybrid system uses both a ground-coupled heat exchanger and a cooling tower, thereby reducing the amount of ground-coupling heat exchanger necessary. Although this concept has been shown to be feasible, the performance of such a system has not been measured in detail. Since it may be possible to achieve significant performance improvements in such systems by modifying the design and operational practices, detailed performance monitoring of such systems is needed. This paper describes a project that has been undertaken to collect performance data from a hybrid GCHP system at Fort Polk, LA. This paper presents performance data for a period of about 22 months, including data from portions of two heating and cooling seasons. The energy input to the GCHPs themselves will be presented, as well as the energy rejected to the ground in the cooling mode and that extracted from the ground in the heating mode. Energy flows in the cooling tower also will be addressed, along with the power consumption of the circulating pumps and the cooling tower.

  1. Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

  2. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  3. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  4. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  5. Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) plant, the expected performance of the plant is studied using simulations based on mathematical models. A complete heat source system model, equipped with an embedded...

  6. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01

    with studies of solar water heaters. Another area withto model hybrid water heaters or solar thermal systems. Theof a Gas Tankless Water Heater. In SOLAR 2008 San Diego,

  7. Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    measurements, continuous performance monitoring of associated GSHP systems, and analysis aided by calibrated models - Collection and analysis of available data based on...

  8. Frequency-Selective Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Photonic Crystal Slabs: A Computational Approach for Arbitrary Geometries and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frequency-Selective Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Photonic Crystal Slabs-selective near-field radiative heat transfer between patterned (photonic-crystal) slabs at designable frequencies and separations, exploiting a general numerical approach for computing heat transfer in arbitrary geometries

  9. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  10. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at Troy-Miami County Public Library, Troy, Ohio. The completed system is composed of tree basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which includes a 5000-gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which includes piping, pumping and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and is, therefore, a retrofit system. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  11. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siamidis, John [Thermal Energy Conversion Branch, Analex Corporation, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH, 44135 (United States); Mason, Lee [Thermal Energy Conversion Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH, 44135 (United States)

    2006-01-20

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H2O for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed excel analytical model, HRS{sub O}pt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  12. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing telluride TEMs. Key words: Thermoelectric generators, waste heat recovery, automotive exhaust, skutterudites

  13. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  14. Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump System Performance Test Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, M.

    1984-01-01

    of peak power and energy savings allowed by the innovative system. The main difference between the MSHHP and a conventional HVAC system is use of a chilled water "diversity" cooling loop interconnecting air to water coils (located at each water source heat...

  15. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program Policy for Submitting of PII information Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII information January 22, 2015 The REMS Program...

  16. Combined Heat and Power System Increases Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and govern- ment agencies to install innovative systems to ease demand on the state's power grid. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with the Energy Solutions...

  17. Order Reduction of the Radiative Heat Transfer Model for the Simulation of Plasma Arcs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagiano, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    An approach to derive low-complexity models describing thermal radiation for the sake of simulating the behavior of electric arcs in switchgear systems is presented. The idea is to approximate the (high dimensional) full-order equations, modeling the propagation of the radiated intensity in space, with a model of much lower dimension, whose parameters are identified by means of nonlinear system identification techniques. The low-order model preserves the main structural aspects of the full-order one, and its parameters can be straightforwardly used in arc simulation tools based on computational fluid dynamics. In particular, the model parameters can be used together with the common approaches to resolve radiation in magnetohydrodynamic simulations, including the discrete-ordinate method, the P-N methods and photohydrodynamics. The proposed order reduction approach is able to systematically compute the partitioning of the electromagnetic spectrum in frequency bands, and the related absorption coefficients, tha...

  18. Study of a heat rejection system for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) spacecraft. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest, D.M.

    1982-11-01

    Two different heat pipe radiator elements, one intended for use with the power conversion subsystem of the NASA funded nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) spacecraft, and one intended for use with the DOE funded space power advanced reactor (SPAR) system were tested and evaluated. The NEP stainless steel/sodium heat pipe was 4.42 meters long and had a 1 cm diameter. Thermal performance testing at 920 K showed a non-limited power level of 3560 watts, well in excess of the design power of 2600 watts. This test verified the applicability of screen arteries for use in long radiator heat pipes. The SPAR titanium/potassium heat pipe was 5.5 meters long and had a semicircular crossection with a 4 cm diameter. Thermal performance testing at 775 K showed a maximum power level of 1.86 kW, somewhat short of the desired 2.6 kW beginning of life design requirement. The reduced performance was shown to be the result of the inability of the evaporator wall wick (shot blasted evaporator wall) to handle the required liquid flow.

  19. Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the status quo that conventional energy sources are more and more reduced and environmental pollution is increasingly serious, this paper presents a new model system of conserving energy and environmental protection, ...

  20. Negative specific heat in out-of-equilibrium nonextensive systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rapisarda; V. Latora

    2002-02-26

    We discuss the occurrence of negative specific heat in a nonextensive system which has an equilibrium second-order phase transition.The specific heat is negative only in a transient regime before equilibration, in correspondence to long-lasting metastable states. For these states standard equilibrium Bolzmann-Gibbs thermodynamics does not apply and the system shows non-Gaussian velocity distributions, anomalous diffusion and correlation in phase space. Similar results have recently been found also in several other nonextensive systems, supporting the general validity of this scenario. These models seem also to support the conjecture that a nonexstensive statistical formalism, like the one proposed by Tsallis, should be applied in such cases. The theoretical scenario is not completely clear yet, but there are already many strong theoretical indications suggesting that, it can be wrong to consider the observation of an experimental negative specific heat as an unique and unambiguous signature of a standard equilibrium first-order phase transition.

  1. Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  2. Research on a Heat-supply Network Dispatching System Based on Geographical Information System (GIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Zou, P.; Tang, H.; Fang, X.; Wang, W.

    2006-01-01

    -supply Network Dispatching System (HNDS). The system, based on Oracle database and Mapgis 6.5, compiles with Visual C++ software. With computer and communication techniques, the system dynamic inspects parameters and information of a heat-supply network, achieves...

  3. VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FIELD TESTS AT THE TECH COMPLEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    323 CHAPTER 17 VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FIELD TESTS AT THE TECH COMPLEX \\B E Van D for several novel and conventional heat pump systems for space conditioning and water heating. Systems tested include the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), solar assisted heat pumps (SAHP) both parallel and series

  4. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  5. Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System Advances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patch, K. D.; Cole, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-09.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 23561 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-09.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 FLUIDIZED-BED WASTE-HEAT... RECOVERY SYSTEM ADVANCES Keith D. Patch William E. Cole Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is a combustion air preheater designed for existing unrecuperated...

  6. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  7. Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Develop a least-cost design tool (OptGSHP) that will enable GSHP developers to analyze system cost and performance in a variety of building applications to support both design, operational and purchase decisions. Integrate groundwater flow and heat transport into OptGSHP. Demonstrate the usefulness of OptGSHP and the significance of a systems approach to the design of GSHP systems.

  8. Specific heats of quantum double-well systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hideo Hasegawa

    2012-11-26

    Specific heats of quantum systems with symmetric and asymmetric double-well potentials have been calculated. In numerical calculations of their specific heats, we have adopted the combined method which takes into account not only eigenvalues of $\\epsilon_n$ for $0 \\leq n \\leq N_m$ obtained by the energy-matrix diagonalization but also their extrapolated ones for $N_m+1 \\leq n specific heats are shown to be rather different from counterparts of a harmonic oscillator. In particular, specific heats of symmetric double-well systems at very low temperatures have the Schottky-type anomaly, which is rooted to a small energy gap in low-lying two-level eigenstates induced by a tunneling through the potential barrier. The Schottky-type anomaly is removed when an asymmetry is introduced into the double-well potential. It has been pointed out that the specific-heat calculation of a double-well system reported by Feranchuk, Ulyanenkov and Kuz'min [Chem. Phys. 157, 61 (1991)] is misleading because the zeroth-order operator method they adopted neglects crucially important off-diagonal contributions.

  9. Effects of thermal radiation heat transfer on flame acceleration and transition to detonation in dust cloud flames: Origins of dust explosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Michael A Liberman M F

    2015-01-01

    We examines regimes of the hydrogen flames propagation and ignition of mixtures heated by the radiation emitted from the flame. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for radiation, while the suspended particles of the dust cloud ahead of the flame absorb and reemit the radiation. The radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding unreacted gaseous phase so that the gas phase temperature lags that of the particles. The direct numerical simulations solve the full system of two phase gas dynamic time-dependent equations with a detailed chemical kinetics for a plane flames propagating through a dust cloud. Depending on the spatial distribution of the dispersed particles and on the value of radiation absorption length the consequence of the radiative preheating of the unreacted mixture can be either the increase of the flame velocity for uniformly dispersed particles or ignition deflagration or detonation ahead of the flame via the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism in the...

  10. The Use of Aluminum Process Reject Heat as the Source of Energy for a District Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCabe, J.; Olszewski, M.

    1980-01-01

    Rocket Research Company (RRC) is investigating the use of industrial process reject heat as a source of energy for large scale district heating. The District heating System is a network of closed-loop hot water pipes that recover energy from...

  11. Integrated thermal solar heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, D.N.

    1980-04-08

    A compression module may comprise a hermetic helical screw rotary compressor having injection and ejection ports in addition to discharge and suction ports or may comprise a multiple cylinder, multiple level, reciprocating compressor. The module incorporates a subcooler coil and is connected to an outside air coil, a thermal energy storage coil, a direct solar energy supply coil, one or more inside coils for the space to be conditioned and a hot water coil through common, discharge manifold, suction manifold, liquid drain manifold and liquid feed manifold, by suitable solenoid operated control valves and check valves. The solenoid operated control valves are selectively operated in response to system operating parameters. Seal pots and positive displacement pumps may operate to force liquid refrigerant condensed at intermediate pressure to flow to the receiver which is pressurized at a pressure corresponding to the condensation temperature of the highest pressure condensing coil in the system. Alternatively, liquid refrigerant expansion may be used to reach a common receiver pressure for all condenser returns.

  12. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  13. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M.

    1997-12-31

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  14. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  15. Forming liquid sprays in compressed-gas energy storage systems for effective heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, Troy O.; Bell, Alexander; Bollinger, Benjamin R.

    2012-08-07

    In various embodiments, efficiency of energy storage and recovery systems compressing and expanding gas is improved via heat exchange between the gas and a heat-transfer fluid.

  16. Forming liquid sprays in compressed-gas energy storage systems for effective heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, Troy O; Bell, Alexander; Bollinger, Benjamin R; Shang, Andrew; Chmiel, David; Richter, Horst; Magari, Patrick; Cameron, Benjamin

    2013-07-02

    In various embodiments, efficiency of energy storage and recovery systems compressing and expanding gas is improved via heat exchange between the gas and a heat-transfer fluid.

  17. Optimal Regulation of Heating Systems with Metering Based on Dynamic Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, H.; Wang, P.; Zeng, G.; Tian, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The mathematical models of heat networks and heat users are established using the node method. The physical model of a typical room instead of a heat user is used; meanwhile the equation of radiator controlled by thermostat is put forward to compute...

  18. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

  19. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  20. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    7] B. Borresen, Floor heating and cooling of an atrium, in:thermal performance of floor heating systems, Solar Energy,discussed this issue for floor heating, but not cooling.

  1. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details: Thermoelectric generators, waste heat recovery, automotive exhaust, skutterudites INTRODUCTION In part I

  2. Combined ICR heating antenna for ion separation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timofeev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    A combination of one- and two-wave antennas (one and two turns of conductors around a plasma cylinder, respectively) is proposed. This combined antenna localizes an RF field within itself. It is shown that spent nuclear fuel processing systems based on ICR heating of nuclear ash by such a combined antenna have high productivity. A theory of the RF field excitation in ICR ion separation systems is presented in a simple and compact form.

  3. Rapid heating and cooling in two-dimensional Yukawa systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Feng; Bin Liu; J. Goree

    2011-04-19

    Simulations are reported to investigate solid superheating and liquid supercooling of two-dimensional (2D) systems with a Yukawa interparticle potential. Motivated by experiments where a dusty plasma is heated and then cooled suddenly, we track particle motion using a simulation with Langevin dynamics. Hysteresis is observed when the temperature is varied rapidly in a heating and cooling cycle. As in the experiment, transient solid superheating, but not liquid supercooling, is observed. Solid superheating, which is characterized by solid structure above the melting point, is found to be promoted by a higher rate of temperature increase.

  4. GROUND-COUPLED HEAT-PUMP-SYSTEM EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS* Philip D. Metz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;GROUND-COUPLED HEAT-PUMP-SYSTEM EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS* Philip D. Metz _Solar and Renewables house in Upton, Long Island, New York has been heated and cooled by a liquid source heat pump using- saving construction with a heating load of 7.8 X 106 J/OC-day (4.1 X 103 Btu/ OF-day). The heat pump used

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  6. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  7. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, David

    2013-01-01

    regulates heat exchanger pressures and ex- pander powerwhile regulating heat exchanger pressures. The pressure andworking fluid pressure in EGR heat exchanger Pegrin, in MPa

  8. Technology assessment of external heat systems for Stirling heat pumps. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilakis, A.D.

    1993-12-01

    A technology assessment and design improvement effort was undertaken for the Stirling engine heat pump external heat system (EHS) in order to reduce costs. It was found that only two applicable EHS design approaches have been developed to any extent: a relatively undeveloped design featuring a premixed fuel and air transpiration burner, and a turbulent diffusion type burner system developed by Mechanical Technology, Inc. To evaluate and optimize the design concepts, an analytical model was developed that examined design and performance variables. The model calculated key temperatures, allowing the specification of materials requirements. Adherence to American National Standards Institute appliance furnace code material specifications was assumed. Concepts for EHS control systems were evaluated, and a cost-effective control system design was developed for the turbulent diffusion burner EHS. The study reveals that optimizing the diffusion burner EHS design can result in significant cost savings. No clear choice between the diffusion burner and transpiration burner systems could be determined from this study, but the designs of both were further developed and improved. Estimates show the EHS based on a transpiration burner to have a manufactured cost that is roughly 70% of the turbulent diffusion burner EHS cost, but fuel efficiency is lower by about 18%.

  9. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  10. Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump Systems and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning

  11. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, including supercritical, choked, and two-phase flow conditions.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  13. Entropy and specific heat for open systems in steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. L. Huang; B. Cui; X. X. Yi

    2010-01-27

    The fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics is that the system is equally likely in any of the accessible microstates. Based on this assumption, the Boltzmann distribution is derived and the full theory of statistical thermodynamics can be built. In this paper, we show that the Boltzmann distribution in general can not describe the steady state of open system. Based on the effective Hamiltonian approach, we calculate the specific heat, the free energy and the entropy for an open system in steady states. Examples are illustrated and discussed.

  14. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  15. Prototype demonstration of radiation therapy planning code system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, R.C.; Adams, K.J.; Estes, G.P.; Hughes, L.S. III; Waters, L.S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiation therapy planning is the process by which a radiation oncologist plans a treatment protocol for a patient preparing to undergo radiation therapy. The objective is to develop a protocol that delivers sufficient radiation dose to the entire tumor volume, while minimizing dose to healthy tissue. Radiation therapy planning, as currently practiced in the field, suffers from inaccuracies made in modeling patient anatomy and radiation transport. This project investigated the ability to automatically model patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in advanced Los Alamos radiation transport codes (such as MCNP), and to efficiently generate accurate radiation dose profiles in these geometries via sophisticated physics modeling. Modem scientific visualization techniques were utilized. The long-term goal is that such a system could be used by a non-expert in a distributed computing environment to help plan the treatment protocol for any candidate radiation source. The improved accuracy offered by such a system promises increased efficacy and reduced costs for this important aspect of health care.

  16. Study and design of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ongena, J.; Messiaen, A.; Van Eester, D.; Schweer, B.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Kazakov, Ye. O.; Louche, F.; Vervier, M.; Koch, R.; Krivska, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Van Schoor, M.; Wauters, T. [Laboratory for Plasmaphysics, Ecole Royale MilitaireKoninklijke Militaire School, TEC Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Borsuk, V.; Neubauer, O.; Schmitz, O. [IEK-4/Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, TEC Partner, Juelich (Germany); Offermans, G. [ZEA-1, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Altenburg, Y.; Baylard, C. [Max-Planck Institute fr Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); and others

    2014-06-15

    The current status of the mechanical and electromagnetic design for the ICRF antenna system for W7-X is presented. Two antenna plugins are discussed: one consisting of a pair of straps with pre-matching to cover the first frequency band, 2538 MHz, and a second one consisting of two short strap triplets to cover a frequency band around 76 MHz. This paper focusses on the two strap antenna for the lower frequency band. Power coupling of the antenna to a reference plasma profile is studied with the help of the codes TOPICA and Microwave Studio that deliver the scattering matrix needed for the optimization of the geometric parameters of the straps and antenna box. Radiation power spectra for different phasings of the two straps are obtained using the code ANTITER II and different heating scenario are discussed. The potential for heating, fast particle generation, and current drive is discussed. The problem of RF coupling through the plasma edge and of edge power deposition is summarized. Important elements of the complete ion cyclotron resonance heating system are discussed: a resonator circuit with tap feed to limit the maximum voltage in the system, and a decoupler to counterbalance the large mutual coupling between the 2 straps. The mechanical design highlights the challenges encountered with this antenna: adaptation to a large variety of plasma configurations, the limited space within the port to accommodate the necessary matching components and the watercooling needed for long pulse operation.

  17. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems, in, 2012. [15] F.Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design. Proceedings ofof radiant floor cooling systems and their associated air

  18. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O'Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  19. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.; Kelley, G.O.

    1995-03-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorbances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. The method has been applied to one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind in combination with multiple glazings. A comparison between the scanner-based calculation method and direct system calorimetric measurements made on the LBL MoWiTT facility showed good agreement, and is a significant validation of the method accuracy and feasibility.

  20. RELAP5 MODEL OF THE DIVERTOR PRIMARY HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popov, Emilian L [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Kim, Seokho H [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the RELAP5 model that has been developed for the divertor primary heat transfer system (PHTS). The model is intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the divertor PHTS and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the model and examine general divertor PHTS transient behavior. The model can be used as a starting point for developing transient modeling capability, including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc., and is not intended to represent the final divertor PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, present pressurizer controls may not be sufficient to keep system pressures within their desired range. Additional divertor PHTS and control system design efforts may be required to ensure system pressure fluctuation during normal operation remains within specified limits.

  1. Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Gasparinetti; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti

    2014-07-29

    As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here we set up a formalism that allows to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices.

  2. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  3. Study of a Fault Analysis System for a Heat Supply Network Based on GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, P.; Liu, M.; Tang, H.; Wang, X.; Li, N.; Wang, W.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional methods cannot satisfy the request of the layout and operation management in a heating system. The geographical information system (GIS) in a heat supply network can realize information conformity and information share roundly, which...

  4. 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical...

  5. Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Substantial increases in engine efficiency of a...

  6. Process Waste Heat Recovery in the Food Industry - A System Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundberg, W. L.; Mutone, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of an industrial waste heat recovery system concept is discussed. For example purposes, a food processing plant operating an ammonia refrigeration system for storage and blast freezing is considered. Heat is withdrawn from...

  7. Advanced Burners and Combustion Controls for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferri, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-88-09-52.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10271 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-88-09-52.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ADVANCED BURNERS... AND COMBUSTION CONTROLS FOR INDUSTRIAL HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS J.L.FERRI GTE PRODUCTS CORPORATION TOWANDA, PA ABSTRACT When recuperators are installed on indus trial furnaces, burners and ratio control systems must continue to operate reliably under a...

  8. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  9. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    a direct comparison of EnergyPlus simulated radiation heatStandards, 1983. [19] DOE, EnergyPlus Engineering Reference,as the ratio of the EnergyPlus simulated radiant cooling

  10. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90[degrees]C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15[degrees]C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  11. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90{degrees}C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15{degrees}C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  12. Magnetic-field control of near-field radiative heat transfer and the realization of highly tunable hyperbolic thermal emitters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncada-Villa, Edwin; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Cuevas, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical study of the magnetic field dependence of the near-field radiative heat transfer (NFRHT) between two parallel plates. We show that when the plates are made of doped semiconductors, the near-field thermal radiation can be severely affected by the application of a static magnetic field. We find that irrespective of its direction, the presence of a magnetic field reduces the radiative heat conductance, and dramatic reductions up to 700% can be found with fields of about 6 T at room temperature. We show that this striking behavior is due to the fact that the magnetic field radically changes the nature of the NFRHT. The field not only affects the electromagnetic surface waves (both plasmons and phonon polaritons) that normally dominate the near-field radiation in doped semiconductors, but it also induces hyperbolic modes that progressively dominate the heat transfer as the field increases. In particular, we show that when the field is perpendicular to the plates, the semicond...

  13. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robbat, Jr., Albert (Andover, MA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  14. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.

  15. TEST RESULTS FOR A STIRLING-ENGINE-DRIVEN HEAT-ACTUATED HEAT PUMP BREADBOARD SYSTEM T.M. Moynihan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    849044 TEST RESULTS FOR A STIRLING-ENGINE-DRIVEN HEAT-ACTUATED HEAT PUMP BREADBOARD SYSTEM T and hydraulic transmission (Figure 2). Engine power is transferred to the i A Free-Piston Stirling Engine prime's performance/ Stirling Engine - Spring operation over the specified operating range, Driver -'i. i, C

  16. Nitinol Heat Engine power plant system installation and cost optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cady, E.C.; McNichols, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    Nitinol Heat Engines (NHE) use a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium to directly convert the thermal energy in hot water to mechanical power (and, through a generator, to electricity). The authors designed a commercial version of a NHE based on the thermoturbine configuration developed in prototype form under contract to the Department of Energy in 1978-1980. The operation and cost of various forms of NHE have been described previously, but the penalties and costs associated with integrating the complete NHE system into installations supplying the thermal energy have not previously been determined. They found that these costs are most important, as they will often exceed the costs of the NHE proper. However, the total installed costs are quite low and result in very economical power from waste-heat or geothermal hot-water sources.

  17. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of an accretion flow with radiative cooling in a close binary system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun'ichi Sato; Keisuke Sawada; Naofumi Ohnishi

    2003-04-14

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of an accretion flow in a close binary system are performed by solving the Euler equations with radiative transfer. In the present study, the specific heat ratio is assumed to be constant while radiative cooling effect is included as a non-adiabatic process. The cooling effect of the disc is considered by discharging energy in the vertical directions from the top and bottom surfaces of the disc. We use the flux-limited diffusion approximation to calculate the radiative heat flux values. Our calculations show that a disc structure appears and the spiral shocks are formed on the disc. These features are similar to that observed in the case of an adiabatic gas with a lower specific heat ratio, $\\gamma=1.01$. It is found that when radiative cooling effect is accounted for, the mass of the disc becomes larger than that assuming $\\gamma=5/3$, and smaller than that assuming $\\gamma=1.01$. It is concluded that employing an adiabatic gas with a lower specific heat ratio is almost a valid assumption for simulating accretion disc with radiative cooling effect.

  18. A new scheme of radiation transfer in H II regions including transient heating of grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K. Ghosh; R. P. Verma

    2000-09-21

    A new scheme of radiation transfer for understanding infrared spectra of H II regions, has been developed. This scheme considers non-equilibrium processes (e. g. transient heating of the very small grains, VSG; and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, PAH) also, in addition to the equilibrium thermal emission from normal dust grains (BG). The spherically symmetric interstellar dust cloud is segmented into a large number of "onion skin" shells in order to implement the non-equilibrium processes. The scheme attempts to fit the observed SED originating from the dust component, by exploring the following parameters : (i) geometrical details of the dust cloud, (ii) PAH size and abundance, (iii) composition of normal grains (BG), (iv) radial distribution of all dust (BG, VSG & PAH). The scheme has been applied to a set of five compact H II regions (IRAS 18116- 1646, 18162-2048, 19442+2427, 22308+5812 & 18434-0242) whose spectra are available with adequate spectral resolution. The best fit models and inferences about the parameters for these sources are presented.

  19. Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management and operational Energiforskningsprogrammet EFP ENS J.nr. 1373/01-0041 December 2004 #12;Simple models of district heating systems for load 87-7475-323-1 #12;Preface The research project "Simple models of district heating systems for load

  20. HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+ M.H. Khan, 74078, USA ABSTRACT This paper presents a simulation of a hybrid ground source heat pump system, performed using a new graphical user interface for HVACSIM+. Hybrid ground source heat pump systems

  1. Rethinking energy conservation via an evaluation of the heating system: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    by applying better control algorithms for the heating and cooling system. #12;Acknowledgements I would likeRethinking energy conservation via an evaluation of the heating system: A Case Study of Zilverling Intan Permatasari The purpose of this research is to study the heating system in Zilverling building

  2. Design of a unique wind powered heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cromack, D.; Po, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an entire wind turbine system utilizing a mechanical churn as the sole means of energy conversion has been completed. The system has been designed to meet the hot water demands of a 100 cow dairy farm which consumes 68,500 kW-hrs of energy yearly in the form of hot water. The hot water produced by this system will be used to provide space heating, livestock facility and milk processing equipment sanitation, and hot tap water. The wind turbine is designed for a moderate average wind speed of 6 m/s. It should be noted that this system could be used for other industrial applications where the energy demand for process hot water is similar to that of the dairy farm.

  3. Silver Sinter Heat Exchangers Construction of a sinter press and a BET-system to measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zumbhl, Dominik

    Silver Sinter Heat Exchangers Construction of a sinter press and a BET-system to measure specific, efficient heat exchangers are of special importance. As the thermal boundary resistance, called Kapitzaresistance, is inversely proportional to the interface area, heat exchangers with large surface areas are used for the heat

  4. Model based methodology development for energy recovery in flash heat exchange systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, John E.

    Model based methodology development for energy recovery in flash heat exchange systems Problem with a condensing heat exchanger can be used when heat exchange is required between two streams and where at leastH, consistency etc.). To increase the efficiency of heat exchange, a cascade of these units in series can be used

  5. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

  6. Energy Efficient Design of a Waste Heat Rejection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.

    2000-01-01

    , and oil preheaters. The heating requirements for these heat sinks are generally met by burning fossil fuels or even by using electric heaters while available waste heat is rejected to the surrounding environment using devices such as cooling towers...

  7. Development of an On-Line Expert System: Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sopocy, D. M.; Henry, R. E.; Gehl, S.; Divakaruni, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    An on-line expert system for fossil-fueled power plants, the "Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor," is being developed. This expert system will operate on a microcomputer and will interface with existing plant data acquisition and/or thermal...

  8. Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, S.; Kross, B.J.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

    1996-10-22

    An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray{trademark} (RGX{trademark}) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging. 5 figs.

  9. Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Kross, Brian J. (Yorktown, VA); Zorn, Carl J. (Yorktown, VA); Majewski, Lukasz A. (Grafton, VA)

    1996-01-01

    An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray.RTM. (RGX.RTM.) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging.

  10. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  11. Numerical Simulation of a Latent Heat Storage System of a Solar-Aided Ground Source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Zheng, M.; Li, Z.; Lei, B.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the rectangular phase change storage tank (PCST) linked to a solar-aided ground source heat pump (SAGSHP) system is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The container of the phase change material ...

  12. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  13. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  14. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-02-01

    This is one in a series of sourcebooks to help manufacturers optimize their industrial systems; this particular sourcebook addresses process heating systems.

  15. SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS Myles P. Murray 1 exposed photovoltaic materials, is defined as the rate of photodarkening or photobleaching of a material testing. The potential to predict power losses in a photovoltaic system over time caused

  16. Control system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive solar heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal control strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal control applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable control schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal control system.

  17. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  18. Field Testing of a Portable Radiation Detector and Mapping System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1998-03-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have developed a man- portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) which integrates the accumulation of radiation information with precise ground locations. RADMAPS provides field personnel with the ability to detect, locate, and characterize nuclear material at a site or facility by analyzing the gamma or neutron spectra and correlating them with position. the man-portable field unit records gamma or neutron count rate information and its location, along with date and time, using an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS). RADMAPS is an advancement in data fusion, integrating several off-the-shelf technologies with new computer software resulting in a system that is simple to deploy and provides information useful to field personnel in an easily understandable form. Decisions on subsequent actions can be made in the field to efficiently use available field resources. The technologies employed in this system include: recording GPS, radiation detection (typically scintillation detectors), pulse height analysis, analog-to-digital converters, removable solid-state (Flash or SRAM) memory cards, Geographic Information System (GIS) software and personal computers with CD-ROM supporting digital base maps. RADMAPS includes several field deployable data acquisition systems designed to simultaneously record radiation and geographic positions. This paper summarizes the capabilities of RADMAPS and some of the results of field tests performed with the system.

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    freezing in the heat pump. The antifreeze mixture type and concentration has a number of implications for the design and performance of the system. These include the required ground loop heat exchanger length, and the first cost of the system. For example, the required ground loop heat exchanger length and first cost

  20. A Functional Regression Approach for Prediction in a District-Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    A Functional Regression Approach for Prediction in a District-Heating System Aldo Goia Dipartimento in a district heating sys- tem. Our dataset consists of four separated periods, with 198 days each period and 24 load forecasting, district heat- ing system Introduction Among the activities of support

  1. WICKING OPTIMIZATION FOR THERMAL COOLING -WITH A TITANIUM BASED HEAT PIPE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    WICKING OPTIMIZATION FOR THERMAL COOLING -WITH A TITANIUM BASED HEAT PIPE SYSTEM C. Ding1* , P for a proposed flat heat pipe system. This unique bitextured titania structure (BTS) provides a suprerhydrophilic based flat heat pipe is proposed to integrate the BTS wicks and study the concept of this titanium based

  2. EA-1922: Combined Power and Biomass Heating System, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE (lead agency), Denali Commission (cooperating agency) and USDA Rural Utilities Services (cooperating agency) are proposing to provide funding to support the final design and construction of a biomass combined heat and power plant and associated district heating system to the Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments and the Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation. The proposed biomass district heating system would be located in Fort Yukon Alaska.

  3. MODELING OF STANDING COLUMN WELLS IN GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF STANDING COLUMN WELLS IN GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By ZHENG DENG Bachelor December, 2004 #12;ii MODELING OF STANDING COLUMN WELLS IN GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved) ..................................................................... 6 1.3. Basic physical mechanism in SCWs (heat transfer and mass transfer in porous media

  4. A Simple Control Scheme for Near-optimal Operation of Parallel Heat Exchanger Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    A Simple Control Scheme for Near-optimal Operation of Parallel Heat Exchanger Systems Johannes J) N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract For heat exchanger networks with stream splits, we present for systems with logarithmic mean temperature difference as driving force. Keywords: Heat exchanger networks

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION M in a ground source heat pump system falls near or below 0o C, an antifreeze mixture must be used to prevent freezing in the heat pump. The antifreeze mixture type and concentration has a number of implications

  6. Hardware Implementation of the Primary Mirror Surface Heating System for the Gemini 8 meter Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    meter primary mirror. Keywords: seeing, resistive heating, thermal control, primary mirror 2 as a resistive heating element; the control of current flow across the mirror surface results in a controlled Block Diagram for Gemini Surface Heating System 2.4 Primary Voltage Control Subsystem: This system

  7. Hardware Implementation of the Primary Mirror Surface Heating System for the Gemini 8 meter Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -meter primary mirror. Keywords: seeing, resistive heating, thermal control, primary mirror 2 as a resistive heating element; the control of current flow across the mirror surface results in a controlled Block Diagram for Gemini Surface Heating System 2.4 Primary Voltage Control Subsystem: This system

  8. Aalborg Universitet HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Aalborg Universitet HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery. Department of Energy Technology Heat Recovery Xin Gao Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg

  9. Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernndez de Crdoba, Pedro

    Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

  10. Efficiency improvement of a ground coupled heat pump system from energy management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernndez de Crdoba, Pedro

    Efficiency improvement of a ground coupled heat pump system from energy management N. Pardo a,*, coupled heat pump Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b s t r a c t The installed capacity of an air to improve the efficiency of a ground coupled heat pump air conditioning system by adapting its produced

  11. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.

  12. Request for Travel Funds for Systems Radiation Biology Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2014-03-22

    The 3rd International Systems Radiation Biology Workshop brought together the major European, US and Japanese research programs on radiation risk as well as selected experts representing systems biological approaches to discuss how the new methodologies could be best exploited for low dose research. A significant part of the workshop was devoted to discussions organised as breakout group sessions. To facilitate discussions number of participants was limited to 60 persons. To achieve the goals of this symposium in this international conference, support from DOE is vital. Hence, this proposal requested support in the amount of $15,000 to cover the travel expenses of international experts and radiation biology scientists from the United States. This supporting mechanism was clearly identified to the selected US participants as a conference support award from the DOE (See attached PDF). The workshop was an outstanding opportunity to strengthen interactions between leading experts in the emerging areas of radiation sciences, and will also provide opportunities for younger scientists to meet with experts and discuss their results. This workshop was designed to endorse active engagement in international collaboration. A major objective of this conference was to effectively communicate research results, in order to ensure that current thinking reflects sound science of radiation biology. Further, this international event addressed the use and success of scientific initiatives in radiation biology for policymakers, standard-setters, and the general public.

  13. The Stirling alternative. Power systems, refrigerants and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, G.; Reader, G.; Fauvel, O.R.; Bingham, E.R. )

    1993-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date reference on the technology, history, and practical applications of Stirling engines, including recent developments in the field and a convenient survey of the Stirling engine literature. The topics of the book include: fundamentals of Stirling technology, definition and terminology, thermodynamic laws and cycles: some elementary considerations, the Stirling cycle, practical regenerative cycle, theoretical aspects and computer simulation of Stirling machines, mechanical arrangements, control systems, heat exchangers, performance characteristics, working fluids, applications of Stirling machines, advantages of Stirling machines, disadvantages of Stirling machines, Stirling versus internal combustion engines, Stirling versus Rankine engines, applications for Stirling machines, Stirling power systems, the literature and sources of supply, the literature of Stirling engines, and the literature of cryocoolers.

  14. Study of Applications of Solar Heating Systems with Seasonal Storage in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, G.; Zhao, X.; Chen, P.

    2006-01-01

    In most northern parts of China, it is cold in winter and needs space heating in winter. This paper studies applications of solar heating systems with seasonal storage in China. A typical residential district was selected, ...

  15. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

  16. Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for supercritical CO2 power cycles for concentrated solar power Title Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat...

  17. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  18. Successful Application of Heat Pumps to a DHC System in the Tokyo Bay Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanagihara, R.; Okagaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Harumi-Island District Heating & Cooling (DHC), which is located in the Tokyo Bay area, introduced the heat pump and thermal storage system with the aim of achieving minimum energy consumption, minimum environmental load, and maximum economical...

  19. The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, X.; Song, S.

    2006-01-01

    Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed...

  20. Radiation portal monitor system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Borozdin, Konstantin N. (Los Alamos, NM); Green, J. Andrew (Los Alamos, NM); Hogan, Gary E. (Los Alamos, NM); Makela, Mark F. (Los Alamos, NM); Priedhorsky, William C. (Los Alamos, NM); Saunders, Alexander (Los Alamos, NM); Schultz, Larry J. (Los Alamos, NM); Sossong, Michael J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-12-15

    A portal monitoring system has a cosmic ray charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray muons, whilst also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  1. Two well storage systems for combined heating and airconditioning by groundwater heatpumps in shallow aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelka, W.

    1980-07-01

    The use of soil and ground water as an energy source and heat storage systems for heat pumps in order to conserve energy in heating and air conditioning buildings is discussed. Information is included on heat pump operation and performance, aquifer characteristics, soil and ground water temperatures, and cooling and heating demands. Mathematical models are used to calculate flow and temperature fields in the aquifer. It is concluded that two well storage systems with ground water heat pumps are desirable, particularly in northern climates. (LCL)

  2. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  3. Transitional regimes of natural convection in a differentially heated cubical cavity under the effects of wall and molecular gas radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soucasse, L.; Rivire, Ph.; Soufiani, A., E-mail: anouar.soufiani@ecp.fr [CNRS, UPR 288, Laboratoire EM2C, 92290 Chtenay-Malabry (France); cole Centrale Paris, 92290 Chtenay-Malabry (France)] [France; Xin, S. [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)] [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Le Qur, P. [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)] [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-02-15

    The transition to unsteadiness and the dynamics of weakly turbulent natural convection, coupled to wall or gas radiation in a differentially heated cubical cavity with adiabatic lateral walls, are studied numerically. The working fluid is air with small contents of water vapor and carbon dioxide whose infrared spectral radiative properties are modelled by the absorption distribution function model. A pseudo spectral Chebyshev collocation method is used to solve the flow field equations and is coupled to a direct ray tracing method for radiation transport. Flow structures are identified by means of either the proper orthogonal decomposition or the dynamic mode decomposition methods. We first retrieve the classical mechanism of transition to unsteadiness without radiation, characterized by counter-rotating streamwise-oriented vortices generated at the exit of the vertical boundary layers. Wall radiation through a transparent medium leads to a homogenization of lateral wall temperatures and the resulting transition mechanism is similar to that obtained with perfectly conducting lateral walls. The transition is due to an unstable stratification upstream the vertical boundary layers and is characterized by periodically oscillating transverse rolls of axis perpendicular to the main flow. When molecular gas radiation is accounted for, no periodic solution is found and the transition to unsteadiness displays complex structures with chimneys-like rolls whose axes are again parallel to the main flow. The origin of this instability is probably due to centrifugal forces, as suggested previously for the case without radiation. Above the transition to unsteadiness, at Ra = 3 10{sup 8}, it is shown that both wall and gas radiation significantly intensify turbulent fluctuations, decrease the thermal stratification in the core of the cavity, and increase the global circulation.

  4. Stirling cycle heat pump for heating and/or cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijer, R.J.; Khalili, K.; Meijer, E.; Godett, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a duplex Stirling cycle machine acting as a heat pump. It comprises: a Stirling engine having pistons axially displaceable within parallel cylinders, the engine further having a swashplate rotatable about an axis of, rotation parallel to the cylinders and defining a plane inclined from the axis of rotation. The pistons connected to the swashplate via crossheads whereby axial displacement of the pistons is converted to rotation of the swashplate, and a Stirling cycle heat pump having a compression heat exchanger, an expansion heat exchanger and a regenerator with pistons equal in number to the engine pistons and axially displaceable within cylinders which are oriented co-axially with the engine cylinders. The crossheads further connected to the heat pump pistons whereby the heat pump pistons move simultaneously with the engine pistons over an equal stroke distance.

  5. Performance of a radiatively cooled system for quantum optomechanical experiments in space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilan-Zanoni, Andr; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a radiatively cooled instrument is investigated in the context of optomechanical quantum experiments, where the environment of a macroscopic particle in a quantum-superposition has to be cooled to less than 20\\,K in deep space. A heat-transfer analysis between the components of the instrument as well as a transfer-function analysis on thermal oscillations induced by the spacecraft interior and by dissipative sources is performed. The thermal behaviour of the instrument in an orbit around a Lagrangian point and in a highly elliptical Earth orbit is discussed. Finally, we investigate further possible design improvements aiming at lower temperatures of the environment of the macroscopic particle. These include a mirror-based design of the imaging system on the optical bench and the extension of the heat shields.

  6. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  7. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markham, James R. (Middlefield, CT)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  8. Performance of a drain-back solar heating and hot water system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.

    1984-03-01

    The principal objective of the project was to test and evaluate the BNL collectors in a space heating system. When the BNL collectors delaminated under stagnation conditions, they were replaced with the Chamberlain collectors which were previously used on solar house III, and tests were continued to evaluate performance of a drain-back system. Results leading to the following conclusions are discussed. (1) The Chamberlain collectors have deteriorated in performance compared to previous seasons. Where daily efficiency of 41% were attained in 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980, efficiency was 37%. System efficiency of 29% compares to 30% in prior years. (2) Solar contribution to DHW heating is low, and is probably the result of the artificially imposed load profile and the low recovery rate of the double-wall heat exchanger. (3) System efficiency can be improved by reducing thermal losses from storage.

  9. Heat Transport in Groundwater Systems--Laboratory Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, D. B.; Reddell, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy is a possible alternate energy source for space heating. A method of economic long term solar energy storage is needed. Researchers have proposed storing solar energy by heating water using solar collectors and injecting the hot water...

  10. Experimental Research of an Active Solar Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, X.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    : Solar is an abundant renewable energy, which is used more and more frequently with the emphasis on environment protection, especially in building heating. The different devised methods between an active solar heating ...

  11. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  12. Heat Transport in Groundwater Systems--Finite Element Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grubaugh, E. K.; Reddell, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy is a promising alternate energy source for space heating. A method of economic long term solar energy storage is needed. Researchers have proposed storing solar energy by injecting hot water heated using solar collectors...

  13. Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers & Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Someah, K.

    1993-01-01

    Condenser tube fouling contributes up to 50% of the total condenser tube heat transfer resistance. This fouling results in reduced heat exchanger performance, reduced production, increased operational cost, increased back pressure, increased tube...

  14. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage andor other process functions using thermal...

  15. Combined Heat and Power Systems (CHP): Capabilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    D&MT Capabilities fact sheet that describes the NREL capabilities related to combined heat and power (CHP).

  16. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, David

    2013-01-01

    and water-ammonia mixtures are both zeotropic and are popular working fluid choices in waste heat recovery

  17. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  18. Introduction Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to drilling of bore- holes for vertical ground heat exchangers (GHX), or excavation for horizontal GHX, USA, spitler@okstate.edu signhilD e.a. gehlin Technical Expert, Swedish Centre for Shallow Geothermal pumps, GSHP, foundation heat exchanger, FHX,vertical ground heat exchanger, VGHX REHVA Journal January

  19. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  20. Combined Flue Gas Heat Recovery and Pollution Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zbikowski, T.

    1979-01-01

    in the field of heat recovery now make it possible to recover a portion of the wasted heat and improve the working conditions of the air purification equipment. Proper design and selection of heat recovery and pollution control equipment as a combination...

  1. Radiation collimator and systems incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Daren R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Yoon, Woo Y. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, James L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Haskell, Kevin J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bennett, Brion D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tschaggeny, Charles W. (Woods Cross, UT); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-09-13

    A collimator including a housing having disposed therein a shield element surrounding a converter core in which a photon beam is generated from electrons emanating from a linear accelerator. A beam channeler longitudinally adjacent the shield element has a beam aperture therethrough coaxially aligned with, and of the same diameter as, an exit bore of the converter core. A larger entry bore in the converter core is coaxial with, and longitudinally separated from, the exit bore thereof. Systems incorporating the collimator are also disclosed.

  2. ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSE The 2014Capabilities ORISEandMakingMonitoring System

  3. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery, turbocharging or turbo-compounding, and exhaust aftertreatment.

  4. CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System program was the development of an economically viable coal water slurry (CWS) fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During the first phase of the program, a novel state-of-the-art Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) combustor was designed and tested. The second phase of the program focused on evaluating the interaction between the individual components and system design optimization. Testing was conducted on the prototype furnace. This work concentrated on optimizing the combustor configuration to yield high combustion efficiencies and prevent the possible agglomeration of coal within the combustor. Also, a new twin-fluid CWS atomizer was designed and tested. This atomizer employed a supersonic airstream to shear the CWS external to the nozzle and thereby eliminated erosion problems. Also, a new furnace system was designed, constructed, and extensively tested. This furnace, called the third-generation system, served as a basis for a manufacturing prototype and included all the necessary controls needed for automatic operation. In life testing of the third-generation furnace system, the unit operated for 200 hours and burned 1,758 pounds of CWS. This translated into an average input rate throughout the test period of 87,200 Btu/hr. During this period, combustion efficiencies ranged from 98.2 to 99.1 percent, with a noted increase in efficiency with time. This furnace was also tested in a cyclic manner for an additional period of 54 hours to evaluate the effect of thermal transients. During cyclic testing, the furnace went through repeated transient cycles, which included startup on oil, transition to CWS, and cool-down. As part of an economic evaluation the high volume cost of a CWS-fired warm air furnace was determined. 90 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  6. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  7. Energy, cost, and CO2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel1 systems and radiator systems2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    distribution57 58 1. Introduction59 In Serbia, the concept of the radiant panel heating system (wall and floor the performance of a forced-air and a radiant floor residential heating system connected to71 solar collectors results of operations of 410 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any

  8. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  9. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  10. DESIGN AND MODELING OF DISPATCHABLE HEAT STORAGE IN WIND/DIESEL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    and Industrial Engineering University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 ABSTRACT This paper discusses a heating to be uneconomical. End uses, such as heating and water pumping are certainly attractive and may be economic; while1 DESIGN AND MODELING OF DISPATCHABLE HEAT STORAGE IN WIND/DIESEL SYSTEMS Clint Johnson, Utama

  11. Simulated performance of a position sensitive radiation detecting system (COCAE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Karafasoulis; K. Zachariadou; S. Seferlis; I. Kaissas; C. Lambropoulos; D. Loukas; C. Poritiriadis

    2011-01-20

    Extensive simulations of a portable radiation detecting system have been performed in order to explore important performance parameters. The instrument consists of a stack of ten detecting layers made of pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) crystals. Its aim is to localize and identify radiation sources, by exploiting the Compton imaging technique. In this paper we present performance parameters based on simulation studies. Specifically the ratio of incompletely absorbed photons, the detector's absolute efficiency as well as its energy and angular resolution are evaluated in a wide range of incident photon energies.

  12. Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A recent assessment indicates that if 20% of US homes replaced their existing space-conditioning and water-heating systems with properly designed, installed and operated state-of-the-art GSHP systems, it would yield significant benefits each year. These include 0.8 quad British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy savings, 54.3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} emission reductions, $10.4 billion in energy cost savings and 43.2 gigawatts of reduction in summer peak electrical demand.

  13. Dealing with big circulation flow, small temperature difference based on verified dynamic model simulations of a hot water district heating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, L.

    2014-01-01

    d design en enclosure ex exchanger f fuel h heater int internal n number of HES o outside r return s supply sp set point sols solar radiation from south side v verify w, w2i water, water in secondary system for each HES z zone ESL... temperatures, solar radiation and wind speed; the heat balance has been regulated based on the average water temperature in the secondary system by adjusting the water mass flow rate (u1) of each HES in the primary system; and the water mass flow rate...

  14. Natural convection heat transport in a small, HLMC reactor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Farmer, M.T.

    1999-09-01

    Concepts are being developed and evaluated at Argonne National Laboratory for a small nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) with proliferation-resistant features targeted for export to developing countries. Here the authors are specifically investigating how simple and compact such a system can be. A heavy-liquid-metal coolant (HLMC) is being considered owing to its excellent heat transport characteristics and its relative inertness with the reference thermodynamic working fluid (water/steam). The purpose of the present work is to explore the possibility to take advantage of these HLMC characteristics by eliminating the intermediate loop needed in sodium-cooled systems and additionally eliminating the primary system coolant pumps. The criteria imposed on the system include the following: (1) low power, i.e., 300 MW(thermal); (2) small size for factory fabrication and overland transportation; (3) elimination of fuel access at the site (no refueling, fuel shuffling, nor storage at site); integral fueled module replacement at 15-yr goal interval; and (4) completion of all research and development needed for detailed prototype design within 5 yr. To accomplish the latter requirement, the authors are addressing whether existing coolant and materials technology is capable of supporting the sought-after simplifications. In this regard, they are at present considering technology developed in Russia for Pb-Bi eutectic as a reactor coolant and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel with oxide-layer corrosion protection as cladding. The figure of merit in the investigation is the peak cladding temperature insofar as the cladding technology is considered proven to {approximately}600 C.

  15. TWO WELL STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR COMBINED HEATING AND AIRCONDITIONING BY GROUNDWATER HEATPUMPS IN SHALLOW AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelka, Walter

    2010-01-01

    obtained for a two well storage system as illustrated inthe extended two-well storage system shown in Figure 8 canSECTION . TWO WELL STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR COMBINED HEATING AND

  16. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  17. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  18. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about

  19. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about

  20. Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, ventilation, and air conditioning) system in a typical office facility is presented. A multi-layer perceptron. 1. Introduction HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) systems are designed to maintain