Sample records for radiative transfer equation

  1. A second order radiative transfer equation and its solution by meshless method with application to strongly inhomogeneous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, J.M., E-mail: jmzhao@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, People's Republic of China (China); Tan, J.Y., E-mail: tanjy@hit.edu.cn [School of Auto Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China (China); Liu, L.H., E-mail: lhliu@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, People's Republic of China (China); School of Auto Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China (China)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new second order form of radiative transfer equation (named MSORTE) is proposed, which overcomes the singularity problem of a previously proposed second order radiative transfer equation [J.E. Morel, B.T. Adams, T. Noh, J.M. McGhee, T.M. Evans, T.J. Urbatsch, Spatial discretizations for self-adjoint forms of the radiative transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 214 (1) (2006) 12-40 (where it was termed SAAI), J.M. Zhao, L.H. Liu, Second order radiative transfer equation and its properties of numerical solution using finite element method, Numer. Heat Transfer B 51 (2007) 391-409] in dealing with inhomogeneous media where some locations have very small/zero extinction coefficient. The MSORTE contains a naturally introduced diffusion (or second order) term which provides better numerical property than the classic first order radiative transfer equation (RTE). The stability and convergence characteristics of the MSORTE discretized by central difference scheme is analyzed theoretically, and the better numerical stability of the second order form radiative transfer equations than the RTE when discretized by the central difference type method is proved. A collocation meshless method is developed based on the MSORTE to solve radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media. Several critical test cases are taken to verify the performance of the presented method. The collocation meshless method based on the MSORTE is demonstrated to be capable of stably and accurately solve radiative transfer in strongly inhomogeneous media, media with void region and even with discontinuous extinction coefficient.

  2. A High-Order-Accurate GPU-Based Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Combustion and Propulsion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Xing; Lee, Euntaek; Wilcox, Lucas; Munipalli, Ramakanth; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of radiative transfer in combustion systems”, Int. J. Numer.c, “Radiation heat transfer in combustion systems”, Progressin Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 97–

  3. Four Numerical Approaches for Solving the Radiative Transfer Equation in Magnetized White-Dwarf Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Jordan; Holger Schmidt

    2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare four different methods to calculate radiative transfer through a magnetized stellar atmosphere, and apply them to the case of magnetic white dwarfs. All methods are numerically stable enough to allow determination of the magnetic field structure, but distinctions between faster, simplifying, methods, and elaborate, but more CPU-time consuming, methods, can be made.

  4. StaRMAP - A second order staggered grid method for spherical harmonics moment equations of radiative transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Seibold; Martin Frank

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple method to solve spherical harmonics moment systems, such as the the time-dependent $P_N$ and $SP_N$ equations, of radiative transfer. The method, which works for arbitrary moment order $N$, makes use of the specific coupling between the moments in the $P_N$ equations. This coupling naturally induces staggered grids in space and time, which in turn give rise to a canonical, second-order accurate finite difference scheme. While the scheme does not possess TVD or realizability limiters, its simplicity allows for a very efficient implementation in Matlab. We present several test cases, some of which demonstrate that the code solves problems with ten million degrees of freedom in space, angle, and time within a few seconds. The code for the numerical scheme, called StaRMAP (Staggered grid Radiation Moment Approximation), along with files for all presented test cases, can be downloaded so that all results can be reproduced by the reader.

  5. Multigroup half space moment approximations to the radiative heat transfer equations q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coudière, Yves

    cooling) over astrophysics to combustion (e.g., in gas turbine combustion chambers). Since radiative heat into direction l 2 ½À1; 1. Furthermore, T ðx; tÞ is the material temperature. The heat conductivity is denoted with the following boundary conditions. For the material temper

  6. Solutions of the equation of radiative transfer by matrix operator techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catchings, Frances Eugenia King

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    angle 8 = 0'; 5. all fundamental equations can be interpreted immediately in terms of the physical interactions appropriate to the problem; 6. both upward and downward radiance can be calculated at interior points. Both the general theory... and the method of calcu- lation are discussed. Matrix operator theory is used to calculate the reflected and transmitted radiance of photons for the cases of Rayleigh scattering from a homogeneous layer and of plane parallel iv maritime haze layers...

  7. Semi-Analytic Solutions to the Radiative Transfer Equations via Heterogeneous Computing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holladay, Daniel Alphin

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    to compute reaction rates for many different thermonuclear processes such as inertial confinement fusion. There are several large scale computer codes such as xRage developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), KULL developed at Lawrence Livermore Na... spherical radiation source with A = 0.75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 vii 1. INTRODUCTION If fusion energy is to be harnessed on earth, a thorough understanding of the regime called high energy density physics must...

  8. Semi-Analytic Solutions to the Radiative Transfer Equations via Heterogeneous Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holladay, Daniel Alphin

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    to compute reaction rates for many different thermonuclear processes such as inertial confinement fusion. There are several large scale computer codes such as xRage developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), KULL developed at Lawrence Livermore Na... spherical radiation source with A = 0.75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 vii 1. INTRODUCTION If fusion energy is to be harnessed on earth, a thorough understanding of the regime called high energy density physics must...

  9. Three Dimensional Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative Transfer (RT) effects play a crucial role in the thermal history of the intergalactic medium. Here I discuss recent advances in the development of numerical methods that introduce RT to cosmological hydrodynamics. These methods can also readily be applied to time dependent problems on interstellar and galactic scales.

  10. A FAST MULTILEVEL ALGORITHM FOR THE SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF CONDUCTIVERADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER EQUATIONS \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­differential equations that model steady­state combined conductive­radiative heat transfer. This system of equations­Brakhage algorithm. Key words. conductive­radiative heat transfer, multilevel algorithm, compact fixed point problems integro­differential equations that model steady­state combined conductive­radiative heat transfer

  11. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Knop; P. H. Hauschildt; E. Baron

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general method to calculate radiative transfer including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in spherically symmetric systems that are influenced by the effects of general relativity (GR). We utilize a comoving wavelength ansatz that allows to resolve spectral lines throughout the atmosphere. The used numerical solution is an operator splitting (OS) technique that uses a characteristic formal solution. The bending of photon paths and the wavelength shifts due to the effects of GR are fully taken into account, as is the treatment of image generation in a curved spacetime. We describe the algorithm we use and demonstrate the effects of GR on the radiative transport of a two level atom line in a neutron star like atmosphere for various combinations of continuous and line scattering coefficients. In addition, we present grey continuum models and discuss the effects of different scattering albedos on the emergent spectra and the determination of effective temperatures and radii of neutron star atmospheres.

  12. Radiative transfer in molecular lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Asensio Ramos; J. Trujillo Bueno; J. Cernicharo

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The highly convergent iterative methods developed by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) for radiative transfer (RT) applications are generalized to spherical symmetry with velocity fields. These RT methods are based on Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel (GS), and SOR iteration and they form the basis of a new NLTE multilevel transfer code for atomic and molecular lines. The benchmark tests carried out so far are presented and discussed. The main aim is to develop a number of powerful RT tools for the theoretical interpretation of molecular spectra.

  13. Three-dimensional Radiative Transfer with Multilevel Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Fabiani Bendicho; J. Trujillo Bueno

    2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient numerical solution of Non-LTE multilevel transfer problems requires the combination of highly convergent iterative schemes with fast and accurate formal solution methods of the radiative transfer (RT) equation. This contribution begins presenting a method for the formal solution of the RT equation in three-dimensional (3D) media with horizontal periodic boundary conditions. This formal solver is suitable for both, unpolarized and polarized 3D radiative transfer and it can be easily combined with the iterative schemes for solving non-LTE multilevel transfer problems that we have developed over the last few years. We demonstrate this by showing some schematic 3D multilevel calculations that illustrate the physical effects of horizontal radiative transfer. These Non-LTE calculations have been carried out with our code MUGA 3D, a 3D multilevel Non-LTE code based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme that Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) developed for RT applications.

  14. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kaviany and B.P. Singh, “Radiative heat transfer in porousmedia”, Advances in Heat Transfer, vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 133–Thermal radiation heat transfer, Hemisphere Publishing Co. ,

  15. A FAST FORWARD SOLVER OF RADIATIVE TRANSFER HAO GAO AND HONGKAI ZHAO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    finite difference schemes (FD), the finite element method (FEM) [17, 20], the finite volume method (FVM transport equation [4, 13] in the field of neutron transport [4], atmospheric radiative transfer [1], heat. Key words and phrases. radiative transfer equation (RTE), optical imaging, discrete ordinate method

  16. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 104 (2007) 384399

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    thickness, the single scattering albedo of the materials, and the incident pulse width have been developed inversion schemes accounting for anisotropic scattering. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords is the so-called radiative transfer equation (RTE). It expresses an energy balance in a unit solid angle d

  17. Adaptive Ray Tracing for Radiative Transfer around Point Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel; Benjamin D. Wandelt

    2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a novel adaptive ray tracing scheme to solve the equation of radiative transfer around point sources in hydrodynamical simulations. The angular resolution adapts to the local hydrodynamical resolution and hence is of use for adaptive meshes as well as adaptive smooth particle hydrodynamical simulations. Recursive creation of rays ensures ease of implementation. The multiple radial integrations needed to solve the time dependent radiative transfer are sped up significantly using a quad-tree once the rays are cast. Simplifications advantageous for methods with one radiation source are briefly discussed. The suggested method is easily generalized to speed up Monte Carlo radiative transfer techniques. In summary a nearly optimal use of long characteristics is presented and aspects of its implementation and comparison to other methods are given.

  18. Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

  19. Radiative heat transfer between dielectric bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent development of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) has led to measurements of radiative heat transfer between a heated sensor and a cooled sample down to the nanometer range. This allows for comparision of the known theoretical description of radiative heat transfer, which is based on fluctuating electrodynamics, with experiment. The theory itself is a macroscopic theory, which can be expected to break down at distances much smaller than 10-8m. Against this background it seems to be reasonable to revisit the known macroscopic theory of fluctuating electrodynamics and of radiative heat transfer.

  20. Fresnel Effect in Radiation Transfer in Biological Tissues Kyunghan Kim and Zhixiong Guo*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Fresnel Effect in Radiation Transfer in Biological Tissues Kyunghan Kim and Zhixiong Guo* MAE Method (DOM) to incorporate Fresnel's boundary in laser radiation transport in biological tissues is calculated by the use of Snell's law and Fresnel's equation. The radiation fields, including the radiative

  1. Radiative transfer for the FIRST era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Trujillo Bueno

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a brief overview of some recent advances in numerical radiative transfer, which may help the molecular astrophysics community to achieve new breakthroughs in the interpretation of spectro-(polarimetric) observations.

  2. Radiative Heat Transfer between Neighboring Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier Garcia de Abajo

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-field interaction between two neighboring particles is known to produce enhanced radiative heat transfer. We advance in the understanding of this phenomenon by including the full electromagnetic particle response, heat exchange with the environment, and important radiative corrections both in the distance dependence of the fields and in the particle absorption coefficients. We find that crossed terms of electric and magnetic interactions dominate the transfer rate between gold and SiC particles, whereas radiative corrections reduce it by several orders of magnitude even at small separations. Radiation away from the dimer can be strongly suppressed or enhanced at low and high temperatures, respectively. These effects must be taken into account for an accurate description of radiative heat transfer in nanostructured environments.

  3. A Coupled Model for Radiative Transfer: Doppler Effects, Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Diffusion Asymptotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goudon, Thierry

    A Coupled Model for Radiative Transfer: Doppler Effects, Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Diffusion. The interaction terms take into account both scattering and absorption/emission phenomena, as well as Doppler-diffusion equations. Key words. Hydrodynamic limits. Diffusion approximation. Radiative transfer. Doppler correction

  4. accelerated radiative transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    influence of particle shape on the radiative forcing caused by a cloud composed of small ice 123 Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 101 (2006) 556...

  5. Boundary transfer matrices and boundary quantum KZ equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bart Vlaar

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple relation between inhomogeneous transfer matrices and boundary quantum KZ equations is exhibited for quantum integrable systems with reflecting boundary conditions, analogous to an observation by Gaudin for periodic systems. Thus the boundary quantum KZ equations receive a new motivation. We also derive the commutativity of Sklyanin's boundary transfer matrices by merely imposing appropriate reflection equations, i.e. without using the conditions of crossing symmetry and unitarity of the R-matrix.

  6. RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASIMONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI­MONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda A. Kersch 1 W. Morokoff 2 A accuracy modeling of the radiative heat transfer from the heater to the wafer. Figure 1 shows the draft Carlo simulation is often used to solve radiative transfer problems where complex physical phenomena

  7. RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI-MONTE CARLO METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI-MONTE CARLO METHODS A. Kersch1 W. Moroko2 A. Schuster1 1Siemens of Quasi-Monte Carlo to this problem. 1.1 Radiative Heat Transfer Reactors In the manufacturing of the problems which can be solved by such a simulation is high accuracy modeling of the radiative heat transfer

  8. Mpemba effect, Newton cooling law and heat transfer equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladan Pankovic; Darko V. Kapor

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we suggest a simple theoretical solution of the Mpemba effect in full agreement with known experimental data. This solution follows simply as an especial approximation (linearization) of the usual heat (transfer) equation, precisely linearization of the second derivation of the space part of the temperature function (as it is well-known Newton cooling law can be considered as the effective approximation of the heat (transfer) equation for constant space part of the temperature function).

  9. Investigation of spectral radiation heat transfer and NO{sub x} emission in a glass furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golchert, B.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Petrick, M.

    2000-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive radiation heat transfer model and a reduced NOx kinetics model were coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and then used to investigate the radiation heat transfer, pollutant formation and flow characteristics in a glass furnace. The radiation model solves the spectral radiative transport equation in the combustion space of emitting and absorbing media, i.e., CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and soot and emission/reflection from the furnace crown. The advanced numerical scheme for calculating the radiation heat transfer is extremely effective in conserving energy between radiation emission and absorption. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the impact of operating conditions on the furnace performance with emphasis on the investigation into the formation of NOx.

  10. Near field radiative heat transfer between two nonlocal dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore in the present work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel nonlocal dielectric planes by means of fluctuational electrodynamics. We use atheory for the nonlocal dielectric permittivityfunction proposed byHalevi and Fuchs. This theory has the advantage to includedifferent models performed in the literature. According to this theory, the nonlocal dielectric function is described by a Lorenz-Drude like single oscillator model, in which the spatial dispersion effects are represented by an additional term depending on the square of the total wavevector k. The theory takes into account the scattering of the electromagneticexcitation at the surface of the dielectric material, which leads to the need of additional boundary conditions in order to solve Maxwell's equations and treat the electromagnetic transmission problem. The additional boundary conditions appear as additional surface scattering parameters in the expressions of the surface impedances. It is shown that the...

  11. FREQUENCY SHAPED LINEAR OPTIMAL CONTROL WXTH TRANSFER FUNCTION RICCATI EQUATIONS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John Barratt

    and numerical tool in optimal control problems associated with linear systems having state space descriptions optimal controllers for known multivariable linear stochastic systems. There are some inherent robustnessFREQUENCY SHAPED LINEAR OPTIMAL CONTROL WXTH TRANSFER FUNCTION RICCATI EQUATIONS* John B. Moore** D

  12. Bootstrap and momentum transfer dependence in small x evolution equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Chachamis; A. Sabio Vera; C. Salas

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Using Monte Carlo integration techniques, we investigate running coupling effects compatible with the high energy bootstrap condition to all orders in the strong coupling in evolution equations valid at small values of Bjorken x in deep inelastic scattering. A model for the running of the coupling with analytic behavior in the infrared region and compatible with power corrections to jet observables is used. As a difference to the fixed coupling case, where the momentum transfer acts as an effective strong cut-off of the diffusion to infrared scales, in our running coupling study the dependence on the momentum transfer is much milder.

  13. PRECONDITIONED BI-CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD FOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN SPHERICAL MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Paletou, F.; Leger, L. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Toulouse-Tarbes, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, 14 Ave. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2009-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust numerical method called the Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate Gradient (Pre-BiCG) method is proposed for the solution of the radiative transfer equation in spherical geometry. A variant of this method called Stabilized Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate Gradient (Pre-BiCG-STAB) is also presented. These are iterative methods based on the construction of a set of bi-orthogonal vectors. The application of the Pre-BiCG method in some benchmark tests shows that the method is quite versatile, and can handle difficult problems that may arise in astrophysical radiative transfer theory.

  14. Small distance expansion for radiative heat transfer between curved objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golyk, Vladyslav A.

    We develop a small distance expansion for the radiative heat transfer between gently curved objects, in terms of the ratio of distance to radius of curvature. A gradient expansion allows us to go beyond the lowest-order ...

  15. COMPARING THE EFFECT OF RADIATIVE TRANSFER SCHEMES ON CONVECTION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the effect of different radiative transfer schemes on the properties of three-dimensional (3D) simulations of near-surface stellar convection in the superadiabatic layer, where energy transport transitions from fully convective to fully radiative. We employ two radiative transfer schemes that fundamentally differ in the way they cover the 3D domain. The first solver approximates domain coverage with moments, while the second solver samples the 3D domain with ray integrations. By comparing simulations that differ only in their respective radiative transfer methods, we are able to isolate the effect that radiative efficiency has on the structure of the superadiabatic layer. We find the simulations to be in good general agreement, but they show distinct differences in the thermal structure in the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere.

  16. Enhanced radiative heat transfer between nanostructured gold plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Guérout; J. Lussange; F. S. S. Rosa; J. -P. Hugonin; D. A. R. Dalvit; J. -J. Greffet; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

    2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between nanostructured gold plates in the framework of the scattering theory. We predict an enhancement of the heat transfer as we increase the depth of the corrugations while keeping the distance of closest approach fixed. We interpret this effect in terms of the evolution of plasmonic and guided modes as a function of the grating's geometry.

  17. Modelling of Radiative Transfer in Light Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.5.3 Temperature distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2-X radiative transition that is responsible for the sulfur lamp's bright sun-like spectrum #12;Contents 1

  18. A convective-radiative heat transfer model for gas core reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Anghaie, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective-radiative heat transfer model is developed and used to predict the temperature distribution in gaseous fuel nuclear reactor cores. The axisymmetric, thin layer Navier-Stokes equations with diffusive radiation source term are the basis for this modeling approach. An algebraic turbulence model is used to calculate the eddy viscosity. The Rosseland diffusion approximation is used to model the radiative heat transfer. A hybrid implicit-explicit numerical scheme with Gauss-Seidel iterative process and a highly stretched grid system near wall is employed to solve the governing equations. Several cases with different internal heat generation rates are modeled and analyzed. Results of the temperature distribution, wall heat flux and the associated Nusselt number are presented. The influence of the internal heat generation rate and the wall temperature on the radiative and convective wall heat fluxes are discussed. At gas and wall temperatures close to 3,500 K and 1,600 K, respectively, the radiative and convective heat transfer rates have similar values.

  19. Numerical methods for multidimensional radiative transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    radiation plays a key role in various scientific applications, such as combustion physics, thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. The equa- tion describing the transport of photons or neutrons through a medium

  20. Optical Properties of Saharan Dust and Asian Dust: Application to Radiative Transfer Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Guangyang

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    properties for radiative transfer simulations. Using a Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM), the radiative forcing of mineral dust was computed at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface. By analyzing samples from various in-situ measurements, we...

  1. Debris Disk Radiative Transfer Simulation Tool (DDS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Wolf; L. A. Hillenbrand

    2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A WWW interface for the simulation of spectral energy distributions of optically thin dust configurations with an embedded radiative source is presented. The density distribution, radiative source, and dust parameters can be selected either from an internal database or defined by the user. This tool is optimized for studying circumstellar debris disks where large grains are expected to determine the far-infrared through millimeter dust reemission spectral energy distribution. The tool is available at http://aida28.mpia-hd.mpg.de/~swolf/dds

  2. Giant radiation heat transfer through the micron gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nefedov, Igor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-field heat transfer between two closely spaced radiating media can exceed in orders radiation through the interface of a single black body. This effect is caused by exponentially decaying (evanescent) waves which form the photon tunnel between two transparent boundaries. However, in the mid-infrared range it holds when the gap between two media is as small as few tens of nanometers. We propose a new paradigm of the radiation heat transfer which makes possible the strong photon tunneling for micron thick gaps. For it the air gap between two media should be modified, so that evanescent waves are transformed inside it into propagating ones. This modification is achievable using a metamaterial so that the direct thermal conductance through the metamaterial is practically absent and the photovoltaic conversion of the transferred heat is not altered by the metamaterial.

  3. Radiative Transfer Models for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vurm, Indrek

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present global radiative transfer models for heated relativistic jets. The simulations include all relevant radiative processes, starting deep in the opaque zone and following the evolution of radiation to and beyond the photosphere of the jet. The transfer models are compared with three gamma-ray bursts GRB 990123, GRB 090902B, and GRB 130427A, which have well-measured and different spectra. The models provide good fits to the observed spectra in all three cases. The fits give estimates for the jet magnetization parameter $\\varepsilon_{\\rm B}$ and the Lorentz factor $\\Gamma$. In the small sample of three bursts, $\\varepsilon_{\\rm B}$ varies between 0.01 and 0.1, and $\\Gamma$ varies between 340 and 1200.

  4. RADIATIVE TRANSFER SIMULATIONS OF NEUTRON STAR MERGER EJECTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Hotokezaka, Kenta, E-mail: masaomi.tanaka@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: hotoke@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mergers of binary neutron stars (NSs) are among the most promising gravitational wave (GW) sources. Next generation GW detectors are expected to detect signals from NS mergers within about 200 Mpc. The detection of electromagnetic wave (EM) counterparts is crucial to understanding the nature of GW sources. Among the possible EM emission from the NS merger, emission powered by radioactive r-process nuclei is one of the best targets for follow-up observations. However, predictions so far have not taken into account detailed r-process element abundances in the ejecta. We perform for the first time radiative transfer simulations of the NS merger ejecta including all the r-process elements from Ga to U. We show that the opacity of the NS merger ejecta is about ? = 10 cm{sup 2} g{sup –1}, which is higher than that of Fe-rich Type Ia supernova ejecta by a factor of ?100. As a result, the emission is fainter and lasts longer than previously expected. The spectra are almost featureless due to the high expansion velocity and bound-bound transitions of many different r-process elements. We demonstrate that the emission is brighter for a higher mass ratio of the two NSs and a softer equation of state adopted in the merger simulations. Because of the red color of the emission, follow-up observations in red optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths will be the most efficient. At 200 Mpc, the expected brightness of the emission is i = 22-25 AB mag, z = 21-23 AB mag, and 21-24 AB mag in the NIR JHK bands. Thus, observations with wide-field 4 m- and 8 m-class optical telescopes and wide-field NIR space telescopes are necessary. We also argue that the emission powered by radioactive energy can be detected in the afterglow of nearby short gamma-ray bursts.

  5. Application of Stochastic Radiative Transfer Theory to the ARM Cloud-Radiative Parameterization Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veron, Dana E

    2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had two primary goals: 1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and 2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed below.

  6. Application of Stochastic Radiative Transfer Theory to the ARM Cloud-Radiative Parameterization Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana E. Veron

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had two primary goals: (1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and (2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, climatology of cloud properties was developed at the ARM CART sites, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed in the final report.

  7. Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer in an Axisymmetric Closed Chamber: An Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    the parallelization of the radiative heat transfer model introduced by Naraghi and Nunes of Manhattan College [8

  8. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Rodriguez-Lopez; Wang-Kong Tse; Diego A. R. Dalvit

    2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  9. Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2 A. Hall,1 and K November 2006. [1] We developed a three-dimensional radiative transfer model simulating solar fluxes over (2006), Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D

  10. Radiative heat transfer in a hydrous mantle transition zone Sylvia-Monique Thomas a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    Radiative heat transfer in a hydrous mantle transition zone Sylvia-Monique Thomas a,n , Craig R contribute significantly to heat transfer in the mantle and demonstrate the importance of radiative heat, radiative heat transfer was considered relatively unimportant in the mantle. Earlier experimental work

  11. Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped Emmanuel Rousseau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near- field heat transfer. We also

  12. FFT-based Computation of the Bioheat Transfer Equation for the HCC Ultrasound Surgery Therapy Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ' bioheat transfer equation which is generally solved by a finite difference method. In this paper we will present a method where the bioheat transfer equation can be algebraically solved after a Fourier will be shown and compared with the finite difference method. I. INTRODUCTION At an early stage

  13. Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

  14. Analytical Green's function of the radiative transfer radiance for the infinite medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liemert, Andre; Kienle, Alwin [Institut fuer Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik, Helmholtzstrasse12, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for the radiance caused by an isotropic source which is located in an infinitely extended medium was derived using the P{sub N} method. The results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations and excellent agreement was found. In addition, the radiance of the SP{sub N} approximation for the same geometry was derived. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations showed that the SP{sub N} radiance, although being more exact than the radiance derived from diffusion theory, has relatively large errors in many relevant cases.

  15. COUPLING OF DARCY-FORCHHEIMER AND COMPRESSIBLE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS WITH HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COUPLING OF DARCY-FORCHHEIMER AND COMPRESSIBLE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS WITH HEAT TRANSFER M. AMARA are respectively described by the Darcy-Forchheimer and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, together coordinates and consisting of the Darcy- Forchheimer equation coupled with an exhaustive energy balance, has

  16. Electromagnetic Radiation and Equation of Motion for Really Shaped Particle -- New Covariant Formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2002-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for real particle (body) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Equation of motion in the proper frame of the particle uses the radiation pressure cross section 3 $\\times$ 3 matrix. Obtained covariant equation of motion is compared with another covariant equation of motion which was presented more than one year ago.

  17. Radiative transfer with scattering from closely-spaced spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drolen, B.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many heat-transfer applications including fluidized and packed beds, microsphere insulations, and reactor fuel pellets require the analysis of radiative transfer in packed-sphere systems. The radiative properties of surface deposits such as paint and soot layers, and of aerosols such as soot, may be determined by treating them as a collection of spheres. These properties are important for predicting heat transfer in furnaces and flames and for assessing atmospheric attenuation in nuclear-winter scenarios. For many applications when the particle size is larger than the wavelength, or when the volume fraction is small, scattering from individual spheres in the medium is independent of the influence of neighboring particles. Therefore the extinction characteristics of these systems are based on the properties of the discrete particles. This approach is shown to be in good agreement with published experimental data for a packed bed of spheres. When dependent scattering is important, effects caused by the proximity of the neighboring particles must be included. This model examines interference between the scattered waves from each of the particles in the medium. The particle centers correlate via a distribution function which represents the distribution of neighboring particles about a central particle.

  18. The use of high-performance computing to solve participating media radiative heat transfer problems-results of an NSF workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritzo, L.A.; Skocypec, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tong, T.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation in participating media is an important transport mechanism in many physical systems. The simulation of complex radiative transfer has not effectively exploited high-performance computing capabilities. In response to this need, a workshop attended by members active in the high-performance computing community, members active in the radiative transfer community, and members from closely related fields was held to identify how high-performance computing can be used effectively to solve the transport equation and advance the state-of-the-art in simulating radiative heat transfer. This workshop was held on March 29-30, 1994 in Albuquerque, New Mexico and was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The objectives of this workshop were to provide a vehicle to stimulate interest and new research directions within the two communities to exploit the advantages of high-performance computing for solving complex radiative heat transfer problems that are otherwise intractable.

  19. A new nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium radiative transfer method for cool stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Julien; Ryde, Nils; Faure, Alexandre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: The solution of the nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer equation usually relies on stationary iterative methods, which may falsely converge in some cases. Furthermore, these methods are often unable to handle large-scale systems, such as molecular spectra emerging from, for example, cool stellar atmospheres. Aims: Our objective is to develop a new method, which aims to circumvent these problems, using nonstationary numerical techniques and taking advantage of parallel computers. Methods: The technique we develop may be seen as a generalization of the coupled escape probability method. It solves the statistical equilibrium equations in all layers of a discretized model simultaneously. The numerical scheme adopted is based on the generalized minimum residual method. Result:. The code has already been applied to the special case of the water spectrum in a red supergiant stellar atmosphere. This demonstrates the fast convergence of this method, and opens the way to a wide va...

  20. Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions Zhanqing Li1. Introduction [2] Solar radiative heating is the primary driving force of atmospheric and oceanic movements underlines the impact of surface inhomogeneity on the closure of SW radiative transfer. It also leads

  1. Heat Transfer Analysis and Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Receiver Implemented in Engineering Equation Solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forristall, R.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development, validation, and use of a heat transfer model implemented in Engineering Equation Solver. The model determines the performance of a parabolic trough solar collector's linear receiver, also called a heat collector element. All heat transfer and thermodynamic equations, optical properties, and parameters used in the model are discussed. The modeling assumptions and limitations are also discussed, along with recommendations for model improvement.

  2. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  3. Incorporating the Effects of 3D Radiative Transfer in the Presence of Clouds into Two-Stream Multilayer Radiation Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Incorporating the Effects of 3D Radiative Transfer in the Presence of Clouds into Two. The 3D effect on shortwave cloud radiative forcing varies between around 225% and around 1100. Therefore, cumulus clouds are of particular im- portance when considering 3D radiative effects: although

  4. A fast method for Stokes profile synthesis -- Radiative transfer modeling for ZDI and Stokes profile inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Carroll; M. Kopf; K. G. Strassmeier

    2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The major challenges for a fully polarized radiative transfer driven approach to Zeeman-Doppler imaging are still the enormous computational requirements. In every cycle of the iterative interplay between the forward process (spectral synthesis) and the inverse process (derivative based optimization) the Stokes profile synthesis requires several thousand evaluations of the polarized radiative transfer equation for a given stellar surface model. To cope with these computational demands and to allow for the incorporation of a full Stokes profile synthesis into Doppler- and Zeeman-Doppler imaging applications as well as into large scale solar Stokes profile inversions, we present a novel fast and accurate synthesis method for calculating local Stokes profiles. Our approach is based on artificial neural network models, which we use to approximate the complex non-linear mapping between the most important atmospheric parameters and the corresponding Stokes profiles. A number of specialized artificial neural networks, are used to model the functional relation between the model atmosphere, magnetic field strength, field inclination, and field azimuth, on one hand and the individual components (I,Q,U,V) of the Stokes profiles, on the other hand. We performed an extensive statistical evaluation and show that our new approach yields accurate local as well as disk-integrated Stokes profiles over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. The mean rms errors for the Stokes I and V profiles are well below 0.2% compared to the exact numerical solution. Errors for Stokes Q and U are in the range of 1%. Our approach does not only offer an accurate approximation to the LTE polarized radiative transfer it, moreover, accelerates the synthesis by a factor of more than 1000.

  5. A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL FOR GASEOUS EXOPLANETS WITH DOUBLE-GRAY RADIATIVE TRANSFER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauscher, Emily [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new version of our code for modeling the atmospheric circulation on gaseous exoplanets, now employing a 'double-gray' radiative transfer scheme, which self-consistently solves for fluxes and heating throughout the atmosphere, including the emerging (observable) infrared flux. We separate the radiation into infrared and optical components, each with its own absorption coefficient, and solve standard two-stream radiative transfer equations. We use a constant optical absorption coefficient, while the infrared coefficient can scale as a power law with pressure; however, for simplicity, the results shown in this paper use a constant infrared coefficient. Here we describe our new code in detail and demonstrate its utility by presenting a generic hot Jupiter model. We discuss issues related to modeling the deepest pressures of the atmosphere and describe our use of the diffusion approximation for radiative fluxes at high optical depths. In addition, we present new models using a simple form for magnetic drag on the atmosphere. We calculate emitted thermal phase curves and find that our drag-free model has the brightest region of the atmosphere offset by {approx}12 Degree-Sign from the substellar point and a minimum flux that is 17% of the maximum, while the model with the strongest magnetic drag has an offset of only {approx}2 Degree-Sign and a ratio of 13%. Finally, we calculate rates of numerical loss of kinetic energy at {approx}15% for every model except for our strong-drag model, where there is no measurable loss; we speculate that this is due to the much decreased wind speeds in that model.

  6. Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Fibrous Insulation Materials Using the ZonalGEF Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Walter W.

    Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Fibrous Insulation Materials Using the Zonal­GEF Method Walter to analyze radiative heat transfer in high porosity insulation materials which have a large scattering for LI900, a material used in the insulation tile for the space shuttle. Comparisons are presented

  7. Radiative Transfer of Sound Waves in a Random Flow: Turbulent Scattering, Straining, and Mode-Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fannjiang, Albert

    Radiative Transfer of Sound Waves in a Random Flow: Turbulent Scattering, Straining, and Mode and Applied Mathematics Vol. 61, No. 5, pp. 1545-1577 RADIATIVE TRANSFER OF SOUND WAVES IN A RANDOM FLOW the sound wave propagation in a random flow, whose mean flow is large compared with its fluctuation

  8. Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California B. H. KAHN Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute radiative transfer model has been developed for application to cloudy satellite data assimilation

  9. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER IN TISSUE WELDING AND SOLDERING WITH ULTRAFAST LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER IN TISSUE WELDING AND SOLDERING WITH ULTRAFAST LASERS Kyunghan Kim to incorporate transient radiation heat transfer in tissue welding and soldering with use of ultrafast lasers are performed between laser welding and laser soldering. The use of solder is found to substantially enhance

  10. A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, Pincus

    A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud.-J. Morcrette, A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud, which computes fluxes at each level. [3] The description of clouds in current LSMs is quite simple: Most

  11. Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer Andrei G depend, to a large extent, on foams formed on the surface of the molten glass and of the batch due models for thermophysical and transport properties and heat, mass, and radiation transfer in glass foams

  12. SKIRT: the design of a suite of input models for Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baes, Maarten

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Monte Carlo method is the most popular technique to perform radiative transfer simulations in a general 3D geometry. The algorithms behind and acceleration techniques for Monte Carlo radiative transfer are discussed extensively in the literature, and many different Monte Carlo codes are publicly available. On the contrary, the design of a suite of components that can be used for the distribution of sources and sinks in radiative transfer codes has received very little attention. The availability of such models, with different degrees of complexity, has many benefits. For example, they can serve as toy models to test new physical ingredients, or as parameterised models for inverse radiative transfer fitting. For 3D Monte Carlo codes, this requires algorithms to efficiently generate random positions from 3D density distributions. We describe the design of a flexible suite of components for the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The design is based on a combination of basic building blocks (which can...

  13. Magnetic storm acceleration of radiation belt electrons observed by the Scintillating Fibre Detector (SFD) onboard EQUATOR-S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on the 500±67300 km, 4° inclination EQUATOR-S orbit show that the increase of the energetic electron ¯ux of electrons in the outer radiation belt has been attributed to Pc 5 band ULF waves excited by high speed solar wind ¯ow associated with magnetic storms (Rostoker et al., 1998). The main features

  14. A Realizability-Preserving Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the $M_1$ Model of Radiative Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Martin [RWTH Aachen University; Olbrant, Edgar [RWTH Aachen University; Hauck, Cory D [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The M{sub 1} model for radiative transfer coupled to a material energy equation in planar geometry is studied in this paper. For this model to be well-posed, its moment variables must fulfill certain realizability conditions. Our main focus is the design and implementation of an explicit Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method which, under a more restrictive CFL condition, guarantees the realizability of the moment variables and the positivity of the material temperature. An analytical proof for our realizability-preserving scheme, which also includes a slope-limiting technique, is provided and confirmed by various numerical examples. Among other things, we present accuracy tests showing convergence up to fourth-order, compare our results with an analytical solution in a Riemann problem, and consider a Marshak wave problem.

  15. Radiative heat transfer in anisotropic many-body systems: Tuning and enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikbakht, Moladad, E-mail: mnik@znu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan 45371-38791 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A general formalism for calculating the radiative heat transfer in many body systems with anisotropic component is presented. Our scheme extends the theory of radiative heat transfer in isotropic many body systems to anisotropic cases. In addition, the radiative heating of the particles by the thermal bath is taken into account in our formula. It is shown that the radiative heat exchange (HE) between anisotropic particles and their radiative cooling/heating (RCH) could be enhanced several order of magnitude than that of isotropic particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the HE and RCH can be tuned dramatically by particles relative orientation in many body systems.

  16. Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y. Harrington

    2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.

  17. The Accuracy of Determining Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Effects in Cumulus Clouds Using Ground-Based Profiling Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, Pincus

    The Accuracy of Determining Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Effects in Cumulus Clouds Using. Three-dimensional radiative transfer effects and why one might estimate them in two-dimensional clouds expensive independent column approximation is called the 3D radiative transfer effect. Assessing

  18. On exact and perturbation solutions to nonlinear equations for heat transfer models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco M. Fernández

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze some exact and approximate solutions to nonlinear equations for heat transfer models. We prove that recent results derived from a method based on Lie algebras are either trivial or wrong. We test a simple analytical expression based on the hypervirial theorem and also discuss earlier perturbation results.

  19. FFT-based computation of the bioheat transfer equation for the HCC ultrasound surgery therapy modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is generally solved by a finite' difference method. In this paper we will present a method where the bioheat. The implementation and boundary conditions of this method will be shown and compared with the finite difference method. Author Keywords hyperthermia ; Bioheat Transfer Equation ; high intensity ultrasound

  20. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  1. Near-field thermal radiation transfer controlled by plasmons in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilic, Ognjen

    It is shown that thermally excited plasmon-polariton modes can strongly mediate, enhance, and tune the near-field radiation transfer between two closely separated graphene sheets. The dependence of near-field heat exchange ...

  2. Efficient weakly-radiative wireless energy transfer: An EIT-like approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamam, Rafif E.

    Inspired by a quantum interference phenomenon known in the atomic physics community as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we propose an efficient weakly radiative wireless energy transfer scheme between two ...

  3. Global oceanic rainfall estimation from AMSR-E data based on a radiative transfer model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Kyoung-Wook

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved physically-based rainfall algorithm was developed using AMSR-E data based on a radiative transfer model. In addition, error models were designed and embedded in the algorithm to assess retrieval errors ...

  4. atmospheric radiative transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer through the Intergalactic Medium Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We use a probabilistic method to compute the propagation of an ionization front corresponding to the...

  5. Homogenization of a Conductive, Convective and Radiative Heat Transfer Problem in a Heterogeneous Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -cooled reactor. It is typically made of many prismatic blocks of graphite in which are inserted the nuclear fuel in the homogenization of heat transfer in periodic porous media where the fluid part is made of long thin parallel in the solid part of the domain and by conduction, convection and radiative transfer in the fluid part (the

  6. Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stramski, Dariusz

    Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative light field Apparent optical properties Mesopelagic zone Radiative transfer modeling a b s t r a c t The solar light field within the ocean from the sea surface to the bottom of the mesopelagic zone

  7. Optimizing spectral indices and chemometric analysis of leaf chemical properties using radiative transfer modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gitelson, Anatoly

    Optimizing spectral indices and chemometric analysis of leaf chemical properties using radiative for Sciences, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA d Center for Advanced Land Management Information squares regression We used synthetic reflectance spectra generated by a radiative transfer model, PROSPECT

  8. Optimizing spectral indices and chemometric analysis of leaf chemical properties using radiative transfer modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gitelson, Anatoly

    Optimizing spectral indices and chemometric analysis of leaf chemical properties using radiative for Sciences, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA d Center for Advanced Land Management Information regression We used synthetic reflectance spectra generated by a radiative transfer model, PROSPECT-5

  9. A Coupled AtmosphereOcean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    of the ocean. Shortwave radiation from the sun contributes most of the heat fluxes that penetrate the airA Coupled Atmosphere­Ocean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation WEI-LIANG LEE AND K. N. LIOU Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California

  10. Author's personal copy Radiation transfer in photobiological carbon dioxide fixation and fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    and fuel production by microalgae Laurent Pilon a,Ã, Halil Berberoglu b,1 , Razmig Kandilian a a Mechanical a c t Solar radiation is the energy source driving the metabolic activity of microorganisms able to photobiologically fixate carbon dioxide and convert solar energy into biofuels. Thus, careful radiation transfer

  11. Radiative Transfer in the Midwave Infrared Applicable to Full Spectrum Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    of the radiative effects in the MWIR is needed. The MWIR is characterized by a unique combination of reduced solar conditions are stressing (e.g., high moisture, heavy aerosol/particulate loading, partial cloud cover, lowRadiative Transfer in the Midwave Infrared Applicable to Full Spectrum Atmospheric Characterization

  12. Radiative heat transfer in a parallelogram shaped cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dez, V Le

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exact analytical description of the internal radiative field inside an emitting-absorbing gray semi-transparent medium enclosed in a two-dimensional parallelogram cavity is proposed. The expressions of the incident radiation and the radiative flux field are angularly and spatially discretized with a double Gauss quadrature, and the temperature field is obtained by using an iterative process. Some numerical solutions are tabulated and graphically presented as the benchmark solutions. Temperature and two components of the radiative flux are finally sketched on the whole domain. It is shown that the proposed method gives perfectly smooth results.

  13. Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jochen E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the practical approach to evaluate the incoming solar radiation on buildings based on atmospheric composition and cloud cover is presented. The effects of absorption and scattering due to atmospheric composition is taken into account to calculate, using radiative transfer models, the net incoming solar radiation at surface level. A specific validation of the Alpine Region in Europe is presented with a special focus on the region of South Tyrol.

  14. The effect of the number of wavebands used in spectral radiation heat transfer calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S. L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A spectral radiation heat transfer model that conserves emitted and absorbed energy has been developed and used to model the combustion space of an industrial glass furnace. This comprehensive radiation heat transfer model coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used to investigate the effect of spectral dependencies on the computed results. The results of this work clearly indicate the need for a spectral approach as opposed to a gray body approach since the gray body approach (one waveband) severely underestimates the energy emitted via radiation.

  15. Correlation, entropy, and information transfer in black hole radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baocheng Zhang; Qingyu Cai; Mingsheng Zhan; Li You

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the discovery of Hawking radiation, its consistency with quantum theory has been widely questioned. In the widely described picture, irrespective of what initial state a black hole starts with before collapsing, it eventually evolves into a thermal state of Hawking radiations after the black hole is exhausted. This scenario violates the principle of unitarity as required for quantum mechanics and leads to the acclaimed "information loss paradox". This paradox has become an obstacle or a reversed touchstone for any possible theory to unify the gravity and quantum mechanics. Based on the results from Hawking radiation as tunneling, we recently show that Hawking radiations can carry off all information about the collapsed matter in a black hole. After discovering the existence of information-carrying correlation, we show in great detail that entropy is conserved for Hawking radiation based on standard probability theory and statistics. We claim that information previously considered lost remains hidden inside Hawking radiation. More specifically, it is encoded into correlations between Hawking radiations. Our study thus establishes harmony between Harking radiation and the unitarity of quantum mechanics, which establishes the basis for a significant milestone towards resolving the long-standing information loss paradox. The paper provides a brief review of the exciting development on Hawking raidation. In addition to summarize our own work on this subject, we compare and address other related studies.

  16. Influence of Infrared Radiation on Attic Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; Turner, W. D.; Murphy, W. E.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study concerned with different modes of heal transfer in fibrous and cellulose insulating material is presented. A series of experiments were conducted using an attic simulator to determine the effects of ventilation on attic heat...

  17. Effective-medium model of wire metamaterials in the problems of radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirmoosa, M. S., E-mail: mohammad.mirmoosa@aalto.fi; Nefedov, I. S., E-mail: igor.nefedov@aalto.fi; Simovski, C. R., E-mail: konstantin.simovski@aalto.fi [Department of Radio Science and Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P. O. Box 13000, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Rüting, F., E-mail: felix.ruting@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teorica de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 (Spain)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we check the applicability of the effective medium model (EMM) to the problems of radiative heat transfer (RHT) through so-called wire metamaterials (WMMs)—composites comprising parallel arrays of metal nanowires. It is explained why this problem is so important for the development of prospective thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems. Previous studies of the applicability of EMM for WMMs were targeted by the imaging applications of WMMs. The analogous study referring to the transfer of radiative heat is a separate problem that deserves extended investigations. We show that WMMs with practically realizable design parameters transmit the radiative heat as effectively homogeneous media. Existing EMM is an adequate tool for qualitative prediction of the magnitude of transferred radiative heat and of its effective frequency band.

  18. Modelling dynamics of samples exposed to free-electron-laser radiation with Boltzmann equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beata Ziaja; Antonio R. B. de Castro; Edgar Weckert; Thomas Moeller

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply Boltzmann equations for modelling the radiation damage in samples irradiated by photons from free electron laser (FEL). We test this method in a study case of a spherically symmetric xenon cluster irradiated with VUV FEL photons. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of the Boltzmann method for describing the complex and non-equilibrium dynamics of samples exposed to FEL radiation.

  19. An Assessment of the Parameterization of Subgrid-Scale Cloud Effects on Radiative Transfer. Part II: Horizontal Inhomogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    in downwelling radiative fluxes at the surface induced by changes in cloud cover and water vapor distributions. 1An Assessment of the Parameterization of Subgrid-Scale Cloud Effects on Radiative Transfer. Part II form 5 January 2005) ABSTRACT The role of horizontal inhomogeneity in radiative transfer through cloud

  20. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 73 (2002) 239248

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    method such as decomposition method, and it takes a CPU time that is proportional to the third power of ; Stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method (BiCGSTAB); Thermal radiation 1. Introduction It is important

  1. Radiative component and combined heat transfer in the thermal calculation of finned tube banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehlik, P. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For more exact calculation of combined heat transfer in the case of finned tube banks (e.g., in the convective section of a furnace), the radiative heat transfer cannot be neglected. A new method for relatively simple calculation of total heat flux (convection + radiation + conduction in fins) is fully compatible with that for bare tube banks/bundles developed earlier. It is based on the method of radiative coefficients. However, the resulting value of heat flux must be corrected due to fin thickness and especially due to the fin radiative influence. For this purpose the so-called multiplicator of heat flux was introduced. The applicability of this methods has been demonstrated on a tubular fired heater convective section. A developed computer program based on the method has also been used for an analysis of the influence of selected parameters to show the share of radiation on the total heat flux.

  2. OUMBE, Armel, WALD, Lucien, BLANC, Philippe, and SCHROEDTER-HOMSCHEIDT, Marion. Exploitation of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric constituents, Germany * Corresponding Author, armel.oumbe@ensmp.fr Abstract Solar radiation is modified in its way: solar radiation, atmospheric optics, satellite images, Heliosat method 1. Introduction A wealth

  3. Optimal homotopy perturbation method for nonlinear differential equations governing MHD Jeffery-Hamel flow with heat transfer problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinca, Vasile

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) is employed to determine an analytic approximate solutions for nonlinear MHD Jeffery-Hamel flow and heat transfer problem. The Navier-Stokes equations, taking into account Maxwell's electromagnetism and heat transfer lead to two nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained results by means of OHPM show a very good agreement in comparison with the numerical results and with Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM).

  4. Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed.

  5. Asymptotic solution for heat convection-radiation equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabood, Fazle; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Khan, Waqar A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, PN Engineering College, Karachi, 75350 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we employ a new approximate analytical method called the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) to solve steady state heat transfer problem in slabs. The heat transfer problem is modeled using nonlinear two-point boundary value problem. Using OHAM, we obtained the approximate analytical solution for dimensionless temperature with different values of a parameter ?. Further, the OHAM results for dimensionless temperature have been presented graphically and in tabular form. Comparison has been provided with existing results from the use of homotopy perturbation method, perturbation method and numerical method. For numerical results, we used Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. It was found that OHAM produces better approximate analytical solutions than those which are obtained by homotopy perturbation and perturbation methods, in the sense of closer agreement with results obtained from the use of Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method.

  6. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 99 (2006) 341348

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structure on non-LTE, non-diffusive radiation transport and X-ray production is discussed. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Z-pinch plasma; K-shell X-ray production and spectroscopy; Opacity tungsten wires [2]. Strong j  B forces implode the wire array, which generates nearly 2 MJ of X-rays in o

  7. Nonlocal study of the near field radiative heat transfer between two n-doped semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study in this work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel planes of highly n-doped semiconductors. Using a nonlocal model of the dielectric permittivity, usually used for the case of metallic planes, we show that the radiative heat transfer coefficientsaturates as the separation distance is reduced for high doping concentration. These results replace the 1/d${}^2$ infinite divergence obtained in the local model case. Different features of the obtained results are shown to relate physically to the parameters of the materials, mainly the doping concentration and the plasmon frequency.

  8. Re ectance comparison between SCIAMACHY and a radiative transfer code in the UV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Kon i nk l i j k Neder l ands Meteoro l og i sch Inst i tuut Re#29;ectance comparison between SCIAMACHY and a radiative transfer code in the UV L.G. Tilstra, G. van Soest, M. de Graaf, J.R. Acarreta, P#21;2400 nm. We compare its re#29;ectance mea- surements in the UV with calculations by a polarised radiative

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: ARM Radiative Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa-Anomalous Radiative AbsorptionARM In TheACloudStatus,Newatmospheric profilesModeling

  10. Radiative Transfer of Sound Waves in a Random Flow: Turbulent Scattering and ModeCoupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryzhik, Lenya

    Radiative Transfer of Sound Waves in a Random Flow: Turbulent Scattering and Mode­Coupling Albert the sound wave propagation in a random flow, whose mean flow is large compared with its fluctuation and the turbulent scattering and mode­coupling of sound waves. We show that, because of the flow­straining term

  11. BTRAM: An Interactive Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model I.M. Chapman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naylor, David A.

    radiance incident on the spectrometer/radiometer. Computer simulations, known as radiative transfer models source of opacity at submillimetre wavelengths where many objects emit most of their energy. Although high altitude observatories (such as the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii and the Atacama

  12. CROSS VALIDATION OF SATELLITE RADIATION TRANSFER MODELS DURING SWERA PROJECT IN BRAZIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    CROSS VALIDATION OF SATELLITE RADIATION TRANSFER MODELS DURING SWERA PROJECT IN BRAZIL Enio B-970, SP, Brazil. Phone + 55 12 39456741, Fax + 55 12 39456810, fernando@dge.inpe.br. Samuel L. Abreu, Hans, Federal University of Santa Catarina -UFSC, Florianópolis, 88040-900, (SC), Brazil. Richard Perez

  13. An Efficient Approach for Optical Radiative Transfer Tomography using the Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinates Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levis, Aviad; Aides, Amit; Davis, Anthony B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces a method to preform optical tomography, using 3D radiative transfer as the forward model. We use an iterative approach predicated on the Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinates Method (SHDOM) to solve the optimization problem in a scalable manner. We illustrate with an application in remote sensing of a cloudy atmosphere.

  14. Shape-independent limits to near-field radiative heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Owen D; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive shape-independent limits to the spectral radiative heat-transfer rate between two closely spaced bodies, generalizing the concept of a black body to the case of near-field energy transfer. By conservation of energy, we show that each body of susceptibility $\\chi$ can emit and absorb radiation at enhanced rates bounded by $|\\chi|^2 / \\operatorname{Im} \\chi$, optimally mediated by near-field photon transfer proportional to $1/d^2$ across a separation distance $d$. Dipole--dipole and dipole--plate structures approach restricted versions of the limit, but common large-area structures do not exhibit the material enhancement factor and thus fall short of the general limit. By contrast, we find that particle arrays interacting in an idealized Born approximation exhibit both enhancement factors, suggesting the possibility of orders-of-magnitude improvement beyond previous designs and the potential for radiative heat transfer to be comparable to conductive heat transfer through air at room temperature, and s...

  15. Radiation Heat Transfer in Particle-Laden Gaseous Flame: Flame Acceleration and Triggering Detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we examine influence of the radiation heat transfer on the combustion regimes in the mixture, formed by suspension of fine inert particles in hydrogen gas. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for the thermal radiation, while the radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding gas. The particles and gas ahead of the flame is assumed to be heated by radiation from the original flame. It is shown that the maximum temperature increase due to the radiation preheating becomes larger for a flame with lower velocity. For a flame with small enough velocity temperature of the radiation preheating may exceed the crossover temperature, so that the radiation heat transfer may become a dominant mechanism of the flame propagation. In the case of non-uniform distribution of particles, the temperature gradient formed due to the radiation preheating can initiate either deflagration or detonation ahead of the original flame via the Zel'dovich's gradient mechanism. Th...

  16. Soliton-radiation coupling in the parametrically driven, damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. S. Shchesnovich; I. V. Barashenkov

    2001-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the Riemann-Hilbert problem to study the interaction of the soliton with radiation in the parametrically driven, damped nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The analysis is reduced to the study of a finite-dimensional dynamical system for the amplitude and phase of the soliton and the complex amplitude of the long-wavelength radiation. In contrast to previously utilised Inverse Scattering-based perturbation techniques, our approach is valid for arbitrarily large driving strengths and damping coefficients. We show that, contrary to suggestions made in literature, the complexity observed in the soliton's dynamics cannot be accounted for just by its coupling to the long-wavelength radiation.

  17. Analytical Solutions for Radiative Transfer: Implications for Giant Planet Formation by Disk Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan P. Boss

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The disk instability mechanism for giant planet formation is based on the formation of clumps in a marginally-gravitationally unstable protoplanetary disk, which must lose thermal energy through a combination of convection and radiative cooling if they are to survive and contract to become giant protoplanets. While there is good observational support for forming at least some giant planets by disk instability, the mechanism has become theoretically contentious, with different three dimensional radiative hydrodynamics codes often yielding different results. Rigorous code testing is required to make further progress. Here we present two new analytical solutions for radiative transfer in spherical coordinates, suitable for testing the code employed in all of the Boss disk instability calculations. The testing shows that the Boss code radiative transfer routines do an excellent job of relaxing to and maintaining the analytical results for the radial temperature and radiative flux profiles for a spherical cloud with high or moderate optical depths, including the transition from optically thick to optically thin regions. These radial test results are independent of whether the Eddington approximation, diffusion approximation, or flux-limited diffusion approximation routines are employed. The Boss code does an equally excellent job of relaxing to and maintaining the analytical results for the vertical (theta) temperature and radiative flux profiles for a disk with a height proportional to the radial distance. These tests strongly support the disk instability mechanism for forming giant planets.

  18. 1. Quart. Spectrosc. Radial. Trom~r. Vol. 11,pp.144-1462. Pqamon Press 1971. Printed in Great Britain NON-GREY RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siewert, Charles E.

    -grey heat transfer model is that of SIMMONS and FERZIGER(~)who used the normal modes(4) of the equation

  19. THE DIFFUSION APPROXIMATION FOR THE LINEAR BOLTZMANN EQUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE DIFFUSION APPROXIMATION FOR THE LINEAR BOLTZMANN EQUATION WITH VANISHING SCATTERING COEFFICIENT equation, Diffusion approximation, Neutron transport equation, Radiative transfer equation subject, 23], neutron transport theory [27]. A typical model linear Boltzmann equation is (t +· x)f(t,x,)= 1

  20. Effect of radiative heat transfer on the coagulation dynamics of combustion-generated particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackowski, D.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Tassopoulos, M.; Rosner, D.E. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the influences of radiation heat transfer on the size and number density evolution of small coagulating particles. On a microscopic level, radiative emission and/or absorption by the particle will perturb the gas temperature field adjacent to each particle. As a result of thermophoretic particle transport, the nonequilibrium condition can alter the collision rates with neighboring particles. A simplified analysis of the thermophoretic coagulation mechanism suggests that net radiative cooling of the particles can lead to an accelerated growth of [mu]m-sized particles, whereas net radiative heating can act to essentially freeze coagulation rates. On the macroscopic level, the addition or removal of heat in the gas through radiative absorption emission by the particle cloud can also significantly alter, through thermophoretic transport, the local particle number density. Under certain cases these effects can augment the accelerated coagulation rates that occur under radiative cooling conditions. We also examine the particular situation of equilibrium between particle cloud radiative absorption and emission - which results in no net macroscopic effect on the gas. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  1. A parametric study of shock jump chemistry, electron temperature, and radiative heat transfer models in hypersonic flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greendyke, Robert Brian

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will examine the radiance model and various step models in order to determine their appropriateness to the flight regime of the AOTV. The final area to be investigated will be the effect of nonequilibrium corrections on the radiative heat transfer models... of T and e T will be valid as long as there is a reasonable amount vNs of nitrogen molecules in the flow. Radiative Heat Transfer Models For this study, four radiative heat transfer models were examined. One of these models is an optically thin radiance...

  2. Thermal heat radiation, near-field energy density and near-field radiative heat transfer of coated materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermal radiation and thermal near-field energy density of a metal-coated semi-infinite body for different substrates. We show that the surface polariton coupling within the metal coating leads to an enhancement of the TM-mode part of the thermal near-field energy density when a polar substrate is used. In this case the result obtained for a free standing metal film is retrieved. In contrast, in the case of a metal substrate there is no enhancement in the TM-mode part, as can also be explained within the framework of surface plasmon coupling within the coating. Finally, we discuss the influence of the enhanced thermal energy density on the near-field radiative heat transfer between a simple semi-infinite and a coated semi-infinite body for different material combinations.

  3. Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. IV. On the scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice particles: Numerical radiative transfer studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitzmann, D; Rauer, H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their wavelengths dependent absorption and scattering properties, clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. Especially, the potential greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. We study the radiative effects of CO2 ice particles obtained by different numerical treatments to solve the radiative transfer equation. The comparison between the results of a high-order discrete ordinate method and simpler two-stream approaches reveals large deviations in terms of a potential scattering efficiency of the greenhouse effect. The two-stream methods overestimate the transmitted and reflected radiation, thereby yielding a higher scattering greenhouse effect. For the particular case of a cool M-type dwarf the CO2 ice particles show no strong effective scattering greenhouse eff...

  4. Non-contact pumping of light emitters via non-radiative energy transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Achermann, Marc (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A light emitting device is disclosed including a primary light source having a defined emission photon energy output, and, a light emitting material situated near to said primary light source, said light emitting material having an absorption onset equal to or less in photon energy than the emission photon energy output of the primary light source whereby non-radiative energy transfer from said primary light source to said light emitting material can occur yielding light emission from said light emitting material.

  5. Generalized dual-phase lag bioheat equations based on nonequilibrium heat transfer in living biological tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    transfer Non-equilibrium Dual-phase lag a b s t r a c t Based on a nonequilibrium heat transfer model

  6. Time-dependent Radiation Transfer in the Internal Shock Model Scenario for Blazar Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manasvita Joshi; Markus Boettcher

    2010-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the time-dependent radiation transfer in blazar jets, within the internal shock model. We assume that the central engine, which consists of a black hole and an accretion disk, spews out relativistic shells of plasma with different velocity, mass, and energy. We consider a single inelastic collision between a faster (inner) and a slower (outer) moving shell. We study the dynamics of the collision and evaluate the subsequent emission of radiation via the synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton (SSC) processes after the interaction between the two shells has begun. The collision results in the formation of a forward shock (FS) and a reverse shock (RS) that convert the ordered bulk kinetic energy of the shells into magnetic field energy and accelerate the particles, which then radiate. We assume a cylindrical geometry for the emission region of the jet. We treat the self-consistent radiative transfer by taking into account the inhomogeneity in the photon density throughout the region. In this paper, we focus on understanding the effects of varying relevant input parameters on the simulated spectral energy distribution (SED) and spectral variability patterns.

  7. Radiative charge transfer in cold and ultracold Sulfur atoms colliding with Protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, G; Wang, J G; McCann, J F; McLaughlin, B M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative decay processes at cold and ultra cold temperatures for Sulfur atoms colliding with protons are investigated. The MOLPRO quantum chemistry suite of codes was used to obtain accurate potential energies and transition dipole moments, as a function of internuclear distance, between low-lying states of the SH$^{+}$ molecular cation. A multi-reference configuration-interaction (MRCI) approximation together with the Davidson correction is used to determine the potential energy curves and transition dipole moments, between the states of interest, where the molecular orbitals (MO's) are obtained from state-averaged multi configuration-self-consistent field (MCSCF) calculations. The collision problem is solved approximately using an optical potential method to obtain radiative loss, and a fully two-channel quantum approach for radiative charge transfer. Cross sections and rate coefficients are determined for the first time for temperatures ranging from 10 $\\mu$ K up to 10,000 K. Results are obtained for all ...

  8. Computational study of atmospheric transfer radiation on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Castaño, Gabriel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative transfer models explain and predict interaction between solar radiation and the different elements present in the atmosphere, which are responsible for energy attenuation. In Colombia there have been neither measurements nor studies of atmospheric components such as gases and aerosols that can cause turbidity and pollution. Therefore satellite images cannot be corrected radiometrically in a proper way. When a suitable atmospheric correction is carried out, loss of information is avoided, which may be useful for discriminating image land cover. In this work a computational model was used to find radiative atmospheric attenuation (300 1000nm wavelength region) on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia) in order to conduct an adequate atmospheric correction.

  9. Modulation and amplification of radiative far field heat transfer : towards a simple radiative thermal transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jeremie; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show in this article that phase change materials (PCM) exhibiting a phase transition between a dielectric state and a metallic state are good candidates to perform modulation as well as amplification of radiative thermal flux. We propose a simple situation in plane parallel geometry where a so-called radiative thermal transistor could be achieved. In this configuration, we put a PCM between two blackbodies at different temperatures. We show that the transistor effect can be achieved easily when this material has its critical temperature between the two blackbody temperatures. We also see, that the more the material is reflective in the metallic state, the more switching effect is realized whereas the more PCM transition is stiff in temperature, the more thermal amplification is high. We finally take the example of VO2 that exhibits an insulator-metallic transition at 68{\\textdegree}C. We show that a demonstrator of a radiative transistor could easily be achieved in view of the heat flux levels predicted. F...

  10. Parametric analysis of radiative-convective heat transfer around a circular cylinder in a cross flow using the finite volume radiation solution method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.H.; Lee, J.S.; Choi, M. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In the outside vapor deposition (OVD) process, silica particles are deposited by thermophoretic force on the surface of a cylinder. This process is associated with complex physical phenomena such as heat transfer between a torch and a cylinder, chemical reaction for silica particle formation, and particle deposition. Since the OVD process is carried out in a very high temperature environment, radiative heat transfer should be taken into consideration. Here, the radiative-convective heat transfer around a circular cylinder in a cross flow of a radiating gas has been numerically analyzed using the finite volume radiation solution method in a nonorthogonal coordinate system. The cross-flow Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter is 40, and the fluid Prandtl number is assumed to be 0.7. The radiative heat transfer coupled with convection is reasonably predicted by the finite volume radiation solution method. Distributions of the local Nusselt number are investigated according to the variation of radiation parameters such as conduction-to-radiation parameter, optical thickness, scattering albedo, and cylinder wall emissivity.

  11. Investigation of Thin Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties on the Basis of Satellite Observations and Fast Radiative Transfer Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chenxi

    2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    observations and fast radiative transfer models (RTMs). In the first part, we develop two computationally efficient RTMs simulating satellite observations under cloudy-sky conditions in the visible/shortwave infrared (VIS/SWIR) and thermal inferred (IR...

  12. A parametric study of shock jump chemistry, electron temperature, and radiative heat transfer models in hypersonic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greendyke, Robert Brian

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SHOCK JUMP CHEMISTRY, ELECTRON TEMPERATURE, AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT BRIAN GREENDYKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SHOCK JUMP CHEMISTRY, ELECTRON TEMPERATURE, AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT BRIAN...

  13. On linearization and preconditioning for radiation diffusion coupled to material thermal conduction equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Tao, E-mail: fengtao2@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052 (China) [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052 (China); Graduate School of China Academy Engineering Physics, Beijing 100083 (China); An, Hengbin, E-mail: an_hengbin@iapcm.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Yu, Xijun, E-mail: yuxj@iapcm.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Li, Qin, E-mail: liqin@lsec.cc.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Chinese Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Rongpei, E-mail: zhangrongpei@163.com [Graduate School of China Academy Engineering Physics, Beijing 100083 (China)] [Graduate School of China Academy Engineering Physics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK) method is an effective algorithm for solving large scale nonlinear equations. One of the most important advantages of JFNK method is that there is no necessity to form and store the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear system when JFNK method is employed. However, an approximation of the Jacobian is needed for the purpose of preconditioning. In this paper, JFNK method is employed to solve a class of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion coupled to material thermal conduction equations, and two preconditioners are designed by linearizing the equations in two methods. Numerical results show that the two preconditioning methods can improve the convergence behavior and efficiency of JFNK method.

  14. Order Reduction of the Radiative Heat Transfer Model for the Simulation of Plasma Arcs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagiano, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach to derive low-complexity models describing thermal radiation for the sake of simulating the behavior of electric arcs in switchgear systems is presented. The idea is to approximate the (high dimensional) full-order equations, modeling the propagation of the radiated intensity in space, with a model of much lower dimension, whose parameters are identified by means of nonlinear system identification techniques. The low-order model preserves the main structural aspects of the full-order one, and its parameters can be straightforwardly used in arc simulation tools based on computational fluid dynamics. In particular, the model parameters can be used together with the common approaches to resolve radiation in magnetohydrodynamic simulations, including the discrete-ordinate method, the P-N methods and photohydrodynamics. The proposed order reduction approach is able to systematically compute the partitioning of the electromagnetic spectrum in frequency bands, and the related absorption coefficients, tha...

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 155422 (2012) Near-field thermal radiation transfer controlled by plasmons in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in graphene Ognjen Ilic,1,* Marinko Jablan,2 John D. Joannopoulos,1 Ivan Celanovic,3 Hrvoje Buljan,2 and Marin-field radiation transfer between two closely separated graphene sheets. The dependence of near-field heat exchange interband or intraband processes. We predict maximum transfer at low doping and for plasmons in two graphene

  16. Eurotherm Seminar N81 Reactive Heat Transfer in Porous Media, Ecole des Mines d'Albi, France June 4-6, 2007 ET81-1 HEAT TRANSFER BY SIMULTANEOUS RADIATION-CONDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Eurotherm Seminar N°81 Reactive Heat Transfer in Porous Media, Ecole des Mines d'Albi, France June 4-6, 2007 ET81- 1 HEAT TRANSFER BY SIMULTANEOUS RADIATION-CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION IN A HIGH for the packed bed. The comparison between the radiative heat transfer and the exchanges by conduction and forced

  17. Three-dimensional Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Polarization of the Sun's Continuous Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Trujillo Bueno; N. Shchukina

    2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we formulate and solve the 3D radiative transfer problem of the polarization of the solar continuous radiation. Our approach takes into account not only the anisotropy of the continuum radiation, but also the symmetry-breaking effects caused by the horizontal atmospheric inhomogeneities produced by the solar surface convection. Interestingly, our radiative transfer modeling in a well-known 3D hydrodynamical model of the solar photosphere shows remarkable agreement with the empirical data, significantly better than that obtained via the use of 1D atmospheric models. Although this result confirms that the above-mentioned 3D model was indeed a suitable choice for our Hanle-effect estimation of the substantial amount of "hidden" magnetic energy that is stored in the quiet solar photosphere, we have found however some small discrepancies whose origin may be due to uncertainties in the empirical data and/or in the thermal and density structure of the 3D model. For this reason, we have paid some attention also to other (more familiar) observables, like the center-limb variation of the continuum intensity, which we have calculated taking into account the scattering contribution to the continuum source function. The overall agreement with the observed center-limb variation turns out to be impressive, but we find a hint that the model's temperature gradients in the continuum forming layers could be slightly too steep, perhaps because all current simulations of solar surface convection and magnetoconvection compute the radiative flux divergence ignoring the fact that the effective polarizability is not completely negligible, especially in the downward-moving intergranular lane plasma.

  18. Heat transfer between parallel plates: An approach based on the linearized Boltzmann equation for a binary mixture of rigid-sphere gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siewert, Charles E.

    Heat transfer between parallel plates: An approach based on the linearized Boltzmann equation a concise and particularly accurate solution of the heat-transfer problem for a binary gas mixture confined.1063/1.2511039 I. INTRODUCTION The heat-transfer problem within the context of rarefied gas dynamics has been

  19. Investigation of Radiation and Chemical Resistance of Flexible HLW Transfer Hose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Skidmore; Billings, K.; Hubbard, M.

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical transfer hose constructed of an EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) outer covering with a modified cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) lining was evaluated for use in high level radioactive waste transfer applications. Laboratory analysis involved characterization of the hose liner after irradiation to doses of 50 to 300 Mrad and subsequent exposure to 25% NaOH solution at 93 C for 30 days, simulating 6 months intermittent service. The XLPE liner mechanical and structural properties were characterized at varying dose levels. Burst testing of irradiated hose assemblies was also performed. Literature review and test results suggest that radiation effects below doses of 100 kGy are minimal, with acceptable property changes to 500 kGy. Higher doses may be feasible. At a bounding dose of 2.5 MGy, the burst pressure is reduced to the working pressure (1.38 MPa) at room temperature. Radiation exposure slightly reduces liner tensile strength, with more significant decrease in liner elongation. Subsequent exposure to caustic solutions at elevated temperature slightly increases elongation, suggesting an immersion/hydrolytic effect or possible thermal annealing of radiation damage. This paper summarizes the laboratory results and recommendations for field deployment.

  20. An Efficient Monte Carlo Algorithm for a Restricted Class of Scattering Problems in Radiation Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan M. Watson; William J. Henney

    2001-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for a restricted class of scattering problems in radiation transfer. This class includes many astrophysically interesting problems, including the scattering of ultraviolet and visible light by grains. The algorithm correctly accounts for multiply-scattered light. We describe the algorithm, present a number of important optimizations, and explicity show how the algorithm can be used to estimate quantities such as the emergent and mean intensity. We present two test cases, examine the importance of the optimizations, and show that this algorithm can be usefully applied to optically-thin problems, a regime sometimes considered limited to explicit single-scattering plus attenuation approximations.

  1. Radiative heat transfer between two dielectric nanogratings in the scattering approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Lussange; R. Guérout; F. S. S. Rosa; J. -J. Greffet; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transfer between dielectric nanogratings in the scattering approach. As a comparision with these exact results, we also evaluate the domain of validity of Derjaguin's Proximity Approximation (PA). We consider a system of two corrugated silica plates with various grating geometries, separation distances, and lateral displacement of the plates with respect to one another. Numerical computations show that while the PA is a good approximation for aligned gratings, it cannot be used when the gratings are laterally displaced. We illustrate this by a thermal modulator device for nanosystems based on such a displacement.

  2. Multi--dimensional Cosmological Radiative Transfer with a Variable Eddington Tensor Formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nickolay Y. Gnedin; Tom Abel

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new approach to numerically model continuum radiative transfer based on the Optically Thin Variable Eddington Tensor (OTVET) approximation. Our method insures the exact conservation of the photon number and flux (in the explicit formulation) and automatically switches from the optically thick to the optically thin regime. It scales as N logN with the number of hydrodynamic resolution elements and is independent of the number of sources of ionizing radiation (i.e. works equally fast for an arbitrary source function). We also describe an implementation of the algorithm in a Soften Lagrangian Hydrodynamic code (SLH) and a multi--frequency approach appropriate for hydrogen and helium continuum opacities. We present extensive tests of our method for single and multiple sources in homogeneous and inhomogeneous density distributions, as well as a realistic simulation of cosmological reionization.

  3. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA. IV. A FOURIER DECOMPOSITION TECHNIQUE TO FORMULATE THE TRANSFER EQUATION WITH ANGLE-DEPENDENT PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, 2nd Block, Bangalore 560 034 (India)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    To explain the linear polarization observed in spatially resolved structures in the solar atmosphere, the solution of polarized radiative transfer (RT) equation in multi-dimensional (multi-D) geometries is essential. For strong resonance lines, partial frequency redistribution (PRD) effects also become important. In a series of papers, we have been investigating the nature of Stokes profiles formed in multi-D media including PRD in line scattering. For numerical simplicity, so far we have restricted our attention to the particular case of PRD functions which are averaged over all the incident and scattered directions. In this paper, we formulate the polarized RT equation in multi-D media that takes into account the Hanle effect with angle-dependent PRD functions. We generalize here to the multi-D case the method for Fourier series expansion of angle-dependent PRD functions originally developed for RT in one-dimensional geometry. We show that the Stokes source vector S = (S{sub I} , S{sub Q} , S{sub U} ){sup T} and the Stokes vector I = (I, Q, U){sup T} can be expanded in terms of infinite sets of components S-tilde{sup (k)}, I-tilde{sup (k)}, respectively, k in [0, +{infinity}). We show that the components S-tilde{sup (k)} become independent of the azimuthal angle ({psi}) of the scattered ray, whereas the components I-tilde{sup (k)} remain dependent on {psi} due to the nature of RT in multi-D geometry. We also establish that S-tilde{sup (k)} and I-tilde{sup (k)} satisfy a simple transfer equation, which can be solved by any iterative method such as an approximate Lambda iteration or a Bi-Conjugate Gradient-type projection method provided we truncate the Fourier series to have a finite number of terms.

  4. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  5. A Monte Carlo synthetic-acceleration method for solving the thermal radiation diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Thomas M., E-mail: evanstm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mosher, Scott W., E-mail: moshersw@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Slattery, Stuart R., E-mail: sslattery@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53716 (United States); Hamilton, Steven P., E-mail: hamiltonsp@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel synthetic-acceleration-based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diffusion equation in three spatial dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that our Monte Carlo method is an effective solver for sparse matrix systems. For solutions converged to the same tolerance, it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned conjugate gradient and GMRES. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.

  6. A Monte Carlo Synthetic-Acceleration Method for Solving the Thermal Radiation Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Thomas M [ORNL] [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL] [ORNL; Slattery, Stuart [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel synthetic-acceleration based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diusion equation in three dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that not only can our Monte Carlo method be an eective solver for sparse matrix systems, but also that it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned Conjugate Gradient while producing numerically identical results. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.

  7. On the transfer of energy towards infinity in the theory of weak turbulence for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. H. M. Kierkels; J. J. L. Velázquez

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the mathematical properties of a kinetic equation which describes the long time behaviour of solutions to the weak turbulence equation associated to the cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. In particular, we give a precise definition of weak solutions and prove global existence of solutions for all initial data with finite mass. We also prove that any nontrivial initial datum yields the instantaneous onset of a condensate, i.e. a Dirac mass at the origin for any positive time. Furthermore we show that the only stationary solutions with finite total measure are Dirac masses at the origin. We finally construct solutions with finite energy, which is transferred to infinity in a self-similar manner.

  8. The dusty MOCASSIN: fully self-consistent 3D photoionisation and dust radiative transfer models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Ercolano; M. J. Barlow; P. J. Storey

    2005-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first 3D Monte Carlo (MC) photoionisation code to include a fully self-consistent treatment of dust radiative transfer (RT) within a photoionised region. This is the latest development (Version 2.0) of the gas-only photoionisation code MOCASSIN (Ercolano et al., 2003a), and employs a stochastic approach to the transport of radiation, allowing both the primary and secondary components of the radiation field to be treated self-consistently, whilst accounting for the scattering of radiation by dust grains mixed with the gas, as well as the absorption and emission of radiation by both the gas and the dust components. A set of rigorous benchmark tests have been carried out for dust-only spherically symmetric geometries and 2D disk configurations. MOCASSIN's results are found to be in agreement with those obtained by well established dust-only RT codes that employ various approaches to the solution of the RT problem. A model of the dust and of the photoionised gas components of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 3918 is also presented as a means of testing the correct functioning of the RT procedures in a case where both gas and dust opacities are present. The two components are coupled via the heating of dust grains by the absorption of both UV continuum photons and resonance line photons emitted by the gas. The MOCASSIN results show agreement with those of a 1D dust and gas model of this nebula published previously, showing the reliability of the new code, which can be applied to a variety of astrophysical environments.

  9. Radiative charge transfer in cold and ultracold Sulfur atoms colliding with Protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G Shen; P C Stancil; J G Wang; J F McCann; B M McLaughlin

    2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative decay processes at cold and ultra cold temperatures for Sulfur atoms colliding with protons are investigated. The MOLPRO quantum chemistry suite of codes was used to obtain accurate potential energies and transition dipole moments, as a function of internuclear distance, between low-lying states of the SH$^{+}$ molecular cation. A multi-reference configuration-interaction (MRCI) approximation together with the Davidson correction is used to determine the potential energy curves and transition dipole moments, between the states of interest, where the molecular orbitals (MO's) are obtained from state-averaged multi configuration-self-consistent field (MCSCF) calculations. The collision problem is solved approximately using an optical potential method to obtain radiative loss, and a fully two-channel quantum approach for radiative charge transfer. Cross sections and rate coefficients are determined for the first time for temperatures ranging from 10 $\\mu$ K up to 10,000 K. Results are obtained for all isotopes of Sulfur, colliding with H$^{+}$ and D$^{+}$ ions and comparison is made to a number of other collision systems.

  10. Quasiballistic heat transfer studied using the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    Quasiballistic heat transfer occurs when there is a temperature gradient over length scales comparable to phonon mean free paths (MFPs). This regime has been of interest recently because observation of quasiballistic ...

  11. Nonadiabatic electron transfer in the condensed phase, via semiclassical and Langevin equation approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, XiaoGeng, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, we discuss two methods developed during my PhD study to simulate electron transfer systems. The first method, the semi-classical approximation, is derived from the stationary phase approximation to ...

  12. Constraints on Blazar Jet Conditions During Gamma-Ray Flaring from Radiative Transfer Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aller, Margo F; Aller, Hugh D; Hovatta, Talvikki

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a program to investigate jet flow conditions during GeV gamma-ray flares detected by Fermi, we are using UMRAO multi-frequency, centimeter-band total flux density and linear polarization monitoring observations to constrain radiative transfer models incorporating propagating shocks orientated at an arbitrary angle to the flow direction. We describe the characteristics of the model, illustrate how the data are used to constrain the models, and present results for three program sources with diverse characteristics: PKS 0420-01, OJ 287, and 1156+295. The modeling of the observed spectral behavior yields information on the sense, strength and orientation of the shocks producing the radio-band flaring; on the energy distribution of the radiating particles; and on the observer's viewing angle with respect to the jet independent of VLBI data. We present evidence that, while a random component dominates the jet magnetic field, a distinguishing feature of those radio events with an associated gamma-ray flar...

  13. An Analytical Model of Radiation-Induced Charge Transfer Inefficiency for CCD Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Alexander; de Bruijne, Jos H J; Prod'homme, Thibaut

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Space Agency's Gaia mission is scheduled for launch in 2013. It will operate at L2 for 5 years, rotating slowly to scan the sky so that its two optical telescopes will repeatedly observe more than one billion stars. The resulting data set will be iteratively reduced to solve for the position, parallax and proper motion of every observed star. The focal plane contains 106 large area silicon CCDs continuously operating in a mode where the line transfer rate and the satellite rotation are in synchronisation. One of the greatest challenges facing the mission is radiation damage to the CCDs which will cause charge deferral and image shape distortion. This is particularly important because of the extreme accuracy requirements of the mission. Despite steps taken at hardware level to minimise the effects of radiation, the residual distortion will need to be calibrated during the pipeline data processing. Due to the volume and inhomogeneity of data involved, this requires a model which describes the effec...

  14. Radiation heat transfer in multitube, alkaline-metal thermal-to-electric converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tournier, J.M.P.; El-Genk, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor anode, multitube Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTECs) are being considered for a number of space missions, such as the NASA Pluto/Express (PX) and Europa missions, scheduled for the years 2004 and 2005, respectively. These static converters can achieve a high fraction of Carnot efficiency at relatively low operating temperatures. An optimized cell can potentially provide a conversion efficiency between 20 and 30 percent, when operated at a hot-side temperature of 1000--1200 K and a cold-side temperature of 550--650 K. A comprehensive modeling and testing program of vapor anode, multitube AMTEC cells has been underway for more than three years at the Air Force Research Laboratory`s Power and Thermal Group (AFRL/VSDVP), jointly with the University of New Mexico`s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the readiness of AMTECs for flight on future US Air Force space missions. A fast, integrated AMTEC Performance and Evaluation Analysis Model (APEAM) has been developed to support ongoing vacuum tests at AFRL and perform analyses and investigate potential design changes to improve the PX-cell performance. This model consists of three major components (Tournier and El-Genk 1998a, b): (a) a sodium vapor pressure loss model, which describes continuum, transition and free-molecule flow regimes in the low-pressure cavity of the cell; (b) an electrochemical and electrical circuit model; and (c) a radiation/conduction heat transfer model, for calculating parasitic heat losses. This Technical Note describes the methodology used to calculate the radiation view factors within the enclosure of the PX-cells, and the numerical procedure developed in this work to determine the radiation heat transport and temperatures within the cell cavity.

  15. Lyalpha RADIATIVE TRANSFER WITH DUST: ESCAPE FRACTIONS FROM SIMULATED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laursen, Peter; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Anja C., E-mail: pela@dark-cosmology.d, E-mail: jslarsen@astro.ku.d [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lyalpha emission line is an essential diagnostic tool for probing galaxy formation and evolution. Not only is it commonly the strongest observable line from high-redshift galaxies, but from its shape detailed information about its host galaxy can be revealed. However, due to the scattering nature of Lyalpha photons increasing their path length in a nontrivial way, if dust is present in the galaxy, the line may be severely suppressed and its shape altered. In order to interpret observations correctly, it is thus of crucial significance to know how much of the emitted light actually escapes the galaxy. In the present work, using a combination of high-resolution cosmological hydrosimulations and an adaptively refinable Monte Carlo Lyalpha radiative transfer code including an environment dependent model of dust, the escape fractions f {sub esc} of Lyalpha radiation from high-redshift (z = 3.6) galaxies are calculated. In addition to the average escape fraction, the variation of f {sub esc} in different directions and from different parts of the galaxies is investigated, as well as the effect on the emergent spectrum. Escape fractions from a sample of simulated galaxies of representative physical properties are found to decrease for increasing galaxy virial mass M {sub vir}, from f {sub esc} approaching unity for M {sub vir} approx 10{sup 9} M {sub sun} to f {sub esc} less than 10% for M {sub vir} approx 10{sup 12} M {sub sun}. In spite of dust being almost gray, it is found that the emergent spectrum is affected nonuniformly, with the escape fraction of photons close to the line center being much higher than of those in the wings, thus effectively narrowing the Lyalpha line.

  16. Ly{alpha} RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS USING ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark); Razoumov, Alexei O. [Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, B3H3C3 (Canada); Sommer-Larsen, Jesper [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: pela@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: razoumov@ap.smu.ca, E-mail: jslarsen@astro.ku.dk

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical code for solving various Ly{alpha} radiative transfer (RT) problems is presented. The code is suitable for an arbitrary, three-dimensional distribution of Ly{alpha} emissivity, gas temperature, density, and velocity field. Capable of handling Ly{alpha} RT in an adaptively refined grid-based structure, it enables detailed investigation of the effects of clumpiness of the interstellar (or intergalactic) medium. The code is tested against various geometrically and physically idealized configurations for which analytical solutions exist, and subsequently applied to three different simulated high-resolution 'Lyman-break galaxies', extracted from high-resolution cosmological simulations at redshift z = 3.6. Proper treatment of the Ly{alpha} scattering reveals a diversity of surface brightness (SB) and line profiles. Specifically, for a given galaxy the maximum observed SB can vary by an order of magnitude, and the total flux by a factor of 3-6, depending on the viewing angle. This may provide an explanation for differences in observed properties of high-redshift galaxies, and in particular a possible physical link between Lyman-break galaxies and regular Ly{alpha} emitters.

  17. HELIOS-K: An Ultrafast, Open-source Opacity Calculator for Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimm, Simon L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an ultrafast opacity calculator for application to exoplanetary atmospheres, which we name HELIOS-K. It takes a line list as an input, computes the shape of each spectral line (e.g., a Voigt profile) and provides an option for grouping an enormous number of lines into a manageable number of bins. We implement a combination of Algorithm 916 and Gauss-Hermite quadrature to compute the Voigt profile, write the code in CUDA and optimise the computation for graphics processing units (GPUs). We use the k-distribution method to reduce $\\sim 10^5$ to $10^8$ lines to $\\sim 10$ to $10^4$ wavenumber bins, which may then be used for radiative transfer, atmospheric retrieval and general circulation models. We demonstrate that the resampling of the k-distribution function, within each bin, is an insignificant source of error across a broad range of wavenumbers and column masses. By contrast, the choice of line-wing cutoff for the Voigt profile is a significant source of error and affects the value of the compute...

  18. The evolved circumbinary disk of AC Her: a radiative transfer, interferometric and mineralogical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillen, M; Menu, J; Van Winckel, H; Min, M; Mulders, G D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We aim to constrain the structure of the circumstellar material around the post-AGB binary and RV Tauri pulsator AC Her. We want to constrain the spatial distribution of the amorphous as well as of the crystalline dust. We present very high-quality mid-IR interferometric data that were obtained with MIDI/VLTI. We analyse the MIDI data and the full SED, using the MCMax radiative transfer code, to find a good structure model of AC Her's circumbinary disk. We include a grain size distribution and midplane settling of dust self-consistently. The spatial distribution of crystalline forsterite in the disk is investigated with the mid-IR features, the 69~$\\mu$m band and the 11.3~$\\mu$m signatures in the interferometric data. All the data are well fitted. The inclination and position angle of the disk are well determined at i=50+-8 and PA=305+-10. We firmly establish that the inner disk radius is about an order of magnitude larger than the dust sublimation radius. Significant grain growth has occurred, with mm-sized ...

  19. Efficient weakly-radiative wireless energy transfer: An EIT-like approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    coupling on which witricity-type wireless energy transfer is based. We show that in certain parameter

  20. Modeling near-field radiative heat transfer from sharp objects using a general 3d numerical scattering technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCauley, Alexander P; Krüger, Matthias; Johnson, Steven G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the non-equilibrium radiative heat transfer between a plate and finite cylinders and cones, making the first accurate theoretical predictions for the total heat transfer and the spatial heat flux profile for three-dimensional compact objects including corners or tips. We find qualitatively different scaling laws for conical shapes at small separations, and in contrast to a flat/slightly-curved object, a sharp cone exhibits a local \\emph{minimum} in the spatially resolved heat flux directly below the tip. The method we develop, in which a scattering-theory formulation of thermal transfer is combined with a boundary-element method for computing scattering matrices, can be applied to three-dimensional objects of arbitrary shape.

  1. Magnetic-field control of near-field radiative heat transfer and the realization of highly tunable hyperbolic thermal emitters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncada-Villa, Edwin; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Cuevas, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive theoretical study of the magnetic field dependence of the near-field radiative heat transfer (NFRHT) between two parallel plates. We show that when the plates are made of doped semiconductors, the near-field thermal radiation can be severely affected by the application of a static magnetic field. We find that irrespective of its direction, the presence of a magnetic field reduces the radiative heat conductance, and dramatic reductions up to 700% can be found with fields of about 6 T at room temperature. We show that this striking behavior is due to the fact that the magnetic field radically changes the nature of the NFRHT. The field not only affects the electromagnetic surface waves (both plasmons and phonon polaritons) that normally dominate the near-field radiation in doped semiconductors, but it also induces hyperbolic modes that progressively dominate the heat transfer as the field increases. In particular, we show that when the field is perpendicular to the plates, the semicond...

  2. Combined Modeling of Acceleration, Transport, and Hydrodynamic Response in Solar Flares. II. Inclusion of Radiative Transfer with RADYN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahe'; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares involve complex processes that are coupled together and span a wide range of temporal, spatial, and energy scales. Modeling such processes self-consistently has been a challenge in the past. Here we present such a model to simulate the coupling of high-energy particle kinetics with hydrodynamics of the atmospheric plasma. We combine the Stanford unified Fokker-Planck code that models particle acceleration, transport, and bremsstrahlung radiation with the RADYN hydrodynamic code that models the atmospheric response to collisional heating by non-thermal electrons through detailed radiative transfer calculations. We perform simulations using different injection electron spectra, including an {\\it ad hoc} power law and more realistic spectra predicted by the stochastic acceleration model due to turbulence or plasma waves. Surprisingly, stochastically accelerated electrons, even with energy flux $\\ll 10^{10}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, cause "explosive" chromospheric evaporation and drive stronger up- an...

  3. HEAT AND MOISTURE TRANSFER THROUGH CLOTHING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voelker, Conrad; Hoffmann, Sabine; Kornadt, Oliver; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. C. Eberhart (ed), Heat transfer in medicine and biology.between convective heat transfer and mass transferConvective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for

  4. Heat and moisture transfer through clothing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voelker, Conrad; Hoffmann, Sabine; Kornadt, Oliver; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. C. Eberhart (ed), Heat transfer in medicine and biology.Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients forbetween convective heat transfer and mass transfer

  5. 3D radiative transfer simulations of Eta Carinae's inner colliding winds - II: Ionization structure of helium at periastron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clementel, Nicola; Kruip, Chael J H; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral observations of the massive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae show phase-dependent variations, in intensity and velocity, of numerous helium emission and absorption lines throughout the entire 5.54-year orbit. Approaching periastron, the 3D structure of the wind-wind interaction region (WWIR) gets highly distorted due to the eccentric ($e \\sim 0.9$) binary orbit. The secondary star ($\\eta_{\\mathrm{B}}$) at these phases is located deep within the primary's dense wind photosphere. The combination of these effects is thought to be the cause of the particularly interesting features observed in the helium lines at periastron. We perform 3D radiative transfer simulations of $\\eta$ Car's interacting winds at periastron. Using the SimpleX radiative transfer algorithm, we post-process output from 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the inner 150 au of the $\\eta$ Car system for two different primary star mass-loss rates ($\\dot{M}_{\\eta_{\\mathrm{A}}}$). Using previous results from simulations at ap...

  6. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  7. Parabolized Stability Equation Models for Turbulent Jets and Their Radiated Sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    surface just outside the jet shear layers in order Work supported by NAVAIR/TTC Technologies, Inc. Ph stability analysis and measurements from a phased microphone array, indicating that energy transfer between.D. Candidate, Mechanical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, Student Member

  8. Radiative transfer within non Beerian porous media with semitransparent and opaque phases in non equilibrium;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    equilibrium; Application to reflooding of a nuclear reactor. Miloud Chahlafia,b,c , Fabien Belleta,b , Florian Transfer 55, 13-14 (2012) 3666-3676" DOI : 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.02.067 #12;nuclear reactor flux Indexes - At the calculation point -+ Dimensionless 3 hal-00680676,version1-19Mar2012 #12;-(j) jth

  9. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) global model with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D ? PP (plane-parallel)] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization.more »We show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  10. Radiative transfer based scaling of LAI retrievals from reflectance data of different resolutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    is investigated with 1-km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data aggregated to different coarse into biogeophysical (energy and water exchanges) and biogeochemical (carbon and volatile organic compound exchanges. Vegetation leaf area index governs net radiation and its expenditure (energy balance), net primary production

  11. PARALLEL COMPUTATIONS OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER USING THE DISCRETE ORDINATES METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    of the important radiatively active species (CO2, H2O, soot) and temperature, which are calculated on the spatially increasingly tractable. Issues relating to the use of high-performance computing in participating media heat properties. First we summarize previous applications of spatial decomposition strategies to finite

  12. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional combined convective radiative heat transfer in rectangular channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Min Seok

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ? =0.1, 0.2, and 0.4) and scattering albedo ( ?=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). Variation of thermophysical properties with temperature was considered in this study. In this work consideration was given only to cooling. Effects of those radiative...

  13. Radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere-ocean system using Monte Carlo techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Paul Andrew

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSFER PROBLEM MONTE CARLO METHOD Assumptions of the Model Photon Pathlength Emulation Techniques Sampling Scattering Functions: Angles and Probabilities Emulation of an Interface Computing the Radiance by Statistical Estimation Determination... of Direction Cosines After Scattering Flux Estimation into Detectors Determination of a New Scattering Point Photon Trajectories Direct Flux and Radiance From the Ocean Bottonr Accounting for Multiple Orders of Scattering With the Bottom Computation...

  14. Codes for optically thick and hot photoionized media - Radiative transfer and new developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne-Marie Dumont; Suzy Collin

    2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a code designed for hot media {(T $\\ge$} a few 10$^4$ K), optically thick to Compton scattering. It computes the structure of a plane-parallel slab of gas in thermal and ionization equilibrium, illuminated on one side or on both sides by a given spectrum. This code has been presented in a previous paper (Dumont, Abrassart & Collin 2000), where several aspects were already discussed. So we focus here mainly on the recent developments. Presently the code solves the transfer of the continuum with the Accelerated Lambda Iteration method (ALI) and that of the lines in a two stream Eddington approximation, without using the local escape probability formalism to approximate the line transfer. This transfer code is coupled with a Monte Carlo code which allows to take into account direct and inverse Compton diffusions, and to compute the spectrum emitted up to MeV energies, in any geometry. The influence of a few physical parameters is shown, and the importance of the density and pressure distribution (constant density, pressure equilibrium, or hydrostatic equilibrium) is stressed. Recent improvements in the treatment of the atomic data are described, and foreseen developments are mentioned.

  15. A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into cloud radiative transfer parameterizations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Dong; Liu, Yangang

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subgrid-scale variability is one of the main reasons why parameterizations are needed in large-scale models. Although some parameterizations started to address the issue of subgrid variability by introducing a subgrid probability distribution function for relevant quantities, the spatial structure has been typically ignored and thus the subgrid-scale interactions cannot be accounted for physically. Here we present a new statistical-physics-like approach whereby the spatial autocorrelation function can be used to physically capture the net effects of subgrid cloud interaction with radiation. The new approach is able to faithfully reproduce the Monte Carlo 3D simulation results with several orders less computational cost,more »allowing for more realistic representation of cloud radiation interactions in large-scale models.« less

  16. The radiative heat transfer between a rotating nanoparticle and a plane surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahid Ameri; Mehdi Shafei Aporvari; Fardin Kheirandish

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a microscopic approach, we propose a Lagrangian for the combined system of a rotating dielectric nanoparticle above a plane surface in the presence of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations. In the framework of canonical quantization, the electromagnetic vacuum field is quantized in the presence of dielectric fields describing the nanoparticle and a semi-infinite dielectric with planar interface. The radiative heat power absorbed by the rotating nanoparticle is obtained and the result is in agreement with previous results when the the rotational frequency of the nanoparticle is zero or much smaller than the relaxation frequency of the dielectrics. The well known near field effect is reexamined and discussed in terms of the rotational frequency. The radiative heat power absorbed by the nanoparticle for well-known peak frequencies, is plotted in terms of the rotational frequency showing an interesting effect resembling a phase transition around a critical frequency, determined by the relaxation frequency of the dielectrics.

  17. A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into cloud radiative transfer parameterizations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Dong [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subgrid-scale variability is one of the main reasons why parameterizations are needed in large-scale models. Although some parameterizations started to address the issue of subgrid variability by introducing a subgrid probability distribution function for relevant quantities, the spatial structure has been typically ignored and thus the subgrid-scale interactions cannot be accounted for physically. Here we present a new statistical-physics-like approach whereby the spatial autocorrelation function can be used to physically capture the net effects of subgrid cloud interaction with radiation. The new approach is able to faithfully reproduce the Monte Carlo 3D simulation results with several orders less computational cost, allowing for more realistic representation of cloud radiation interactions in large-scale models.

  18. Microwave emissivity of fresh water ice--Lake ice and Antarctic ice pack--Radiative transfer simulations versus satellite radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave emissivity models of sea ice are poorly validated empirically. Typical validation studies involve using averaged or stereotyped profiles of ice parameters against averaged radiance measurements. Measurement sites are rarely matched and even less often point-by-point. Because of saline content, complex permittivity of sea ice is highly variable and difficult to predict. Therefore, to check the validity of a typical, plane-parallel, radiative-transfer-based ice emissivity model, we apply it to fresh water ice instead of salt-water ice. Radiance simulations for lake ice are compared with measurements over Lake Superior from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E). AMSR-E measurements are also collected over Antarctic icepack. For each pixel, a thermodynamic model is driven by four years of European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data and the resulting temperature profiles used to drive the emissivity model. The results suggest that the relatively simple ...

  19. Normal shock solutions to the viscous shock layer equations including thermal, chemical, thermodynamic, and radiative nonequilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mott, David Ray

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    term (Eq. (12)) density relaxation time inelastic energy exchange term (Eq. (12)) Subscripts and Superscripts b b c cal e f 1 i initial J P r s tr v V backward reaction boundary center, as in X, calibration constant electron... such experiments vital in the verification of nonequilibrium chemical and radiation models. PUMPING ASSEMBLT CDAxIAL CABLE HousING L ? --I r- 2sTDPFARAb )'V& DRIVER HIGHPRESSURE DIAPHRAGM TRANSITION SECTION Cl~ ALUMINUM TUBE TUBE t2OFTI TUBE I 10 F...

  20. Validation of the Poisson Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model Against Cloud Cascade Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps toValidatingCloudPoisson Stochastic Radiative

  1. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model – CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-D–PP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance atmore »the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  2. 3D Lya radiation transfer. II. Fitting the Lyman break galaxy MS 1512-cB58 and implications for Lya emission in high-z starbursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaerer, Daniel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using our 3D Lya radiation transfer code, we compute the radiation transfer of Lya and UV continuum photons including dust. Observational constraints on the neutral gas (column density, kinematics, etc.) are taken from other analysis of this object. RESULTS: The observed Lya profile of MS 1512--cB58 is reproduced for the first time taking radiation transfer and all observational constraints into account. The observed absorption profile is found to result naturally from the observed amount of dust and the relatively high HI column density. Radiation transfer effects and suppresion by dust transform a strong intrinsic Lya emission with EW(Lya)>~ 60 Ang into the observed faint superposed Lya emission peak. We propose that the vast majority of LBGs have intrinsically EW(Lya)~60-80 Ang or larger, and that the main physical parameter responsible for the observed variety of Lya strengths and profiles in LBGs is N_H and the accompanying variation of the dust content. Observed EW(Lya) distributions, Lya luminosity fun...

  3. Astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture (12)N(p,gamma)(13)O determined from the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhai, Y.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross section of the radiative proton capture reaction on the drip line nucleus (12)N was investigated using the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. We have used the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction at 12 Me...

  4. On the use of a nascent delta function in radiative-transfer calculations for multi-layer media subject to Fresnel boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siewert, Charles E.

    subject to Fresnel boundary and interface conditions R.D.M. Garcia a,Ã, C.E. Siewert b a Instituto de: Radiative transfer Nascent delta function Fresnel conditions Discrete-ordinates method a b s t r a c in a plane-parallel, multi-layer medium subject to Fresnel boundary and interface conditions. As a result

  5. Comparison between two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions for the case of heat transfer equations arising in porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Parand; S. Abbasbandy; S. Kazem; A. R. Rezaei

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions have been considered; one be computed through the integration process (IRBF) and one be computed through the differentiation process (DRBF). We investigated the two approaches on natural convection heat transfer equations embedded in porous medium which are of great importance in the design of canisters for nuclear wastes disposal. Numerical results show that the IRBF be performed much better than the common DRBF, and show good accuracy and high rate of convergence of IRBF process.

  6. Comparison between two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions for the case of heat transfer equations arising in porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parand, K; Kazem, S; Rezaei, A R; 10.1016/j.cnsns.2010.07.011

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions have been considered; one be computed through the integration process (IRBF) and one be computed through the differentiation process (DRBF). We investigated the two approaches on natural convection heat transfer equations embedded in porous medium which are of great importance in the design of canisters for nuclear wastes disposal. Numerical results show that the IRBF be performed much better than the common DRBF, and show good accuracy and high rate of convergence of IRBF process.

  7. Simulation of Infrared Laser Heating of Silica Using Heat Conduction and Multifrequency Radiation Diffusion Equations Adapted for Homogeneous Refractive Lossy Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shestakov, A I; Matthews, M J; Vignes, R M; Stolken, J S

    2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Localized, transient heating of materials using micro-scale, highly absorbing laser light has been used in many industries to anneal, melt and ablate material with high precision. Accurate modeling of the relative contributions of conductive, convective and radiative losses as a function of laser parameters is essential to optimizing micro-scale laser processing of materials. In bulk semi-transparent materials such as silicate glass melts, radiation transport is known to play a significantly larger role as the temperature increases. Conventionally, radiation is treated in the frequency-averaged diffusive limit (Rosseland approximation). However, the role and proper treatment of radiative processes under rapidly heated, high thermal gradient conditions, often created through laser-matter interactions, is at present not clear. Starting from the radiation transport equation for homogeneous, refractive lossy media, they derive the corresponding time-dependent multi-frequency diffusion equations. Zeroth and first moments of the transport equation couple the energy density, flux and pressure tensor. The system is closed by neglecting the temporal derivative of the flux and replacing the pressure tensor by its diagonal analogue. The radiation equations are coupled to a diffusion equation for the matter temperature. They are interested in modeling infrared laser heating of silica over sub-millimeter length scales, and at possibly rapid rates. Hence, in contrast to related work, they retain the temporal derivative of the radiation field. They derive boundary conditions at a planar air-silica interface taking account of reflectivities obtained from the Fresnel relations that include absorption. The effect of a temperature-dependent absorption index is explored through construction of a multi-phonon dielectric function that includes mode dispersion. The spectral dimension is discretized into a finite number of intervals yielding a system of multigroup diffusion equations. Simulations are presented. To demonstrate the bulk heat loss due to radiation and the effect of the radiation's temporal derivative, they model cooling of a silica slab, initially at 2500 K, for 10 s. Retaining the derivative enables correctly modeling the loss of photons initially present in the slab. Other simulations model irradiating silica discs (of approximately 5 mm radii and thickness) with a CO2 laser: {lambda} = 10.59 and 4.6 um, Gaussian profile, r{sub 0} = 0.5 mm for 1/e decay. By surrounding the disks in room-temperature air, they make use of the boundary conditions described above.

  8. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Radiative Transfer, RAD-13 June 28, 2013, Kuadasi, Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Kuadasi, Turkey RAD-13-040 SPECTRAL RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF THREE-DIMENSIONALLY ORDERED MACROPOROUS CERIA

  9. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Radiative Transfer, RAD-13 June 2-8, 2013, Kuadasi, Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    which should be as simple as possible to be implemented in the combined heat transfer model. In general as a component of the multidimensional combined heat transfer model for soft thermal treatment of superficial

  10. A High-Order-Accurate GPU-Based Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Combustion and Propulsion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Xing; Lee, Euntaek; Wilcox, Lucas; Munipalli, Ramakanth; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results for the 3D combustor shown in Figure 5 with thoseback walls of a 3D combustor chamber [46] with absorbing,and (b) ? = 0.5 of the 3D combustor. Discrepancies in flux

  11. Satellite-based remote sensing of cirrus clouds: hyperspectral radiative transfer modeling, analysis of uncertainties in in-situ cloud extinction measurements and intercomparison of cirrus retrievals from a-train instruments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhibo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation consists of three parts, each devoted to a particular issue of significant importance for satellite-based remote sensing of cirrus clouds. In the first part, we develop and present a fast infrared radiative transfer model...

  12. Hydrogen H$?$ line polarization in solar flares. Theoretical investigation of atomic polarization by proton beams considering self-consistent NLTE polarized radiative transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiri Stepan; Petr Heinzel; Sylvie Sahal-Brechot

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. We present a theoretical review of the effect of impact polarization of a hydrogen H$\\alpha$ line due to an expected proton beam bombardment in solar flares. Aims. Several observations indicate the presence of the linear polarization of the hydrogen H$\\alpha$ line observed near the solar limb above 5% and preferentially in the radial direction. We theoretically review the problem of deceleration of the beam originating in the coronal reconnection site due to its interaction with the chromospheric plasma, and describe the formalism of the density matrix used in our description of the atomic processes and the treatment of collisional rates. Methods. We solve the self-consistent NLTE radiation transfer problem for the particular semiempirical chromosphere models for both intensity and linear polarization components of the radiation field. Results. In contrast to recent calculations, our results show that the energy distribution of the proton beam at H$\\alpha$ formation levels and depolarizing collisions by background electrons and protons cause a significant reduction of the effect below 0.1%. The radiation transfer solution shows that tangential resonance-scattering polarization dominates over the impact polarization effect in all considered models. Conclusions. In the models studied, proton beams are unlikely to be a satisfying explanation for the observed linear polarization of the H$\\alpha$ line.

  13. Phase retrieval using radiation and matter-wave fields: Validity of Teague's method for solution of the transport-of-intensity equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmalz, Jelena A. [School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Gureyev, Timur E. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PB 33, Clayton South MDC, VIC 3169 (Australia); School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Paganin, David M. [School of Physics, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Pavlov, Konstantin M. [School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); School of Physics, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although originally developed for coherent paraxial scalar electromagnetic radiation in the visible-light regime, phase retrieval using the transport-of-intensity equation has been successfully applied to a range of paraxial radiation and matter-wave fields. Such applications include using electron wave fields to quantitatively image magnetic skyrmions and spin ices, propagation-based phase-contrast imaging using cold neutrons and hard x-rays, and visible-light refractive imaging of the projected column density of cold-atom clouds. Teague's method for phase retrieval using the transport-of-intensity equation, which renders the phase of a paraxial complex wave indirectly measurable via the existence of a conserved current, has been applied to a broad variety of situations which include all of the experiments described above. However, these applications have been undertaken without a thorough analysis of the underlying validity of the method. Here we derive sufficient conditions for the phase-retrieval solution provided by Teague's method to coincide with the true phase of the paraxial radiation or matter-wave field. We also present a sufficient condition guaranteeing that the discrepancy between the true phase function and that reconstructed using Teague's solution is small. These conditions demonstrate that, in most practical cases, for phase-amplitude retrieval using the transport-of-intensity equation, the Teague solution is very close to the exact solution. However, we also describe a counter example in the context of phase-amplitude retrieval using hard x-rays, in which the relative root-mean-square difference between the exact solution and that obtained using Teague's method is 9%. These findings clarify the foundations of one of the most widely applied methods for propagation-based phase retrieval of both paraxial matter and radiation wave fields and define a region for its applicability.

  14. Effects of thermal radiation heat transfer on flame acceleration and transition to detonation in dust cloud flames: Origins of dust explosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Michael A Liberman M F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examines regimes of the hydrogen flames propagation and ignition of mixtures heated by the radiation emitted from the flame. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for radiation, while the suspended particles of the dust cloud ahead of the flame absorb and reemit the radiation. The radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding unreacted gaseous phase so that the gas phase temperature lags that of the particles. The direct numerical simulations solve the full system of two phase gas dynamic time-dependent equations with a detailed chemical kinetics for a plane flames propagating through a dust cloud. Depending on the spatial distribution of the dispersed particles and on the value of radiation absorption length the consequence of the radiative preheating of the unreacted mixture can be either the increase of the flame velocity for uniformly dispersed particles or ignition deflagration or detonation ahead of the flame via the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism in the...

  15. HYDRODYNAMIC AND RADIATIVE MODELING OF TEMPORAL H{alpha} EMISSION V/R VARIATIONS CAUSED BY DISCONTINUOUS MASS TRANSFER IN BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadima, Pavel; Harmanec, Petr; Wolf, Marek [Astronomical Institute of the Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Firt, Roman [Mathematical Institute, University of Bayreuth, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Ruzdjak, Domagoj; Bozic, Hrvoje [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Koubsky, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.chadima@gmail.com [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    H{alpha} emission V/R variations caused by discontinuous mass transfer in interacting binaries with a rapidly rotating accreting star are modeled qualitatively for the first time. The program ZEUS-MP was used to create a non-linear three-dimensional hydrodynamical model of a development of a blob of gaseous material injected into an orbit around a star. It resulted in the formation of an elongated disk with a slow prograde revolution. The LTE radiative transfer program SHELLSPEC was used to calculate the H{alpha} profiles originating in the disk for several phases of its revolution. The profiles have the form of a double emission and exhibit V/R and radial velocity variations. However, these variations should be a temporal phenomenon since imposing a viscosity in the given model would lead to a circularization of the disk and fading-out of the given variations.

  16. A WRF Simulation of the Impact of 3-D Radiative Transfer on Surface Hydrology over the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, K. N.; Gu, Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lee, W- L.; Fovell, R. G.

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, applied at a 30 km grid resolution, is used in conjunction with a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008, during which abundant snowfall occurred. A comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes, and on the consequent elevation dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-DPP, in which PP denotes the plane-parallel approach) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to the earlier morning. Over mountaintops higher than 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40-60Wm?2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, which leads to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, positive SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Overall, this study shows that deviations of SWE due to 3-D radiation effects range from an increase of 18%at the lowest elevation range (1.5-2 km) to a decrease of 8% at the highest elevation range (above 3 km). Since lower elevation areas occupy larger fractions of the land surface, the net effect of 3-D radiative transfer is to extend snowmelt and snowmelt-driven runoff into the warm season. Because 60-90% of water resources originate from mountains worldwide, the aforementioned differences in simulated hydrology due solely to 3-D interactions between solar radiation and mountains/snow merit further investigation in order to understand the implications of modeling mountain water resources, and these resources’ vulnerability to climate change and air pollution.

  17. Electron-Transfer from H-2 and Ar to Stored Multiply Charged Argon Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravis, S. D.; Church, David A.; Johnson, B. M.; Meron, M.; Jones, K. W.; Levin, J. C.; Sellin, I. A.; Azuma, Y.; Berrahmansour, N.; Berry, H. G.; Druetta, M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -shell photoionization of Ar atoms, using broadband synchrotron x-ray radiation. K-electron removal resulted in vacancy cascading, yielding a distribution of argon-ion charge states peaked near Ar4+. The stored ion gas had an initial temperature near 480 K. The basic...

  18. Electron-Transfer from H-2 and Ar to Stored Multiply Charged Argon Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravis, S. D.; Church, David A.; Johnson, B. M.; Meron, M.; Jones, K. W.; Levin, J. C.; Sellin, I. A.; Azuma, Y.; Berrahmansour, N.; Berry, H. G.; Druetta, M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -shell photoionization of Ar atoms, using broadband synchrotron x-ray radiation. K-electron removal resulted in vacancy cascading, yielding a distribution of argon-ion charge states peaked near Ar4+. The stored ion gas had an initial temperature near 480 K. The basic...

  19. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V., E-mail: bair@berkeley.edu; Bogy, David B., E-mail: dbogy@berkeley.edu [University of California, Etcheverry Hall, MC 1740, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  20. Homogenization of a spectral equation with drift in linear Guillaume Bal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    theory posed in a periodic heterogeneous domain. This equation models the stability of nuclear reactor Introduction The power distribution in a nuclear reactor is determined by solving a linear transport spectral in radiative transfer theory, which models the propagation of acoustic, electromagnetic, or elastic waves

  1. Temperature dependence of non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid structures of InGaN/GaN nanorods and F8BT films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Liu, B.; Bai, J.; Wang, T., E-mail: t.wang@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid organic/inorganic white light emitting structures have been fabricated based on a combination of high efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod arrays and a yellow emitting co-polymer F8BT, leading to a minimised separation between them in order to achieve high efficiency non-radiative energy transfer (NRET). The NRET efficiency has been found 6.7 times higher at room temperature than at 7?K. This is attributed to the existence of strong exciton localization the InGaN MQWs, which can undergo thermally activated delocalization at high temperatures. The enhanced NRET efficiency is not only due to the delocalized MQW excitons, but also enhanced by the increased exciton diffusion at higher temperatures. This behaviour highlights the potential for high efficiency NRET in down-conversion hybrid white light emitting diodes operating at room temperature.

  2. A Green's function formalism of energy and momentum transfer in fluctuational electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arvind Narayanaswamy; Yi Zheng

    2013-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative energy and momentum transfer due to fluctuations of electromagnetic fields arising due to temperature difference between objects is described in terms of the cross-spectral densities of the electromagnetic fields. We derive relations between thermal non-equilibrium contributions to energy and momentum transfer and surface integrals of tangential components of the dyadic Green's functions of the vector Helmholtz equation. The expressions derived here are applicable to objects of arbitrary shapes, dielectric functions, as well as magnetic permeabilities. For the case of radiative transfer, we derive expressions for the generalized transmissivity and generalized conductance that are shown to obey reciprocity and agree with theory of black body radiative transfer in the appropriate limit.

  3. The convergence of an explicit finite difference solution for transient heat transfer in solids with radiation at one boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Bhagubhai Desaibhai

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? FOR RADIATION NUMBER N + o 5 o MODULUS M = 4? USUAL PROCEDURE ~ S I NK' NTHI TA NODE I NO DE 2 NODE3 NODE4 NODE5 NODE6 0 ' oo0o n, 0100 0 ' 0200 n ~ c'300 0 ' 0400 0 ~ 0500 O, oeoo 0 ' 0700 Oe0800 0 ' 0900 Oe1000 n ~ 1100 Oe1200 Oo1300 0... of this method can be I'ound in the graphical method commonly known as the Schmidt method, but, Binder first developed it independently. During the peri, od in which these meth+de were developed the temperatures normally worked with were 'relatively lower...

  4. Signatures of Radiation Reaction in Ultra-Intense Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Harvey; T. Heinzl; M. Marklund

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss radiation reaction effects on charges propagating in ultra-intense laser fields. Our analysis is based on an analytic solution of the Landau-Lifshitz equation. We suggest to measure radiation reaction in terms of a symmetry breaking parameter associated with the violation of null translation invariance in the direction opposite to the laser beam. As the Landau-Lifshitz equation is nonlinear the energy transfer within the pulse is rather sensitive to initial conditions. This is elucidated by comparing colliding and fixed target modes in electron laser collisions.

  5. A Module for Radiation Hydrodynamic Calculations With ZEUS-2D Using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Turner; J. M. Stone

    2001-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A module for the ZEUS-2D code is described which may be used to solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics to order unity in v/c, in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. In this approximation, the tensor Eddington factor f which closes the radiation moment equations is chosen to be an empirical function of radiation energy density. This is easier to implement and faster than full-transport techniques, in which f is computed by solving the transfer equation. However, FLD is less accurate when the flux has a component perpendicular to the gradient in radiation energy density, and in optically thin regions when the radiation field depends strongly on angle. The material component of the fluid is here assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy equations are operator-split, with transport terms, radiation diffusion term, and other source terms evolved separately. Transport terms are applied using the same consistent transport algorithm as in ZEUS-2D. The radiation diffusion term is updated using an alternating-direction implicit method with convergence checking. Remaining source terms are advanced together implicitly using numerical root-finding. However when absorption opacity is zero, accuracy is improved by treating compression and expansion source terms using time-centered differencing. Results are discussed for test problems including radiation-damped linear waves, radiation fronts propagating in optically-thin media, subcritical and supercritical radiating shocks, and an optically-thick shock in which radiation dominates downstream pressure.

  6. Dose-dependent misrejoining of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human fibroblasts: Experimental and theoretical study for high and low LET radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rydberg, Bjorn; Cooper, Brian; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Holley, William; Chatterjee, Aloke

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. Kim, and R. M. Myers. Radiation hybrid mapping: a somaticformulation of dual radiation action. Radiat. Res. 75: 471-High-Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in Human Fibroblasts.

  7. The Extreme Gamma-Ray Blazar S5 0716+714: Jet Conditions from Radio-Band Variability and Radiative Transfer Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Jorstad, S G; Marscher, A P; Bala, V; Hovatta, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a program to identify the physical conditions in the jets of gamma-ray-flaring blazars detected by Fermi, including the role of shocks in the production of high-energy flaring, we obtained 4 years of 3-frequency, centimeter-band total flux density and linear polarization monitoring observations of the radio-bright blazar S5 0716+714 with the University of Michigan 26-m paraboloid. Light curves constructed from these data exhibit a series of rapid, high-amplitude, centimeter-band total flux density outbursts, and changes in the linear polarization consistent with the passage of shocks during the gamma-ray flaring. The observed spectral evolution of the radio-band flares, in combination with radiative transfer simulations incorporating propagating shocks, was used to constrain the shock and jet flow conditions in the parsec-scale regions of the jet. Eight forward-moving, transverse shocks with unusually-strong shock compression factors, a very fast Lorentz factor of the shocks of 77, a bulk Lorentz f...

  8. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    free convection. In: Heat Transfer and Turbulent Buoyantof convection heat transfer and develop correlations.and radiation heat transfer and develop correlations for

  9. Power transfer through strongly coupled resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurs, André

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using self-resonant coils in a strongly coupled regime, we experimentally demonstrate efficient non-radiative power transfer over distances of up to eight times the radius of the coils. We use this system to transfer 60W ...

  10. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is little radiative heat transfer and little impact on thereturn air extrac- tion and heat transfer to the plenum. ItUFAD is often used and heat transfer out of the room through

  11. Proceedings of HT2009 2009 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    -dependent radiation and conduction bio-heat transfer model. Ultrashort pulsed radiation transport in the cylindrical a combined transient heat transfer and Pennes bio-heat transfer model is developed to simulate the heat transfer models; and concluded that the Pennes model is still the most practical for fast prediction

  12. Generalized linear Boltzmann equations for particle transport in polycrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Marklof; Andreas Strömbergsson

    2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear Boltzmann equation describes the macroscopic transport of a gas of non-interacting point particles in low-density matter. It has wide-ranging applications, including neutron transport, radiative transfer, semiconductors and ocean wave scattering. Recent research shows that the equation fails in highly-correlated media, where the distribution of free path lengths is non-exponential. We investigate this phenomenon in the case of polycrystals whose typical grain size is comparable to the mean free path length. Our principal result is a new generalized linear Boltzmann equation that captures the long-range memory effects in this setting. A key feature is that the distribution of free path lengths has an exponential decay rate, as opposed to a power-law distribution observed in a single crystal.

  13. A fourth-order symplectic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for light scattering and a 3D Monte Carlo code for radiative transfer in scattering systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, Pengwang

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    meter. 60 20 Geometry of a scattering event. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 21 An example of the atmosphere model used in the 3D Monte Carlo code for the vector radiative transfer systems. Inhomogeneous layers are divided into voxels... cases can be solved analytically. Several popular numerical methods include the T-matrix method [15, 16, 17, 18, 19], finite-element method [20, 21], finite-difference time-domain(FDTD)method[22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32], point-matching method [33...

  14. Modeling Granular Materials as Compressible Non-Linear Fluids: Heat Transfer Boundary Value Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss three boundary value problems in the flow and heat transfer analysis in flowing granular materials: (i) the flow down an inclined plane with radiation effects at the free surface; (ii) the natural convection flow between two heated vertical walls; (iii) the shearing motion between two horizontal flat plates with heat conduction. It is assumed that the material behaves like a continuum, similar to a compressible nonlinear fluid where the effects of density gradients are incorporated in the stress tensor. For a fully developed flow the equations are simplified to a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed where the effects of various dimensionless numbers representing the effects of heat conduction, viscous dissipation, radiation, and so forth are presented.

  15. Calibrating cosmological radiative transfer simulations with Lyman alpha forest data: Evidence for large spatial UV background fluctuations at z ~ 5.6 - 5.8 due to rare bright sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chardin, Jonathan; Aubert, Dominique; Puchwein, Ewald

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calibrate here cosmological radiative transfer simulation with ATON/RAMSES with a range of measurements of the Lyman alpha opacity from QSO absorption spectra. We find the Lyman alpha opacity to be very sensitive to the exact timing of hydrogen reionisation. Models reproducing the measured evolution of the mean photoionisation rate and average mean free path reach overlap at z ~ 7 and predict an accelerated evolution of the Lyman alpha opacity at z > 6 consistent with the rapidly evolving luminosity function of Lyman alpha emitters in this redshift range. Similar to "optically thin" simulations our full radiative transfer simulations fail, however, to reproduce the high-opacity tail of the Lyman alpha opacity PDF at z > 5. We argue that this is due to spatial UV fluctuations in the post-overlap phase of reionisation on substantially larger scales than predicted by our source model, where the ionising emissivity is dominated by large numbers of sub-L* galaxies. We further argue that this suggests a signific...

  16. Efficient natural defense mechanisms against Listeria monocytogenes in T and B cell-deficient allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras. Preactivated macrophages are the main effector cells in an early phase after bone marrow transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roesler, J.; Groettrup, E.B.; Baccarini, M.; Lohmann-Mattes, M.L. (Fraunhofer-Institut ITA, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation chimeras in the early phase after bone marrow transplantation are a good model to study the efficiency of the body's nonspecific defense system represented by macrophages (M phi), polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and NK cells. These cell types are present in large numbers in spleen and liver at that time, whereas the specific immune system represented by T and B cells is functionally deficient. We previously reported enhanced activities in vitro of M phi (and PMN) from recipient animals in an early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer. We here demonstrate that these activities result in enhanced spontaneous resistance against Listeria monocytogenes in vivo: CFU of L. monocytogenes in spleen and liver 48 h after infection were about 1 or 2 to 4 log steps less than in untreated control mice of donor or host haplotype. This enhanced resistance decreased over the 4-mo period after marrow transfer. Preactivated M phi were identified as the most important effector cells. Isolated from spleen and peritoneal cavity, they performed enhanced killing of phagocytosed Listeria. Such preactivated M phi occurred in recipient animals after transfer of allogeneic but not of syngeneic bone marrow. The precise mechanism of M phi activation in the allogeneic radiation chimera in the complete absence of any detectable T cell function is not clear at present. However, these preactivated M phi display an important protective effect against L. monocytogenes: chimeras could eliminate Listeria without acquisition of positive delayed-type sensitivity when infected with 10(3) bacteria. An inoculum of 5 . 10(3) L. monocytogenes resulted either in prolonged survival compared with normal mice of the recipient haplotype or in definitive survival accompanied by a positive delayed-type sensitivity.

  17. Radiation transport modeling using extended quadrature method of moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vikas, V., E-mail: vvikas@iastate.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2271 Howe Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hauck, C.D., E-mail: hauckc@ornl.gov [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, Z.J., E-mail: zjw@ku.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2120 Learned Hall, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Fox, R.O., E-mail: rofox@iastate.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 2114 Sweeney Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiative transfer equation describes the propagation of radiation through a material medium. While it provides a highly accurate description of the radiation field, the large phase space on which the equation is defined makes it numerically challenging. As a consequence, significant effort has gone into the development of accurate approximation methods. Recently, an extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) has been developed to solve univariate population balance equations, which also have a large phase space and thus face similar computational challenges. The distinct advantage of the EQMOM approach over other moment methods is that it generates moment equations that are consistent with a positive phase space density and has a moment inversion algorithm that is fast and efficient. The goal of the current paper is to present the EQMOM method in the context of radiation transport, to discuss advantages and disadvantages, and to demonstrate its performance on a set of standard one-dimensional benchmark problems that encompass optically thin, thick, and transition regimes. Special attention is given in the implementation to the issue of realizability—that is, consistency with a positive phase space density. Numerical results in one dimension are promising and lay the foundation for extending the same framework to multiple dimensions.

  18. AOI 1— COMPUTATIONAL ENERGY SCIENCES:MULTIPHASE FLOW RESEARCH High-fidelity multi-phase radiation module for modern coal combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modest, Michael

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of radiation in particle-laden flows were the object of the present research. The presence of particles increases optical thickness substantially, making the use of the “optically thin” approximation in most cases a very poor assumption. However, since radiation fluxes peak at intermediate optical thicknesses, overall radiative effects may not necessarily be stronger than in gas combustion. Also, the spectral behavior of particle radiation properties is much more benign, making spectral models simpler (and making the assumption of a gray radiator halfway acceptable, at least for fluidized beds when gas radiation is not large). On the other hand, particles scatter radiation, making the radiative transfer equation (RTE) much more di#14;fficult to solve. The research carried out in this project encompassed three general areas: (i) assessment of relevant radiation properties of particle clouds encountered in fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustors, (ii) development of proper spectral models for gas–particulate mixtures for various types of two-phase combustion flows, and (iii) development of a Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) solution module for such applications. The resulting models were validated against artificial cases since open literature experimental data were not available. The final models are in modular form tailored toward maximum portability, and were incorporated into two research codes: (i) the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM, which we have extensively used in our previous work, and (ii) the open-source multi-phase flow code MFIX, which is maintained by NETL.

  19. Heat Transfer Derivation of differential equations for heat transfer conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veress, Alexander

    ) or kW *h or Btu. U is the change in stored energy, in units of kW *h (kWh) or Btu. qx is the heat conducted (heat flux) into the control volume at surface edge x, in units of kW/m2 or Btu/(h-ft2). qx volume is positive), in kW/m3 or Btu/(h-ft3) (a heat sink, heat drawn out of the volume, is negative

  20. Enhanced heat transfer for thermionic power modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.C.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermionic power module is capable of operating at very high heat fluxes, which in turn serve to reduce capital costs. The most efficient operation also requires uniform heat fluxes. The development of enhanced heat transfer systems is required to meet the demand for high heat fluxes (>20 w/cm/sup 2/) at high temperatures (>1500K) which advanced thermionic power modules place upon combustion systems. Energy transfer from the hot combustion gases may take place by convection, radiation, or a combination of radiation and convection. Enhanced convective heat transfer with a jet impingement system has been demonstrated in a thermionic converter. The recently-developed cellular ceramic radiative heat transfer system has also been applied to a thermionic converter. By comparing the jet impingement and cellular ceramic radiative heat transfer systems, an appropriate system may be selected for utilization in advanced thermionic power modules. Results are reported.

  1. Measurements and modeling of soot formation and radiation in microgravity jet diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, J.C.; Tong, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Greenberg, P.S. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Microgravity Combustion Branch

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. On modeling, the authors have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed {beta}-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude-Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar flames and turbulent jet flames. Predicted soot volume fraction results also agree with the data for 1-g and 0-g laminar jet flames as well as 1-g turbulent jet flames.

  2. ME 339 Heat Transfer ABET EC2000 syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    ME 339­ Heat Transfer Page 1 ABET EC2000 syllabus ME 339 ­ Heat Transfer Spring 2010 Required convection; radiation; introduction to phase change heat transfer and to heat exchangers. Prerequisite(s): ME, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th ed., Wiley Other Required Material: NA Course Objectives

  3. Development of a Heat Transfer Model for the Integrated Facade Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Archer, D. H.; Claridge, D. E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the heat transfer process of facade heating (mullion radiators) in a pilot research project in Pittsburgh, PA. The heat transfer model for facade heating is developed and verified by measured data. The comparison shows that the heat transfer model predicts...

  4. Development of a Heat Transfer Model for the Integrated Facade Heating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Archer, D. H.; Claridge, D. E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the heat transfer process of facade heating (mullion radiators) in a pilot research project in Pittsburgh, PA. The heat transfer model for facade heating is developed and verified by measured data. The comparison shows that the heat transfer model predicts...

  5. Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

  6. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  7. asme heat transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fundamental laws of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) and give useful data specific to cryogenic conditions (thermal contact resistance, total emissivity of...

  8. Avalanche Photon Cooling by Induced Compton Scattering: Higher-Order Kompaneets Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Shuta J; Terasawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Induced Compton scattering (ICS) is an interaction between intense electro-magnetic radiations and plasmas, where ICS transfers the energy from photons to plasmas. Although ICS is important for laser plasma interactions in laboratory experiments and for radio emission from pulsars propagating in pulsar wind plasmas, the detail of photon cooling process has not been understood. The problem is that, when ICS dominates, evolution of photon spectra is described as a nonlinear convection equation, which makes photon spectra to be multi-valued. Here, we propose a new approach to treat evolution of photon spectra affected by ICS. Starting from the higher-order Kompaneets equation, we find a new equation that resolves the unphysical behavior of photon spectra. In addition, we find the steady-state analytic solution, which is linearly stable. We also successfully simulate the evolution of photon spectra without artificial viscosity. We find that photons rapidly lose their energy by ICS with continuously forming solita...

  9. Radiative Flow in a Luminous Disk II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Fukue

    2006-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiatively-driven transfer flow perpendicular to a luminous disk is examined in the subrelativistic regime of $(v/c)^1$, taking into account the gravity of the central object. The flow is assumed to be vertical, and the gas pressure is ignored, while internal heating is assumed to be proportional to the gas density. The basic equations were numerically solved as a function of the optical depth, and the flow velocity, the height, the radiative flux, and the radiation pressure were obtained for a given radius, an initial optical depth, and initial conditions at the flow base (disk ``inside''), whereas the mass-loss rate was determined as an eigenvalue of the boundary condition at the flow top (disk ``surface''). For sufficiently luminous cases, the flow resembles the case without gravity. For less-luminous cases, however, the flow velocity decreases, and the flow would be impossible due to the existence of gravity in the case that the radiative flux is sufficiently small. Application to a supercritical accretion disk with mass loss is briefly discussed.

  10. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  11. Constraining the Physical Conditions in the Jets of Gamma-Ray Flaring Blazars using Centimeter-Band Polarimetry and Radiative Transfer Simulations. I. Data and Models for 0420-014, OJ 287, and 1156+295

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Latimer, G E; Hovatta, T

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate parsec-scale jet flow conditions during GeV gamma-ray flares detected by the Fermi Large Angle Telescope, we obtained centimeter-band total flux density and linear polarization monitoring observations from 2009.5 through 2012.5 with the 26-meter Michigan radio telescope for a sample of core-dominated blazars. We use these data to constrain radiative transfer simulations incorporating propagating shocks oriented at an arbitrary angle to the flow direction in order to set limits on the jet flow and shock parameters during flares temporally associated with gamma-ray flares in 0420-014, OJ 287, and 1156+295; these AGN exhibited the expected signature of shocks in the linear polarization data. Both the number of shocks comprising an individual radio outburst (3-4) and the range of the compression ratios of the individual shocks (0.5-0.8) are similar in all three sources; the shocks are found to be forward-moving with respect to the flow. While simulations incorporating transverse shocks provide good...

  12. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a given temperature, an increase in {zeta} implies that the activation energy is smaller and thus, the reaction ra

  13. Relativistic Radiative Flow in a Luminous Disk II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Fukue; Chizuru Akizuki

    2007-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiatively-driven transfer flow perpendicular to a luminous disk is examined in the relativistic regime of $(v/c)^2$, taking into account the gravity of the central object. The flow is assumed to be vertical, and the gas pressure as well as the magnetic field are ignored. Using a velocity-dependent variable Eddington factor, we can solve the rigorous equations of the relativistic radiative flow accelerated up to the {\\it relativistic} speed. For sufficiently luminous cases, the flow resembles the case without gravity. For less-luminous or small initial radius cases, however, the flow velocity decreases due to gravity. Application to a supercritical accretion disk with mass loss is briefly discussed.

  14. Ghost Imaging with Blackbody Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangjian Cai; Shiyao Zhu

    2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical study of ghost imaging by using blackbody radiation source. A Gaussian thin lens equation for the ghost imaging, which depends on both paths, is derived. The dependences of the visibility and quality of the image on the transverse size and temperature of the blackbody are studied. The main differences between the ghost imaging by using the blackbody radiation and by using the entangled photon pairs are image-forming equation, and the visibility and quality of the image

  15. NNSA Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    installation at the Port of Yangshan was completed in November 2011. Over a three year transition period, SLD and GACC worked toward enhancing GACC's capabilities and expertise...

  16. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamache, Robert R.

    with the new set of molecular data is evaluated directly from vertical H2O concentration profiles. r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Diode laser; Near-infrared spectrometer; Ab initio and carbon dioxide in the lower stratosphere [1]. Both sensors have been involved in several European

  17. Posters Comparison of Stochastic Radiation Transfer Predictions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office PressPostdoctoraldecadal observations719 Posters

  18. Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office PressPostdoctoraldecadal observations7197117313

  19. The Intense Radiation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

  20. A unified radiative magnetohydrodynamics code for lightning-like discharge simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qiang, E-mail: cq0405@126.com; Chen, Bin, E-mail: emcchen@163.com; Xiong, Run; Cai, Zhaoyang [National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment and Electro-optical Engineering, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210007 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment and Electro-optical Engineering, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210007 (China); Chen, P. F., E-mail: chenpf@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code is developed for solving the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations including the effects of self-consistent magnetic field, thermal conduction, resistivity, gravity, and radiation transfer, which when combined with specified pulse current models and plasma equations of state, can be used as a unified lightning return stroke solver. The differential equations are written in the covariant form in the cylindrical geometry and kept in the conservative form which enables some high-accuracy shock capturing schemes to be equipped in the lightning channel configuration naturally. In this code, the 5-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme combined with Lax-Friedrichs flux splitting method is introduced for computing the convection terms of the MHD equations. The 3-order total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta integral operator is also equipped to keep the time-space accuracy of consistency. The numerical algorithms for non-ideal terms, e.g., artificial viscosity, resistivity, and thermal conduction, are introduced in the code via operator splitting method. This code assumes the radiation is in local thermodynamic equilibrium with plasma components and the flux limited diffusion algorithm with grey opacities is implemented for computing the radiation transfer. The transport coefficients and equation of state in this code are obtained from detailed particle population distribution calculation, which makes the numerical model is self-consistent. This code is systematically validated via the Sedov blast solutions and then used for lightning return stroke simulations with the peak current being 20?kA, 30?kA, and 40?kA, respectively. The results show that this numerical model consistent with observations and previous numerical results. The population distribution evolution and energy conservation problems are also discussed.

  1. Bridging conduction and radiation : investigating thermal transport in nanoscale gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiloyan, Vazrik

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near field radiation transfer between objects separated by small gaps is a widely studied field in heat transfer and has become more important than ever. Many technologies such as heat assisted magnetic recording, aerogels, ...

  2. Heat Transfer between Graphene and Amorphous SiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson; H. Ueba

    2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the heat transfer between graphene and amorphous SiO2. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and between the surfaces in the non-contact region. We consider the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies, and the heat transfer by the gas in the non-contact region. We find that the dominant contribution to the heat transfer result from the area of real contact, and the calculated value of the heat transfer coefficient is in good agreement with the value deduced from experimental data.

  3. Dynamics of heat transfer between nano systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs; Girish S. Agarwal

    2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a dynamical theory of heat transfer between two nano systems. In particular, we consider the resonant heat transfer between two nanoparticles due to the coupling of localized surface modes having a finite spectral width. We model the coupled nanosystem by two coupled quantum mechanical oscillators, each interacting with its own heat bath, and obtain a master equation for the dynamics of heat transfer. The damping rates in the master equation are related to the lifetimes of localized plasmons in the nanoparticles. We study the dynamics towards the steady state and establish connection with the standard theory of heat transfer in steady state. For strongly coupled nano particles we predict Rabi oscillations in the mean occupation number of surface plasmons in each nano particle.

  4. Electromagnetic radiation and motion of arbitrarily shaped particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2001-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Covariant form of equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped particle in the electromagnetic radiation field is presented. Equation of motion in the proper frame of the particle uses the radiation pressure cross section 3 $\\times$ 3 matrix. The obtained equation of motion is compared with known result.

  5. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  6. 4. Reaction equilibria 4.1 The Saha equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

    4. Reaction equilibria 4.1 The Saha equation If particles and radiation are in equilibrium volume with all electrons, and thus d3 x = n-1 e . Hence we finally derive the Saha equation that, using into Saha's equation then gives the ionization fraction = Ni+1 Ni + Ni+1 2 1 - 10-7 3 · 10-4 (4

  7. Wormholes supported by pure ghost radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward

    2002-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Traversible wormhole space-times are found as static, spherically symmetric solutions to the Einstein equations with ingoing and outgoing pure ghost radiation, i.e. pure radiation with negative energy density. Switching off the radiation causes the wormhole to collapse to a Schwarzschild black hole.

  8. About convective heat transfer in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashkevich, R.I. [Kamchatsky Complex Department of NIPIgeotherm Institute, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The interphase fluid-rock heat exchange in convective beat transfer in geothermal systems is investigated Nonlinear model of interphase heat exchange is suggested. Calculation for one dimension case and comparison with known Anzelius-Schumann solution is presented Generalized type block heat transfer model is formulated. The model is adequate for case of geothermal systems and reservoir when a rock block size is comparable with filtration path length. Criterion equations for nonstationary coefficients of interphase heat exchange we presented these equations were obtained in laboratory experiments with diorites.

  9. Radiation drag driven mass accretion in clumpy interstellar medium: implications for the supermassive black hole-to-bulge relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nozomu Kawakatu; Masayuki Umemura

    2001-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We quantitatively scrutinize the effects of the radiation drag arising from the radiation fields in a galactic bulge in order to examine the possibility that the radiation drag could be an effective mechanism to extract angular momentum in a spheroidal system like a bulge and allow plenty of gas to accrete onto the galactic center. For this purpose, we numerically solve the relativistic radiation hydrodynamical equation coupled with the accurate radiative transfer and quantitatively assess the radiation drag efficiency. As a result, we find that in an optically thick regime the radiation drag efficiency is sensitively dependent on the density distributions of interstellar medium (ISM). The efficiency drops according to $\\tau_{\\rm T}^{-2}$ in an optically thick {\\it uniform} ISM, where $\\tau_{\\rm T}$ is the total optical depth of the dusty ISM, whereas the efficiency remains almost constant at a high level if the ISM is {\\it clumpy}. Hence, if the bulge formation begins with a star formation event in a clumpy ISM, the radiation drag will effectively work to remove the angular momentum and the accreted gas may form a supermassive black hole. As a natural consequence, this mechanism reproduces a putative linear relation between the mass of a supermassive black hole and the mass of a galactic bulge, although further detailed modeling for stellar evolution is required for the more precise prediction.

  10. Radiation Reaction in Quantum Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keita Seto

    2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    From the development of the electron theory by H. A. Lorentz in 1906, many authors have tried to reformulate this model named "radiation reaction". P. A. M. Dirac derived the relativistic-classical electron model in 1938, which is now called the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. But this model has the big difficulty of the run-away solution. Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to stabilize this model of the radiation reaction for estimations. Via my recent research, I found a stabilized model of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum. This leads us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan's charge to mass ratio including radiation, de/dm, derived as the 4th order tensor measure. In this paper, I will discuss the latest update of the model and the ability of the equation of motion with radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings.

  11. Transferring Data at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transferring Data Advice and Overview NERSC provides many facilities for storing data and performing analysis. However, transfering data - whether over the wide area network...

  12. A Gentle Introduction to Precomputed Radiance Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Manuel M.

    in computer graphics, and many algorithms have been developed to try to reproduce the visual complexity with the support of modern graphics hardware. Precomputed Radiance Transfer (PRT) is a new graphics technique of the rendering equation to a subset of the light transport paths that handle only energy exchange among diffuse

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Really Shaped Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2001-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for real particle (neutral in charge) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Various formulations of the equation of motion in the proper frame of reference of the particle are used. Main attention is devoted to the reformulation of the equation of motion in the general frame of reference, e. g., in the frame of reference of the source of electromagnetic radiation. This is the crucial form of equation of motion in applying it to motion of particles (cosmic dust, asteroids, ...) in the Universe if electromagnetic radiation acts on the particles. General relativistic equation of motion is presented.

  14. Heat transfer in proteinwater interfaces Anders Lervik,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Heat transfer in protein­water interfaces Anders Lervik,ab Fernando Bresme,*ac Signe Kjelstrup of the heat diffusion equation we compute the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the proteins by about 4 nm.4 It is expected that the energy transfer between these sites may involve the concerted

  15. Ionizing Radiation in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Kessel-Deynet; A. Burkert

    2000-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for the inclusion of ionizing radiation from uniform radiation fields into 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPHI) simulations is presented. We calculate the optical depth for the Lyman continuum radiation from the source towards the SPHI particles by ray-tracing integration. The time-dependent ionization rate equation is then solved locally for the particles within the ionizing radiation field. Using test calculations, we explore the numerical behaviour of the code with respect to the implementation of the time-dependent ionization rate equation. We also test the coupling of the heating caused by the ionization to the hydrodynamical part of the SPHI code.

  16. Radiation in (2+1)-dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Cataldo; Alberto A. García

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the radiation equation of state $p=\\rho/2$ in (2+1)-dimensions. In (3+1)-dimensions the equation of state $p=\\rho/3$ may be used to describe either actual electromagnetic radiation (photons) as well as a gas of massless particles in a thermodynamic equilibrium (for example neutrinos). In this work it is shown that in the framework of (2+1)-dimensional Maxwell electrodynamics the radiation law $p=\\rho/2$ takes place only for plane waves, i.e. for $E = B$. Instead of the linear Maxwell electrodynamics, to derive the (2+1)-radiation law for more general cases with $E \

  17. RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Mineralogie et Cosmochimie de Museum (LMCM), CNRS and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7202, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr, E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick 'adiabatic' regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

  18. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Philip D. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  19. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  20. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  1. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD IN FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    completed this course should be able to perform quick analysis of small problems using the finite element of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer An Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Using "Galerkin Weak of Euler's Equation in Finite Element Analysis Generalized Form of Euler's Equation in Three Dimensional

  2. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2000-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  3. Simplex and Polygon Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristophanes Dimakis; Folkert Mueller-Hoissen

    2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that higher Bruhat orders admit a decomposition into a higher Tamari order, the corresponding dual Tamari order, and a "mixed order". We describe simplex equations (including the Yang-Baxter equation) as realizations of higher Bruhat orders. Correspondingly, a family of "polygon equations" realizes higher Tamari orders. They generalize the well-known pentagon equation. The structure of simplex and polygon equations is visualized in terms of deformations of maximal chains in posets forming 1-skeletons of polyhedra. The decomposition of higher Bruhat orders induces a reduction of the N-simplex equation to the (N+1)-gon equation, its dual, and a compatibility equation.

  4. JOURNAL OF THERMOPHYSICS AND HEAT TRANSFER Vol. 14, No. 4, OctoberDecember 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    JOURNAL OF THERMOPHYSICS AND HEAT TRANSFER Vol. 14, No. 4, October­December 2000 Multidimensional are optical tomographyof tissue, remote sensing of oceansand atmospheres, laser material processing radiative heat transfer in participat- ing media in recent years. However, the analysis of radiative heat

  5. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  6. Relativistic quaternionic wave equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Majorana representation of the Dirac equation, i ? ? ? ? ? = m ? , where all four of the gamma matrices

  7. Stability of curvature perturbation with new covariant form for energy-momentum transfer in dark sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng-Yi Sun; Yu Song; Rui-Hong Yue

    2011-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    It was found that the model with interaction between cold dark matter (CDM) and dark energy (DE) proportional to the energy density of CDM $\\rho_m$ and constant equation of state of DE $w_d$ suffered from instabilities of the density perturbations on the supper-Hubble scales. Here we suggest a new covariant model for the energy-momentum transfer between CDM and DE. Then using the covariant model, we analyze the evolution of density perturbations on the supper-Hubble scale. We find that the instabilities can be avoided in the model with constant $w_d$ and interaction proportional to $\\rho_m$. Furthermore, we analyze the dominant non-adiabatic mode in the radiation era and find that the mode grows regularly.

  8. Matter Wave Radiation Leading to Matter Teleportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong-Yi Huang

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of matter wave radiation is put forward, and its equation is established for the first time. The formalism solution shows that the probability density is a function of displacement and time. A free particle and a two-level system are reinvestigated considering the effect of matter wave radiation. Three feasible experimental designs, especially a modified Stern-Gerlach setup, are proposed to verify the existence of matter wave radiation. Matter wave radiation effect in relativity has been formulated in only a raw formulae, which offers another explanation of Lamb shift. A possible mechanics of matter teleportation is predicted due to the effect of matter wave radiation.

  9. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Real Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.

  10. Discussion on spin-flip synchrotron radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Bordovitsyn; V. S. Gushchina; A. N. Myagkii

    2001-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum spin-flip transitions are of great importance in the synchrotron radiation theory. For better understanding of the nature of this phenomenon, it is necessary to except the effects connected with the electric charge radiation from observation. This fact explains the suggested choice of the spin-flip radiation model in the form of radiation of the electric neutral Dirac-Pauli particle moving in the homogeneous magnetic field. It is known that in this case, the total radiation in the quantum theory is conditioned by spin-flip transitions. The idea is that spin-flip radiation is represented as a nonstationary process connected with spin precession. We shall shown how to construct a solution of the classical equation of the spin precession in the BMT theory having the exact solution of the Dirac-Pauli equation.Thus, one will find the connection of the quantum spin-flip transitions with classical spin precession.

  11. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  12. Evolution equations of the probabilistic generalization of the Voigt profile function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianni Pagnini; Francesco Mainardi

    2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectrum profile that emerges in molecular spectroscopy and atmospheric radiative transfer as the combined effect of Doppler and pressure broadenings is known as the Voigt profile function. Because of its convolution integral representation, the Voigt profile can be interpreted as the probability density function of the sum of two independent random variables with Gaussian density (due to the Doppler effect) and Lorentzian density (due to the pressure effect). Since these densities belong to the class of symmetric L\\'evy stable distributions, a probabilistic generalization is proposed as the convolution of two arbitrary symmetric L\\'evy densities. We study the case when the widths of the considered distributions depend on a scale-factor $\\tau$ that is representative of spatial inhomogeneity or temporal non-stationarity. The evolution equations for this probabilistic generalization of the Voigt function are here introduced and interpreted as generalized diffusion equations containing two Riesz space-fractional derivatives, thus classified as space-fractional diffusion equations of double order.

  13. Anisotropic radiation from accretion disc-coronae in active galactic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Ya-Di

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the unification scheme of active galactic nuclei (AGN), Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s are intrinsically same, but they are viewed at different angles. However, the Fe K\\alpha emission line luminosity of Seyfert 1s was found in average to be about twice of that of Seyfert 2s at given X-ray continuum luminosity in the previous work (Ricci et al. 2014). We construct an accretion disc-corona model, in which a fraction of energy dissipated in the disc is extracted to heat the corona above the disc. The radiation transfer equation containing Compton scattering processes is an integro-differential equation, which is solved numerically for the corona with a parallel plane geometry. We find that the specific intensity of X-ray radiation from the corona changes little with the viewing angle \\theta when \\theta is small (nearly face-on), and it is sensitive to \\theta if the viewing angle is large (\\theta> 40 degrees). The radiation from the cold disc, mostly in infrared/optical/UV bands, is almost proportional to cos\\thet...

  14. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  15. Radiation and Dynamics of Dust Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped dust particle (neutral in charge) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived -- emission, scattering and absorption of radiation is considered. The result is presented in the form of optical quantities used in optics of dust particles. The obtained equation of motion represents a generalization of the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) effect, which is standardly used in orbital evolution of dust particles in astrophysics. Simultaneous action of electromagnetic radiation and gravitational fields of the central body -- star -- on the motion of the particle is discussed.

  16. On an Improvement of the Planck radiation Energy Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego Saa

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The probability distribution function for thermodynamics and econophysics is obtained by solving an equilibrium equation. This approach is different from the common one of optimizing the entropy of the system or obtaining the state of maximum probability, which usually obtains as a result the Boltzmann distribution. The Gamma distribution is proposed as a better equation to describe the blackbody radiation in substitution of Planck's radiation equation. Also, a new form of entropy is proposed, that maintains the correct relation with the Clausius' formula.

  17. MULTI-POINT RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

  18. Equation for liquid density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

  19. Solar radiation intensity calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , radiation per unit area per unit time, on a flat-plate collector is given by: I = I cos B (2. 1a) where I is the solar constant. insolation received at one astro- nomical unit from the sun. Since clear sky conditions are assumed I o w i 1 1 b e a.... INSOLATION EQUATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page III. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX VITA 25 47 48 52 Vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. Optimal Inclination for Ap=O, No Checks for Ip &0 and a Time Independent Solar Constant. II. Optimal...

  20. Surface Power Radiative Cooling Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd [Environmental Effects Branch, EM50, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Terrestrial nuclear power plants typically maintain their temperature through convective cooling, such as water and forced air. However, the space environment is a vacuum environment, typically 10-8 Torr pressure, therefore in proposed missions to the lunar surface, power plants would have to rely on radiative cooling to remove waste heat. Also, the Martian surface has a very tenuous atmosphere (e.g. {approx}5 Torr CO2), therefore, the main heat transfer method on the Martian surface is also radiative. Because of the lack of atmosphere on the Moon and the tenuous atmosphere on Mars, surface power systems on both the Lunar and Martian surface must rely heavily on radiative heat transfer. Because of the large temperature swings on both the lunar and the Martian surfaces, trying to radiate heat is inefficient. In order to increase power system efficiency, an effort is underway to test various combinations of materials with high emissivities to demonstrate their ability to survive these degrading atmospheres to maintain a constant radiator temperature improving surface power plant efficiency. An important part of this effort is the development of a unique capability that would allow the determination of a materials emissivity at high temperatures. A description of the test capability as well as initial data is presented.

  1. Genomic instability and bystander effects induced by high-LET radiation Eric J Hall*,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the radiobiological effects of high- linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is essential for radiation protectionGenomic instability and bystander effects induced by high-LET radiation Eric J Hall*,1 and Tom K, it has always been accepted that the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, such as mutation

  2. ON THE SOLAR RADIATION BUDGET AND THE CLOUD ABSORPTION ANOMALY DEBATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    ON THE SOLAR RADIATION BUDGET AND THE CLOUD ABSORPTION ANOMALY DEBATE ZHANQING LI Department-of-the-art radiative transfer models. 1. Introduction Solar radiation is the ultimate source of energy for the planet of solar radiation, which is unfortunately still fraught with large uncertainties (Wild et al. 1995; Li et

  3. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  4. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  5. Radiation back reaction on moving branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian G. Moss; James P Norman

    2004-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the radiation back reaction problem for cosmological branes. A general framework is provided in which results are given for the radiation reaction with massles and massive scalar fields with flat extra dimensions and massless conformal fields in anti-de Sitter extra dimensions. For massless scalar field radiation the back reaction terms in the equation of motion are non-analytic. The interpretation of the radiation reaction terms is discussed and the equations of motion solved in simple cases. Nucleosynthesis bounds on dark radiation give a lower bound on the string vacuum energy scale of $\\sqrt{A_T} m_p$, where $A_T$ is the tensor perturbation amplitude in the cosmic microwave background.

  6. Fuel transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  7. MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS – A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

    2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not accurately capture the flow field and heat transfer distribution in this application. Mesh resolution, turbulence modeling, and the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Because of the critical nature of this application, the need for new experiments at representative scales is clearly demonstrated.

  8. HIGEE Mass Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, R. J.; Fowler, R.

    HIGEE MASS TRANSFER R.J. Mohr and R. Fowler GLITSCH, INC. Dallas, Texas ABSTRACT Distillation, absorption, and gas stripping have traditionally been performed in tall columns utilizing trays or packing. Columns perform satisfactorily... transfer system which utilizes a rotating bed of packing to achieve high efficiency separations, and consequent reduction in size and weight. INTRODUCTION HIGEE is probably one of the most interesting developments in mass transfer equipment made...

  9. MATERIALS TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTAXX-XXX 1 MATERIAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT for Manufacturing Demonstration Facility and Carbon Fiber Technology Facility In order for the RECIPIENT to obtain materials, the RECIPIENT...

  10. Tunable transfer | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 29, 2013 Scientists gain first quantitative insights into electron transfer from minerals to microbes Scientists have gained the first quantitative insights into electron...

  11. Technology Transfer Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) Oil & Gas Technology Transfer Initiatives USEFUL LINKS Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) Federal Laboratory...

  12. Bus transfer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weronick, R.; Hassan, I.D. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Lyndhurst, NJ (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses bus transfer schemes and the methodology used in modeling and analysis. Due to the unavailability of generic acceptance criteria, simulations were performed to analyze the actual fast bus transfer operations at four operating nuclear power generating stations. Sample simulation results illustrating the transient variations in motors currents and torques are included. The analyses were performed to ensure that motors and other rotating parts are not subjected to excessive or accumulated stresses caused by bus transfer operations. A summary of the experience gained in the process of performing this work and suggested bus transfer acceptance criteria are also presented.

  13. Facility Survey & Transfer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As DOE facilities become excess, many that are radioactively and/or chemically contaminated will become candidate for transfer to DOE-EM for deactivation and decommissioning.

  14. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of an accretion flow with radiative cooling in a close binary system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun'ichi Sato; Keisuke Sawada; Naofumi Ohnishi

    2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of an accretion flow in a close binary system are performed by solving the Euler equations with radiative transfer. In the present study, the specific heat ratio is assumed to be constant while radiative cooling effect is included as a non-adiabatic process. The cooling effect of the disc is considered by discharging energy in the vertical directions from the top and bottom surfaces of the disc. We use the flux-limited diffusion approximation to calculate the radiative heat flux values. Our calculations show that a disc structure appears and the spiral shocks are formed on the disc. These features are similar to that observed in the case of an adiabatic gas with a lower specific heat ratio, $\\gamma=1.01$. It is found that when radiative cooling effect is accounted for, the mass of the disc becomes larger than that assuming $\\gamma=5/3$, and smaller than that assuming $\\gamma=1.01$. It is concluded that employing an adiabatic gas with a lower specific heat ratio is almost a valid assumption for simulating accretion disc with radiative cooling effect.

  15. Comments on initial conditions for the Abraham-Lorentz(-Dirac) equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofek Birnholtz

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An accelerating electric charge coupled to its own electromagnetic (EM) field both emits radiation and experiences the radiation's reaction as a (self-)force. Considering the system from an Effective Field Theory perspective, and using the physical initial conditions of no incoming radiation can help resolve many of the problems associated with the often considered "notorious" Abraham-Lorentz / Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equations.

  16. RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. OVERVIEW OF REGULATIONS, PROTECTION STANDARDS, AND RADIATION SAFETY ORGANIZATION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 V. BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION PRINCIPLES

  17. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSON RL

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel.

  18. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  19. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation

  20. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  1. Heat transfer enhancement in a channel with porous baffles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Kang-Hoon

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    with staggered positioned porous baffles. A numerical procedure was implemented, in conjunction with a commercially available Navier-Stokes solver, to model the turbulent flow in porous media. The Brinkman-Forchheimer-Extended Darcy model was used for modeling... fluid flow through the porous baffles. Conventional, one- equation, and two-equation models were used for heat transfer modeling. The accuracy and characteristics of each model were investigated and discussed. The results were compared...

  2. A phase-field method for 3D simulation of two-phase heat transfer , H. Babaee a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Suchuan "Steven"

    A phase-field method for 3D simulation of two-phase heat transfer X. Zheng a , H. Babaee a , S s t r a c t We formulate new multi-phase convective heat transfer equations by combining the three for convergence in time/space including a conjugate heat transfer problem and also for a realistic tran- sient

  3. An enriched finite element model with q-refinement for radiative boundary layers in glass cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, M. Shadi [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative cooling in glass manufacturing is simulated using the partition of unity finite element method. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary simplified P{sub 1} approximation for the radiation in non-grey semitransparent media. To integrate the coupled equations in time we consider a linearly implicit scheme in the finite element framework. A class of hyperbolic enrichment functions is proposed to resolve boundary layers near the enclosure walls. Using an industrial electromagnetic spectrum, the proposed method shows an immense reduction in the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a certain accuracy compared to the conventional h-version finite element method. Furthermore the method shows a stable behaviour in treating the boundary layers which is shown by studying the solution close to the domain boundaries. The time integration choice is essential to implement a q-refinement procedure introduced in the current study. The enrichment is refined with respect to the steepness of the solution gradient near the domain boundary in the first few time steps and is shown to lead to a further significant reduction on top of what is already achieved with the enrichment. The performance of the proposed method is analysed for glass annealing in two enclosures where the simplified P{sub 1} approximation solution with the partition of unity method, the conventional finite element method and the finite difference method are compared to each other and to the full radiative heat transfer as well as the canonical Rosseland model.

  4. Solutions of Penrose's Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. N. Glass; Jonathan Kress

    1998-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The computational use of Killing potentials which satisfy Penrose's equation is discussed. Penrose's equation is presented as a conformal Killing-Yano equation and the class of possible solutions is analyzed. It is shown that solutions exist in spacetimes of Petrov type O, D or N. In the particular case of the Kerr background, it is shown that there can be no Killing potential for the axial Killing vector.

  5. On Majorana's equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loinger, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical results of quantum field theory are independent of the various specializations of Dirac's gamma-matrices, that are employed in given problems. Accordingly, the physical meaning of Majorana's equation is very dubious,considering that it is a consequence of ad hoc matrix representations of the gamma-operators. Therefore, it seems to us that this equation cannot give the equation of motion of the neutral WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles), the hypothesized constitutive elements of the Dark Matter.

  6. Expanding, axisymmetric pure-radiation gravitational fields with a simple twist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    New expanding, axisymmetric pure-radiation solutions are found, exploiting the analogy with the Euler-Darboux equation for aligned colliding plane waves.

  7. Approved Module Information for CE2004, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Transfer Processes Module Code: CE2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    * Fundamental processes of mass transfer * Design principles of heat exchangers * Fundamentals of radiant heat * a knowledge of the fundamentals and practical applications of radiative heat transfer * a knowledge of pipe solving * Study skills * Time management Indicative Module Content: Heat Transfer (Dr. John Brammer) Heat

  8. POSITION DESCRIPTION 2012 TRANSFER MENTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POSITION DESCRIPTION 2012 TRANSFER MENTOR TRANSFER MENTOR AS A STAFF MEMBER Thank you for your interest in the Transfer Mentor position with Orientation and Transition Programs' (OTP) Transfer Mentoring Program. The Transfer Mentor (TM) is a member of the Orientation and Transition Programs' staff

  9. Numerical study on transient heat transfer under soil with plastic mulch in agriculture applications using a nonlinear finite element model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Castro, Carlos Armando

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper is developed a simple mathematical model of transient heat transfer under soil with plastic mulch in order to determine with numerical studies the influence of different plastic mulches on the soil temperature and the evolutions of temperatures at different depths with time. The governing differential equations are solved by a Galerkin Finite Element Model, taking into account the nonlinearities due to radiative heat exchange between the soil surface, the plastic mulch and the atmosphere. The model was validated experimentally giving good approximation of the model to the measured data. Simulations were run with the validated model in order to determine the optimal combination of mulch optical properties to maximize the soil temperature with a Taguchi's analysis, proving that the material most used nowadays in Colombia is not the optimal and giving quantitative results of the properties the optimal mulch must possess.

  10. SWAMI II technology transfer plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, C.R.; Peterson, K.D.; Harpring, L.J.; Immel, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thousands of drums of radioactive/hazardous/mixed waste are currently stored at DOE sites throughout US; they are stored in warehouse facilities on an interim basis, pending final disposition. Recent emphasis on anticipated decommissioning of facilities indicates that many more drums of waste will be generated, requiring additional storage. Federal and state regulations dictate that hazardous waste covered by RCRA be inspected periodically for container degradation and to verify inventories. All known DOE waste storage facilities are currently inspected manually. A system to perform robotic inspection of waste drums is under development by the SRTC Robotics Group of WSRC; it is called the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI). The first version, SWAMI I, was developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as a proof of principle system for autonomous inspection of drums in a warehouse. SWAMI I was based on the Transitions Research Corporation (TRC) HelpMate mobile robot. TRC modified the Helpmate to navigate in aisles of drums. SRTC added subsystems to SWAMI I to determine its position in open areas, read bar code labels on the drums up to three levels high, capture images of the drums and perform a radiation survey of the floor in the aisles. The radiation survey was based on SRTC patented technology first implemented on the Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON). The radiation survey is not essential for the inspection of drums, but is an option that can increase the utility and effectiveness of SWAMI in warehouses with radioactive and/or mixed waste. All the sensors on SWAMI I were fixed on the vehicle. From the success of SWAMI I, a second version, SWAMI II, was developed; it will be evaluated at Fernald and tested with two other mobile robots. Intent is to transfer the technology developed for SWAMI I and II to industry so that it can supply additional units for purchase for drum inspection.

  11. Heat Transfer and Cooling Techniques at Low Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudouy, B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first part of this chapter gives an introduction to heat transfer and cooling techniques at low temperature. We review the fundamental laws of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) and give useful data specific to cryogenic conditions (thermal contact resistance, total emissivity of materials and heat transfer correlation in forced or boiling flow for example) used in the design of cooling systems. In the second part, we review the main cooling techniques at low temperature, with or without cryogen, from the simplest ones (bath cooling) to the ones involving the use of cryocoolers without forgetting the cooling flow techniques.

  12. Efficient Conservative Numerical Schemes for 1D Nonlinear Spherical Diffusion Equations with Applications in Battery Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Yi

    Mathematical models of batteries which make use of the intercalation of a species into a solid phase need to solve the corresponding mass transfer problem. Because solving this equation can significantly add to the ...

  13. Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson; B. Lorenz; A. I. Volokitin

    2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the noncontact regions. We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

  14. Technology transfer 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  15. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  16. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  17. Source storage and transfer cask: Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Speir, L.G.; Garcia, D.C.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The storage and shield cask for the dual californium source is designed to shield and transport up to 3.7 mg (2 Ci) of /sup 252/Cf. the cask meets Department of Transportation (DOT) license requirements for Type A materials (DOT-7A). The cask is designed to transfer sources to and from the Flourinel and Fuel Storage (FAST) facility delayed-neutron interrogator. Californium sources placed in the cask must be encapsulated in the SR-CF-100 package and attached to Teleflex cables. The cask contains two source locations. Each location contains a gear box that allows a Teleflex cable to be remotely moved by a hand crank into and out of the cask. This transfer procedure permits sources to be easily removed and inserted into the delayed-neutron interrogator and reduces personnel radiation exposure during transfer. The radiation dose rate with the maximum allowable quantity of californium (3.7 mg) in the cask is 30 mR/h at the surface and less than 2 mR/h 1 m from the cask surface. This manual contains information about the cask, californium sources, describes the method to ship the cask, and how to insert and remove sources from the cask. 28 figs.

  18. Gravitational Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard F Schutz

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and it is the dominant force in most astronomical systems. In common with all other phenomena, gravity must obey the principles of special relativity. In particular, gravitational forces must not be transmitted or communicated faster than light. This means that when the gravitational field of an object changes, the changes ripple outwards through space and take a finite time to reach other objects. These ripples are called gravitational radiation or gravitational waves. This article gives a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational radiation, including technical material suitable for non-specialist scientists.

  19. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Covey, Debra

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  20. Transfer reactions at ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    64 Ni+ 64 Ni Strong entrance-channel dependence of fusion enhancement Beckerman et al., PRL 45, 1472 (1980), PRC 25, 837 (1982) Coupling of transfer channels, in addition to...

  1. ATS 351, Spring 2010 Energy & Radiation 60 points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    energy per wave? Why? Shorter wavelengths carry more energy per wave. Therefore, the sun's radiationATS 351, Spring 2010 Lab #2 Energy & Radiation ­ 60 points Please show your work for calculations Question #1: Energy (11 points) Heat is a measure of the transfer of energy from a body with a higher

  2. Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Generalized Divided Flow Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, K. P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of a "Divided-flow" heat exchanger is generalized by locating the shell inlet (or outlet) nozzle off-center such that the two shell sub-streams are unequal and traverse unequal flow paths. The governing equations for heat transfer...

  3. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Sensible heat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpinsky, E. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States). Research and Development Dept.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient models for sensible heat were developed to assess the thermal performance of agitated vessels with coils and jackets. Performance is quantified with the computation of heat-transfer coefficients by introducing vessel heating and cooling data into model equations. Of the two model categories studied, differential and macroscopic, the latter is preferred due to mathematical simplicity and lower sensitivity to experimental data variability.

  4. INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY ­ RADIATION PROTECTION ANNUAL REPORT 2005 - 2006 #12;2 #12;3 ANNUAL. Papazoglou #12;5 PREFACE The Institute has continued transferring know how from Nuclear Technology to other of the Institute page 34 7. Publications page 36 8. Research Projects page 72 #12;4 ORGANISATIONAL CHART 2006

  5. Arctic-Winter Climatology and Radiative Effects of Clouds and Aerosols Based on Lidar and Radar Measurements at PEARL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eloranta, Edwin W.

    Arctic-Winter Climatology and Radiative Effects of Clouds and Aerosols Based on Lidar and Radar Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code. Results on the climatology and radiative effects of clouds, arctic regions are the site of interactions between aerosols, clouds, radiation and precipitations

  6. Proton Transfer in Nucleobases is Mediated by Water Kirill Khistyaev,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Anna I.

    Proton Transfer in Nucleobases is Mediated by Water Kirill Khistyaev, Amir Golan, Ksenia B. Bravaya, and facilitating efficient proton transport through ion channels and interfaces. This study investigates proton and tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation, we show that water shuts down ionization-induced proton

  7. Resources, framing, and transfer p. 1 Resources, framing, and transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammer, David

    Resources, framing, and transfer p. 1 Resources, framing, and transfer David Hammer Departments. #12;Resources, framing, and transfer p. 2 Resources, framing, and transfer David Hammer, Andrew Elby of activating resources, a language with an explicitly manifold view of cognitive structure. In this chapter, we

  8. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF NEUTRINO TRANSFER IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumiyoshi, K. [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan); Takiwaki, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsufuru, H. [Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yamada, S., E-mail: sumi@numazu-ct.ac.jp, E-mail: takiwaki.tomoya@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: hideo.matsufuru@kek.jp, E-mail: shoichi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Science and Engineering and Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo, 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the multi-dimensional properties of neutrino transfer inside supernova cores by solving the Boltzmann equations for neutrino distribution functions in genuinely six-dimensional phase space. Adopting representative snapshots of the post-bounce core from other supernova simulations in three dimensions, we solve the temporal evolution to stationary states of neutrino distribution functions using our Boltzmann solver. Taking advantage of the multi-angle and multi-energy feature realized by the S {sub n} method in our code, we reveal the genuine characteristics of spatially three-dimensional neutrino transfer, such as nonradial fluxes and nondiagonal Eddington tensors. In addition, we assess the ray-by-ray approximation, turning off the lateral-transport terms in our code. We demonstrate that the ray-by-ray approximation tends to propagate fluctuations in thermodynamical states around the neutrino sphere along each radial ray and overestimate the variations between the neutrino distributions on different radial rays. We find that the difference in the densities and fluxes of neutrinos between the ray-by-ray approximation and the full Boltzmann transport becomes ?20%, which is also the case for the local heating rate, whereas the volume-integrated heating rate in the Boltzmann transport is found to be only slightly larger (?2%) than the counterpart in the ray-by-ray approximation due to cancellation among different rays. These results suggest that we should carefully assess the possible influences of various approximations in the neutrino transfer employed in current simulations of supernova dynamics. Detailed information on the angle and energy moments of neutrino distribution functions will be profitable for the future development of numerical methods in neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics.

  9. Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

  10. Importance of Compton scattering for radiation spectra of isolated neutron stars with weak magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Suleimanov; K. Werner

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergent model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are widely used to fit the observed soft X-ray spectra of different types of isolated neutron stars. We investigate the effect of Compton scattering on the emergent spectra of hot (T_eff > 10^6 K) isolated neutron stars with weak magnetic fields. In order to compute model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium we solve the radiation transfer equation with the Kompaneets operator. We calculate a set of models with effective temperatures in the range 1 - 5 * 10^6 K, with two values of surface gravity (log g = 13.9 and 14.3) and different chemical compositions. Radiation spectra computed with Compton scattering are softer than those computed without Compton scattering at high energies (E > 5 keV) for light elements (H or He) model atmospheres. The Compton effect is more significant in H model atmospheres and models with low surface gravity. The emergent spectra of the hottest (T_eff > 3 * 10^6 K) model atmospheres can be described by diluted blackbody spectra with hardness factors ~ 1.6 - 1.9. Compton scattering is less important in models with solar abundance of heavy elements.

  11. HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME P. H and the sheet metal: This is ventilation by natural convection. The remaining conductive heat from the sheet or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers

  12. Study of heat transfer in attics with a small scale simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, Srinivas

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Chairman of Advisory Committee: W. D. Turner An experimental study concerned with different modes of heat. transfer in fibrous and cellulose insulating material is presented. A series of experiments was conducted using an attic simulator... to deter- mine the effects of ventilation on attic heat transfer. and the effect of infrared radiation on the thcrn&al conductivity of th& insulation sys- tem and on attic heat transfer. All the tests were perl'ormed at, steady state conditions...

  13. The Modified Dirac Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the behavior of the particles at ultra relativistic energies, for both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We observe that the usual description is valid for energies such that we are outside the particle's Compton wavelength. For higher energies however, both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations get modified and this leads to some new effects for the particles, including the appearance of anti particles with a slightly different energy.

  14. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R. B. [PPPL; Gobbin, M. [Euratom-ENEA Association

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  15. Thermal conductivity and heat transfer in superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Neagu, M.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the thermal conductivity and heat transfer processes in superlattice structures is critical for the development of thermoelectric materials and devices based on quantum structures. This work reports progress on the modeling of thermal conductivity of superlattice structures. Results from the models established based on the Boltzmann transport equation could explain existing experimental results on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor superlattices in both in plane and cross-plane directions. These results suggest the possibility of engineering the interfaces to further reduce thermal conductivity of superlattice structures.

  16. Convective heat transfer inside passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural convection between spaces in a building can play a major role in energy transfer. Two situations are investigated: convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two-story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway-sizing equation is given for the single-door case. Detailed data are given from the monitoring of airflow in one two-story house and summary data are given for five others. Observations on the nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  17. Convective heat transfer inside passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural convection between spaces in a building which play a major role in energy transfer are discussed. Two situations are investigated: Convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway sizing equation is given for the single door case. Data from airflow monitoring in one two-story house and summary data for five others are presented. The nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  18. Solving Symbolic Equations with PRESS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterling, L.; Bundy, Alan; Byrd, L.; O'Keefe, R.; Silver, B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We outline a program, PRESS (PRolog Equation Solving System) for solving symbolic, transcendental, non-differential equations. The methods used for solving equations are described, together with the service facilities. The ...

  19. A novel nanometric DNA thin film as a sensor for alpha radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440­746, Korea. The unexpected nuclear accidents have radiation. Due to the high linear energy transfer value, sensors designed to detect such radiation require be one of promising candidates for the development of online radiation sensors. T he Fukushima nuclear

  20. Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical. (2006), Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical frequencies are calculated using the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. The GEOS-3 global cloud optical

  1. Applied heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

  2. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 7980 (2003) 11711188

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    .elsevier.com/locate/jqsrt The spectral signature of mixed-phase clouds composed of non-spherical ice crystals and spherical liquid and ice particles may be present. This is typically known as a "mixed-phase" cloud condition the bulk scattering properties of mixed-phase clouds by a linear weighting of the contributions of ice

  3. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 70 (2001) 473504

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    , and the asymmetry parameter of the phase function for ice crystals smaller than 40 m. For particles larger than­13 m spectral region contains a wealth of information that is very useful for the retrieval of ice properties of nonspherical ice crystals that are fundamental to the IR retrieval implementation, we use

  4. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transport in a machinable glass-ceramic”, Journal of Non-in soda-lime-silicate glasses by reaction with hydrogen”,1971. [16] I. Fanderlik, Glass Science and Technology, Vol.

  5. Monte Carlo radiative heat transfer simulation on a reconfigurable computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhale, M. (Maya); Ahrens, C. M. (Christine Marie); Frigo, J. (Janette); Minnich, R. G. (Ronald G.); Tripp J. L. (Justin L.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the appearance of very large (3-10M gate) FPGAs with embedded arithmetic units has opened the door to the possibility of floating point computation on these devices. While previous researchers have described peak performance or kernel matrix operations, there is as yet little experience with mapping an application-specific floating point pipeline onto FPGAs. In this work, we port a supercomputer application benchmark onto Xilinx Virtex II and II Pro FPGAs and compare performance with comparable microprocessor implementation. Our results show that this application-specific pipeline, with 12 multiply, 10 add/subtract, one divide, and two compare modules of single precision floating point data type, shows speedup of 1.6x-1.7x. We analyze the trade-offs between hardware and software 'sweet spots' to characterize the algorithms that will perform well on current and future FPGA architectures.

  6. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 98 (2006) 122129

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    and unaccounted-for solar energy sink in the atmosphere. We spectrally resolve, for the first time, all solar

  7. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 106 (2007) 325347

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , aerosol polarimetry sensor; ATSR, along track scanning radiometer; AVHRR, advanced very high resolution radiometer; CALIPSO, cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observations; CLAMS, Chesapeake model; GEWEX, global energy and water cycle experiment; GHG, greenhouse gas; GOME, global ozone

  8. Radiative transfer and thermal performance levels in foam insulation boardstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, John David

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The validity of predictive models for the thermal conductivity of foam insulation is established based on the fundamental geometry of the closed-cell foam. The extinction coefficient is experimentally and theoretically ...

  9. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 98 (2006) 220237

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the local time and length scales [1]. Of late, with the advent of ultra-short pulsed lasers, this assumption of the order of pico- and femto-seconds. Ultra-short pulsed lasers are used in a wide variety of applications particles from surfaces, optical data storage, optical ablation and ablation of polymers [2]. Ultra-short

  10. Uncertainty of microwave radiative transfer computations in rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Sung Wook

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of the vertical resolution effect on the BT. Secondly, a new temperature profile based on observations was absorbed in the Texas A&M University (TAMU) algorithm. The Precipitation Radar (PR) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI...

  11. Author's personal copy Radiative heat transfer in enhanced hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    the physical mechanisms responsible for experimental observations that led to the definition of ``photo tube and heated in a furnace or by an incandescent lamp. It was observed that hydrogen release from the glass sample was faster and stronger when heated by an incandescent lamp than within a furnace. Here

  12. Radiative Transfer, Satellite Retrieval Systems and 32 Years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuligowski, Bob

    computer · DEC VAX systems driving Adage image processors #12;NOAA also using Gould SEL computers on the Gould to ingest the Mode AAA data for VAS multispectral imagery · I wrote code on the VAX to talk with the Gould and have the Gould extract an image sector from the ingest sector and pass it out to the VAX

  13. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 109 (2008) 10431059

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Syste`mes Atmosphe´riques, Faculte´ des Sciences et Technologie, 61 avenue Groupe de Spectrome´trie Mole´culaire et Atmosphe´rique, Universite´ de Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, 51062 91109, USA h Laboratoire de Physique Mole´culaire pour l'Atmosphe`re et l'Astrophysique, Universite

  14. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 100 (2006) 457469

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , College Station, TX 77843, USA b Remote sensing Division, Code 7232, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington

  15. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER FROM COMPLEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALLAN WILSON Bachelor of Science Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma 2005 Submitted Allan, who taught me to set lofty goals and always give my best. And although your lives were not long

  16. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by a heating lamp emitting in the visible and near infraredwith heating in a furnace at 400 o C. The infrared lamp was

  17. Efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range energy transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    -wire grid was deployed, seri- ous interest and effort was devoted (most notably by Nikola Tesla [1]) towards storage) justifies revisiting investigation of this issue. Today, we face a different challenge than Tesla

  18. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 101 (2006) 404410

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of monochromatic light impinging on any point of DS in directions confined to a small solid angle O (called, New York, NY 10025, USA Abstract We revisit the optical theorem relevant to the far-established fact which states that extinction is caused by the interference of the incident and the forward

  19. Influence of Infrared Radiation on Attic Heat Transfer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; Turner, W. D.; Murphy, W. E.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    roof temperatures. It was found that a radiant barrier such as aluminum foil can reduce the heat flux significantly. Experimental results were compared to a Three-Region approximate solution developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL). The model...

  20. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    slabs. Moreover, the total heat input during furnace heatingperformed for the same heat input. The optical propertiesheating for the same total heat input. Similarly, Figure 7

  1. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  2. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 73 (2002) 285296

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Tai-Hsi

    materials processing applications ranging from metallurgical slag foaming to batch foams in glass melting- cations. One example is glass foams formed on the surface of batch logs of raw materials during the glass the foams formed on the free surface of the molten glass that possess a structure of multiple layers

  3. CROSS VALIDATION OF SATELLITE RADIATION TRANSFER MODELS DURING SWERA PROJECT

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainable andBucoda,BurkeNebraska:CDMValenciaLEDSGPDoha -CPFLCPowerISES-

  4. Present and Future Computing Requirements Radiative Transfer of Astrophysical Explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARD ACCOUNTINGQuantitativeComputational Cosmology

  5. Improvements to the SHDOM Radiative Transfer Modeling Package

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenITLaboratory in InductivelyImprovements to

  6. Heat Transfer -2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature T = 10o C. The heat transfer coefficient at the wire's surface h equation that includes all heat transfer mechanisms involved in this problem. Write this energy balance

  7. Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark R. Krumholz; Richard I. Klein; Christopher F. McKee

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Stars with masses of >~ 20 solar masses have short Kelvin times that enable them to reach the main sequence while still accreting from their natal clouds. The resulting nuclear burning produces a huge luminosity and a correspondingly large radiation pressure force on dust grains in the accreting gas. This effect may limit the upper mass of stars that can form by accretion. Indeed, simulations and analytic calculations to date have been unable to resolve the mystery of how stars of 50 solar masses and up form. We present two new ideas to solve the radiation pressure problem. First, we use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study the collapse of massive cores. We find that in three dimensions a configuration in which radiation holds up an infalling envelope is Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, leading radiation driven bubbles to collapse and accretion to continue. We also present Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations showing that the cavities created by protostellar winds provides a valve that allow radiation to escape the accreting envelope, further reducing the ability of radiation pressure to inhibit accretion.

  8. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  9. Radiation in Yang-Mills formulation of gravity and a generalized pp-wave metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Baskal

    1997-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The variational methods implemented on a quadratic Yang-Mills type Lagrangian yield two sets of equations interpreted as the field equations and the energy-momentum tensor for the gravitational field. A covariant condition is imposed on the energy-momentum tensor to represent the radiation field. A generalized pp-wave metric is found to simultaneously satisfy both the field equations and the radiation condition. The result is compared with that of Lichn\\'{e}rowicz.

  10. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  11. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

  12. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

  13. Effects of radiation reaction in relativistic laser acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadad, Y.; Labun, L.; Rafelski, J.; Elkina, N.; Klier, C.; Ruhl, H. [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721 (United States); Department fuer Physik der Ludwig-Maximillians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37A, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this paper is twofold: to explore the response of classical charges to electromagnetic force at the level of unity in natural units and to establish a criterion that determines physical parameters for which the related radiation-reaction effects are detectable. In pursuit of this goal, the Landau-Lifshitz equation is solved analytically for an arbitrary (transverse) electromagnetic pulse. A comparative study of the radiation emission of an electron in a linearly polarized pulse for the Landau-Lifshitz equation and for the Lorentz force equation reveals the radiation-reaction-dominated regime, in which radiation-reaction effects overcome the influence of the external fields. The case of a relativistic electron that is slowed down by a counterpropagating electromagnetic wave is studied in detail. We further show that when the electron experiences acceleration of order unity, the dynamics of the Lorentz force equation, the Landau-Lifshitz equation and the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation all result in different radiation emission that could be distinguished in experiment. Finally, our analytic and numerical results are compared with those appearing in the literature.

  14. Applications of Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    several techniques for solving commonly-occurring first- order and second-order ordinary differential electrical circuits, projectile motion and Newton's law of cooling recognise and solve second-order ordinary's law of cooling In section 19.1 we introduced Newton's law of cooling. The model equation was d dt = -k

  15. Investigation of classical radiation reaction with aligned crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Piazza, A; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation reaction is the effect of the radiation emitted by an accelerated electric charge on the trajectory of the charge itself. The self-consistent underlying classical equation of motion including radiation-reaction effects, the Landau-Lifshitz equation, has never been tested experimentally, in spite of the first theoretical treatments having been developed more than a century ago. Here, we show that classical radiation reaction effects, as predicted by the Landau-Lifshitz equation, can be measured using presently available facilities, in the energy emission spectrum of a parallel $10$-$\\text{GeV}$ electron beam crossing a $1.1$-$\\text{mm}$ thick diamond crystal in the axial channeling regime. Our theoretical results demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested setup, e.g., at the CERN Secondary Beam Areas (SBA) beamlines.

  16. Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and Thermal/Energy Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey-track faculty position at the assistant professor level in the areas of Heat Transfer and Thermal/Fluid Sciences

  17. Comments on article 'symmetric heat and mass transfer in a rotating spherical layer,' JETP 94 (3), 459 (2002)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandrov, D. V., E-mail: Dmitri.Alexandrov@usu.ru; Malygin, A. P. [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytic solutions to the heat and mass transfer equations, which were obtained in [1], are corrected. It is shown that the dependence of the growth rate of the Earth's inner core on heat flux changes in this case.

  18. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  19. QER- Comment of Energy Transfer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From: Lee Hanse Executive Vice President Interstate Energy Transfer Mobile - 210 464 2929 Office - 210 403 6455

  20. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  1. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  2. Plastic container bagless transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tibrea, Steven L.; D'Amelio, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Brent A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus are provided for transferring material from an isolated environment into a storage carrier through a conduit that can be sealed with a plug. The plug and conduit can then be severed to provide a hermetically sealed storage carrier containing the material which may be transported for storage or disposal and to maintain a seal between the isolated environment and the ambient environment.

  3. Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    't be determined A correlation for Sherwood number (Sh) based on di i l l i b d l i Sh diff idimensional analysis for mass transfer with convection: I l f d fl d b (l b l )­ Internal forced flow: inside a tube (laminar A in fluid medium B in a flow with characteristic velocity and size characteristic d: kA = f(d, w, (= fluid

  4. Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan M. Johnson

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.

  5. Hawking radiation in moving plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. C. Garcia de Andrade

    2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Bi-metricity and Hawking radiation are exhibit in non-relativistic moving magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plasma medium generating two Riemannian effective spacetimes. The first metric is a flat metric although the speed of "light" is given by a time dependent signal where no Hawking radiation or effective black holes are displayed. This metric comes from a wave equation which the scalar function comes from the scalar potential of the background velocity of the fluid and depends on the perturbation of the magnetic background field. The second metric is an effective spacetime metric which comes from the perturbation of the background MHD fluid. This Riemann metric exhibits a horizon and Hawking radiation which can be expressed in terms of the background constant magnetic field. The effective velocity is given Alfven wave velocity of plasma physics. The effective black hole found here is analogous to the optical black hole in moving dielectrics found by De Lorenci et al [Phys. Rev. D (2003)] where bi-metricity and Hawking radiation in terms of the electric field are found.

  6. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wise, John H. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Turk, Matthew J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Abel, Tom, E-mail: me@jihoonkim.org [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as H? emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ?}, we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock H? emission) and H{sub 2} density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ?75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because H? traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H{sub 2} peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  7. Quantum Black Hole Model and Hawking's Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Berezin

    1996-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The black hole model with a self-gravitating charged spherical symmetric dust thin shell as a source is considered. The Schroedinger-type equation for such a model is derived. This equation appeared to be a finite differences equation. A theory of such an equation is developed and general solution is found and investigated in details. The discrete spectrum of the bound state energy levels is obtained. All the eigenvalues appeared to be infinitely degenerate. The ground state wave functions are evaluated explicitly. The quantum black hole states are selected and investigated. It is shown that the obtained black hole mass spectrum is compatible with the existence of Hawking's radiation in the limit of low temperatures both for large and nearly extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. The above mentioned infinite degeneracy of the mass (energy) eigenvalues may appeared helpful in resolving the well known information paradox in the black hole physics.

  8. Stochastic equations for thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsekov, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of stochastic differential equations to thermodynamics is considered and a new form, different from the classical Ito and Stratonovich forms, is introduced. It is shown that the new presentation is more appropriate for the description of thermodynamic fluctuations. The range of validity of the Boltzmann-Einstein principle is also discussed and a generalized alternative is proposed. Both expressions coincide in the small fluctuation limit, providing a normal distribution density.

  9. environmental management radiation protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    EHS environmental management biosafety radiation protection industrial hygiene safety Working: Biosafety, Environmental Management, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection and Safety. Each specialized Management Program, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection Program, and the Safety Program. (http

  10. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (NewSons, Inc. from "Radiation Detection and Measurement," G. F.

  11. Mass and temperature limits for blackbody radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Pesci

    2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A spherically symmetric distribution of classical blackbody radiation is considered, at conditions in which gravitational self-interaction effects become not negligible. Static solutions to Einstein field equations are searched for, for each choice of the assumed central energy density. Spherical cavities at thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e. filled with blackbody radiation, are then studied, in particular for what concerns the relation among the mass M of the ball of radiation contained in them and their temperature at center and at the boundary. For these cavities it is shown, in particular, that: i) there is no absolute limit to M as well to their central and boundary temperatures; ii) when radius R is fixed, however, limits exist both for mass and for boundary energy density rho_B: M temperature) of the ball of radiation.

  12. Newtonian hydrodynamics of the coalescence of black holes with neutron stars IV: Irrotational binaries with a soft equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Lee

    2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the final stages of inspiral in a black hole-neutron star binary, when the separation is comparable to the stellar radius. We use a Newtonian Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code to model the evolution of the system, and take the neutron star to be a polytrope with a soft (adiabatic index G=2 and G=5/3) equation of state and the black hole to be a Newtonian point mass. The only non-Newtonian effect we include is a gravitational radiation back reaction force, computed in the quadrupole approximation for point masses. We use irrotational binaries as initial conditions for our dynamical simulations, which are begun when the system is on the verge of initiating mass transfer and followed for approximately 23 ms. For all the cases studied we find that the star is disrupted on a dynamical time-scale, and forms a massive (the disc mass is approximately 0.2 solar masses) accretion torus around the spinning (Kerr) black hole. The rotation axis is clear of baryons (less than 1.e-5 solar masses within 10 degrees) to an extent that would not preclude the formation of a relativistic fireball capable of powering a cosmological gamma ray burst. Some mass (the specific amount is sensitive to the stiffness of the equation of state) may be dynamically ejected from the system during the coalescence and could undergo r-process nucleosynthesis. We calculate the waveforms, luminosities and energy spectra of the gravitational radiation signal and show how they reflect the global outcome of the coalescence process.

  13. Courses on Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

  14. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  15. Radiation Control (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

  16. Wireless Power Transfer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

  17. Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

  18. Near-field heat transfer between gold nanoparticle arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phan, Anh D., E-mail: anhphan@mail.usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Phan, The-Long, E-mail: ptlong2512@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Woods, Lilia M. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiative heat transfer between gold nanoparticle layers is presented using the coupled dipole method. Gold nanoparticles are modelled as effective electric and magnetic dipoles interacting via electromagnetic fluctuations. The effect of higher-order multipoles is implemented in the expression of electric polarizability to calculate the interactions at short distances. Our findings show that the near-field radiation reduces as the radius of the nanoparticles is increased. Also, the magnetic dipole contribution to the heat exchange becomes more important for larger particles. When one layer is displayed in parallel with respect to the other layer, the near-field heat transfer exhibits oscillatory-like features due to the influence of the individual nanostructures. Further details about the effect of the nanoparticles size are also discussed.

  19. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  20. The anti-Einstein equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evangelos Chaliasos

    2006-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    As we know, from the Einstein equations the vanishing of the four-divergence of the energy-momentum tensor follows. This is the case because the four-divergence of the Einstein tensor vanishes identically. Inversely, we find that from the vanishing of the four-divergence of the energy-momentum tensor not only the Einstein equations follow. Besides, the so-named anti-Einstein equations follow. These equations must be considered as complementary to the Einstein equations. And while from the Einstein equations the energy density (or the pressure) can be found, from the anti-Einstein equations the pressure (or the energy density) can be also found, without having to use an additional (but arbitrary) equation of state.

  1. Noncommutativity and the Friedmann Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabido, M.; Socorro, J. [Physics Department of the Division of Science and Engineering of the University of Guanajuato, Campus Leon P.O. Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Guzman, W. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study noncommutative scalar field cosmology, we find the noncommutative Friedmann equations as well as the noncommutative Klein-Gordon equation, interestingly the noncommutative contributions are only present up to second order in the noncommutitive parameter.

  2. A Theoretical Investigation Into Energy Transfer In Photosynthetic Open Quantum Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, David M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis looks at the electronic energy transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, in which evidence of long-lived coherence has been observed in 2-dimensional infrared experiments. I use three techniques: the numerically exact Hierarchical Equations of Motion, and the perturbative Redfield and Foerster theories, the latter of which ignores quantum coherence in the transfer. Both of the approximate methods perform very well - and while oscillations in site populations (a hallmark of coherence) are present in the exact transfer dynamics and absent in the dynamics of Foerster theory, the latter gives a reasonable prediction of transfer rates and steady-state populations, despite being incoherent - suggesting that coherence is not vital for the dynamics of transfer. Since Foerster theory is very inexpensive to run and performs so well, I then apply it to calculate the effects of static disorder in bacteriochlorophyll site energies and of a more structured spectral density. Ultimately, the energy transfer i...

  3. Diffusive mass transfer by non equilibrium fluctuations: Fick's law revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doriano Brogioli; Alberto Vailati

    2000-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental and theoretical works have shown that giant fluctuations are present during diffusion in liquid systems. We use linearized fluctuating hydrodynamics to calculate the net mass transfer due to these non equilibrium fluctuations. Surprisingly the mass flow turns out to coincide with the usual Fick's one. The renormalization of the hydrodynamic equations allows us to quantify the gravitational modifications of the diffusion coefficient induced by the gravitational stabilization of long wavelength fluctuations.

  4. Scattering of particles by radiation fields: a comparative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Maria Haney; Robert T. Jantzen

    2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The features of the scattering of massive neutral particles propagating in the field of a gravitational plane wave are compared with those characterizing their interaction with an electromagnetic radiation field. The motion is geodesic in the former case, whereas in the case of an electromagnetic pulse it is accelerated by the radiation field filling the associated spacetime region. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term entering the equations of motion proportional to the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame. The corresponding classical scattering cross sections are evaluated too.

  5. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, James C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hoover, Mark A. (Idaho Falls, ID); May, Kay W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ross, Maurice J. (Pocatello, ID)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  6. Data Transfer and Access

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePARTOfficeOctoberDanielDTN Data Transfer Nodes

  7. Technology Transfer Reporting Form

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy Solar Decathlon |1999Energy-Technology TransferThis

  8. Syllabus for “Ordinary Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan Demlow

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Syllabus for MA266, Ordinary Differential Equations. (Sections 052 & 091). GENERAL INFORMATION. Course instructor and contact information: Instructor: Dr.

  9. Chapter Two Model Equations and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    after Miller and White (1984). Equations (1.2.30), (1.2.31), (1.2.33), (1.2.34), (1.2.38), and (1. They are the equation for y-velocity v, and the equations for the conservation of water vapour, cloud water and rain humidity of water vapour, cloud water and rain water respectively. The momentum equations (2.1.1) to (2

  10. Study of cloud properties from single-scattering, radiative forcing, and retrieval perspectives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation reports on three different yet related topics in light scattering computation, radiative transfer simulation, and remote sensing implementation, regarding the cloud properties and the retrieval of cloud properties from satellite...

  11. Assignment II Saha & Boltzmann equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spoon, Henrik

    Assignment II Saha & Boltzmann equations January 21, 2002 This assignment is meant to give you some practical experience in using the Saha and Boltzmann equations that govern the level populations in atoms;s =kT the partition function of ionization stage r. The Saha equation: N r+1 N r = 2U r+1 U r P e #18

  12. The Human Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natale, Michael J.

    the smaller cloaked vessel before she had a chance to de-cloak and fire, the Enterprise had virtually disabled the scoutship. Now, the innocent people on Omnicron I could at least get a break from the barrage of disrupter fire from orbit, and the Enterprise... into destroying the Klingon vessel. But, if they were going to threaten innocents on Omnicron I, then the Enterprise could play the role of executioner adequately. "Mr. Sulu, fire main phasers!" "Locking phasers.....firing, sir!" The Human Equation Page...

  13. A relativistic parton cascade with radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghi R. Shin; Berndt Müller

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the evolution of a parton system which is formed at the central rapidity region just after an ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision. The evolution of the system, which is composed of gluons, quarks and antiquarks, is described by a relativistic Boltzmann equations with collision terms including radiation and retardation effects. The equations are solved by the test particle method using Monte-Carlo sampling. Our simulations do not show any evidence of kinetic equilibration, unless the cross sections are artificially increased to unrealistically large values.

  14. A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

    2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as well as the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions. Solutions are compared for two commercial CFD codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. The results can be used to provide input to the CFD Best Practices for this application. Following study results for the 2-D test problem, a comparison of simulation results is provided for a high Rayleigh number experiment with large annular gap. Because the geometry of this validation is significantly different from the neutron shield, and due to the critical nature of this application, the argument is made for new experiments at representative scales

  15. Black Hole Radiation and Volume Statistical Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The simplest possible equation for Hawking radiation, and other black hole radiated power is derived in terms of black hole density. Black hole density also leads to the simplest possible model of a gas of elementary constituents confined inside a gravitational bottle of Schwarzchild radius at tremendous pressure, which yields identically the same functional dependence as the traditional black hole entropy. Variations of Sbh can be obtained which depend on the occupancy of phase space cells. A relation is derived between the constituent momenta and the black hole radius which is similar to the Compton wavelength relation.

  16. Energy of gravitational radiation in plane-symmetric space-times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward

    2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational radiation in plane-symmetric space-times can be encoded in a complex potential, satisfying a non-linear wave equation. An effective energy tensor for the radiation is given, taking a scalar-field form in terms of the potential, entering the field equations in the same way as the matter energy tensor. It reduces to the Isaacson energy tensor in the linearized, high-frequency approximation. An energy conservation equation is derived for a quasi-local energy, essentially the Hawking energy. A transverse pressure exerted by interacting low-frequency gravitational radiation is predicted.

  17. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  18. Inhomogeneous T-Q equation for the open XXX chain with general boundary terms: completeness and arbitrary spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael I. Nepomechie

    2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An inhomogeneous T-Q equation has recently been proposed by Cao, Yang, Shi and Wang for the open spin-1/2 XXX chain with general (nondiagonal) boundary terms. We argue that a simplified version of this equation describes all the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of this model. We also propose a generating function for the inhomogeneous T-Q equations of arbitrary spin.

  19. Inhomogeneous T-Q equation for the open XXX chain with general boundary terms: completeness and arbitrary spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepomechie, Rafael I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inhomogeneous T-Q equation has recently been proposed by Cao, Yang, Shi and Wang for the open spin-1/2 XXX chain with general (nondiagonal) boundary terms. We argue that a simplified version of this equation describes all the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of this model. We also propose a generating function for the inhomogeneous T-Q equations of arbitrary spin.

  20. Technology transfer | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology transfer Technology Development and Commercialization at Argonne Read more about Technology Development and Commercialization at Argonne New Director to lead Technology...

  1. Control of excitation transfer in coupled quantum dots by a nonresonant laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Golovinski; V. A. Astapenko; A. V. Yakovets

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study theoretically fast transfer of excitons between pairs of coupled quantum dots driven by the optical Stark effect that is produced by a short nonresonant laser pulse. The Schr\\"odinger equation, in which the relative position of energy levels of quantum dot subsystems is time-dependent, is solved numerically. Computer simulation shows a way to achieve efficient excitation transfer by the action of a picosecond laser pulse with a rectangular envelope function.

  2. Rotor dynamic analysis of multi-line systems using the polynomial transfer matrix method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troxler, Paul Joseph

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is based on the polynomial transfer matrix method. The transfer matrices for the general point mass and flexible beam are presented. The model has the capability to include a number of different options such as stator gyroscopic terms (to model... polynomial coefficients a = mass and beam matrix elements 1J A = cross sectional Area A, B = matrices b; = coefficients of polynomial after removing quadratic factor B&g ? variables used in deriving foundation equations c = scale factor c...

  3. Technology transfer 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  4. Heat transfer probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  5. Galaxy formation with radiative and chemical feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graziani, L; Schneider, R; Kawata, D; de Bennassuti, M; Maselli, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we introduce GAMESH, a novel pipeline which implements self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback in a computational model of galaxy formation. By combining the cosmological chemical-evolution model GAMETE with the radiative transfer code CRASH, GAMESH can post process realistic outputs of a N-body simulation describing the redshift evolution of the forming galaxy. After introducing the GAMESH implementation and its features, we apply the code to a low-resolution N-body simulation of the Milky Way formation and we investigate the combined effects of self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback. Many physical properties, which can be directly compared with observations in the Galaxy and its surrounding satellites, are predicted by the code along the merger-tree assembly. The resulting redshift evolution of the Local Group star formation rates, reionisation and metal enrichment along with the predicted Metallicity Distribution Function of halo stars are critically compared with observations. We dis...

  6. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  7. Simulation of Strongly Heated Internal Gas Flows Using a Near-Wall Two-Equation Heat Flux Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Adam H.; Spall, Robert E. [Utah State University, 1400 Old Main Hill Logan, Utah 84322-1400 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-equation k-{omega} model is used to model a strongly heated, low-Mach number gas flowing upward in a vertical tube. Heating causes significant property variation and thickening of the viscous sublayer, consequently a fully developed flow does not evolve. Two-equation turbulence models generally perform poorly under such conditions. Consequently, in the present work, a near-wall two-equation heat transfer model is utilized in conjunction with the k-{omega} model to improve heat transfer predictions. (authors)

  8. Photon rockets and gravitational radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Damour

    1994-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of gravitational radiation in Kinnersley's ``photon rocket'' solution of Einstein's equations is clarified by studying the mathematically well-defined problem of point-like photon rockets in Minkowski space (i.e. massive particles emitting null fluid anisotro\\-pically and accelerating because of the recoil). We explicitly compute the (uniquely defined) {\\it linearized} retarded gravitational waves emitted by such objects, which are the coherent superposition of the gravitational waves generated by the motion of the massive point-like rocket and of those generated by the energy-momentum distribution of the photon fluid. In the special case (corresponding to Kinnersley's solution) where the anisotropy of the photon emission is purely dipolar we find that the gravitational wave amplitude generated by the energy-momentum of the photons exactly cancels the usual $1/r$ gravitational wave amplitude generated by the accelerated motion of the rocket. More general photon anisotropies would, however, generate genuine gravitational radiation at infinity. Our explicit calculations show the compatibility between the non-radiative character of Kinnersley's solution and the currently used gravitational wave generation formalisms based on post-Minkowskian perturbation theory.

  9. A Master Equation Approach to the `3 + 1' Dirac Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith A. Earle

    2011-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A derivation of the Dirac equation in `3+1' dimensions is presented based on a master equation approach originally developed for the `1+1' problem by McKeon and Ord. The method of derivation presented here suggests a mechanism by which the work of Knuth and Bahrenyi on causal sets may be extended to a derivation of the Dirac equation in the context of an inference problem.

  10. The Classical Bloch Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Frimmer; Lukas Novotny

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent control of a quantum mechanical two-level system is at the heart of magnetic resonance imaging, quantum information processing, and quantum optics. Among the most prominent phenomena in quantum coherent control are Rabi oscillations, Ramsey fringes and Hahn echoes. We demonstrate that these phenomena can be derived classically by use of a simple coupled harmonic oscillator model. The classical problem can be cast in a form that is formally equivalent to the quantum mechanical Bloch equations with the exception that the longitudinal and the transverse relaxation times ($T_1$ and $T_2$) are equal. The classical analysis is intuitive and well suited for familiarizing students with the basic concepts of quantum coherent control, while at the same time highlighting the fundamental differences between classical and quantum theories.

  11. Aspects of the Structure of the QCD Radiation Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinhold Brueckner

    2001-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the classical radiative solution to the QCD (quantum chromodynamics) dynamical equations and find trivial solutions similar to the electrodynamic situation when one considers singlet (colorless) radiation sources. We transpose the findings to quantum fields and identify radiation from hadron (meson) sources with gluon packages of 3 (2) gluons. Invoking the singlet character of the QCD matter and radiation field, we deduce that the blank (singlet) gluon packages are the elementary building blocks of QCD radiation, just as blank hadrons and mesons are the building blocks of baryon matter. Colorlessness of the gluon packages suggests a possibly simpler quasi-abelian behaviour, as far as linear superposition is involved, of the QCD singlet radiation field.

  12. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  13. Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H. (Naperville, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Burr Ridge, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits.

  14. Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace is described having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits. 7 figs.

  15. Calculation of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer in steam injection wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddy, Kenneth Edward

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and (5) are defined as the fluid flow equations for the gas and liquid phases, respectively. Mass Balance E uation The thermodynamic system under consideration is a vertical cylindri- cal conduit as depicted in figure 1. A mass balance applied... Equation Method of Solution. RESULTS Comparison with Field Data. Comparison with Results from Steady-State Mass Transfer Model CONCLUSIONS NOMENCLATURE . REFERENCES APPENDIX A: TURBULENCE FACTOR. APPENDIX B: RELATIVE FLUID CONDUCTIVITT. Page vi...

  16. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T. (Integral Technologies, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  17. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T. [Integral Technologies, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  18. Radiative Torques on Interstellar Grains; 2, Grain Alignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, B T; Weingartner, Joseph C.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative torques on irregular dust grains, in addition to producing superthermal rotation, play a direct dynamical role in the alignment of interstellar dust with the local magnetic field. The equations governing the orientation of spinning, precessing grains are derived; H_2 formation torques and paramagnetic dissipation are included in the dynamics. Stationary solutions (constant alignment angle and spin rate) are found; these solutions may be stable ("attractors") or unstable ("repellors"). The equations of motion are numerically integrated for three exemplary irregular grain geometries, exposed to anisotropic radiation with the spectrum of interstellar starlight. The resulting "trajectory maps" are classified as "noncyclic", "semicyclic", or "cyclic", with examples of each given. We find that radiative torques result in rapid grain alignment, even in the absence of paramagnetic dissipation. It appears that radiative torques due to starlight can account for the observed alignment of interstellar grains wi...

  19. Energy Conservation Equations of Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional derivation of motion equations in mechanics and field equations in field theory is based on the principle of least action with a proper Lagrangian. With a time-independent Lagrangian, a function of coordinates and velocities that is called energy is constant. This paper presents an alternative approach, namely derivation of a general form of equations of motion that keep the system energy, expressed as a function of generalized coordinates and corresponding velocities, constant. These are Lagrange equations with addition of gyroscopic forces. The important fact, that the energy is defined as the function on the tangent bundle of configuration manifold, is used explicitly for the derivation. The Lagrangian is derived from a known energy function. A development of generalized Hamilton and Lagrange equations without the use of variational principles is proposed. The use of new technique is applied to derivation of some equations.

  20. Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Lazaros Oreopoulos and Dr. Peter M. Norris

    2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be attainable, thus affecting public policy decisions with great impact to public life.

  1. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM) are of great interest due to their ability to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. Here we demonstrate that an annular, transparent HMM enables selective heating of a sub-wavelength plasmonic nanowire by controlling the angular mode number of a plasmonic resonance. A nanowire emitter, surrounded by an HMM, appears dark to incoming radiation from an adjacent nanowire emitter unless the second emitter is surrounded by an identical lens such that the wavelength and angular mode of the plasmonic resonance match. Our result can find applications in radiative thermal management.

  2. Radiation and porosity effects on the magnetohydrodynamic flow near a vertical plate that applies shear stress to the fluid with mass diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan [Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This article studies the radiation and porosity effects on the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an infinite vertical plate that applies a shear stress f(t) to the fluid. Conjugate phenomenon of heat and mass transfer is considered. General solutions of the dimensionless governing equations along with imposed initial and boundary conditions are determined using Laplace transform technique. The solution of velocity is presented as a sum of mechanical and non mechanical parts. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some known solutions from the literature as special cases. The results for embedded parameters are shown graphically. Numerical results for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and presented in tabular forms.

  3. Radiation reaction in strong fields from an alternative perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yevgen Kravets

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Current classical theory of radiation reaction has several deficiencies such as "runaway solutions" and violation of causality. The Landau-Lifshitz approximation to the exact equation introduced by Lorentz, Abraham and Dirac is widely used, though questions remain regarding its domain of validity. This thesis explores an alternative treatment of the motion of a radiating electron, based on an equation first proposed by Ford and O'Connell. A general condition is found for solutions of this equation to deviate from those of Landau-Lifshitz. By exploring radiation reaction effects on a particle colliding with an ultra-intense laser pulse we show that the regime where there is a significant deviation of these two approaches can never be reached with existing or proposed laser facilities. The methods used to explore single particle interaction with an intense laser pulse are extended to describe the interaction of a particle bunch with various realistic laser pulses. We find that the interaction leads to a decrease in average momentum and relative momentum spread. However, the decrease appears to be independent of the length of the pulse and depends only on the energy in the pulse regardless of how it is distributed. Radiation reaction effects occuring during the scattering of an electron by a heavy, highly-charged nucleus are studied. Radiation reaction is seen to affect the particle's motion. We find noticeable differences between the predictions of the Ford-O'Connell and Landau-Lifshitz equations, albeit in regimes where quantum effects would be important.

  4. On the approximation of local and linear radiative damping in the middle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    atmosphere. In general, this damping is a nonlocal process in which heat is transferred to and from remote form 13 November 2009) ABSTRACT The validity of approximating radiative heating rates in the middle'') is investigated. Using radiative heating rate and temperature output from a chemistry­climate model with realistic

  5. Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a NarrowBand Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    , France (\\Phi) now at the Institute of Energy and Power Plant Technology, TH Darmstadt, 64287 DarmstadtMonte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a Narrow­Band Model and a Net is used for simulation of radiative heat transfers in non­gray gases. The proposed procedure is based

  6. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for lodgepole pine in Central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pine cones were collected from 272 trees at 189 locations uniformly distributed over the east slopes of the Oregon Cascade Range and Warner Mountains. Variation in seed and seedling traits was related to (1) seed source latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect in multiple regression analyses; and (2) seed zone and elevation band in classification analyses. Provisional seed transfer guidelines are presented. These include a regression equation for guiding seed transfer and estimating transfer risk, and a new outline of fixed seed zones.

  7. On the harmonic map equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. C. Tiwari

    2007-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized harmonic map equation is presented based on the proposed action functional in the Weyl space (PLA, 135, 315, 1989).

  8. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  9. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid?base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron?proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ ?. Multiple-Site Electron?Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron?proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron?proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e{sup -}/2H{sup +} MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving force for long-range proton transfer in Photosysem II and through other biological membranes. In EPT, simultaneous transfer of electrons and protons occurs on time scales short compared to the periods of coupled vibrations and solvent modes. A theory for EPT has been developed which rationalizes rate constants and activation barriers, includes temperature- and driving force (?G)-dependences implicitly, and explains kinetic isotope effects. The distance-dependence of EPT is dominated by the short-range nature of proton transfer, with electron transfer being far less demanding.Changes in external pH do not affect an EPT elementary step. Solvent molecules or buffer components can act as proton donor acceptors, but individual H2O molecules are neither good bases (pK{sub a}(H{sub 3}O{sup +}) = ?1.74) nor good acids (pK{sub a}(H{sub 2}O) = 15.7). There are many examples of mechanisms in chemistry, in biology, on surfaces, and in the gas phase which utilize EPT. PCET and EPT play critical roles in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II and other biological reactions by decreasing driving force and avoiding high-energy intermediates.

  10. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Irvine, T.F., Jr. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus_minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured [0 to 8.5 cm/s], the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  11. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Irvine, T.F., Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured (0 to 8.5 cm/s), the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  12. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1992-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used to study the intermediates involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. These intermediates were excited state of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and species formed in reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern was the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes. (DLC)

  13. adoptively transferred indium-111: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Afshin J. 140 Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and Fossil Fuels Websites Summary: eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass...

  14. Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford ..................................................................................................................... 17 The Basic Principles of Radiation Protection........................................................... 17 Protection against Radiation Exposure

  15. Self-force via energy-momentum and angular momentum balance equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yurij Yaremko

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation reaction for a point-like charge coupled to a massive scalar field is considered. The retarded Green's function associated with the Klein-Gordon wave equation has support not only on the future light cone of the emission point (direct part), but extends inside the light cone as well (tail part). Dirac's scheme of decomposition of the retarded electromagnetic field into the "mean of the advanced and retarded field" and the "radiation" field is adapted to theories where Green's function consists of the direct and the tail parts. The Harish-Chandra equation of motion of radiating scalar charge under the influence of an external force is obtained. This equation includes effect of particle's own field. The self force produces a time-changing inertial mass.

  16. Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

  17. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  18. Coherent Radiation in Gamma-Ray Bursts and Relativistic Collisionless Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunihito Ioka

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that coherent radiation may occur in relativistic collisionless shocks via two-stream Weibel instabilities. The coherence amplifies the radiation power by many orders [$\\sim 10^{12}$ in Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs)] and particles cool very fast before being randomized. We imply (1) GRBs accompany strong infrared emission, (2) protons efficiently transfer energy to electrons and (3) prompt GRBs might be the upscattered coherent radiation.

  19. Effective equations for quantum dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Schlein

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on recent results concerning the derivation of effective evolution equations starting from many body quantum dynamics. In particular, we obtain rigorous derivations of nonlinear Hartree equations in the bosonic mean field limit, with precise bounds on the rate of convergence. Moreover, we present a central limit theorem for the fluctuations around the Hartree dynamics.

  20. Media with no Fresnel equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Media with no Fresnel equation Alberto Favaro & Ismo V. Lindell Outline Part 1: Local linear media Part 2: Jump conditions Part 3: media with no G(q) Conclusions Electromagnetic media with no Fresnel with no Fresnel equation Alberto Favaro & Ismo V. Lindell Outline Part 1: Local linear media Part 2: Jump

  1. Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE): An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, S; Shippert, T; Mather, J

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to create a complete set of clearly identified set of parameters on a uniform vertical and temporal grid to use as input to a radiative transfer model. One of the main drivers for RIPBE was as input to the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP, but we also envision using RIPBE files for user-run radiative transfer codes, as part of cloud/aerosol retrieval testbeds, and as input to averaged datastreams for model evaluation.

  2. Radiation protection at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  3. All-glass vacuum tube collector heat transfer model used in forced-circulation solar water heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhiyong; Chen, Chao; Luo, Hailiang; Zhang, Ye; Xue, Yaning [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to establish the heat transfer model of all-glass vacuum tube collector used in forced-circulation solar water heating system. In this model, the simplified heat transfer of collector is composed of the natural convection in single glass tube and forced flow in manifold header. Thus the heat balance equation of water in single tube and the heat balance equation of water in manifold header have been established. The flow equation is also built by analyzing the friction and buoyancy in tube. Through solved these equations the relationship between the collector average temperature, the outlet temperature and natural convection flow rate have been obtained. From this relationship and energy balance equation of collector, the collector outlet temperature can be calculated. The validated experiments of this model were carried out in winter of Beijing. (author)

  4. RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2002 D. Delacroix* J. P. Guerre** P. Leblanc'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

  5. Radiation Processing -an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

  6. The flow and heat transfer in a viscous fluid over an unsteady stretching surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Bogdan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we have studied the flow and heat transfer in a viscous fluid by a horizontal sheet. The stretching rate and temperature of the sheet vary with time. The governing equations for momentum and thermal energy are reduced to ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. These equations are solved approximately by means of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) which provides us with a convenient way to control the convergence of approximation solutions and adjust convergence rigorous when necessary. Some examples are given and the results obtained reveal that the proposed method is effective and easy to use.

  7. Technology Transfer for Brownfields Redevelopment Project | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technology Transfer for Brownfields Redevelopment Project Technology Transfer for Brownfields Redevelopment Project The U.S. Department of Energy has provided six computers to...

  8. Gluon Radiation and Coherent States in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei G. Matinyan; Berndt Mueller; Dirk H. Rischke

    1997-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the correspondence between classical gluon radiation and quantum radiation in a coherent state for gluons produced in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. The expectation value of the invariant momentum distribution of gluons in the coherent state is found to agree with the gluon number distribution obtained classically from the solution of the Yang-Mills equations. A criterion for the applicability of the coherent state formalism to the problem of radiation in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. This criterion is found to be fulfilled for midrapidity gluons with perturbative transverse momenta larger than about 1-2 GeV and produced in collisions between valence partons.

  9. Knowledge Capture and Transfer Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Learning and Workforce Development is working with Heads of Departmental Elements, DOE senior leaders and subject-matter-experts to capture and transfer the knowledge and experiences...

  10. Preparing for Transfer Biological Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Environmental Engineering Game Design Industrial Systems & Information Technology Information Science MaterialsPreparing for Transfer Majors: Biological Engineering Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Science Electrical & Computer Engineering Engineering Physics Environmental Engineering

  11. Modeling for isothermal cavitation with a four-equation model Eric Goncalv`es

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modeling for isothermal cavitation with a four-equation model Eric Goncalv`es , Boris Charri-dimensional inviscid cavitating tube problems. This mass transfer term appears explicitly as a source term of a void realistic cavitating flows. Numerical results are given for various inviscid cases (underwater explosion

  12. Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Spring 2014 Heat Transfer - 2 A thin electronic chip is in the shape of a square wafer, b = 1 cm surface of the chip with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 100 W/m2 -K. Assume the chip has a uniform per side with a mass of m = 0.3 grams and specific heat of C = 103 J/kg-K. The chip is mounted

  13. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

  14. A numerical study of heat and momentum transfer over a bank of flat tubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahaidarah, Haitham M. S.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), Prandtl number (Pr), length ratio (L/Da), and height ratio (H/Da), on the pressure drop and heat transfer were studied. A finite volume based FORTRAN code was developed to solve the governing equations. The scalar and velocity variables were stored...

  15. An analysis of the parallel scalability of spatial domain decomposition for the neutron transport equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Lennard

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to describe the interaction of nu- clear, radiation with matter is known as the linear particle transport equation [Bell and Glasstone 1970]. The importance of this mathematical model can be seen in nuclear energy (reactors) and nuclear weapons, where.... There has been a substantial amount of research in the devel- opment of computational methods for solving the neutron transport equation [Bell snd Glasstone 1970, Lewis and Miller 1984]. (Our research deals specif- ically with neutron transport...

  16. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  17. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Emily B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

  18. Pure-radiation gravitational fields with a simple twist and a Killing vector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure-radiation solutions are found, exploiting the analogy with the Euler- Darboux equation for aligned colliding plane waves and the Euler-Tricomi equation in hydrodynamics of two-dimensional flow. They do not depend on one of the spacelike coordinates and comprise the Hauser solution as a special subcase.

  19. The electromagnetic fields and the radiation of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Lazar

    2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric and magnetic fields of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop are calculated using the Jefimenko equations. The radiation and the nonradiation parts of the electromagnetic fields are derived in the framework of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic fields. In this way, a new, exact, analytical solution of the Maxwell equation is found.

  20. ME 544 Advanced Heat Transfer Spring 2013 Time: 2pm-3pm MWF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are demonstrated for a variety of engineering problems. Since most engineering devices have thermal energy and engineering applications of heat transfer including conduction, convection, and radiation. Course Learning Objectives: In this course, students will learn how to 1. Model engineering problems that have conduction

  1. Effect of turbulent heat transfer on continuous ingot solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shyy, W.; Chen, M.H. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering); Pang, Y.; Wei, D.Y. (GE Aircraft Engines, Engineering Materials Technology Labs., Lynn, MA (United States)); Hunter, G.B. (GE Aircraft Engines, Engineering Materials Technology Labs., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For many continuous ingot casting processes, turbulent heat transfer in the molten pool plays a critical role which, along with buoyancy and surface tension, is responsible for the quality of the end products. Based on a modified low Reynolds number K-[epsilon] two-equation closure, accounting for the phase change and mushy zone formation, the effect of turbulent heat transfer on the solidification characteristics during titanium alloy ingot casting in an electron beam melting process is investigated. The overall heat transfer rate is enhanced by turbulent transport via two sources, one through the correlated velocity and temperature fluctuations present for both single- and multi-phase flows, and the other through the correlated velocity and release of latent heat fluctuations which are unique to the flows with phase change. The roles played by both mechanisms are identified and assessed. The present turbulence model predicts that although the mushy zone defined by the mean temperature field is generally of substantial thickness as a result of the convection effect, the actual instantaneous zone thickness varies substantially due to turbulence effect. This finding is in contrast to the traditionally held viewpoint, based on the conduction analysis, of a generally thin mushy zone. The impact of turbulent heat transfer on local dendrite formation and remelting is illustrated and the issues involved in model development highlighted.

  2. INTRODUCTORY LABORATORY 0: DETERMINING AN EQUATION FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    below are designed to help. Once you are satisfied with an equation, press "Accept Fit Function determine the equations that best represent (fit) the measured data, and compare the resulting Fit Equations with your Prediction Equations. This activity will familiarize you with the procedure for fitting equations

  3. Couette flow regimes with heat transfer in rarefied gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramov, A. A., E-mail: alabr54@mail.ru; Butkovskii, A. V., E-mail: albutkov@mail.ru [Zhukovski Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation by direct statistic simulation, the Couette flow with heat transfer is studied in a broad range of ratios of plate temperatures and Mach numbers of a moving plate. Flow regime classification by the form of the dependences of the energy flux and friction stress on the Knudsen number Kn is proposed. These dependences can be simultaneously monotonic and nonmonotonic and have maxima. Situations are possible in which the dependence of the energy flux transferred to a plate on Kn has a minimum, while the dependence of the friction stress is monotonic or even has a maximum. Also, regimes exist in which the dependence of the energy flux on Kn has a maximum, while the dependence of the friction stress is monotonic, and vice versa.

  4. Energy Transfer between Throats from a 10d Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. v. Harling; A. Hebecker; T. Noguchi

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Strongly warped regions, also known as throats, are a common feature of the type IIB string theory landscape. If one of the throats is heated during cosmological evolution, the energy is subsequently transferred to other throats or to massless fields in the unwarped bulk of the Calabi-Yau orientifold. This energy transfer proceeds either by Hawking radiation from the black hole horizon in the heated throat or, at later times, by the decay of throat-localized Kaluza-Klein states. In both cases, we calculate in a 10d setup the energy transfer rate (respectively decay rate) as a function of the AdS scales of the throats and of their relative distance. Compared to existing results based on 5d models, we find a significant suppression of the energy transfer rates if the size of the embedding Calabi-Yau orientifold is much larger than the AdS radii of the throats. This effect can be partially compensated by a small distance between the throats. These results are relevant, e.g., for the analysis of reheating after brane inflation. Our calculation employs the dual gauge theory picture in which each throat is described by a strongly coupled 4d gauge theory, the degrees of freedom of which are localized at a certain position in the compact space.

  5. Newtonian hydrodynamics of the coalescence of black holes with neutron stars III: Irrotational binaries with a stiff equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Lee

    2000-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a hydrodynamical study of the final stages of inspiral in a black hole-neutron star (NS) binary. We use a Newtonian 3D SPH code, and model the NS with a stiff (index G=3 and G=2.5) polytropic equation of state and the black hole as a Newtonian point mass. Our initial conditions correspond to irrotational binaries in equilibrium (approximating the NS as a compressible ellipsoid), and we have explored configurations with different initial mass ratios, 0.2< q=M_ns/M_bh<0.5. The dynamical evolution is followed for ~23ms. We include gravitational radiation losses in the quadrupole approximation for a point-mass binary. For G=3, after an initial episode of mass transfer, the NS is not completely disrupted and a remnant core remains in orbit about the black hole. For G=2.5 the disruption is more complex, with the NS being totally disrupted during a second periastron passage. The accretion disc formed around the black hole contains ~0.2 solar masses. A nearly baryon-free axis is always present in the system, and only modest beaming of a relativistic fireball that could give rise to a GRB would be sufficient to avoid baryon contamination. Around 0.01 solar masses may be dynamically ejected from the system, and could contribute substantially to the amount of observed galactic r-process material. We calculate the gravitational radiation waveforms in the quadrupole approximation. We also present the results of simulations that have used spherical NSs relaxed in isolation as initial conditions, in order to gauge the effect of using non-equilibrium initial conditions on the coalescence.

  6. Optimal control, parabolic equations, st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the optimal control problem of the heat equation by a distributed control over a subset of the domain, in the presence of a state constraint.

  7. Partial Differential Equations of Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Geroch

    1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparently, all partial differential equations that describe physical phenomena in space-time can be cast into a universal quasilinear, first-order form. In this paper, we do two things. First, we describe some broad features of systems of differential equations so formulated. Examples of such features include hyperbolicity of the equations, constraints and their roles (e.g., in connection with the initial-value formulation), how diffeomorphism freedom is manifest, and how interactions between systems arise and operate. Second, we give a number of examples that illustrate how the equations for physical systems are cast into this form. These examples suggest that the first-order, quasilinear form for a system is often not only the simplest mathematically, but also the most transparent physically.

  8. Gravitational radiation, energy and reaction on quasi-spherical black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward

    2001-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational radiation is locally defined where the wavefronts are roughly spherical. A local energy tensor is defined for the gravitational radiation. Including this energy tensor as a source in the truncated Einstein equations describes gravitational radiation reaction, such as back-reaction on a roughly spherical black hole. The energy-momentum in a canonical frame is covariantly conserved. The strain to be measured by a distant detector is simply defined.

  9. Nanoscale heat transfer - from computation to experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Tengfei

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer can differ distinctly at the nanoscale from that at the macroscale. Recent advancement in

  10. Chapter Two Model Equations and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    was established after Miller and White (1984). Equations (1.2.30), (1.2.31), (1.2.33), (1.2.34), (1.2.38), and (1, and the equations for the conservation of water vapour, cloud water and rain water. Ice phase is not included in our model at the moment. Variables q v , q c and q r are the specific humidity of water vapour, cloud water

  11. Initial state radiation experiment at MAMI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihovilovi?, M.; Merkel, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A1-Collaboration

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to contribute further insight into the discrepancy between the Lamb shift and elastic scattering determinations of the proton charge radius, a new experiment at MAMI is underway, aimed at measuring proton form-factors at very low momentum transfers by using a new technique based on initial state radiation. This paper reports on first findings of the pilot measurement performed in 2010, whose main goal was to check the feasibility of the proposed experiment and to recognize and overcome potential obstacles before running the full experiment in 2013.

  12. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  13. How accurate is Limber's equation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Simon

    2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The so-called Limber equation is widely used in the literature to relate the projected angular clustering of galaxies to the spatial clustering of galaxies in an approximate way. This paper gives estimates of where the regime of applicability of Limber's equation stops. Limber's equation is accurate for small galaxy separations but breaks down beyond a certain separation that depends mainly on the ratio sigma/R and to some degree on the power-law index, gamma, of spatial clustering xi; sigma is the one-sigma width of the galaxy distribution in comoving distance, and R the mean comoving distance. As rule-of-thumb, a 10% relative error is reached at 260 sigma/R arcmin for gamma~1.6, if the spatial clustering is a power-law. More realistic xi are discussed in the paper. Limber's equation becomes increasingly inaccurate for larger angular separations. Ignoring this effect and blindly applying Limber's equation can possibly bias results for the inferred spatial correlation. It is suggested to use in cases of doubt, or maybe even in general, the exact equation that can easily be integrated numerically in the form given in the paper.

  14. Radiation Reaction, Renormalization and Poincaré Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yurij Yaremko

    2005-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the self-action problem in classical electrodynamics of a massive point-like charge, as well as of a massless one. A consistent regularization procedure is proposed, which exploits the symmetry properties of the theory. The radiation reaction forces in both 4D and 6D are derived. It is demonstrated that the Poincar\\'e-invariant six-dimensional electrodynamics of the massive charge is renormalizable theory. Unlike the massive case, the rates of radiated energy-momentum tend to infinity whenever the source is accelerated. The external electromagnetic fields, which do not change the velocity of the particle, admit only its presence within the interaction area. The effective equation of motion is the equation for eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor. The interference part of energy-momentum radiated by two massive point charges arbitrarily moving in flat spacetime is evaluated. It is shown that the sum of work done by Lorentz forces of charges acting on one another exhausts the effect of combination of outgoing electromagnetic waves generated by the charges.

  15. Canister Transfer System Description Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane/hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling cell is located adjacent to the canister transfer cell and is interconnected to the transfer cell by means of the off-normal canister transfer tunnel. All canister transfer operations are controlled by the Control and Tracking System. The system interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Handling System for incoming and outgoing transportation casks. The system also interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System, which prepares the DC for loading and subsequently seals the loaded DC. The system support interfaces are the Waste Handling Building System and other internal Waste Handling Building (WHB) support systems.

  16. CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling cell is located adjacent to the canister transfer cell and is interconnected to the transfer cell by means of the off-normal canister transfer tunnel. All canister transfer operations are controlled by the Control and Tracking System. The system interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Handling System for incoming and outgoing transportation casks. The system also interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System, which prepares the DC for loading and subsequently seals the loaded DC. The system support interfaces are the Waste Handling Building System and other internal Waste Handling Building (WHB) support systems.

  17. Polarisation Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hamilton

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E99-114 comprised a series of measurements to explore proton Compton scattering at high momentum transfer. For the first time, the polarisation transfer observables in the p (~ 0 ~ p) reaction were measured in the GeV energy range, where it is believed that quark-gluon degrees of freedom begin to dominate. The experiment utilised a circularly polarised photon beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target, with the scattered photon and recoil proton detected in a lead-glass calorimeter and a magnetic spectrometer, respectively.

  18. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  19. Propagation of Partially Coherent Photons in an Ultra-Intense Radiation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattias Marklund

    2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The scattering of photons off photons at the one-loop level is investigated. We give a short review of the weak field limit, as given by the first order term in the series expansion of the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian. The dispersion relation for a photon in a radiation gas is presented. Based on this, a wave kinetic equation and a set of fluid equations is formulated. These equations describe the interaction between a partially coherent electromagnetic pulse and an intense radiation gas. The implications of the results are discussed.

  20. TOPAZ3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, A.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.