Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six different microphysical schemes. The radar data provide the statistical distribution of the radar reflectivity values as a function of height and anvil thickness. These statistics are compared to the statistics of the modeled anvil cloud reflectivity at all altitudes. Requiring the model to be statistically accurate at all altitudes is a stringent test of the model performance. The typical vertical profile of radiative heating in the anvil clouds is computed from the radar observations. Variability of anvil structures from the different microphysical schemes provides an estimate of the inherent uncertainty in anvil radiative heating profiles. All schemes underestimate the optical thickness of thin anvils and cirrus, resulting in a bias of excessive net anvil heating in all of the simulations.

Powell, Scott W.; Houze, R.; Kumar, Anil; McFarlane, Sally A.

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

3

Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil ...

Scott W. Powell; Robert A. Houze Jr.; Anil Kumar; Sally A. McFarlane

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

ARM - Evaluation Product - Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsBroadband Heating Rate Profile Project ProductsBroadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) 2000.03.01 - 2006.02.28 Site(s) SGP General Description The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties

5

Determination of Clear-Sky Radiative Flux Profiles, Heating Rates, and Optical Depths Using Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles as a Platform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the authors report results obtained using an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV) as an experimental platform for atmospheric radiative transfer research. These are the first ever climate measurements made from a UAV and represent a ...

Francisco P. J. Valero; Shelly K. Pope; Robert G. Ellingson; Anthony W. Strawa; John Vitko Jr.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Surface Forcing of the Infrared Cooling Profile over the Tibetan Plateau. Part I: Influence of Relative Longwave Radiative Heating at High Altitude  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of the Tibetan Plateau on the behavior of the surface longwave radiation budget is examined, and the behavior of the vertical profile of longwave cooling over the plateau, including its diurnal variation, is quantified. The investigation ...

Eric A. Smith; Lei Shi

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTSEDASSNDCLASS1 : Model Output Loc. Time Ser. (MOLTS): EDAS

8

Downstream Heat Flux Profile vs. Midplane T Profile in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between the midplane scrape-off-layer electron temperature profile and the parallel heat flux profile at the divertor in tokamaks is investigated. A model is applied which takes into account anisotropic thermal diffusion, in a rectilinear geometry with constant density. Eigenmode analysis is applied to the simplified problem with constant thermal diffusivities. A self-similar nonlinear solution is found for the more realistic problem with anisotropically temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities. Numerical solutions are developed for both cases, with spatially dependent heat flux emerging from the plasma. For both constant and temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities it is found that, below about one-half of its peak, the heat flux profile shape at the divertor, compared with the midplane temperature profile shape, is robustly described by the simplest two-point model. However the physical processes are not those assumed in the simplest two-point model, nor is the numerical coefficient relating q||div to Tmp ?||mp/L|| as predicted. For realistic parameters the peak in the heat flux, moreover, can be reduced by a factor of two or more from the two-point model scaling which fits the remaining profile. For temperature profiles in the SOL region above the x-point set by marginal stability, the heat flux profile to the divertor can be largely decoupled from the prediction of the two-point model. These results suggest caveats for data interpretation, and possibly favorable outcomes for divertor configurations with extended field lines.

Robert J. Goldston

2009-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

9

Diabatic Heating Profiles in Recent Global Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diabatic heating profiles are extremely important to the atmospheric circulation in the tropics and therefore to the earth’s energy and hydrological cycles. However, their global structures are poorly known because of limited information from in ...

Jian Ling; Chidong Zhang

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

The Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately accounting for radiative energy balance between the incoming solar and the outgoing infrared radiative fluxes is very important in modeling the Earth's climate. Water vapor absorption plays a critical role in the radiative heating rate ...

D. D. Turner; E. J. Mlawer

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Solid state radiative heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Solid state radiative heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

Berdahl, P.H.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

13

Deriving the Surface Soil Heat Flux from Observed Soil Temperature and Soil Heat Flux Profiles Using a Variational Data Assimilation Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel approach to infer surface soil heat fluxes from measured profiles of soil temperature, soil heat flux, and observations of the vegetation canopy temperature and the incoming shortwave radiation is evaluated for the Cabauw measurement ...

R. J. Ronda; F. C. Bosveld

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Heating Profiles Derived From Cm-wavelength Radar During TWP...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heating Profiles Derived From Cm-wavelength Radar During TWP-ICE Heating Profiles Derived From Cm-wavelength Radar During TWP-ICE Courtney Schumacher and Kaycee Frederick Courtney...

15

Heat radiation from long cylindrical objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The heat radiated by objects smaller than or comparable in size to the thermal wavelength can be very different from the classical blackbody radiation as described by the Planck and Stefan-Boltzmann laws. We use methods ...

Golyk, Vladyslav A.

16

VLF heating of the lower ionosphere: Variation with magnetic latitude and electron density profile  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the results of calculations of ionospheric absorption of VLF heating radiation, in comparison with HF heating. This work was motivated by recent observations of the effects of VLF heating, which indicate that it is much more efficient than HF heating, at least for certain ionospheric conditions. The authors assume an ionospheric model which is consistent with that observed during the previous heating experiments. Their results are in basic agreement with the experimental observations. They find that the enhancement in efficiency of VLF heating over HF heating is a feature of low latitudes, where ionospheric density profiles favor this effect. In the polar regions, HF heating is more efficient.

Barr, R. (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand)); Stubbe, P. (Max Planck Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany))

1992-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

17

Conceptual design of a heat pipe radiator  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design of a waste heat radiator has been developed for a thermoelectric space nuclear power system. The basic shape of the heat pipe radiator was a frustum of a right circular cone. The design included stringer heat pipes to carry reject heat from the thermoelectric modules to the radiator skin that was composed of small-diameter, thin-walled cross heat pipes. The stringer heat pipes were armored to resist puncture by a meteoroid. The cross heat pipes were designed to provide the necessary unpunctured radiating area at the mission end with a minimum initial system mass. Several design cases were developed in which the individual stringer survival probabilities were varied and the radiator system mass was calculated. Results are presented for system mass as a function of individual stringer survival probability for six candidate container materials, three candidate heat pipe fluids, two radiator operating temperatures, two meteoroid shield types, and two radiating surface cases. Results are also presented for radiator reject heat as a function of system mass, area, and length for three system sizes.

Bennett, G.A.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Radiative heat transfer between dielectric bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recent development of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) has led to measurements of radiative heat transfer between a heated sensor and a cooled sample down to the nanometer range. This allows for comparision of the known theoretical description of radiative heat transfer, which is based on fluctuating electrodynamics, with experiment. The theory itself is a macroscopic theory, which can be expected to break down at distances much smaller than 10-8m. Against this background it seems to be reasonable to revisit the known macroscopic theory of fluctuating electrodynamics and of radiative heat transfer.

Svend-Age Biehs

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

19

Radiative Heat Transfer between Neighboring Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The near-field interaction between two neighboring particles is known to produce enhanced radiative heat transfer. We advance in the understanding of this phenomenon by including the full electromagnetic particle response, heat exchange with the environment, and important radiative corrections both in the distance dependence of the fields and in the particle absorption coefficients. We find that crossed terms of electric and magnetic interactions dominate the transfer rate between gold and SiC particles, whereas radiative corrections reduce it by several orders of magnitude even at small separations. Radiation away from the dimer can be strongly suppressed or enhanced at low and high temperatures, respectively. These effects must be taken into account for an accurate description of radiative heat transfer in nanostructured environments.

Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier Garcia de Abajo

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

20

Beat-wave heating with density profile steepening  

SciTech Connect

Electron heating by the beat between 0.53 and 1.06 ..mu..m light in a self-consistently steepened density profile is examined.

Kruer, W.L.; Estabrook, K.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Radiative Heating Rates for Saharan Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined longwave and shortwave radiative transfer model was used to determine effects of Saharan dust on the radiative fluxes and heating/cooling rates in the atmosphere. Cases are treated for cloud-free and overcast conditions over the ocean ...

Toby N. Carlson; Stanley G. Benjamin

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

A 10-Year Climatology of Tropical Radiative Heating and Its Vertical Structure from TRMM Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper outlines recent advances in estimating atmospheric radiative heating rate profiles from the sensors aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The approach employs a deterministic framework in which four distinct retrievals ...

Tristan S. L’Ecuyer; Greg McGarragh

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Influence of Infrared Radiation on Attic Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study concerned with different modes of heal transfer in fibrous and cellulose insulating material is presented. A series of experiments were conducted using an attic simulator to determine the effects of ventilation on attic heat transfer, and the effect of infrared radiation on the thermal conductivity of the insulation system and on attic heat transfer. All the tests were performed at steady state conditions by controlling the roof deck temperature. Calculations are performed for insulation thicknesses between 1 inch (2.54cm) and 6.0 inches (15.24cm) and roof deck temperatures between 145°F (62.78°C) and 100°F (36.78°C). The temperature profiles within the insulation were measured by placing thermocouples at various levels within the insulation. The profiles for the cellulose insulation are linear. The profiles within the glass fiber insulation are non-linear due to the effect of infrared radiation. Also heat fluxes were measured through different insulation thicknesses and for different roof temperatures. It was found that a radiant barrier such as aluminum foil can reduce the heat flux significantly. Experimental results were compared to a Three-Region approximate solution developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL). The model was in good agreement with experimental results.

Katipamula, S.; Turner, W. D.; Murphy, W. E.; O'Neal, D. L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Feedbacks between Eddy Heat Fluxes and Radiative Heating in an Energy-Balance Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of midlatitude temperature structure to changes in radiative forcing is examined in an analytical energy-balance model that includes parameterized eddy heat fluxes and linear radiative heating. The characteristics of heat-...

Lee E. Branscome; Enda O'Brien

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bands Campaign (RHUBC) D. Turner and E. Mlawer RHUBC Breakout Session 2008 ARM Science Team Meeting 13 March, 2008 Norfolk, Virginia Motivation * Radiative heating/cooling in the mid-troposphere modulate the vertical motions of the atmosphere - This heating/cooling occurs primarily in water vapor absorption bands that are opaque at the surface * Approximately 40% of the OLR comes from the far-IR * Until recently, the observational tools were not available to evaluate the accuracy of the far-IR radiative transfer models - Spectrally resolved far-IR radiances, accurate PWV * Need to validate both clear sky (WV) absorption and cirrus scattering properties in these normally opaque bands Scientific Objectives * Conduct clear sky radiative closure studies in order to reduce uncertainties

26

Estimates of Tropical Diabatic Heating Profiles: Commonalities and Uncertainties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aims to evaluate the consistency and discrepancies in estimates of diabatic heating profiles associated with precipitation based on satellite observations and microphysics and those derived from the thermodynamics of the large-scale ...

Samson Hagos; Chidong Zhang; Wei-Kuo Tao; Steve Lang; Yukari N. Takayabu; Shoichi Shige; Masaki Katsumata; Bill Olson; Tristan L’Ecuyer

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.

Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

28

Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between atmosphere and ocean References part at high frequencies delivers the exchange time. Cool skin of the ocean the net heat flux between gas exchange and wind speed over the ocean, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7373-7381, 1992, Nightingale, P

Jaehne, Bernd

29

Near-field radiative heat transfer for structured surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We apply an analytical approach for determining the near-field radiative heat transfer between a metallic nanosphere and a planar semi-infinite medium with some given surface structure. This approach is based on a perturbative expansion, and evaluated to first order in the surface profile. With the help of numerical results obtained for some simple model geometries we discuss typical signatures that should be obtainable with a near-field scanning thermal microscope operated in either constant-height or constant-distance mode.

Svend-Age Biehs; Oliver Huth; Felix Rüting

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Delamere, Jennifer Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Johnson, Karen Brookhaven National Laboratory Troyan, David Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Shippert, Timothy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Long, Chuck Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Heck, Patrick University of Wisconsin Rutan, David Analytical Services & Materials, Inc.

31

Parameterization of Radiative Flux Profiles within Layer Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical structure of radiative flux profiles within clouds can have a significant impact on the thermodynamic processes that maintain and dissipate the clouds, particularly in the case of marine stratus and stratocumulus. However, dynamic ...

Howard P. Hanson; Vernon E. Derr

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications  

SciTech Connect

Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance(kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of lightweight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Elder, M.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Rainfall and Radiative Heating Rates from TOGA COARE Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heat and moisture budgets are used to determine rainfall and radiative heating rates over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Results are ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Flexible profile approach to the conjugate heat transfer problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The flexible profile approach proposed earlier to create CTM (compact or reduced order thermal models) is extended to cover the area of conjugate heat transfer. The flexible profile approach is a methodology that allows building a highly boundary conditions independent CTM, with any desired degree of accuracy, that may adequately replace detailed 3D models for the whole spectrum of applications in which the modeled object may be used. The extension to conjugate problems radically solves the problem of interfacing two different domains. Each domain, fluid or solid, can be "compacted" independently creating two CTM that can be joined together to produce reliable results for any arbitrary set of external boundary conditions.

M. -N. Sabry

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Scaling Laws and Temperature Profiles for Solar and Stellar Coronal Loops with Non-uniform Heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The bulk of solar coronal radiative loss consists of soft X-ray emission from quasi-static loops at the cores of Active Regions. In order to develop diagnostics for determining the heating mechanism of these loops from observations by coronal imaging instruments, I have developed analytical solutions for the temperature structure and scaling laws of loop strands for a wide range of heating functions, including footpoint heating, uniform heating, and heating concentrated at the loop apex. Key results are that the temperature profile depends only weakly on the heating distribution -- not sufficiently to be of significant diagnostic value -- and that the scaling laws survive for this wide range of heating distributions, but with the constant of proportionality in the RTV scaling law ($P_{0}L \\thicksim T_{max}^3$) depending on the specific heating function. Furthermore, quasi-static analytical solutions do not exist for an excessive concentration of heating near the loop footpoints, a result in agreement with recent numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that a generalization of the solutions to the case of a strand with a variable diameter leads to only relatively small correction factors in the scaling laws and temperature profiles for constant diameter loop strands. A quintet of leading theoretical coronal heating mechanisms is shown to be captured by the formalism of this paper, and the differences in thermal structure between them may be verified through observations. Preliminary results from full numerical simulations demonstrate that, despite the simplifying assumptions, the analytical solutions from this paper are stable and accurate.

P. C. H. Martens

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

36

Trace formulas for nonequilibrium Casimir interactions, heat radiation, and heat transfer for arbitrary objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed derivation of heat radiation, heat transfer, and (Casimir) interactions for N arbitrary objects in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics in thermal nonequilibrium. The results can be expressed ...

Bimonte, Giuseppe

37

Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Diurnal Covariation in Soil Heat Flux and Net Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diurnal variation in soil heat flux is a key constraint on the amount of energy available for sensible and latent heating of the lower troposphere. Many studies have demonstrated that soil heat flux G is strongly correlated with net radiation Rn. ...

Joseph A. Santanello Jr.; Mark A. Friedl

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Long titanium heat pipes for high-temperature space radiators  

SciTech Connect

Titanium heat pipes are being developed to provide light weight, reliable heat rejection devices as an alternate radiator design for the Space Reactor Power System (SP-100). The radiator design includes 360 heat pipes, each of which is 5.2 m long and dissipates 3 kW of power at 775 K. The radiator heat pipes use potassium as the working fluid, have two screen arteries for fluid return, a roughened surface distributive wicking system, and a D-shaped cross-section container configuration. A prototype titanium heat pipe, 5.5-m long, has been fabricated and tested in space-simulating conditions. Results from startup and isothermal operation tests are presented. These results are also compared to theoretical performance predictions that were used to design the heat pipe initially.

Girrens, S.P.; Ernst, D.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Radiative Heating and Cooling Rates in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the limitations to the accurate calculation of radiative heating and cooling rates in the stratosphere and mesosphere has been the lack of accurate data on the atmospheric temperature and composition. Data from the LIMS experiment on ...

John C. Gille; Lawrence V. Lyjak

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada Introduction A single-column model (SCM) is used to examine the sensitivity of basic quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes to various parameter- izations of clouds and cloud microphysics. The SCM was run at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites using forcing data derived from forecast products. The forecast

42

Heat pipe radiation cooling evaluation: Task 2 concept studies report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the result of Task 2, Concept Studies for Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC), which was performed for Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract 9-XT1-U9567. Studies under a prior contract defined a reference HPRC conceptual design for hypersonic aircraft engines operating at Mach 5 and an altitude of 80,000 ft. Task 2 involves the further investigation of heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) systems for additional design and operating conditions.

Silverstein, C.C.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Enhanced radiative heat transfer between nanostructured gold plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the radiative heat transfer between nanostructured gold plates in the framework of the scattering theory. We predict an enhancement of the heat transfer as we increase the depth of the corrugations while keeping the distance of closest approach fixed. We interpret this effect in terms of the evolution of plasmonic and guided modes as a function of the grating's geometry.

R. Guérout; J. Lussange; F. S. S. Rosa; J. -P. Hugonin; D. A. R. Dalvit; J. -J. Greffet; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

44

Radiation Hydrodynamics Test Problems with Linear Velocity Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As an extension of the works of Coggeshall and Ramsey, a class of analytic solutions to the radiation hydrodynamics equations is derived for code verification purposes. These solutions are valid under assumptions including diffusive radiation transport, a polytropic gas equation of state, constant conductivity, separable flow velocity proportional to the curvilinear radial coordinate, and divergence-free heat flux. In accordance with these assumptions, the derived solution class is mathematically invariant with respect to the presence of radiative heat conduction, and thus represents a solution to the compressible flow (Euler) equations with or without conduction terms included. With this solution class, a quantitative code verification study (using spatial convergence rates) is performed for the cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow code xRAGE developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Simulation results show near second order spatial convergence in all physical variables when using the hydrodynamics solver only, consistent with that solver's underlying order of accuracy. However, contrary to the mathematical properties of the solution class, when heat conduction algorithms are enabled the calculation does not converge to the analytic solution.

Hendon, Raymond C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

Trace formulae for non-equilibrium Casimir interactions, heat radiation and heat transfer for arbitrary objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed derivation of heat radiation, heat transfer and (Casimir) interactions for N arbitrary objects in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics in thermal non-equilibrium. The results can be expressed as basis-independent trace formulae in terms of the scattering operators of the individual objects. We prove that heat radiation of a single object is positive, and that heat transfer (for two arbitrary passive objects) is from the hotter to a colder body. The heat transferred is also symmetric, exactly reversed if the two temperatures are exchanged. Introducing partial wave-expansions, we transform the results for radiation, transfer and forces into traces of matrices that can be evaluated in any basis, analogous to the equilibrium Casimir force. The method is illustrated by (re)deriving the heat radiation of a plate, a sphere and a cylinder. We analyze the radiation of a sphere for different materials, emphasizing that a simplification often employed for metallic nano-spheres is typically invalid. We derive asymptotic formulae for heat transfer and non-equilibrium interactions for the cases of a sphere in front a plate and for two spheres, extending previous results. As an example, we show that a hot nano-sphere can levitate above a plate with the repulsive non-equilibrium force overcoming gravity -- an effect that is not due to radiation pressure.

Matthias Krüger; Giuseppe Bimonte; Thorsten Emig; Mehran Kardar

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

46

Temperature Profile Measurements During Heat Treatment of BSCCO 2212 Coils  

SciTech Connect

The temperature profile of two different BSCCO 2212 coils has been analyzed. The profiles are obtained from thermocouples imbedded in the windings during the heat treatment that activates the 2212. The melting and freezing of the 2212 is clearly observed. A model that describes the data and can be used to guide the processing of new coils has been developed. We have obtained the thermal history of two BSCCO coils, one from NHMFL (1) that had 10 layers of 1 mm diameter wire with 0.15 mm insulation and a second coil from OST that had 24 layers with similar insulation and conductor size. Both coils had thermocouples imbedded in the windings and excellent recordings of the temperature over the whole reaction cycle were available for analysis. There are several features that we will address in this note. Measurements have shown that the I{sub c} of the conductor is a sensitive function of its thermal history. This brings up the question of the absolute accuracy of the thermometry in the range around 882 C, the MP of 2212. The reference for the treatment profile is really related to this MP and to small deviations around it. Since the heat of fusion of 2212 is rather large, it generates a clear signal during the melting and cooling transition that automatically generates the relative temperature markers. The physics is the same as the way ice in water maintains an isothermal environment until it is all melted. A related question is the thermal response time of the coil package. The temperature cycles that are being used to optimize strand and small coils can have rapid changes easily implemented whereas a large coil may have such a large thermal time constant that the optimum cycle may not be attainable. A simple analytical model that works well for small solenoids has been developed and an ANSYS (5) program that works for larger coils with more complicated geometry has been set up but will not be discussed in this note.

Tollestrup, Alvin; /Fermilab

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

47

Approximations for radiative cooling and heating in the solar chromosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. The radiative energy balance in the solar chromosphere is dominated by strong spectral lines that are formed out of LTE. It is computationally prohibitive to solve the full equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium in 3D time dependent MHD simulations. Aims. To find simple recipes to compute the radiative energy balance in the dominant lines under solar chromospheric conditions. Methods. We use detailed calculations in time-dependent and 2D MHD snapshots to derive empirical formulae for the radiative cooling and heating. Results. The radiative cooling in neutral hydrogen lines and the Lyman continuum, the H and K and intrared triplet lines of singly ionized calcium and the h and k lines of singly ionized magnesium can be written as a product of an optically thin emission (dependent on temperature), an escape probability (dependent on column mass) and an ionization fraction (dependent on temperature). In the cool pockets of the chromosphere the same transitions contribute to the heat...

Carlsson, Mats

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Spectral Retrieval of Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM PR Data. Part I: Development of a Model-Based Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm, the spectral latent heating (SLH) algorithm, has been developed to estimate latent heating profiles for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar with a cloud-resolving model (CRM). Heating-profile lookup tables ...

Shoichi Shige; Yukari N. Takayabu; Wei-Kuo Tao; Daniel E. Johnson

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Uncertainty of Boundary Layer Heat Budgets Computed from Wind Profiler—RASS Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainties in the evaluation of the atmospheric heat budget, in which the turbulent heat flux divergence term is calculated as a residual, are investigated for a triangular array of 915-MHz wind profilers—radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS) ...

Markus Furger; C. David Whiteman; James M. Wilczak

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Coherent Diffraction Radiation Longitudinal Beam Profile Monitor for CTF3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A setup for the investigation of Coherent Diffraction Radiation (CDR) from a conducting screen as a tool for noninvasive longitudinal electron beam profile diagnostics has been designed and installed in the Combiner Ring Measurement (CRM) line of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3, CERN). In this report the status of the monitor development and results on the interferometric measurements of CDR spectra are presented. The CDR signal correlation with an RF pickup and a streak camera is reported. The future plans for the system improvements are also discussed

Micheler, Maximilian; Boorman, Gary; Karataev, Pavel; Lekomtsev, Konstantin; Molloy, Stephen; Corsini, Roberto; Dabrowski, Anne; Lefevre, Thibaut

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Vertical Temperature Profiles at Maximum Entropy Production with a Net Exchange Radiative Formulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Like any fluid heated from below, the atmosphere is subject to vertical instability which triggers convection. Convection occurs on small time and space scales, which makes it a challenging feature to include in climate models. Usually sub-grid parameterizations are required. Here, we develop an alternative view based on a global thermodynamic variational principle. We compute convective flux profiles and temperature profiles at steady-state in an implicit way, by maximizing the associated entropy production rate. Two settings are examined, corresponding respectively to the idealized case of a gray atmosphere, and a realistic case based on a Net Exchange Formulation radiative scheme. In the second case, we are also able to discuss the effect of variations of the atmospheric composition, like a doubling of the carbon dioxide concentration.

Herbert, Corentin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Feasibility of night-sky radiation with heat pumps  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the procedure involved in the determination of the feasibility of high-sky radiation as the means of rejecting heat through solar collectors for a sample residential house in the Evansville area. It presents conclusions on different types of coatings that are used on solar collectors. It also designs the system, and its backup, in schematic form. For the purpose of cost analysis it discusses the difference of a cooling tower and night-sky radiation.

McKinney, T.G.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Downflow heat transfer in a heated ribbed vertical annulus with a cosine power profile  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments designed to investigate downflow heat transfer in a heated, ribbed annulus test section simulating one of the annular coolant channels of a Savannah River Plant production reactor Mark 22 fuel assembly have been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The inner surface of the annulus was constructed of aluminum and was electrically heated to provide an axial cosine power profile and a flat azimuthal power shape. Data presented in this report are from the ECS-2c series, which was a follow on series to the ECS-2b series, conducted specifically to provide additional data on the effect of different powers at the same test conditions, for use in evaluation of possible power effects on the aluminum temperature measurements. Electrical powers at 90%, 100%, and 110% of the power required to result in the maximum aluminum temperature at fluid saturation temperature were used at each set of test conditions previously used in the ECS-2b series. The ECS-2b series was conducted in the same test rig as the previous ECS-2b series. Data and experimental description for the ECS-2b series is provided in a previous report. 18 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Anderson, J.L.; Condie, K.G.; Larson, T.K.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A mesoscopic description of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a formulation of the nanoscale radiative heat transfer (RHT) using concepts of mesoscopic physics. We introduce the analog of the Sharvin conductance using the quantum of thermal conductance. The formalism provides a convenient framework to analyse the physics of RHT at the nanoscale. Finally, we propose a RHT experiment in the regime of quantized conductance.

Svend-Age Biehs; Emmanuel Rousseau; Jean-Jacques Greffet

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

55

Instrument Development Tethered Balloon Sounding System for Vertical Radiation Profiles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tethered Balloon Sounding System Tethered Balloon Sounding System for Vertical Radiation Profiles C. D. Whiteman J. M. Alzheimer G. A. Anderson M. R. Garnich W. J. Shaw Pacific Northwest Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 platform is built on a triangular frame identical to the one on the Sky Platform, but the MSP carries no radiometric sensors, control loop, or leveling motors. Rather. the MSP is instrumented to measure the motions to which the Sky Platform will be subjected; the data provide engineering information to be used in the final design of the control loop and structural elements of the Sky Platform. An array of six miniature solid state accelerometers provides the raw data from which balloon motions are determined. Future plans call for the installation of a small attitude gyroscope on the

56

Numerical Modeling of Heat Pipe Radiator and Fin Size Optimization for Low and No Gravity Environments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A heat-pipe radiator element has been designed and modeled to study the efficiency of heat transfer for low and no gravity environments, like in lunar… (more)

Bieger, Virginia Ruth

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Scalable photon monte carlo algorithms and software for the solution of radiative heat transfer problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative heat transfer plays a central role in many combustion and engineering applications. Because of its highly nonlinear and nonlocal nature, the computational cost can be extremely high to model radiative heat transfer effects accurately. In this ...

Ivana Veljkovic; Paul E. Plassmann

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Handbook of radiative heat transfer in high-temperature gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work offers both an original method for calculating optical properties of low-temperature plasma at elevated densities ... and an effective new means for calculating radiative heat transfer in hot gases and plasma with arbitrary temperature and pressure distributions. These methods allow for automatic accounting of all details of the plasma spectrum, including the line structure. This volume contains radiant transfer in problems of heat transfer; integration over frequency; methods of partial characteristics; method of effective populations; calculation of partial characteristics; appendix: tabular data.

Soloukhin, R.I.; Golovnev, I.F.; Zamurayev, V.P.; Katsnelson, S.S.; Kovalskaya, G.A.; Sevastyanenko, V.G.; Soloukhin, R.I.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Observed Large-Scale Structures and Diabatic Heating and Drying Profiles during TWP-ICE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study documents the characteristics of the large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles observed during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), which was conducted in January–February 2006 in ...

Shaocheng Xie; Timothy Hume; Christian Jakob; Stephen A. Klein; Renata B. McCoy; Minghua Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Empirical Determination of the Basic Modes of Cumulus Heating and Drying Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The constraint on the coupled vertical profiles of cumulus heating and drying, which can be used as a partial closure in cumulus parameterization, is examined using observational data from convectively active regions in the summertime. The data ...

Chichung Lin; Akio Arakawa

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Improving Multimodel Forecasts of the Vertical Distribution of Heating Using the TRMM Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project office made available a new product called the convective–stratiform heating (CSH). These are the datasets for vertical profiles ...

T. N. Krishnamurti; Arindam Chakraborty; A. K. Mishra

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Latent Heat Flux Profiles from Collocated Airborne Water Vapor and Wind Lidars during IHOP_2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Latent heat flux profiles in the convective boundary layer (CBL) are obtained for the first time with the combination of the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the NOAA high ...

C. Kiemle; G. Ehret; A. Fix; M. Wirth; G. Poberaj; W. A. Brewer; R. M. Hardesty; C. Senff; M. A. LeMone

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Radiative Heating Profiles in Simple Cirrus Cloud Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results from one-dimensional cirrus cloud model simulations in the absence of upward velocities are used to show that the growth/sublimation of the ice particles in the cloud, and the fact that they are falling, can be important factors in ...

Andrew Detwiler; V. Ramaswamy

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Vertical Profiles of Aerosol and Radiation and the Influence of a Temperature Inversion: Measurements and Radiative Transfer Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of an airborne experiment performed near Mönchengladbach (Germany) in November 1993 are reported. Besides meteorological data, vertical profiles of aerosol properties (number concentration, size distribution) and radiation (...

M. Wendisch; S. Mertes; A. Ruggaber; T. Nakajima

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Mathematical simulation of temperature profiles within microwave heated wood made for wood-based nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive ...

Xianjun Li, Yongfeng Luo, Hongbin Chen, Xia He, Jianxiong Lv, Yiqiang Wu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Design and development of a titanium heat-pipe space radiator  

SciTech Connect

A titanium heat-pipe radiator has been designed for use in a 100-kW/sub e/ nuclear-thermoelectric (TE) space power plant. The radiator is required to have a 99% probability of remaining functional at full power at the end of a seven-year mission. The radiator has a conical-cylindrical shape and is compatible for launch in the space shuttle. The radiator heat pipes are arranged into panel segments and each reactor-core thermoelectric heat-pipe unit has four radiator heat pipes for redundancy. Radiator mass was minimized was based on acceptable losses due to micrometeoroid impact. Results of studies on various design parameters are presented in terms of radiator mass. Developments on the design and testing of the radiator heat pipes are also presented. Prototype titanium (potassium working fluid) heat pipes were fabricated and tested in space-simulating conditions. Testing results are compared to analytical performance predictions.

Girrens, S.P.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

Blackmore, V; Doucas, G; Kimmitt, M F; Molloy, S; Ottewell, B; Perry, C; Woods, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Thermal heat radiation, near-field energy density and near-field radiative heat transfer of coated materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the thermal radiation and thermal near-field energy density of a metal-coated semi-infinite body for different substrates. We show that the surface polariton coupling within the metal coating leads to an enhancement of the TM-mode part of the thermal near-field energy density when a polar substrate is used. In this case the result obtained for a free standing metal film is retrieved. In contrast, in the case of a metal substrate there is no enhancement in the TM-mode part, as can also be explained within the framework of surface plasmon coupling within the coating. Finally, we discuss the influence of the enhanced thermal energy density on the near-field radiative heat transfer between a simple semi-infinite and a coated semi-infinite body for different material combinations.

Biehs, Svend-Age

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Thermal heat radiation, near-field energy density and near-field radiative heat transfer of coated materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the thermal radiation and thermal near-field energy density of a metal-coated semi-infinite body for different substrates. We show that the surface polariton coupling within the metal coating leads to an enhancement of the TM-mode part of the thermal near-field energy density when a polar substrate is used. In this case the result obtained for a free standing metal film is retrieved. In contrast, in the case of a metal substrate there is no enhancement in the TM-mode part, as can also be explained within the framework of surface plasmon coupling within the coating. Finally, we discuss the influence of the enhanced thermal energy density on the near-field radiative heat transfer between a simple semi-infinite and a coated semi-infinite body for different material combinations.

Svend-Age Biehs

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Gene Expression Profiles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 with funding from the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program...

71

Electron Bunch Profile Reconstruction in the Few fs Regime using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Advanced accelerators for fourth generation light sources based on high brightness linacs or laser-driven wakefield accelerators will operate with intense, highly relativistic electron bunches that are only a few fs long. Diagnostic techniques for the determination of temporal profile of such bunches are required to be non invasive, single shot, economic and with the required resolution in the fs regime. The use of a radiative process such as coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR), is particularly promising with this respect. In this technique the beam is made to radiate a small amount of electromagnetic radiation and the temporal profile is reconstructed from the measured spectral distribution of the radiation. We summarise the advantages of SPR and present the design parameters and preliminary results of the experiments at the FACET facility at SLAC. We also discuss a new approach to the problem of the recovery of the 'missing phase', which is essential for the accurate reconstruction of the temporal bunch profile.

Bartolini, R.; /Oxford U., JAI /Diamond Light Source /SLAC; Clarke, C.; /SLAC; Delerue, N; /Oxford U., JAI /Diamond Light Source /SLAC; Doucas, G; Reichold, A; /Oxford U., JAI

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

72

Radiative Heating Errors in Naturally Ventilated Air Temperature Measurements Made from Buoys*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiative heating errors in buoy-mounted, naturally ventilated air temperature sensors are examined. Data from sensors with multiplate radiation shields and collocated, fan-aspirated air temperature sensors from three buoy deployments ...

Steven P. Anderson; Mark F. Baumgartner

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis within Three-Dimensional Clouds Subjected to Solar and Sky Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional radiative heat transfer analysis of an arbitrary-shaped modeled cloud subjected to solar and sky irradiation has been performed. The Radiation Element Method by Ray Emission Model (REM2) was used for numerical simulation. ...

Toru Nishikawa; Shigenao Maruyama; Seigo Sakai

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

A Variational Method for Computing Surface Heat Fluxes from ARM Surface Energy and Radiation Balance Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variational method is developed to compute surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat from observed wind, temperature, humidity, and surface energy and radiation budget by the surface energy and radiation balance systems (SERBS). In comparison ...

Qin Xu; Chong-Jian Qiu

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Calculating Monthly Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates fromMonthly Cloud Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiative transfer model from NCAR’s general circulation model CCM3 is modified to calculate monthly radiative fluxes and heating rates from monthly observations of cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project ...

John W. Bergman; Harry H. Hendon

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Tabulation of Fundamental Assembly Heat and Radiation Source Files  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to tabulate a set of computer files for use as input to the WPLOAD thermal loading software. These files contain details regarding heat and radiation from pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies. The scope of this calculation is limited to rearranging and reducing the existing file information into a more streamlined set of tables for use as input to WPLOAD. The electronic source term files used as input to this calculation were generated from the output files of the SAS2H/ORIGIN-S sequence of the SCALE Version 4.3 modular code system, as documented in References 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, and are included in Attachment II.

T. deBues; J.C. Ryman

2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

77

An Algorithm to Estimate the Heating Budget from Vertical Hydrometeor Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple algorithm to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems from their vertical hydrometer profiles is proposed. The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm is based on output generated by a non-hydrostatic cloud model with ...

Wei-Kuo Tao; Joanne Simpson; Stephen Lang; Michael McCumber; Robert Adler; Richard Penc

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

ARM - PI Product - Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsCloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for ProductsCloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP 2002.01.01 - 2012.02.08 Site(s) TWP General Description A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote

79

Radiative component and combined heat transfer in the thermal calculation of finned tube banks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For more exact calculation of combined heat transfer in the case of finned tube banks (e.g., in the convective section of a furnace), the radiative heat transfer cannot be neglected. A new method for relatively simple calculation of total heat flux (convection + radiation + conduction in fins) is fully compatible with that for bare tube banks/bundles developed earlier. It is based on the method of radiative coefficients. However, the resulting value of heat flux must be corrected due to fin thickness and especially due to the fin radiative influence. For this purpose the so-called multiplicator of heat flux was introduced. The applicability of this methods has been demonstrated on a tubular fired heater convective section. A developed computer program based on the method has also been used for an analysis of the influence of selected parameters to show the share of radiation on the total heat flux.

Stehlik, P. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effects of Varying the Shape of the Convective Heating Profile on Convectively Coupled Gravity Waves and Moisture Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analytical model of convectively coupled gravity waves and moisture modes of Raymond and Fuchs is extended to the case of top-heavy and bottom-heavy convective heating profiles. Top-heavy heating profiles favor gravity waves, while bottom-...

Željka Fuchs; Saska Gjorgjievska; David J. Raymond

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W/m 2 .µm) f (?T ) Blackbody radiation function I ? SpectralW/m 2 .sr.µm) I b,? Blackbody radiation intensity (W/m 2 .can be treated as blackbody radiation at temperature T sur .

Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Influence of Radiative Transfer on the Mass and Heat Budgets of Ice Crystals Failing in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical study was carried out to investigate the effect of radiative heating and cooling on the mass and heat budgets of an ice crystal. Equations describing the radiative budget of an ice crystal were derived and particle absorption ...

Graeme L. Stephens

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Performance Analysis of Potassium Heat Pipes Radiator for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System  

SciTech Connect

A detailed design and performance results of C-C finned, and armored potassium heat pipes radiator for a 110 kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The radiator consists of two sections; each serves an equal number of STMCs and has 162 longitudinal potassium heat pipes with 0.508 mm thick C-C fins. The width of the C-C fins at the minor diameter of the radiator is almost zero, but increases with distance along the radiator to reach 3.7 cm at the radiator's major diameter. The radiator's heat pipes (OD = 2.42 cm in front and 3.03 cm in rear) have thin titanium (0.0762 mm thick) liners and wicks (0.20 mm thick with an effective pore radius of 12-16 {mu}m) and a 1.016 mm thick C-C wall. The wick is separated from the titanium liner by a 0.4 mm annulus filled with liquid potassium to increase the capillary limit. The outer surfaces of the heat pipes in the front and rear sections of the radiator are protected with a C-C armor that is 2.17 mm and 1.70 mm thick, respectively. The inside surface of the heat pipes in the front radiator is thermally insulated while the C-C finned condensers of the rear heat pipes are exposed, radiating into space through the rear opening of the radiator cavity. The heat pipes in both the front and the rear radiators have a 1.5 m long evaporator section and each dissipates 4.47 kW while operating at 43.6% of the prevailing sonic limit. The front and rear radiator sections are 5.29 m and 2.61 m long with outer surface area and mass of 47.1 m2 and 314.3 kg, and 39.9 m2 and 243.2 kg, respectively. The total radiator is 7.63 m long and has minor and major diameters of 1.48 m and 5.57 m, respectively, and a total surface area of 87 m2; however, the effective radiator area, after accounting for heat rejection through the rear of the radiator cavity, is 98.8 m2. The radiator's total mass including the C-C armor is 557.5 kg and the specific area and specific mass are 6.41 kg/m2 and 5.07 kg/kWe, respectively.

El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States)

2004-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

84

Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.

Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Silverstein, C.C. (CCS Associates, Bethel Park, PA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.

Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Silverstein, C.C. [CCS Associates, Bethel Park, PA (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

MODEL FOR ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE IN SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS: HEATING RATE PROFILES AND TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been suggested that the solar corona may be heated by dissipation of Alfven waves that propagate up from the solar photosphere. According to this theory, counterpropagating Alfven waves are subject to nonlinear interactions that lead to turbulent decay of the waves and heating of the chromospheric and coronal plasma. To test this theory, better models for the dynamics of Alfven waves in coronal loops are required. In this paper, we consider wave heating in an active region observed with the Solar Dynamics Observatory in 2010 May. First a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic model of the region is constructed, and ten magnetic field lines that match observed coronal loops are selected. For each loop we construct a 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the Alfven waves near the selected field line. The waves are assumed to be generated by footpoint motions inside the kilogauss magnetic flux elements at the two ends of the loop. Based on such models, we predict the spatial and temporal profiles of the heating along the selected loops. We also estimate the temperature fluctuations resulting from such heating. We find that the Alfven wave turbulence model can reproduce the observed characteristics of the hotter loops in the active region core, but the loops at the periphery of the region have large expansion factors and are predicted to be thermally unstable.

Asgari-Targhi, M.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

87

Fluctuating-surface-current formulation of radiative heat transfer for arbitrary geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a fluctuating-surface-current formulation of radiative heat transfer, applicable to arbitrary geometries in both the near and far field, that directly exploits efficient and sophisticated techniques from the ...

Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

88

Lecture 3 week 2/3 2012: Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... that would be like 13.68 one- hundred watt light bulbs illuminating a one-meter square surface, except that light bulbs put about 80% of their 100 watts of power into heat/infrared radiation. Given the distance

89

Design and demonstration of a high-temperature, deployable, membrane heat-pipe radiator element  

SciTech Connect

Demonstration of a high-temperature, deployable, membrane heat-pipe radiator element has been conducted. Membrane heat pipes offer the potential for compact storage, ease of transportation, self-deployment, and a high specific radiator performance (kg/kW) for use in thermal reflection systems of space nuclear power plants. A demonstration heat pipe 8-cm wide and 100-cm long was fabricated. The heat pipe containment and wick structure were made of stainless steel and sodium used as the working fluid. The tests demonstrated passive deployment of the high-temperature membrane radiator, simulating a single segment in a flat array, at a temperature of 800 K. Details of test procedures and results of the tests are presented in this paper together with a discussion of the design and development of a full-scale, segmented high-temperature, deployable membrane heat pipe. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Trujillo, V.L.; Keddy, E.S.; Merrigan, M.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Membrane heat pipe development for space radiator applications  

SciTech Connect

A self-deploying membrane heat pipe (SMHP) is being designed and fabricated to operate in an in-cabin experiment aboard a STS flight. The heat pipe comprises a mylar membrane with a woven fabric arterial wick and R-11 as the working fluid. Preliminary results indicate that this SMHP design will successfully expand and retract in response to an applied heat load; the retraction force is provided by a constant force spring.

Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Design considerations for a thermophotovoltaic energy converter using heat pipe radiators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss concepts for using high temperature heat pipes to transport energy from a heat source to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converter. Within the converter, the condenser portion of each heat pipe acts as a photon radiator, providing a radiant flux to adjacent TPV cells, which in turn create electricity. Using heat pipes in this way could help to increase the power output and the power density of TPV systems. TPV systems with radiator temperatures in the range of 1,500 K are expected to produce as much as 3.6 W/cm{sup 3} of heat exchanger volume at an efficiency of 20% or greater. Four different arrangements of heat pipe-TPV energy converters are considered. Performance and sizing calculations for each of the concepts are presented. Finally, concerns with this concept and issues which remain to be considered are discussed.

Ashcroft, J.; DePoy, D. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Optimized laser pulse profile for efficient radiation pressure acceleration of ions  

SciTech Connect

The radiation pressure acceleration regime of laser ion acceleration requires high intensity laser pulses to function efficiently. Moreover the foil should be opaque for incident radiation during the interaction to ensure maximum momentum transfer from the pulse to the foil, which requires proper matching of the target to the laser pulse. However, in the ultrarela-tivistic regime, this leads to large acceleration distances, over which the high laser intensity for a Gaussian laser pulse must be maintained. It is shown that proper tailoring of the laser pulse profile can significantly reduce the acceleration distance, leading to a compact laser ion accelerator, requiring less energy to operate.

Bulanov, S. S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

93

Optimized laser pulse profile for efficient radiation pressure acceleration of ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation pressure acceleration regime of laser ion acceleration requires high intensity laser pulses to function efficiently. Moreover, the foil should be opaque for incident radiation during the interaction to ensure maximum momentum transfer from the pulse to the foil, which requires proper matching of the target to the laser pulse. However, in the ultrarelativistic regime, this leads to large acceleration distances, over which the high laser intensity for a Gaussian laser pulse must be maintained. It is shown that proper tailoring of the laser pulse profile can significantly reduce the acceleration distance, leading to a compact laser ion accelerator, requiring less energy to operate.

Bulanov, S. S. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leemans, W. P. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

The multiple absorption coefficient zonal method (MACZM), an efficient computational approach for the analysis of radiative heat transfer in multidimensional inhomogeneous nongray media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Radiative Heat Transfer, the P-3 Approximation”, AIAAMedia”, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 109, No. 3 (1987),Media”, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B, Fundamentals, Vol.

Yuen, W W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A Systematic Study of Longwave Radiative Heating and Cooling within Valleys and Basins Using a Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Monte Carlo code for the physically correct tracing of photons in cloudy atmospheres (MYSTIC) three-dimensional radiative transfer model was used in a parametric study to determine the strength of longwave radiative heating and cooling in ...

Sebastian W. Hoch; C. David Whiteman; Bernhard Mayer

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

POTENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AS HEAT AND RADIATION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

An outline is presented of the potential applications and quantity requiremerts of fission products for the period 1964 to 1968. These applications include military, governmert, and civilian heat sources; irradiation processing; and food irradiation. The potential requirements for 1964 to 1968 are 273 MC / sup 90/Sr and 351 MC /sup 137/Cs. An evaluation is made of the applications of heat-producing isotopes in Coast Guard navigational buoys, lights, and beacons; undersea electronic systems; and weather stations. Costs were determined for conventional methods of power generation and compared to radioisotope power generation. Fuel requiremerts and break-even fuel costs for isotopic power are tabulated. (D.L.C.)

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A Study of Cloud–Generated Radiative Heating and Its Generation of Available Potential Energy. Part I: Theoretical Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory is presented of the effect of radiative heating and cooling by clouds on the available potential energy (APE). This provides a measure of the influence of clouds on the general circulation. Absorption and scattering of solar radiation ...

R. Stuhlmann; G. L. Smith

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

O Star X-ray Line Profiles Explained by Radiation Transfer in Inhomogeneous Stellar Wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is commonly adopted that X-rays from O stars are produced deep inside the stellar wind, and transported outwards through the bulk of the expanding matter which attenuates the radiation and affects the shape of emission line profiles. The ability of Chandra and XMM-Newton to resolve these lines spectroscopically provided a stringent test for the theory of X-ray production. It turned out that none of the existing models was able to reproduce the observations consistently. The major caveat of these models was the underlying assumption of a smooth stellar wind. Motivated by the various observational evidence that the stellar winds are in fact structured, we present a 2-D model of a stochastic, inhomogeneous wind. The X-ray radiative transfer is derived for such media. It is shown that profiles from a clumped wind differ drastically from those predicted by conventional homogeneous models. We review the up-to-date observations of X-ray line profiles from stellar winds and present line fits obtained from the inhomogeneous wind model. The necessity to account for inhomogeneities in calculating the X-ray transport in massive star winds, including for HMXB is highlighted.

L. M. Oskinova; A. Feldmeier; W. -R. Hamann

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Modeling near-field radiative heat transfer from sharp objects using a general three-dimensional numerical scattering technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a general numerical method to calculate the nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer between a plate and compact objects of arbitrary shapes, making the first accurate theoretical predictions for the total heat ...

McCauley, Alexander Patrick

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Recent Developments on the Broadband Heating Rate Profile Value-Added Product  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Developments on the Recent Developments on the Broadband Heating Rate Profile Value-Added Product E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts M. A. Miller and K. L. Johnson Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York T. R. Shippert and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida M. H. Zhang State University of New York - Stony Brook Albany, New York R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia R. T. Cederwall and S. C. Xie Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico J. A. Ogren National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

102

A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes in Geologic Heat Pipes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

change and capillarity—the heat pipe effect, Int. J. Heatgeothermal reservoirs as heat pipes in fractured porousProcesses in Geologic Heat Pipes Jens T. Birkholzer Ernest

Birkholzer, Jens T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Clostridium thermocellum Transcriptomic Profiles after Exposure to Furfural or Heat Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background The thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing (CBP)biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production. It is capable of both cellulose solubilization and its fermentation to produce lignocellulosic ethanol. Intolerance to stresses routinely encountered during industrial fermentations may hinder the commercial development of this organism. A previous C. thermocellum ethanol stress study showed that largest transcriptomic response was in genes and proteins related to nitrogen uptake and metabolism. Results In this study, C. thermocellum was grown to mid-exponential phase and treated with furfural or heat to a final concentration of 3 g.L-1 or 68 C respectively to investigate general and specific physiological and regulatory stress responses. Samples were taken at 10, 30, 60 and 120 min post-shock, and from untreated control fermentations, for transcriptomic analyses and fermentation product determinations and compared to a published dataset from an ethanol stress study. Urea uptake genes were induced following furfural stress, but not to the same extent as ethanol stress and transcription from these genes was largely unaffected by heat stress. The largest transcriptomic response to furfural stress was genes for sulfate transporter subunits and enzymes in the sulfate assimilatory pathway, although these genes were also affected late in the heat and ethanol stress responses. Lactate production was higher in furfural treated culture, although the lactate dehydrogenase gene was not differentially expressed under this condition. Other redox related genes such as a copy of the rex gene, a bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase and adjacent genes did show lower expression after furfural stress compared to the control, heat and ethanol fermentation profiles. Heat stress induced expression from chaperone related genes and overlap was observed with the responses to the other stresses. This study suggests the involvement of C. thermocellum genes with functions in oxidative stress protection, electron transfer, detoxification, sulfur and nitrogen acquisition, and DNA repair mechanisms in its stress responses and the use of different regulatory networks to coordinate and control adaptation. Conclusions This study has identified C. thermocellum gene regulatory motifs and aspects of physiology and gene regulation for further study. The nexus between future systems biology studies and recently developed genetic tools for C. thermocellum offers the potential for more rapid strain development and for broader insights into this organism s physiology and regulation.

Wilson, Charlotte M [ORNL; Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Ma, Qin [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Dice, Lezlee T [ORNL; Xu, Ying [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes in Geologic Heat Pipes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

make sure that the heat transfer processes are approximatelyfocus is on the heat and mass transfer processes within the

Birkholzer, Jens T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Spectral Retrieval of Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM PR Data. Part IV: Comparisons of Lookup Tables from Two- and Three-Dimensional Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectral latent heating (SLH) algorithm was developed to estimate latent heating profiles for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR). The method uses TRMM PR information (precipitation-top height, precipitation ...

Shoichi Shige; Yukari N. Takayabu; Satoshi Kida; Wei-Kuo Tao; Xiping Zeng; Chie Yokoyama; Tristan L’Ecuyer

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which is attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes-large differences in cloud radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/day difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoe, Julien; Deng, Min

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

107

PROBLEM 13.71 KNOWN: Steam producing still heated by radiation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROBLEM 13.71 KNOWN: Steam producing still heated by radiation. FIND: (a) Factor by which the vapor ..... Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis to calculate F12. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not

Rothstein, Jonathan

108

Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions, an issue that has been largely neglected so far. We the representation of biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We

109

Heat transfer performance of an external receiver pipe under unilateral concentrated solar radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat transfer and absorption characteristics of an external receiver pipe under unilateral concentrated solar radiation are theoretically investigated. Since the heat loss ratio of the infrared radiation has maximum at moderate energy flux, the heat absorption efficiency will first increase and then decrease with the incident energy flux. The local absorption efficiency will increase with the flow velocity, while the wall temperature drops quickly. Because of the unilateral concentrated solar radiation and different incident angle, the heat transfer is uneven along the circumference. Near the perpendicularly incident region, the wall temperature and absorption efficiency slowly approaches to the maximum, while the absorption efficiency sharply drops near the parallelly incident region. The calculation results show that the heat transfer parameters calculated from the average incident energy flux have a good agreement with the average values of the circumference under different boundary conditions. For the whole pipe with coating of Pyromark, the absorption efficiency of the main region is above 85%, and only the absorption efficiency near the parallelly incident region is below 80%. In general, the absorption efficiency of the whole pipe increases with flow velocity rising and pipe length decreasing, and it approaches to the maximum at optimal concentrated solar flux. (author)

Jianfeng, Lu; Jing, Ding [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jianping, Yang [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Analysis of a flexible polymeric film with imbedded micro heat pipes for spacecraft radiators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In response to the pursuit of interplanetary travel and a continuous human presence in space, there is increasing focus within the space industry on spacecraft designs that change configuration within the space environment. Flexible thermal radiators are being developed to accommodate deployment mechanisms. An analytical model suggests that a lightweight polymeric material with imbedded micro heat pipe arrays can meet heat dissipation requirements while contributing less mass than competing flexible materials. The heat pipe capillary limit is evaluated as a function of temperature using two candidate working fluids. Using water, maximum heat transport is 18 mW per channel at 140° to 160° C. Maximum heat transport using methanol is 2.2 mW at 120° C: an order-of-magnitude difference. A thermal circuit model translates heat transport per channel into total radiator capacity as a function of heat source temperature and environmental sink temperature. Using water as the working fluid, radiator capacity varies from 6.0 kW to 12.2 kW for source temperatures from 20° to 50° C. For source temperatures 40° C and higher, capacity meets or exceeds the dissipation requirements of a reference spacecraft design. Methanol is not recommended as a working fluid because it produces radiator capacities two to three times lower than when water is used. Although thermal control system specifications constrain the micro heat pipe operating range, design changes directed at alleviating capillary limitations should increase radiator capacity. Technical issues for further investigation include effects of film billowing; performance limitations related to vapor viscosity; working fluid diffusion; and chemical reactivity between the case and working fluid. Compared to a competing graphite fiber weave, the polymeric material has an effective conductivity over ten times higher. Its area power density (kW/m²) is 18% to 60% lower than the graphite weave, but its mass power density (kW/kg) is several times higher. Greater flexibility and lower mass make it more amenable to structural integration than the graphite material. Recently developed space-stable polymers offer resistance to harsh temperature and radiation environments, helping to clear the path toward a more extensive use of polymers within the space industry.

McDaniels, Deborah Marie

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Development and extended operation of a high power radiation loaded heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature, high power molybdenum-lithium heat pipe has been fabricated and tested at 1500 K for 1700 hours with radiant heat rejection. Power throughput during the test was approximately 14 kW, corresponding to an axial flux density of 11 kW/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.59 cm diameter heat pipe. Radial flux density was 70 W/cm/sup 2/ over an evaporator length of 40.0 cm. Condenser length was approximately 150 cm with radiant heat rejection from the condenser to a coaxial water cooled radiation calorimeter. A plasma sprayed, high emissivity coating was used on the condenser surface to increase the radiant heat rejection during the tests. The heat pipe was operated for 514 hours at steady state conditions before being damaged during a planned shutdown for test equipment maintenance. The damage was repaired and the initial 1000 hour test period completed without further incident. After physical examination of the heat pipe at 1000 hours the test was resumed and the heat pipe operated at the same conditions for an additional 700 hours before conclusion of this test phase.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Runyan, J.R.; Martinez, H.E.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Original article: Comparison of numerical models in radiative heat transfer with application to circuit-breaker simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different modeling approaches for the numerical computation of the radiation energy exchange in the context of the simulation of high-voltage circuit breakers are investigated. These are the basic Radiative Transfer Equation method and the P1 model ... Keywords: CFD modeling, Circuit breakers, Finite volume discretization, P1 model, Radiative heat transfer

Matthieu Melot; Jean-Yves TréPanier; Ricardo Camarero; Eddy Petro

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Thermal correction to the Casimir force, radiative heat transfer, and an experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The low-temperature asymptotic expressions for the Casimir interaction between two real metals described by Leontovich surface impedance are obtained in the framework of thermal quantum field theory. It is shown that the Casimir entropy computed using the impedance of infrared optics vanishes in the limit of zero temperature. By contrast, the Casimir entropy computed using the impedance of the Drude model attains at zero temperature a positive value which depends on the parameters of a system, i.e., the Nernst heat theorem is violated. Thus, the impedance of infrared optics withstands the thermodynamic test, whereas the impedance of the Drude model does not. We also perform a phenomenological analysis of the thermal Casimir force and of the radiative heat transfer through a vacuum gap between real metal plates. The characterization of a metal by means of the Leontovich impedance of the Drude model is shown to be inconsistent with experiment at separations of a few hundred nanometers. A modification of the impedance of infrared optics is suggested taking into account relaxation processes. The power of radiative heat transfer predicted from this impedance is several times less than previous predictions due to different contributions from the transverse electric evanescent waves. The physical meaning of low frequencies in the Lifshitz formula is discussed. It is concluded that new measurements of radiative heat transfer are required to find out the adequate description of a metal in the theory of electromagnetic fluctuations.

V. B. Bezerra; G. Bimonte; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko; C. Romero

2007-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

114

First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.; /Oxford U.; Kimmitt, M.F.; /Essex U.; Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

115

The heat-balance integral method by a parabolic profile with unspecified exponent: Analysis and Benchmark Exercises  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The heat-balance integral method of Goodman has been thoroughly analyzed in the case of a parabolic profile with unspecified exponent depending on the boundary condition imposed. That the classical Good man's boundary conditions defining the time-dependent coefficients of the prescribed temperature profile do not work efficiently at the front of the thermal layers if the specific parabolic profile at issue is employed. Additional constraints based on physical assumption enhance the heat-balance integral method and form a robust algorithm defining the parabola exponent . The method has been compared by results provided by the Veinik's method that is by far different from the Good man's idea but also assume forma tion of thermal layer penetrating the heat body. The method has been demonstrated through detailed solutions of 4 1-D heat-conduction problems in Cartesian co-ordinates including a spherical problem (through change of vari ables) and over-specified boundary condition at the face of the thermal layer.

Jordan Hristov

2010-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

116

Heating and cooling of a two-dimensional electron gas by terahertz radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The absorption of terahertz radiation by free charge carriers in n-type semiconductor quantum wells accompanied by the interaction of electrons with acoustic and optical phonons is studied. It is shown that intrasubband optical transitions can cause both heating and cooling of the electron gas. The cooling of charge carriers occurs in a certain temperature and radiation frequency region where light is most efficiently absorbed due to intrasubband transitions with emission of optical phonons. In GaAs quantum wells, the optical cooling of electrons occurs most efficiently at liquid nitrogen temperatures, while cooling is possible even at room temperature in GaN heterostructures.

Budkin, G. V.; Tarasenko, S. A., E-mail: tarasenko@coherent.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

118

Modeling heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2010 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 244 022075 (http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/244/2/022075) Download details: IP Address: 50.136.219.251 The article was downloaded on 18/04/2013 at 01:36 Please note that terms and conditions apply. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience Modeling Heat Conduction and Radiation Transport with the Diffusion Equation in NIF ALE-AMR A.C. Fisher 1 , D.S. Bailey 1 , T.B. Kaiser 1 , B.T.N. Gunney 1 , N.D. Masters 1 , A.E. Koniges 2 , D.C. Eder 1 , R.W. Anderson 1 1: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,

119

Radiative cooling and solar heating potential by using various roofing materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of testing over twenty typical and potential roofing materials such as: corrugated galvanized steel, corrugated clear fiberglass, 90number black roll roofing, 90number green roll roofing, 90number red roll roofing, 90number brown roll roofing, 90number white roll roofing, 240number brown asphalt shingles, anodized aluminum, etc. under exposure to solar and nocturnal sky radiation are presented. Some cadmium sulfite solar cells and silicon solar cells are being tested as potential future roofing panels. Graphs showing the temperature variation of each material versus testing time are given for a heating and a cooling cycle. The environmental conditions of testing such as: solar insolation, apparent sky temperature, ambient air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are also given. On the basis of preliminary results obtained during the testing of roofing materials, several mini-modules of an integrated collector/radiator/ roof element with the dimensions 0.6 m x 0.6 m (2 ft x 2 ft) were constructed and tested. The thermal response of the mini-modules under solar and nocturnal sky radiation is shown and the testing results are discussed. The spectral transmittance curves for nine transparent cover materials are also presented. The preliminary results indicate that solar radiation and nocturnal sky radiation could be used effectively by employing an integrated collector/radiator structure.

Pytlinski, J.T.; Connell, H.L.; Conrad, G.R.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES  

SciTech Connect

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

Smith, A

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.

Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Silverstein, C.C. [CCS Associates, Bethel Park, PA (United States)

1994-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Sensitivity of Latent Heat Flux to Changes in the Radiative Forcing: A Framework for Comparing Models and Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A climate model must include an accurate surface physics scheme in order to examine the interactions between the land and atmosphere. Given an increase in the surface radiative forcing, the sensitivity of latent heat flux to available energy ...

Jonathan M. Winter; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The Sensitivity of Latent Heat Flux to Changes in the Radiative Forcing: A Framework for Comparing Models and Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A climate model must include an accurate surface physics scheme in order to examine the interactions between the land and atmosphere. Given an increase in the surface radiative forcing, the sensitivity of latent heat flux ...

Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

124

Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature  

SciTech Connect

We conducted observations and modeling at a forest site to assess importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions. We used the terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes And Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the calculated biomass energy storages. Effects of energy storages on flux exchanges and variations of radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without the storages. We found that with the storages, FAPIS predictions agreed with measurements well; without them, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all surface energy fluxes. The biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 Wm-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Without-storage simulations produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with with-storage simulations. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the biomass energy storages act to dampen diurnal temperature range. Therefore, biomass heat and biochemical energy storages are an integral and substantial part of the surface energy budget and play a role in modulating land surface temperatures and must be considered in studies of land - atmosphere interactions and climate modeling.

Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Liu, Qing [ORNL; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Monte Carlo simulation of radiation heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces using cell-to-cell photon transport  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radiation heat transfer in an array of fixed discrete surfaces is an important problem that is particularly difficult to analyze because of the nonhomogeneous and anisotropic optical properties involved. This article presents an efficient Monte Carlo method for evaluating radiation heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces. This Monte Carlo model has been optimized to take advantage of the regular arrangement of surfaces often encountered in these arrays. Monte Carlo model predictions have been compared with analytical and experimental results.

Drost, M.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Welty, J.R. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

An Accurate Radiative Heating and Cooling Algorithm for Use in a Dynamical Model of the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An infrared radiative heating and cooling algorithm designed to be used with dynamical models of the middle atmosphere is described. A Curtis matrix is used to compute cooling by the 15 and 10 ?m bands of carbon dioxide. Escape of radiation to ...

W. M. Wehrbein; C. B. Leovy

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Research Note on a Parabolic Heat-Balance Integral Method with Unspecified Exponent: An Entropy Generation Approach in Optimal Profile Determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The heat-balance integral method of Goodman is studied with two simple 1-D heat conduction problems with prescribed temperature and flux boundary conditions. These classical problems with well known exact solutions enable to demonstrate the heat-balance integral method performance by a parabolic profile and the entropy generation minimization concept in definition of the appropriate profile exponent. The basic assumption generating the additional constraints needed to perform the solution is based on the requirement to minimize the difference in the local thermal entropy generation rates calculated by the approximate and the exact profile, respectively. This concept is easily applicable since the general concept has simple implementation of the condition requiring the thermal entropy generations calculated through both profiles to be the same at the boundary. The entropy minimization generation approach automatically generates the additional requirement which is deficient in the set of conditions defined by the heat-balance integral method concept.

Jordan Hristov

2010-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Impact of Spatial Resolution on Model-Derived Radiative Heating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of Spatial Resolution Impact of Spatial Resolution on Model-Derived Radiative Heating W. O'Hirok and C. Gautier Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California C. Gautier Department of Geography University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction At the typical spatial resolution of climate and weather forecasting models, clouds are portrayed as uniform plane-parallel entities with three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects generally considered not important. However, as the resolution of these models increase, and with the development of "super parameterizations" (embedded cloud resolving models), there is a need to assess the spatial resolution where 3D effects should not be neglected (Khairoutdinov and Randall 2001). In this study, we perform

129

CHAPARRAL: A library for solving large enclosure radiation heat transfer problems  

SciTech Connect

Large, three-dimensional enclosure radiation beat transfer problems place a heavy demand on computing resources such as computational cycles, memory requirements, disk I/O, and disk space usage. This is primarily due to the computational and memory requirements associated with the view factor calculation and subsequent access of the view factor matrix during solution of the radiosity matrix equation. This is a fundamental problem that constrains Sandia`s current modeling capabilities. Reducing the computational and memory requirements for calculating and manipulating view factors would enable an analyst to increase the level of detail at which a body could be modeled and would have a major impact on many programs at Sandia such as weapon and transportation safety programs, component survivability programs, energy programs, and material processing programs. CHAPARRAL is a library package written to address these problems and is specifically tailored towards the efficient solution of extremely large three-dimensional enclosure radiation heat transfer problems.

Glass, M.W.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Radiative heat transfer between two dielectric nanogratings in the scattering approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transfer between dielectric nanogratings in the scattering approach. As a comparision with these exact results, we also evaluate the domain of validity of Derjaguin's Proximity Approximation (PA). We consider a system of two corrugated silica plates with various grating geometries, separation distances, and lateral displacement of the plates with respect to one another. Numerical computations show that while the PA is a good approximation for aligned gratings, it cannot be used when the gratings are laterally displaced. We illustrate this by a thermal modulator device for nanosystems based on such a displacement.

J. Lussange; R. Guérout; F. S. S. Rosa; J. -J. Greffet; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Stationary temperature profiles and heat flux distribution in a plastic-encapsulated circuit package  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal characteristics that are important to structural integrity are analyzed herein for a TTL, plastic-encapsulated package. By assuming that total module heat during operation is engendered at idealized junctions between lead wires and the chip surface, ...

J. A. Paivanas

1972-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Heating Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent + eddy sensible heating rates (Q1 ? QR) where Q1 is the apparent ...

Mircea Grecu; William S. Olson; Chung-Lin Shie; Tristan S. L’Ecuyer; Wei-Kuo Tao

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Profiling of MnSOD Interaction Proteins in Low-Dose Radiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proteins in Low-Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Response Angela Eldridge 1 , Ming Fan 1 , Demet Candas 1 , Brett Chromy, and Jian Jian Li 1 1 Department of Radiation...

134

Computation of Vertical Profiles of Longwave Radiative Cooling over the Equatorial Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important quantity whose magnitude has not been thoroughly examined is the vertical distribution of heating in the Tropics. The details of the vertical distribution of heating have a significant impact on a number of phenomena, including the ...

Perry G. Ramsey; Dayton G. Vincent

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Generalized assessment of heat-storage accumulators based on energy profiles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analytical and experimental work described in this paper has to do with the development of a new and practical method for designing and rating heat-storage systems operating on a heat-capacity duty cycle of several days. It was carried out as part of a broader project evaluating equipment for exploiting solar energy and heat produced by animals on animal farms. Water-type heat accumulators were found to be an essential component of these systems; however, no generalized or specialized criteria were available for their effective design. Therefore, design optimization was carried out analytically, and the resulting approach was experimentally verified. This process led to the development of generalized criteria for rating the efficiency of stored heat utilization and to the development of reservoir design guidelines that, for practical design purposes, eliminated the need for knowing storage temperature histograms. The analysis is based on defining the storage quality as the degree of perfection ({zeta}{sub e}) in terms of the initial and final exergy (available energy) ratios of the stored heat during the storage period. This function was determined analytically, experimentally verified for four design cases (with and without insulation), and related to the normalized design parameters, rate of temperature degradation, and fluid properties by time-dependent Fourier similarity number Fo. The resulting relationship of the form -- {zeta}{sub e} = k log Fo + q was correlated with the measurements. For a specified storage, the ``degree of perfection`` ({zeta}{sub e}) can then be optimized and the desirable dimensions of a reservoir selected by calculating the characteristic (or normalized) dimension from the Fourier number (Fo).

Hemzal, K. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Wurm, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters: Initial Findings of Draw Profile Effect on HPWH Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluation Overview  2000-2002 Evaluated 20 installations with CL&P  Product had problems; not ready for prime time (average COPs of 1.67 was not the problem)  New batch of heaters available, including:  GE's GeoSpring Hybrid (50 gal)  A.O.Smith's Voltex Hybrid (60 & 80 gal)  Stiebel-Eltron's Accelera 300 (80 gal)  Evaluating 14 installations for National Grid, NSTAR, & Cape Light Compact. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.

137

Measure of precursor electron density profiles of laser launched radiative shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied the dynamics of strong radiative shocks generated with the high-energy subnanosecond iodine laser at Prague Asterix Laser System facility

Busquet, Michel; González, Matthias; Audit, Edouard; 10.1063/1.3330636

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Simultaneous imaging electron- and ion-feature Thomson scattering measurements of radiatively heated Xe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uniform density and temperature Xe plasmas have been produced over >4 mm scale-lengths using x-rays generated in a cylindrical Pb cavity. The cavity is 750 {mu}m in depth and diameter, and is heated by a 300 J, 2 ns square, 1054 nm laser pulse focused to a spot size of 200 {mu}m at the cavity entrance. The plasma is characterized by simultaneous imaging Thomson scattering measurements from both the electron and ion scattering features. The electron feature measurement determines the spatial electron density and temperature profile, and using these parameters as constraints in the ion feature analysis allows an accurate determination of the charge state of the Xe ions. The Thomson scattering probe beam is 40 J, 200 ps, and 527 nm, and is focused to a 100 {mu}m spot size at the entrance of the Pb cavity. Each system has a spatial resolution of 25 {mu}m, a temporal resolution of 200 ps (as determined by the probe duration), and a spectral resolution of 2 nm for the electron feature system and 0.025 nm for the ion feature system. The experiment is performed in a Xe filled target chamber at a neutral pressure of 3-10 Torr, and the x-rays produced in the Pb ionize and heat the Xe to a charge state of 20{+-}4 at up to 200 eV electron temperatures.

Pollock, B. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Meinecke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of Oxford, Wellington Square, Oxford, OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Kuschel, S.; Ross, J. S.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Shaw, J. L. [University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Stoafer, C. [Columbia University, 116th Street and Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Tynan, G. R. [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Thermal-radiation heat-transfer model for degraded cores. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

One consequence of the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant is a realization by the nuclear power technical community that there is a need for calculational tools that can be used to analyze the TMI-2 accident and to investigate hypothetical situations involving degraded light-water reactor (LWR) cores. As a result, there are now several ongoing modeling and code development efforts in the United States among which is the development of the MIMAS (Multifield Integrated Meltdown Analysis System code) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper describes a thermal-radiation heat-transfer model for LWR degraded cores that has been developed for the MIMAS code.

Tomkins, J.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Interpolation and Profile Correction (IPC) Method for Shortwave Radiative Transfer in Spectral Intervals of Gaseous Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new interpolation and profile correction (IPC) method for radiance/flux calculations in gaseous absorption bands is presented. The IPC method is designed to allow an arbitrary spectral resolution including monochromatic mode. It features a ...

Alexei I. Lyapustin

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Comparison of collisional radiative models for edge electron density reconstruction from Li I (2s-2p) emission profiles  

SciTech Connect

Four collisional radiative models (CRMs) for reconstruction of the edge electron density profile from the measured Li I (2s-2p) emission profile of an accelerated lithium beam are compared using experimental data from DIII-D. It is shown for both L- and H-mode plasmas that edge density profiles reconstructed with the CRMs DDD2, ABSOLUT, [Sasaki et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1699 (1993)] and a new model developed at DIII-D agree in a density scan from n{sub e}{sup ped}= (2.0-6.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} within 20%, 20%, <5%, and 40%, respectively, of the pedestal density measured with Thomson scattering. Profile shape and absolute density vary in a scan of the effective ion charge Z{sub eff}= 1-6 up to a factor of two but agree with Thomson data for Z{sub eff}= 1-2 within the error bars.

Stoschus, H.; Hudson, B.; Munoz Burgos, J. M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-0117 (United States); Thomas, D. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Schweinzer, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride cathode structure having predetermined emission profile  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB/sub 6/) cathode system is disclosed. The system comprises a LaB/sub 6/ cathode element generally circular in shape about a central axis. The cathode element has a head with an upper substantially planar emission surface, and a lower downwardly and an intermediate body portion which diminishes in cross-section from the head towards the base of the cathode element. A central rod is connected to the base of the cathode element and extends along the central axis. Plural upstanding spring fingers are urged against an outer peripheral contact surface of the head end to provide a mechanical and electrical connection to the cathode element. 7 figs

Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gordon, K.C.; Kippenhan, D.O.; Purgalis, P.; Moussa, D.; Williams, M.D.; Wilde, S.B.; West, M.W.

1987-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

144

Spatial Variability of Net Radiation and Soil Heat Flux Density on Two Logged Sites at Montmorency, Quebec  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Net radiation data from 32 sample points and soil heat flux density values from six sample points on two logged sites at Montmorency in 1979 are presented. The two sites were of different ages; one had been clearcut in 1975 and the other in 1978. ...

J. H. McCaughey

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Signal Postprocessing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915-MHz Wind Profilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has recently initiated a new research avenue toward a better characterization of the transition from cloud to precipitation. Dual-wavelength techniques applied to millimeter-...

Frédéric Tridon; Alessandro Battaglia; Pavlos Kollias; Edward Luke; Christopher R. Williams

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud Profiling Radars: An Evaluation of Signal Processing and Sampling Strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program operates millimeter-wavelength cloud radars (MMCRs) in several specific locations within different climatological regimes. These vertically pointing cloud ...

Pavlos Kollias; Bruce A. Albrecht; Eugene E. Clothiaux; Mark A. Miller; Karen L. Johnson; Kenneth P. Moran

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Vertical Temperature Profiles at Maximum Entropy Production with a Net Exchange Radiative Formulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Like any fluid heated from below, the atmosphere is subject to vertical instability which triggers convection. Convection occurs on small time and space scales, which makes it a challenging feature to include in climate models. Usually sub-grid ...

Corentin Herbert; Didier Paillard; Bérengère Dubrulle

148

Contemporaneous Relationships between Global Radiation and Heating Degree Days during Severe Winters in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global radiation climate associated with anomalously cold winter months and cold winters is analyzed for the contiguous United States. The radiation data consist of rehabilitated measured and modeled monthly values of global radiation on both ...

Thomas R. Karl; Frank T. Quinlan

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Cloud-Induced Infrared Radiative Heating and Its Implications for Large-Scale Tropical Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional global distributions of longwave radiative cooling for the summer of 1988 and the winter of 1989 are generated from radiative transfer calculations using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and ...

Byung-Ju Sohn

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Modeling Surface Sensible Heat Flux Using Surface Radiative Temperatures in a Simple Urban Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sensible heat fluxes over a light industrial area in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, are analyzed from observed tower fluxes and modeled using a bulk heat transfer approach. The bulk transfer models are initialized using remotely sensed ...

J. A. Voogt; C. S. B. Grimmond

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A simple external resistance heating diamond anvil cell and its application for synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect

A simple external heating assemblage allowing diamond anvil cell experiments at pressures up to 34 GPa and temperatures up to 653 K was constructed. This cell can be connected to the synchrotron radiation conveniently. The design and construction of this cell are fully described, as well as its applications for x-ray diffraction. Heating is carried out by using an external-heating system, which is made of NiCr resistance wire, and the temperature was measured by a NiCr-NiSi or PtRh-Pt thermocouple. We showed the performance of the new system by introducing the phase transition study of cinnabar ({alpha}-HgS) and thermal equation of state study of almandine at high pressure and temperature with this cell.

Fan Dawei; Zhou Wenge; Liu Yonggang; Xie Hongsen [Institute of Geochemistry of Earth's Deep Interior Materials and Fluid Interaction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wei Shuyi [Institute of Geochemistry of Earth's Deep Interior Materials and Fluid Interaction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma Maining [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Finite-volume model for chemical vapor infiltration incorporating radiant heat transfer. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

Most finite-volume thermal models account for the diffusion and convection of heat and may include volume heating. However, for certain simulation geometries, a large percentage of heat flux is due to thermal radiation. In this paper a finite-volume computational procedure for the simulation of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in three dimensional complex enclosures is developed. The radiant heat transfer is included as a source term in each volume element which is derived by Monte Carlo ray tracing from all possible radiating and absorbing faces. The importance of radiative heat transfer is illustrated in the modeling of chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of tubes. The temperature profile through the tube preform matches experimental measurements only when radiation is included. An alternative, empirical approach using an {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} thermal conductivity for the gas space can match the initial temperature profile but does not match temperature changes that occur during preform densification.

Smith, A.W.; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

A Study of Cloud-Generated Radiative Heating and Its Generation of Available Potential Energy. Part ii: Results for a Climatological Zonal Mean January  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-generated radiative heating is computed for January zonal mean conditions for low and midclouds. For both cases, the strongest influence was found to be in the low troposphere, with marked differences in signs and magnitudes. Optically thin ...

R. Stuhlmann; G. L. Smith

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Spectral Retrieval of Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM PR Data. Part II: Algorithm Improvement and Heating Estimates over Tropical Ocean Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectral latent heating (SLH) algorithm was developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) in Part I of this study. The method uses PR information [precipitation-top height (PTH), precipitation rates at ...

Shoichi Shige; Yukari N. Takayabu; Wei-Kuo Tao; Chung-Lin Shie

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A scattering approach to Casimir forces and radiative heat transfer for nanostructured surfaces out of thermal equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop an exact method for computing Casimir forces and the power of radiative heat transfer between two arbitrary nanostructured surfaces out of thermal equilibrium. The method is based on a generalization of the scattering approach recently used in investigations on the Casimir effect. Analogously to the equilibrium case, we find that also out of thermal equilibrium the shape and composition of the surfaces enter only through their scattering matrices. The expressions derived provide exact results in terms of the scattering matrices of the intervening surfaces.

Giuseppe Bimonte

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

157

Estimation of the Latent Heat Flux over Full Canopy Covers from the Radiative Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the bulk aerodynamic method and proposes an alternative algorithm for estimating evapotranspiration from radiative temperature over unstressed full-canopy cover crops. Both approaches are studied using calibration and ...

M. Ibáñez; P. J. Pérez; J. I. Rosell; F. Castellví

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ocean Radiant Heating. Part II: Parameterizing Solar Radiation Transmission through the Upper Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate determination of sea surface temperature (SST) is critical to the success of coupled ocean–atmosphere models and the understanding of global climate. To accurately predict SST, both the quantity of solar radiation incident at the sea ...

J. Carter Ohlmann; David A. Siegel

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth of cloud drops, and hence the potential for collection enhancement, is investigated. Large eddy simulation (LES) of marine stratocumulus is used to generate 600 ...

Christopher M. Hartman; Jerry Y. Harrington

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 , A.E. Pantoja 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 ice show daily oscillations consistent with heating by solar radiation. We present and solve a heat for solar power absorption based on Monte Carlo scatter­ ing simulations of penetrating photons. We observe

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

L- and M-shell absorption measurements of radiatively heated Fe plasma  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of iron-plasma absorption spectrum over 150-1200 eV photon energy range were reported at temperature T = (72 {+-} 4) eV. The electron temperature was diagnosed with the absorption spectrum of aluminum mixed with iron. The density was not diagnosed directly but obtained from a radiative hydrodynamic simulation with the Multi-1D code. The broad photon energy range enables simultaneous observation of the L-shell and M-shell transitions that dominate the radiation transport at this temperature. The spectrally resolved transmission data were compared to the detailed-configuration-accounting model calculations and reasonable agreement was found.

Zhang Jiyan; Li Hang; Zhao Yang; Xiong Gang; Yuan Zheng; Zhang Haiying; Yang Guohong; Yang Jiamin; Liu Shenye; Jiang Shaoen; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian [Research Center of Laser Fusion, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu Yan; Meng Xujun; Yan Jun [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Long-range detection of VLF radiation produced by heating the auroral electrojet  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the first evidence of long-range detection (greater than 1000 km) of calibrated VLF signals resulting from the HF heating of the auroral electrojet, that is, signal detection at a point of direct 'line of sight' of the heated patch of ionosphere. The 'radial' as well as the'azimuthal' magnetic component of the signals are recorded; from their ratio, the waveguide mode polarization is obtained. Observed absolute magnetic field strengths and waveguide polarizations are found to be in line with the predictions of simple waveguide models. 17 refs.

Barr, R.; Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Federal Republic of Germany))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Optimization of a Mu2e production solenoid heat and radiation shield using MARS15  

SciTech Connect

A Monte-Carlo study of several Mu2e Production Solenoid (PS) absorber (heat shield) versions using the MARS15 code has been performed. Optimizations for material as well as cost (amount of tungsten) have been carried out. Studied are such quantities as the number of displacements per atom (DPA) in the helium-cooled solenoid superconducting coils, power density and dynamic heat load in various parts of the PS and its surrounding structures. Prompt dose, residual dose, secondary particle flux are also simulated in the PS structures and the experimental hall. A preliminary choice of the PS absorber design is made on the ground of these studies.

Pronskikh, V.S.; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The Response of a Deep Cumulus Convection Model to Changes in Radiative Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bulk diagnostic model is presented for the evaluation of the mass and heat fluxes due to convective ensembles. The cloud model is consistent with the hot-tower hypothesis and includes a moist downdraft, the depth and intensity of which are ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Kenneth J. Wilson

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime ...

R. Moriwaki; M. Kanda

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

The Effect of the Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide on the Radiation Absorption and Temperature Profile in Troposphere.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work on this paper focus on the effect of the water vapor and carbon dioxide on the absorption of atmospheric radiation and the temperature… (more)

Li, Chieh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A double crystal monochromator including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the-conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced.

Khounsary, A.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A double crystal monochromator including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced.

Khounsary, Ali M. (Lisle, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A double crystal monochromator is described including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced. 11 figures.

Khounsary, A.M.

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Transcriptomic and Secretomic Profiling of Isolated Leukocytes Exposed to Alpha-Particle and Photon Radiation - Applications in Biodosimetry .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The general public is at risk of ionising-radiation exposure. The development of high-throughput methods to triage exposures is warranted. Current biodosimetry techniques are low-throughput and… (more)

Howland, Matthew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud Profiling Radars: Second-Generation Sampling Strategies, Processing, and Cloud Data Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program operates millimeter-wavelength cloud radars in several climatologically distinct regions. The digital signal processors for these radars were recently upgraded and ...

Pavlos Kollias; Mark A. Miller; Edward P. Luke; Karen L. Johnson; Eugene E. Clothiaux; Kenneth P. Moran; Kevin B. Widener; Bruce A. Albrecht

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Cell Type-dependent Gene Transcription Profile in Three Dimensional Human Skin Tissue Model Exposed to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Implications for Medical Exposures  

SciTech Connect

The concern over possible health risks from exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation has been driven largely by the increase in medical exposures, the routine implementation of X-ray backscatter devices for airport security screening, and, most recently, the nuclear incident in Japan. Due to a paucity of direct epidemiological data at very low doses, cancer risk must be estimated from high dose exposure scenarios. However, there is increasing evidence that low and high dose exposures result in different signaling events and may have different mechanisms of cancer induction. We have examined the radiation induced temporal response of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model using microarray-based transcriptional profiling. Our data shows that exposure to 100 mGy of X-rays is sufficient to affect gene transcription. Cell type specific analysis showed significant changes in gene expression with the levels of > 1400 genes altered in the dermis and > 400 genes regulated in the epidermis. The two cell types rarely exhibited overlapping responses at the mRNA level. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements validated the microarray data in both regulation direction and value. Key pathways identified relate to cell cycle regulation, immune responses, hypoxia, reactive oxygen signaling, and DNA damage repair. We discuss in particular the role of proliferation and emphasizing how the disregulation of cellular signaling in normal tissue may impact progression towards radiation induced secondary diseases.

Freiin von Neubeck, Claere H.; Shankaran, Harish; Karin, Norman J.; Kauer, Paula M.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Sowa, Marianne B.

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

173

Validation of aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles from routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy with which vertical profiles of aerosol extinction ?ep(?) can be retrieved from ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) routine measurements was assessed using data from two airborne field campaigns, the ARM Aerosol Intensive Operation Period (AIOP, May 2003), and the Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE, September 2005). This assessment pertains to the aerosol at its ambient concentration and thermodynamic state (i.e. ?ep(?) either free of or corrected for sampling artifacts) and includes the following ACRF routine methods: Raman Lidar, Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and in-situ aerosol profiles (IAP) with a small aircraft. Profiles of aerosol optical depth ?p(???, from which the profiles of ?ep(???are derived through vertical differentiation, were measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14); these data were used as truth in this evaluation. The ACRF IAP ?ep(550 nm) were lower by 16% (during AIOP) and higher by 10% (during ALIVE) when compared to AATS-14. The ACRF MPL ?ep(523 nm) were higher by 24% (AIOP) and 19%-21% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14 but the correlation improved significantly during ALIVE. In the AIOP a second MPL operated by NASA showed a smaller positive bias (13%) with respect to AATS-14. The ACRF Raman Lidar ?ep(355 nm) were higher by 54% (AIOP) and higher by 6% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14. The large bias in AIOP stemmed from a gradual loss of the sensitivity of the Raman Lidar starting about the end of 2001 going unnoticed until after AIOP. A major refurbishment and upgrade of the instrument and improvements to a data-processing algorithm led to the significant improvement and very small bias in ALIVE. Finally we find that during ALIVE the Raman Lidar water vapor densities ?w are higher by 8% when compared to AATS-14, whereas comparisons between AATS-14 and in-situ measured ?w aboard two different aircraft showed small negative biases (0 to -3%).

Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Ferrare, Richard; Clayton, Marian F.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.; Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P. B.; Gore, W.; Dominguez, Roseanne

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

174

Method and device for predicting wavelength dependent radiation influences in thermal systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for predicting the spectral (wavelength-dependent) radiation transport in thermal systems including interaction by the radiation with partially transmitting medium. The predicted model of the thermal system is used to design and control the thermal system. The predictions are well suited to be implemented in design and control of rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactors. The method involves generating a spectral thermal radiation transport model of an RTP reactor. The method also involves specifying a desired wafer time dependent temperature profile. The method further involves calculating an inverse of the generated model using the desired wafer time dependent temperature to determine heating element parameters required to produce the desired profile. The method also involves controlling the heating elements of the RTP reactor in accordance with the heating element parameters to heat the wafer in accordance with the desired profile.

Kee, Robert J. (864 Lucille St., Livermore, CA 94550); Ting, Aili (7329 Stonedale Dr., Pleasanton, CA 94558)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

RadHeat V1 User's Manual  

SciTech Connect

RadHeat is a one dimensional finite difference heat transfer code that can determine the transient temperature evolution of layered targets in pulsed penetrating radiation environments. It makes use of energy dependent opacity and stopping data to model the volumetric deposition of any number of photon or ion spectra each incident at arbitrary angles. Convective and radiative boundary conditions are handled as well as the ability to impose any initial temperature profile. The heat diffusion equation is formulated implicitly to eliminate timestep dependent stability issues. Simulations are, therefore, able to achieve high fidelity during times of thermal activity and greater speed elsewhere. The prototypical physical situation simulated by RadHeat is illustrated. RadHeat was originally written to study the temperature response of tungsten-armored target-facing walls to the pulsed photon and ion radiation emanating from fusion microexplosions in future IFE power plants. RadHeat's implementation is quite general, though, and the code can be applied to a very broad range of problems. Anything from the heating of the Earth's crust on a warm summer day to the temperature rise in a mirror after a laser pulse could potentially be modeled. This manual was written to help new users learn how to run the code and introduce them to the simulation tools it provides.

Abbott, R P

2005-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

176

Radiation environment simulations at the Tevatron, studies of the beam profile and measurement of the Bc meson mass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The description of a computer simulation of the CDF detector at Fermilab and the adjacent accelerator parts is detailed, with MARS calculations of the radiation background in various elements of the model due to the collision of beams and machine-related losses. Three components of beam halo formation are simulated for the determination of the principal source of radiation background in CDF due to beam losses. The effect of a collimator as a protection for the detector is studied. The simulation results are compared with data taken by a CDF group. Studies of a 150 GeV Tevatron proton beam are performed to investigate the transverse diffusion growth and distribution. A technique of collimator scan is used to scrape the beam under various experimental conditions, and computer programs are written for the beam reconstruction. An average beam halo growth speed is given and the potential of beam tail reconstruction using the collimator scan is evaluated. A particle physics analysis is conducted in order to detect the B{sub c} {yields} J/{psi}{pi} decay signal with the CDF Run II detector in 360 pb{sup -1} of data. The cut variables and an optimization method to determine their values are presented along with a criterion for the detection threshold of the signal. The mass of the B{sub c} meson is measured with an evaluation of the significance of the signal.

Nicolas, Ludovic Y.; /Glasgow U.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Microwave heating for adsorbents regeneration and oil sands coke activation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave heating has unique advantages compared to convection-radiation heating methods including fast heating rate and selective heating of objects. This thesis studied two applications of… (more)

Chen, Heng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Technical assessment of the prevention of micro-fouling on OTEC heat-transfer surfaces through the use of ultraviolet radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To reduce or eliminate biofouling by microorganisms it has been suggested that the seawater entering the heat exchanger be sterilized (or at least sanitized) by uv radiation at 253.7 nm. The feasibility of applying this technology to OTEC is examined. Trivial calculations based on the Lambert-Beer equation and reasonable assumptions about seawater quality and the intensity of irradiation obtainable from a uv lamp suggest seawater may be transparent enough to a collimated beam of uv light to deliver effective germicidal doses to nearly 150 cm under some conditions. However, the practical limit on the depth of effective radiation from commercial lamps is severely restricted by many factors including the natural divergence of light, absorption and scattering in the media, intensity of radiation from the light source and so forth. Even under very favorable conditions a common design allowing uv light to penetrate 30 cm of water would have to permit the water at that distance to be in contact with the light for 20 seconds or so to deliver the germicidal effect of high quality sanitization but not necessarily sterilization. Macro-fouling, which may be more severe than micro-fouling, will not be affected by uv radiation (presuming an absence of symbiotic relationships). Parasitic power required for uv sources may be prohibitive under unfavorable conditions (i.e., unexpectedly high absorptivities of seawater, or excessive turbidity) or the absence of an industrial effort to scale up present uv equipment appropriate to OTEC needs. This latter event is unlikely for it appears that present uv lamps can be adapted to OTEC needs without major technological advancement. Power and cost estimates for uv installation and operation vary widely depending on the number of lamps needed for the OTEC configuration and the intensity of uv radiation actually required to prevent biofouling of heat transfer systems in OTEC designs.

Garrigan, G. A.; Schmitt, R. P.; Ciccone, V. J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

On the temperature profile of radiatively efficient geometrically thin disks in black hole binaries with the ASCA GIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray spectra of black hole binaries(BHBs) in the high/soft state were studied comprehensively by using ASCA GIS data, and partially RXTE PCA data. A mathematical disk model was applied to several BHBs to see if the observed accretion disk temperature profile was consistent with that expected from the standard accretion disk model. This model is called p-free disk, and assumes that the spectrum is composed of multi-temperature blackbody emission of which the local temperature T(r) at radius r is given by T(r) ~ r^-p with p being a positive free parameter. The standard disk roughly requires p~3/4, while a small deviation is expected depending on the inner boundary conditions, general relativistic effects and disk vertical structures.Our sample objects included LMC X-1, LMC X-3, XTE J2012+381, and GRO J1655-40. During the ASCA observations, these BHBs showed characteristics of the standard high/soft state. Under the standard modeling of high-state black hole binaries, the sources show Tin=0.76-1.17keV, the disk...

Kubota, A; Makishima, K; Nakazawa, K; Kubota, Aya; Ebisawa, Ken; Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

On the temperature profile of radiatively efficient geometrically thin disks in black hole binaries with the ASCA GIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray spectra of black hole binaries(BHBs) in the high/soft state were studied comprehensively by using ASCA GIS data, and partially RXTE PCA data. A mathematical disk model was applied to several BHBs to see if the observed accretion disk temperature profile was consistent with that expected from the standard accretion disk model. This model is called p-free disk, and assumes that the spectrum is composed of multi-temperature blackbody emission of which the local temperature T(r) at radius r is given by T(r) ~ r^-p with p being a positive free parameter. The standard disk roughly requires p~3/4, while a small deviation is expected depending on the inner boundary conditions, general relativistic effects and disk vertical structures.Our sample objects included LMC X-1, LMC X-3, XTE J2012+381, and GRO J1655-40. During the ASCA observations, these BHBs showed characteristics of the standard high/soft state. Under the standard modeling of high-state black hole binaries, the sources show Tin=0.76-1.17keV, the disk fraction to the total 0.7-10keV flux of 54-98%, and Nh=(0.7--12)E21/cm^2. The best-fit p-values were found in 0.6-0.8, and the standard value of p=3/4 was accepted for all the sources.The obtained p-values are also compared with those expected for the standard accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric, and they were consistent with those expected from the standard accretion disk.

Aya Kubota; Ken Ebisawa; Kazuo Makishima; Kazuhiro Nakazawa

2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Equilibrium Models of Galaxy Clusters with Cooling, Heating and Conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally argued that most clusters of galaxies host cooling flows in which radiative cooling in the centre causes a slow inflow. However, recent observations by Chandra and XMM conflict with the predicted cooling flow rates. Amongst other mechanisms, heating by a central active galactic nucleus and thermal conduction have been invoked in order to account for the small mass deposition rates. Here, we present a family of hydrostatic models for the intra-cluster medium where radiative losses are exactly balanced by thermal conduction and heating by a central source. We describe the features of this simple model and fit its parameters to the density and temperature profiles of Hydra A.

M. Bruggen

2003-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

182

Impact of Shortwave Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols on the Summer Season Heat Low over Saudi Arabia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-stream scattering scheme based on the delta-Eddington approximation is incorporated into the Florida State University Limited Area Model for computing the shortwave radiative fluxes due to dust aerosols over the Saudi Arabian region and to ...

Saad Mohalfi; H. S. Bedi; T. N. Krishnamurti; Steven D. Cocke

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Entropy Budget of an Atmosphere in Radiative–Convective Equilibrium. Part II: Latent Heat Transport and Moist Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In moist convection, atmospheric motions transport water vapor from the earth's surface to the regions where condensation occurs. This transport is associated with three other aspects of convection: the latent heat transport, the expansion work ...

Olivier Pauluis; Isaac M. Held

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Richlen, S.L.

1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

185

Heating, Moisture, and Water Budgets of Tropical and Midlatitude Squall Lines: Comparisons and Sensitivity to Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, time-dependent, and nonhydrostatic numerical cloud model is used to estimate the heating (Q1, moisture (Q2), and water budgets in the convective and stratiform regions for a tropical and a midlatitude squall line (EMEX and PRE-...

W. -K. Tao; J. Simpson; C. H. Sui; B. Ferrier; S. Lang; J. Scala; M. D. Chou; K. Pickering

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Effect of {gamma}-ray radiation on electrical properties of heat-treated Tb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}Se single crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of {gamma}-ray radiation on the electrical properties of heat-treated Tb{sub 0.01}Sn{sub 0.99}Se (sample 1) and Tb{sub 0.05}Sn{sub 0.95}Se (sample 2) samples is studied. It is found that, as a result of irradiation with {gamma}-ray 1.25-MeV photons, the charge-carrier concentration decreases in the temperature range T = 77-200 K by 17 and 6.3% for samples 1 and 2, respectively. It is assumed that, in the course of irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons, terbium impurity atoms are located between sites of the crystal lattice; in addition, Frenkel defects are formed.

Huseynov, J. I., E-mail: cih_58@mail.ru; Jafarov, T. A. [Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Azerbaijan)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Temperature profiles determine HRSG steam production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article examine how temperature profiles affect steam production in heat recovery steam generators(HRSG). A typical gas/steam temperature profile for a HRSG is shown. Heat balance equations for the superheater, evaporator, and the complete HRSG are given along with examples for calculating the HRSG temperature profiles after assuming the pinch and approach point temperatures.

Ganapathy, V.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Hybrid Radiator-Cooling System  

Technology Development & Commercialization Current Challenges Coolant radiators in highway trucks are designed to transfer maximum heat at a ...

189

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wyoming Electricity Profile 2010 Wyoming profile Wyoming Electricity Profile 2010 Wyoming profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Wyoming) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 7,986 37 Electric Utilities 6,931 31 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,056 41 Net Generation (megawatthours) 48,119,254 31 Electric Utilities 44,738,543 25 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,380,711 42 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 67 23 Nitrogen Oxide 61 15 Carbon Dioxide 45,703 21 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.1 19 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.8 7 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2,094 2 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 17,113,458 40 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 17,113,458 39

190

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Idaho Electricity Profile 2010 Idaho profile Idaho Electricity Profile 2010 Idaho profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Idaho) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Hydroelectric Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 3,990 44 Electric Utilities 3,035 36 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 955 42 Net Generation (megawatthours) 12,024,564 44 Electric Utilities 8,589,208 37 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,435,356 40 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 7 45 Nitrogen Oxide 4 48 Carbon Dioxide 1,213 49 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.2 39 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 43 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 222 50 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 22,797,668 38 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 22,797,668 37

191

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

California Electricity Profile 2010 California profile California Electricity Profile 2010 California profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (California) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SPP/WECC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 67,328 2 Electric Utilities 28,689 2 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 38,639 4 Net Generation (megawatthours) 204,125,596 4 Electric Utilities 96,939,535 8 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 107,186,061 4 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 3 47 Nitrogen Oxide 80 9 Carbon Dioxide 55,406 16 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) * 49 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 41 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 598 46 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 258,525,414 2 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 240,948,673 2

192

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carolina Electricity Profile 2010 South Carolina profile Carolina Electricity Profile 2010 South Carolina profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (South Carolina) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 23,982 17 Electric Utilities 22,172 9 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,810 35 Net Generation (megawatthours) 104,153,133 14 Electric Utilities 100,610,887 6 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,542,246 39 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 106 19 Nitrogen Oxide 30 33 Carbon Dioxide 41,364 23 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 30 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 45 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 876 40 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 82,479,293 19 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 82,479,293 17

193

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2010 District of Columbia profile District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2010 District of Columbia profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Petroleum Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 790 51 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 790 46 Net Generation (megawatthours) 199,858 51 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 199,858 51 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 1 49 Nitrogen Oxide * 51 Carbon Dioxide 191 50 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 8.8 2 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.0 3 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2,104 1 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 11,876,995 43 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 3,388,490 50 Energy-Only Provider Sales (megawatthours) 8,488,505 12

194

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Virginia Electricity Profile 2010 Virginia profile Virginia Electricity Profile 2010 Virginia profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Virginia) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC/SERC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 24,109 16 Electric Utilities 19,434 15 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,676 21 Net Generation (megawatthours) 72,966,456 21 Electric Utilities 58,902,054 16 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 14,064,402 25 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 120 16 Nitrogen Oxide 49 24 Carbon Dioxide 39,719 25 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.6 15 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 23 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,200 30 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 113,806,135 10 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 113,806,135 7

195

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Delaware Electricity Profile 2010 Delaware profile Delaware Electricity Profile 2010 Delaware profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 3,389 46 Electric Utilities 55 48 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,334 29 Net Generation (megawatthours) 5,627,645 50 Electric Utilities 30,059 46 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 5,597,586 36 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 13 41 Nitrogen Oxide 5 47 Carbon Dioxide 4,187 45 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.2 7 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 16 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,640 15 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 11,605,932 44 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 7,582,539 46

196

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado Electricity Profile 2010 Colorado profile Colorado Electricity Profile 2010 Colorado profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Colorado) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC/WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 13,777 30 Electric Utilities 9,114 28 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,662 22 Net Generation (megawatthours) 50,720,792 30 Electric Utilities 39,584,166 28 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 11,136,626 31 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 45 29 Nitrogen Oxide 55 20 Carbon Dioxide 40,499 24 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 32 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 10 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,760 12 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 52,917,786 27 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 52,917,786 24

197

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kansas Electricity Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas Electricity Profile 2010 Kansas profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Kansas) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/SPP Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 12,543 32 Electric Utilities 11,732 20 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 812 45 Net Generation (megawatthours) 47,923,762 32 Electric Utilities 45,270,047 24 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,653,716 44 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 41 30 Nitrogen Oxide 46 26 Carbon Dioxide 36,321 26 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 33 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.1 13 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,671 14 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 40,420,675 32 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 40,420,675 30

198

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 45,575 4 Electric Utilities 455 44 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 45,120 2 Net Generation (megawatthours) 229,752,306 2 Electric Utilities 1,086,500 42 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 228,665,806 2 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 387 3 Nitrogen Oxide 136 2 Carbon Dioxide 122,830 3 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.7 13 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 27 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,179 32 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 148,963,968 5 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 114,787,417 6

199

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 45,575 4 Electric Utilities 455 44 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 45,120 2 Net Generation (megawatthours) 229,752,306 2 Electric Utilities 1,086,500 42 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 228,665,806 2 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 387 3 Nitrogen Oxide 136 2 Carbon Dioxide 122,830 3 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.7 13 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 27 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,179 32 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 148,963,968 5 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 114,787,417 6

200

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Wyoming Electricity Profile 2010 Wyoming profile Wyoming Electricity Profile 2010 Wyoming profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Wyoming) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 7,986 37 Electric Utilities 6,931 31 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,056 41 Net Generation (megawatthours) 48,119,254 31 Electric Utilities 44,738,543 25 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,380,711 42 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 67 23 Nitrogen Oxide 61 15 Carbon Dioxide 45,703 21 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.1 19 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.8 7 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2,094 2 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 17,113,458 40 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 17,113,458 39

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Kentucky Electricity Profile 2010 Kentucky profile Kentucky Electricity Profile 2010 Kentucky profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Kentucky) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC/SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 20,453 21 Electric Utilities 18,945 16 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,507 38 Net Generation (megawatthours) 98,217,658 17 Electric Utilities 97,472,144 7 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 745,514 48 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 249 7 Nitrogen Oxide 85 7 Carbon Dioxide 93,160 7 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.6 5 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 15 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2,091 3 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 93,569,426 14 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 93,569,426 12

202

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Michigan Electricity Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan Electricity Profile 2010 Michigan profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Michigan) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 29,831 11 Electric Utilities 21,639 10 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,192 14 Net Generation (megawatthours) 111,551,371 13 Electric Utilities 89,666,874 13 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 21,884,497 16 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 254 6 Nitrogen Oxide 89 6 Carbon Dioxide 74,480 11 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.0 8 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 19 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,472 20 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 103,649,219 12 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 94,565,247 11

203

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Alabama Electricity Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama Electricity Profile 2010 Alabama profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Alabama) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 32,417 9 Electric Utilities 23,642 7 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,775 12 Net Generation (megawatthours) 152,150,512 6 Electric Utilities 122,766,490 2 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 29,384,022 12 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 218 10 Nitrogen Oxide 66 14 Carbon Dioxide 79,375 9 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 18 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 36 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,150 33 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 90,862,645 15 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 90,862,645 13

204

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Michigan Electricity Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan Electricity Profile 2010 Michigan profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Michigan) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 29,831 11 Electric Utilities 21,639 10 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,192 14 Net Generation (megawatthours) 111,551,371 13 Electric Utilities 89,666,874 13 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 21,884,497 16 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 254 6 Nitrogen Oxide 89 6 Carbon Dioxide 74,480 11 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.0 8 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 19 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,472 20 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 103,649,219 12 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 94,565,247 11

205

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Ohio Electricity Profile 2010 Ohio profile Ohio Electricity Profile 2010 Ohio profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Ohio) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 33,071 8 Electric Utilities 20,179 13 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 12,892 7 Net Generation (megawatthours) 143,598,337 7 Electric Utilities 92,198,096 10 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 51,400,241 7 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 610 1 Nitrogen Oxide 122 3 Carbon Dioxide 121,964 4 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 9.4 1 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 17 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,872 8 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 154,145,418 4 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 105,329,797 9

206

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2010 Wisconsin profile Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2010 Wisconsin profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 17,836 23 Electric Utilities 13,098 19 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,738 20 Net Generation (megawatthours) 64,314,067 24 Electric Utilities 45,579,970 22 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 18,734,097 18 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 145 12 Nitrogen Oxide 49 25 Carbon Dioxide 47,238 19 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.0 9 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 20 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,619 16 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 68,752,417 22 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 68,752,417 21

207

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Florida Electricity Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida Electricity Profile 2010 Florida profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Florida) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) FRCC/SERC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 59,147 3 Electric Utilities 50,853 1 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,294 13 Net Generation (megawatthours) 229,095,935 3 Electric Utilities 206,062,185 1 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 23,033,750 15 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 160 11 Nitrogen Oxide 101 5 Carbon Dioxide 123,811 2 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 37 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 35 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,191 31 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 231,209,614 3 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 231,209,614 3

208

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arizona Electricity Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona Electricity Profile 2010 Arizona profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Arizona) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 26,392 15 Electric Utilities 20,115 14 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 6,277 16 Net Generation (megawatthours) 111,750,957 12 Electric Utilities 91,232,664 11 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 20,518,293 17 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 33 33 Nitrogen Oxide 57 17 Carbon Dioxide 55,683 15 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.7 43 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 31 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,099 35 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 72,831,737 21 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 72,831,737 20

209

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kentucky Electricity Profile 2010 Kentucky profile Kentucky Electricity Profile 2010 Kentucky profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Kentucky) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC/SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 20,453 21 Electric Utilities 18,945 16 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,507 38 Net Generation (megawatthours) 98,217,658 17 Electric Utilities 97,472,144 7 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 745,514 48 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 249 7 Nitrogen Oxide 85 7 Carbon Dioxide 93,160 7 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.6 5 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 15 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2,091 3 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 93,569,426 14 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 93,569,426 12

210

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alabama Electricity Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama Electricity Profile 2010 Alabama profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Alabama) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 32,417 9 Electric Utilities 23,642 7 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,775 12 Net Generation (megawatthours) 152,150,512 6 Electric Utilities 122,766,490 2 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 29,384,022 12 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 218 10 Nitrogen Oxide 66 14 Carbon Dioxide 79,375 9 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 18 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 36 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,150 33 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 90,862,645 15 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 90,862,645 13

211

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arkansas Electricity Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas Electricity Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Arkansas) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 15,981 25 Electric Utilities 11,488 23 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,493 24 Net Generation (megawatthours) 61,000,185 25 Electric Utilities 47,108,063 20 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 13,892,122 27 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 74 22 Nitrogen Oxide 40 29 Carbon Dioxide 34,018 28 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 22 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 24 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,229 29 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 48,194,285 29 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 48,194,285 27

212

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maryland Electricity Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland Electricity Profile 2010 Maryland profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Maryland) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 12,516 33 Electric Utilities 80 47 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 12,436 9 Net Generation (megawatthours) 43,607,264 33 Electric Utilities 2,996 48 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 43,604,268 9 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 45 28 Nitrogen Oxide 25 34 Carbon Dioxide 26,369 33 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 29 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,333 24 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 65,335,498 24 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 36,082,473 31

213

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Hawaii Electricity Profile 2010 Hawaii profile Hawaii Electricity Profile 2010 Hawaii profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Hawaii) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) -- Primary Energy Source Petroleum Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 2,536 47 Electric Utilities 1,828 40 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 708 47 Net Generation (megawatthours) 10,836,036 45 Electric Utilities 6,416,068 38 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,419,968 38 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 17 36 Nitrogen Oxide 21 36 Carbon Dioxide 8,287 42 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 16 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 2 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,686 13 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 10,016,509 48 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 10,016,509 44

214

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mexico Electricity Profile 2010 New Mexico profile Mexico Electricity Profile 2010 New Mexico profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SPP/WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 8,130 36 Electric Utilities 6,345 33 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,785 36 Net Generation (megawatthours) 36,251,542 37 Electric Utilities 30,848,406 33 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 5,403,136 37 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 15 38 Nitrogen Oxide 56 19 Carbon Dioxide 29,379 31 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 42 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 5 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,787 11 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 22,428,344 39 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 22,428,344 38

215

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Hampshire Electricity Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile Hampshire Electricity Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 4,180 43 Electric Utilities 1,132 41 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,048 32 Net Generation (megawatthours) 22,195,912 42 Electric Utilities 3,979,333 41 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 18,216,579 19 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 34 32 Nitrogen Oxide 6 46 Carbon Dioxide 5,551 43 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 17 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 46 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 551 47 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 10,890,074 47 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 7,712,938 45

216

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oregon Electricity Profile 2010 Oregon profile Oregon Electricity Profile 2010 Oregon profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Oregon) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Hydroelectric Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 14,261 29 Electric Utilities 10,846 27 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,415 28 Net Generation (megawatthours) 55,126,999 27 Electric Utilities 41,142,684 26 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 13,984,316 26 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 16 37 Nitrogen Oxide 15 42 Carbon Dioxide 10,094 40 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 44 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 47 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 404 48 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 46,025,945 30 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 44,525,865 29

217

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maine Electricity Profile 2010 Maine profile Maine Electricity Profile 2010 Maine profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Maine) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 4,430 42 Electric Utilities 19 49 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,410 25 Net Generation (megawatthours) 17,018,660 43 Electric Utilities 1,759 49 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 17,016,901 22 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 12 42 Nitrogen Oxide 8 44 Carbon Dioxide 4,948 44 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 36 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 33 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 641 44 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 11,531,568 45 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 151,588 51 Energy-Only Provider Sales (megawatthours) 11,379,980 10

218

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mississippi Electricity Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi Electricity Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Mississippi) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 15,691 26 Electric Utilities 10,858 26 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,833 18 Net Generation (megawatthours) 54,487,260 28 Electric Utilities 40,841,436 27 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 13,645,824 28 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 59 26 Nitrogen Oxide 31 32 Carbon Dioxide 26,845 32 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 26 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.2 30 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,086 36 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 49,687,166 28 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 49,687,166 26

219

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Washington Electricity Profile 2010 Washington profile Washington Electricity Profile 2010 Washington profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Washington) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Hydroelectric Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 30,478 10 Electric Utilities 26,498 5 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,979 26 Net Generation (megawatthours) 103,472,729 15 Electric Utilities 88,057,219 14 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 15,415,510 23 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 14 39 Nitrogen Oxide 21 37 Carbon Dioxide 13,984 39 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.3 47 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 50 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 298 49 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 90,379,970 16 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 88,116,958 14

220

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Mexico Electricity Profile 2010 New Mexico profile Mexico Electricity Profile 2010 New Mexico profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SPP/WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 8,130 36 Electric Utilities 6,345 33 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,785 36 Net Generation (megawatthours) 36,251,542 37 Electric Utilities 30,848,406 33 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 5,403,136 37 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 15 38 Nitrogen Oxide 56 19 Carbon Dioxide 29,379 31 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 42 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 5 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,787 11 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 22,428,344 39 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 22,428,344 38

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Delaware Electricity Profile 2010 Delaware profile Delaware Electricity Profile 2010 Delaware profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 3,389 46 Electric Utilities 55 48 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,334 29 Net Generation (megawatthours) 5,627,645 50 Electric Utilities 30,059 46 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 5,597,586 36 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 13 41 Nitrogen Oxide 5 47 Carbon Dioxide 4,187 45 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.2 7 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 16 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,640 15 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 11,605,932 44 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 7,582,539 46

222

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ohio Electricity Profile 2010 Ohio profile Ohio Electricity Profile 2010 Ohio profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Ohio) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 33,071 8 Electric Utilities 20,179 13 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 12,892 7 Net Generation (megawatthours) 143,598,337 7 Electric Utilities 92,198,096 10 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 51,400,241 7 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 610 1 Nitrogen Oxide 122 3 Carbon Dioxide 121,964 4 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 9.4 1 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 17 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,872 8 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 154,145,418 4 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 105,329,797 9

223

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Arkansas Electricity Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas Electricity Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Arkansas) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 15,981 25 Electric Utilities 11,488 23 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,493 24 Net Generation (megawatthours) 61,000,185 25 Electric Utilities 47,108,063 20 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 13,892,122 27 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 74 22 Nitrogen Oxide 40 29 Carbon Dioxide 34,018 28 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 22 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 24 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,229 29 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 48,194,285 29 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 48,194,285 27

224

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2010 Oklahoma profile Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2010 Oklahoma profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SPP Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 21,022 20 Electric Utilities 16,015 18 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 5,006 17 Net Generation (megawatthours) 72,250,733 22 Electric Utilities 57,421,195 17 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 14,829,538 24 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 85 21 Nitrogen Oxide 71 12 Carbon Dioxide 49,536 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.6 24 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 11 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,512 17 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 57,845,980 25 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 57,845,980 23

225

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Iowa Electricity Profile 2010 Iowa profile Iowa Electricity Profile 2010 Iowa profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Iowa) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 14,592 28 Electric Utilities 11,282 24 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,310 30 Net Generation (megawatthours) 57,508,721 26 Electric Utilities 46,188,988 21 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 11,319,733 30 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 108 18 Nitrogen Oxide 50 22 Carbon Dioxide 47,211 20 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.1 11 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 14 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,810 10 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 45,445,269 31 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 45,445,269 28

226

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

West Virginia Electricity Profile 2010 West Virginia profile West Virginia Electricity Profile 2010 West Virginia profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (West Virginia) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 16,495 24 Electric Utilities 11,719 21 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,775 19 Net Generation (megawatthours) 80,788,947 20 Electric Utilities 56,719,755 18 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 24,069,192 13 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 105 20 Nitrogen Oxide 49 23 Carbon Dioxide 74,283 12 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.9 20 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 25 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2,027 5 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 32,031,803 34 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 32,031,803 33

227

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vermont Electricity Profile 2010 Vermont profile Vermont Electricity Profile 2010 Vermont profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Vermont) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 1,128 50 Electric Utilities 260 45 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 868 43 Net Generation (megawatthours) 6,619,990 49 Electric Utilities 720,853 44 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 5,899,137 35 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide * 51 Nitrogen Oxide 1 50 Carbon Dioxide 8 51 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) * 51 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 51 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3 51 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 5,594,833 51 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 5,594,833 48 Direct Use (megawatthours) 19,806 47

228

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Mississippi Electricity Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi Electricity Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Mississippi) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 15,691 26 Electric Utilities 10,858 26 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,833 18 Net Generation (megawatthours) 54,487,260 28 Electric Utilities 40,841,436 27 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 13,645,824 28 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 59 26 Nitrogen Oxide 31 32 Carbon Dioxide 26,845 32 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 26 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.2 30 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,086 36 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 49,687,166 28 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 49,687,166 26

229

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2010 Wisconsin profile Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2010 Wisconsin profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 17,836 23 Electric Utilities 13,098 19 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,738 20 Net Generation (megawatthours) 64,314,067 24 Electric Utilities 45,579,970 22 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 18,734,097 18 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 145 12 Nitrogen Oxide 49 25 Carbon Dioxide 47,238 19 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.0 9 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 20 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,619 16 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 68,752,417 22 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 68,752,417 21

230

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Colorado Electricity Profile 2010 Colorado profile Colorado Electricity Profile 2010 Colorado profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Colorado) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC/WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 13,777 30 Electric Utilities 9,114 28 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,662 22 Net Generation (megawatthours) 50,720,792 30 Electric Utilities 39,584,166 28 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 11,136,626 31 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 45 29 Nitrogen Oxide 55 20 Carbon Dioxide 40,499 24 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 32 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 10 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,760 12 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 52,917,786 27 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 52,917,786 24

231

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Hampshire Electricity Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile Hampshire Electricity Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 4,180 43 Electric Utilities 1,132 41 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,048 32 Net Generation (megawatthours) 22,195,912 42 Electric Utilities 3,979,333 41 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 18,216,579 19 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 34 32 Nitrogen Oxide 6 46 Carbon Dioxide 5,551 43 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 17 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 46 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 551 47 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 10,890,074 47 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 7,712,938 45

232

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carolina Electricity Profile 2010 North Carolina profile Carolina Electricity Profile 2010 North Carolina profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (North Carolina) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 27,674 12 Electric Utilities 25,553 6 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,121 34 Net Generation (megawatthours) 128,678,483 10 Electric Utilities 121,251,138 3 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 7,427,345 34 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 131 14 Nitrogen Oxide 57 16 Carbon Dioxide 73,241 13 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 31 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 34 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,255 28 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 136,414,947 9 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 136,414,947 5

233

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nevada Electricity Profile 2010 Nevada profile Nevada Electricity Profile 2010 Nevada profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Nevada) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 11,421 34 Electric Utilities 8,713 29 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,708 33 Net Generation (megawatthours) 35,146,248 38 Electric Utilities 23,710,917 34 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 11,435,331 29 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 7 44 Nitrogen Oxide 15 40 Carbon Dioxide 17,020 38 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 46 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 37 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,068 37 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 33,772,595 33 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 32,348,879 32

234

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Kansas Electricity Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas Electricity Profile 2010 Kansas profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Kansas) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/SPP Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 12,543 32 Electric Utilities 11,732 20 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 812 45 Net Generation (megawatthours) 47,923,762 32 Electric Utilities 45,270,047 24 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,653,716 44 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 41 30 Nitrogen Oxide 46 26 Carbon Dioxide 36,321 26 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 33 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.1 13 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,671 14 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 40,420,675 32 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 40,420,675 30

235

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nebraska Electricity Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska Electricity Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Nebraska) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/SPP Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 7,857 38 Electric Utilities 7,647 30 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 210 50 Net Generation (megawatthours) 36,630,006 36 Electric Utilities 36,242,921 30 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 387,085 50 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 65 24 Nitrogen Oxide 40 30 Carbon Dioxide 24,461 34 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.9 12 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 9 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,472 19 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 29,849,460 36 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 29,849,460 35

236

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Missouri Electricity Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri Electricity Profile 2010 Missouri profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Missouri) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 21,739 18 Electric Utilities 20,360 12 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,378 39 Net Generation (megawatthours) 92,312,989 18 Electric Utilities 90,176,805 12 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,136,184 46 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 233 8 Nitrogen Oxide 56 18 Carbon Dioxide 78,815 10 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.6 6 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 26 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,882 7 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 86,085,117 17 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 86,085,117 15

237

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota Electricity Profile 2010 North Dakota profile Dakota Electricity Profile 2010 North Dakota profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (North Dakota) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 6,188 40 Electric Utilities 4,912 34 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,276 40 Net Generation (megawatthours) 34,739,542 39 Electric Utilities 31,343,796 32 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,395,746 41 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 116 17 Nitrogen Oxide 52 21 Carbon Dioxide 31,064 30 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 7.3 3 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 3.3 6 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,971 6 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 12,956,263 42 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 12,956,263 41

238

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Minnesota Electricity Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota Electricity Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Minnesota) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 14,715 27 Electric Utilities 11,547 22 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,168 31 Net Generation (megawatthours) 53,670,227 29 Electric Utilities 45,428,599 23 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,241,628 32 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 57 27 Nitrogen Oxide 44 27 Carbon Dioxide 32,946 29 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 27 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 18 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,353 21 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 67,799,706 23 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 67,799,706 22

239

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Louisiana Electricity Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Louisiana Electricity Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Louisiana) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 26,744 14 Electric Utilities 16,471 17 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 10,272 10 Net Generation (megawatthours) 102,884,940 16 Electric Utilities 51,680,682 19 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 51,204,258 8 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 126 15 Nitrogen Oxide 75 11 Carbon Dioxide 58,706 14 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 21 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 21 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,258 27 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 85,079,692 18 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 85,079,692 16

240

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Utah Electricity Profile 2010 Utah profile Utah Electricity Profile 2010 Utah profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Utah) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 7,497 39 Electric Utilities 6,648 32 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 849 44 Net Generation (megawatthours) 42,249,355 35 Electric Utilities 39,522,124 29 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,727,231 43 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 25 34 Nitrogen Oxide 68 13 Carbon Dioxide 35,519 27 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 38 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 3.6 4 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,853 9 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 28,044,001 37 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 28,044,001 36

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Virginia Electricity Profile 2010 Virginia profile Virginia Electricity Profile 2010 Virginia profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Virginia) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC/SERC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 24,109 16 Electric Utilities 19,434 15 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,676 21 Net Generation (megawatthours) 72,966,456 21 Electric Utilities 58,902,054 16 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 14,064,402 25 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 120 16 Nitrogen Oxide 49 24 Carbon Dioxide 39,719 25 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.6 15 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 23 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,200 30 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 113,806,135 10 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 113,806,135 7

242

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dakota Electricity Profile 2010 North Dakota profile Dakota Electricity Profile 2010 North Dakota profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (North Dakota) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 6,188 40 Electric Utilities 4,912 34 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,276 40 Net Generation (megawatthours) 34,739,542 39 Electric Utilities 31,343,796 32 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,395,746 41 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 116 17 Nitrogen Oxide 52 21 Carbon Dioxide 31,064 30 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 7.3 3 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 3.3 6 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,971 6 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 12,956,263 42 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 12,956,263 41

243

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Alaska Electricity Profile 2010 Alaska profile Alaska Electricity Profile 2010 Alaska profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Alaska) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) -- Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 2,067 48 Electric Utilities 1,889 39 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 178 51 Net Generation (megawatthours) 6,759,576 48 Electric Utilities 6,205,050 40 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 554,526 49 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 3 46 Nitrogen Oxide 16 39 Carbon Dioxide 4,125 46 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 41 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 5.2 1 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,345 23 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 6,247,038 50 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 6,247,038 47

244

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Minnesota Electricity Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota Electricity Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Minnesota) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 14,715 27 Electric Utilities 11,547 22 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,168 31 Net Generation (megawatthours) 53,670,227 29 Electric Utilities 45,428,599 23 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,241,628 32 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 57 27 Nitrogen Oxide 44 27 Carbon Dioxide 32,946 29 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 27 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 18 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,353 21 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 67,799,706 23 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 67,799,706 22

245

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maryland Electricity Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland Electricity Profile 2010 Maryland profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Maryland) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 12,516 33 Electric Utilities 80 47 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 12,436 9 Net Generation (megawatthours) 43,607,264 33 Electric Utilities 2,996 48 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 43,604,268 9 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 45 28 Nitrogen Oxide 25 34 Carbon Dioxide 26,369 33 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 29 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,333 24 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 65,335,498 24 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 36,082,473 31

246

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

York Electricity Profile 2010 New York profile York Electricity Profile 2010 New York profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (New York) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 39,357 6 Electric Utilities 11,032 25 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 28,325 5 Net Generation (megawatthours) 136,961,654 9 Electric Utilities 34,633,335 31 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 102,328,319 5 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 62 25 Nitrogen Oxide 44 28 Carbon Dioxide 41,584 22 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 40 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.7 44 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 669 42 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 144,623,573 7 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 79,119,769 18

247

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carolina Electricity Profile 2010 North Carolina profile Carolina Electricity Profile 2010 North Carolina profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (North Carolina) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 27,674 12 Electric Utilities 25,553 6 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,121 34 Net Generation (megawatthours) 128,678,483 10 Electric Utilities 121,251,138 3 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 7,427,345 34 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 131 14 Nitrogen Oxide 57 16 Carbon Dioxide 73,241 13 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 31 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 34 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,255 28 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 136,414,947 9 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 136,414,947 5

248

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Montana Electricity Profile 2010 Montana profile Montana Electricity Profile 2010 Montana profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Montana) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 5,866 41 Electric Utilities 2,340 38 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,526 27 Net Generation (megawatthours) 29,791,181 41 Electric Utilities 6,271,180 39 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 23,520,001 14 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 22 35 Nitrogen Oxide 21 35 Carbon Dioxide 20,370 35 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 35 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 22 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,507 18 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 13,423,138 41 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 10,803,422 43

249

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iowa Electricity Profile 2010 Iowa profile Iowa Electricity Profile 2010 Iowa profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Iowa) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 14,592 28 Electric Utilities 11,282 24 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,310 30 Net Generation (megawatthours) 57,508,721 26 Electric Utilities 46,188,988 21 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 11,319,733 30 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 108 18 Nitrogen Oxide 50 22 Carbon Dioxide 47,211 20 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.1 11 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 14 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,810 10 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 45,445,269 31 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 45,445,269 28

250

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Illinois Electricity Profile 2010 Illinois profile Illinois Electricity Profile 2010 Illinois profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Illinois) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/RFC/SERC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 44,127 5 Electric Utilities 4,800 35 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 39,327 3 Net Generation (megawatthours) 201,351,872 5 Electric Utilities 12,418,332 35 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 188,933,540 3 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 232 9 Nitrogen Oxide 83 8 Carbon Dioxide 103,128 6 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 25 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 38 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,129 34 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 144,760,674 6 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 77,890,532 19

251

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Louisiana Electricity Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Louisiana Electricity Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Louisiana) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 26,744 14 Electric Utilities 16,471 17 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 10,272 10 Net Generation (megawatthours) 102,884,940 16 Electric Utilities 51,680,682 19 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 51,204,258 8 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 126 15 Nitrogen Oxide 75 11 Carbon Dioxide 58,706 14 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 21 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 21 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,258 27 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 85,079,692 18 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 85,079,692 16

252

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

California Electricity Profile 2010 California profile California Electricity Profile 2010 California profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (California) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SPP/WECC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 67,328 2 Electric Utilities 28,689 2 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 38,639 4 Net Generation (megawatthours) 204,125,596 4 Electric Utilities 96,939,535 8 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 107,186,061 4 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 3 47 Nitrogen Oxide 80 9 Carbon Dioxide 55,406 16 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) * 49 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 41 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 598 46 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 258,525,414 2 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 240,948,673 2

253

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota Electricity Profile 2010 South Dakota profile Dakota Electricity Profile 2010 South Dakota profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (South Dakota) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/WECC Primary Energy Source Hydroelectric Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 3,623 45 Electric Utilities 2,994 37 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 629 48 Net Generation (megawatthours) 10,049,636 46 Electric Utilities 8,682,448 36 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,367,188 47 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 12 43 Nitrogen Oxide 12 43 Carbon Dioxide 3,611 47 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.6 23 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.6 8 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 792 41 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 11,356,149 46 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 11,356,149 42

254

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Jersey Electricity Profile 2010 New Jersey profile Jersey Electricity Profile 2010 New Jersey profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (New Jersey) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 18,424 22 Electric Utilities 460 43 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 17,964 6 Net Generation (megawatthours) 65,682,494 23 Electric Utilities -186,385 50 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 65,868,878 6 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 14 40 Nitrogen Oxide 15 41 Carbon Dioxide 19,160 37 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 45 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 48 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 643 43 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 79,179,427 20 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 50,482,035 25

255

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Massachusetts) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 13,697 31 Electric Utilities 937 42 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 12,760 8 Net Generation (megawatthours) 42,804,824 34 Electric Utilities 802,906 43 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 42,001,918 10 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 35 31 Nitrogen Oxide 17 38 Carbon Dioxide 20,291 36 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 34 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 39 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,045 38 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 57,123,422 26 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 31,822,942 34

256

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nebraska Electricity Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska Electricity Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Nebraska) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/SPP Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 7,857 38 Electric Utilities 7,647 30 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 210 50 Net Generation (megawatthours) 36,630,006 36 Electric Utilities 36,242,921 30 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 387,085 50 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 65 24 Nitrogen Oxide 40 30 Carbon Dioxide 24,461 34 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.9 12 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 9 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,472 19 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 29,849,460 36 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 29,849,460 35

257

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Montana Electricity Profile 2010 Montana profile Montana Electricity Profile 2010 Montana profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Montana) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) MRO/WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 5,866 41 Electric Utilities 2,340 38 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,526 27 Net Generation (megawatthours) 29,791,181 41 Electric Utilities 6,271,180 39 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 23,520,001 14 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 22 35 Nitrogen Oxide 21 35 Carbon Dioxide 20,370 35 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 35 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 22 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,507 18 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 13,423,138 41 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 10,803,422 43

258

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maine Electricity Profile 2010 Maine profile Maine Electricity Profile 2010 Maine profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Maine) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 4,430 42 Electric Utilities 19 49 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,410 25 Net Generation (megawatthours) 17,018,660 43 Electric Utilities 1,759 49 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 17,016,901 22 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 12 42 Nitrogen Oxide 8 44 Carbon Dioxide 4,948 44 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 36 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 33 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 641 44 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 11,531,568 45 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 151,588 51 Energy-Only Provider Sales (megawatthours) 11,379,980 10

259

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Texas Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Texas Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Texas) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP/TRE/WECC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 108,258 1 Electric Utilities 26,533 4 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 81,724 1 Net Generation (megawatthours) 411,695,046 1 Electric Utilities 95,099,161 9 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 316,595,885 1 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 430 2 Nitrogen Oxide 204 1 Carbon Dioxide 251,409 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 28 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,346 22 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 358,457,550 1 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 358,457,550 1

260

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Florida Electricity Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida Electricity Profile 2010 Florida profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Florida) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) FRCC/SERC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 59,147 3 Electric Utilities 50,853 1 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,294 13 Net Generation (megawatthours) 229,095,935 3 Electric Utilities 206,062,185 1 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 23,033,750 15 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 160 11 Nitrogen Oxide 101 5 Carbon Dioxide 123,811 2 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 37 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 35 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,191 31 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 231,209,614 3 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 231,209,614 3

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Hawaii Electricity Profile 2010 Hawaii profile Hawaii Electricity Profile 2010 Hawaii profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Hawaii) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) -- Primary Energy Source Petroleum Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 2,536 47 Electric Utilities 1,828 40 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 708 47 Net Generation (megawatthours) 10,836,036 45 Electric Utilities 6,416,068 38 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,419,968 38 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 17 36 Nitrogen Oxide 21 36 Carbon Dioxide 8,287 42 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 16 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 2 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,686 13 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 10,016,509 48 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 10,016,509 44

262

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Connecticut Electricity Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut Electricity Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Connecticut) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 8,284 35 Electric Utilities 160 46 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,124 15 Net Generation (megawatthours) 33,349,623 40 Electric Utilities 65,570 45 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 33,284,053 11 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 2 48 Nitrogen Oxide 7 45 Carbon Dioxide 9,201 41 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 48 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 49 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 608 45 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 30,391,766 35 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 13,714,958 40

263

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Connecticut Electricity Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut Electricity Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Connecticut) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 8,284 35 Electric Utilities 160 46 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 8,124 15 Net Generation (megawatthours) 33,349,623 40 Electric Utilities 65,570 45 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 33,284,053 11 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 2 48 Nitrogen Oxide 7 45 Carbon Dioxide 9,201 41 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 48 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 49 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 608 45 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 30,391,766 35 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 13,714,958 40

264

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Utah Electricity Profile 2010 Utah profile Utah Electricity Profile 2010 Utah profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Utah) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 7,497 39 Electric Utilities 6,648 32 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 849 44 Net Generation (megawatthours) 42,249,355 35 Electric Utilities 39,522,124 29 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,727,231 43 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 25 34 Nitrogen Oxide 68 13 Carbon Dioxide 35,519 27 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 38 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 3.6 4 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,853 9 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 28,044,001 37 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 28,044,001 36

265

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carolina Electricity Profile 2010 South Carolina profile Carolina Electricity Profile 2010 South Carolina profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (South Carolina) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 23,982 17 Electric Utilities 22,172 9 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 1,810 35 Net Generation (megawatthours) 104,153,133 14 Electric Utilities 100,610,887 6 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,542,246 39 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 106 19 Nitrogen Oxide 30 33 Carbon Dioxide 41,364 23 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 30 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 45 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 876 40 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 82,479,293 19 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 82,479,293 17

266

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alaska Electricity Profile 2010 Alaska profile Alaska Electricity Profile 2010 Alaska profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Alaska) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) -- Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 2,067 48 Electric Utilities 1,889 39 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 178 51 Net Generation (megawatthours) 6,759,576 48 Electric Utilities 6,205,050 40 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 554,526 49 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 3 46 Nitrogen Oxide 16 39 Carbon Dioxide 4,125 46 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 41 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 5.2 1 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,345 23 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 6,247,038 50 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 6,247,038 47

267

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nevada Electricity Profile 2010 Nevada profile Nevada Electricity Profile 2010 Nevada profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Nevada) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 11,421 34 Electric Utilities 8,713 29 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,708 33 Net Generation (megawatthours) 35,146,248 38 Electric Utilities 23,710,917 34 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 11,435,331 29 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 7 44 Nitrogen Oxide 15 40 Carbon Dioxide 17,020 38 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 46 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 37 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,068 37 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 33,772,595 33 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 32,348,879 32

268

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Washington Electricity Profile 2010 Washington profile Washington Electricity Profile 2010 Washington profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Washington) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Hydroelectric Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 30,478 10 Electric Utilities 26,498 5 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,979 26 Net Generation (megawatthours) 103,472,729 15 Electric Utilities 88,057,219 14 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 15,415,510 23 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 14 39 Nitrogen Oxide 21 37 Carbon Dioxide 13,984 39 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.3 47 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 50 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 298 49 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 90,379,970 16 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 88,116,958 14

269

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oregon Electricity Profile 2010 Oregon profile Oregon Electricity Profile 2010 Oregon profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Oregon) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Hydroelectric Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 14,261 29 Electric Utilities 10,846 27 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,415 28 Net Generation (megawatthours) 55,126,999 27 Electric Utilities 41,142,684 26 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 13,984,316 26 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 16 37 Nitrogen Oxide 15 42 Carbon Dioxide 10,094 40 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 44 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 47 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 404 48 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 46,025,945 30 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 44,525,865 29

270

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Texas Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Texas Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Texas) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP/TRE/WECC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 108,258 1 Electric Utilities 26,533 4 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 81,724 1 Net Generation (megawatthours) 411,695,046 1 Electric Utilities 95,099,161 9 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 316,595,885 1 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 430 2 Nitrogen Oxide 204 1 Carbon Dioxide 251,409 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 28 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,346 22 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 358,457,550 1 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 358,457,550 1

271

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Indiana Electricity Profile 2010 Indiana profile Indiana Electricity Profile 2010 Indiana profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Indiana) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 27,638 13 Electric Utilities 23,008 8 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,630 23 Net Generation (megawatthours) 125,180,739 11 Electric Utilities 107,852,560 5 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 17,328,179 20 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 385 4 Nitrogen Oxide 120 4 Carbon Dioxide 116,283 5 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 6.8 4 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.1 12 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2,048 4 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 105,994,376 11 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 105,994,376 8

272

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2010 Oklahoma profile Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2010 Oklahoma profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SPP Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 21,022 20 Electric Utilities 16,015 18 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 5,006 17 Net Generation (megawatthours) 72,250,733 22 Electric Utilities 57,421,195 17 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 14,829,538 24 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 85 21 Nitrogen Oxide 71 12 Carbon Dioxide 49,536 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.6 24 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 11 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,512 17 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 57,845,980 25 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 57,845,980 23

273

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jersey Electricity Profile 2010 New Jersey profile Jersey Electricity Profile 2010 New Jersey profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (New Jersey) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 18,424 22 Electric Utilities 460 43 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 17,964 6 Net Generation (megawatthours) 65,682,494 23 Electric Utilities -186,385 50 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 65,868,878 6 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 14 40 Nitrogen Oxide 15 41 Carbon Dioxide 19,160 37 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 45 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 48 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 643 43 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 79,179,427 20 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 50,482,035 25

274

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Idaho Electricity Profile 2010 Idaho profile Idaho Electricity Profile 2010 Idaho profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Idaho) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) WECC Primary Energy Source Hydroelectric Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 3,990 44 Electric Utilities 3,035 36 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 955 42 Net Generation (megawatthours) 12,024,564 44 Electric Utilities 8,589,208 37 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 3,435,356 40 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 7 45 Nitrogen Oxide 4 48 Carbon Dioxide 1,213 49 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.2 39 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 43 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 222 50 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 22,797,668 38 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 22,797,668 37

275

ARM - Evaluation Product - Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsRadiatively Important Parameters Best ProductsRadiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) 2002.03.01 - 2007.06.30 Site(s) SGP General Description The Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP combines multiple input datastreams, each with their own temporal and vertical resolution, to create a complete set of radiatively important parameters on a uniform vertical and temporal grid with quality control and source information for use as input to a radiative transfer model. One of the main drivers for RIPBE was to create input files for the BroadBand Heating Rate Profiles (BBHRP) VAP, but we also envision use of RIPBE files for user-run

276

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

278

Humidity Profiles over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere affects climate change through radiative balance and surface evaporation. The variabilities of atmospheric humidity profile over oceans from daily to interannual time scales were examined using ...

W. Timothy Liu; Wenqing Tang; Pearn P. Niiler

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Thulium-170 heat source  

SciTech Connect

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

1990-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

280

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Handbook of heat transfer fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

This handbook is on the fundamentals of heat transfer. It provides coverage on conduction, convection, and radiation and on thermophysical properties of materials.

Rohsenow, W.M.; Hartnett, J.P.; Ganic, E.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Modeling radiation characteristics of semitransparent media containing bubbles or particles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and heat, mass, and radiation transfer,” Journal of Non-Sacadura, J. F. , “Thermal radiation properties of dispersedG. , and Viskanta, R. , “Radiation characteristics of glass

Randrianalisoa, Jaona; Baillis, Dominique; Pilon, Laurent

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Management Options Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases - combustion products - Temperature from 300 deg. F. to 3000 deg.F. * Radiation-Convection heat loss - From temperature source of 500 deg. F. to 2500 deg. F. * Sensible-latent heat in heated product - From temperature 400 deg. F. to 2200 deg. F. * Cooling water or other liquids - Temperature from 100 deg. F. to 180 deg. F.

284

Meridional Heat Transport in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat transported meridionally in the Pacific Ocean is calculated from the surface heat budgets of Clark and Weare and others; both budgets were based on Bunker's method with different radiation formulas. The meridional heat transport is also ...

L. D. Talley

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Heat and moisture transfer through clothing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. C. Eberhart (ed), Heat transfer in medicine and biology.Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for2008. Study of heat and moisture transfer within multi-layer

Voelker, Conrad; Hoffmann, Sabine; Kornadt, Oliver; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fiber-Optic Environmental Radiation Dosimeter  

coupled remote radiation sensor using NRL’s ... Laser-heated Thermoluminescence Dosimeter for Remote Radia-tion Sensing”. Appl. Phys. Lett., 68, 3377 ...

287

Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Distribution Systems Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems May 16, 2013 - 5:26pm Addthis Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Heat is distributed through your home in a variety of ways. Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That leaves two heat distribution systems -- steam radiators and hot water radiators. Steam Radiators Steam heating is one of the oldest heating technologies, but the process of boiling and condensing water is inherently less efficient than more modern systems, plus it typically suffers from significant lag times between the

288

Radiant Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Radiant Heating Radiant Heating June 24, 2012 - 5:52pm Addthis In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the wall or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer -- the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating.

289

Radiant Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Radiant Heating Radiant Heating June 24, 2012 - 5:52pm Addthis In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the wall or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer -- the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating.

290

Temperature Profile of IR Blocking Windows Used in Cryogenic X-Ray Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic high-resolution X-ray spectrometers are typically operated with thin IR blocking windows to reduce radiative heating of the detector while allowing good x-ray transmission. We have estimated the temperature profile of these IR blocking windows under typical operating conditions. We show that the temperature in the center of the window is raised due to radiation from the higher temperature stages. This can increase the infrared photon flux onto the detector, thereby increasing the IR noise and decreasing the cryostat hold time. The increased window temperature constrains the maximum window size and the number of windows required. We discuss the consequences for IR blocking window design.

Friedrich, S.; Funk, T.; Drury, O.; Labov, S.E.

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

291

Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via the radiation of heat, which is also called infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Despite the name, radiant floor heating systems also depend heavily on convection, the natural circulation of heat within a room, caused by heat rising from the floor. Radiant floor

292

Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via the radiation of heat, which is also called infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Despite the name, radiant floor heating systems also depend heavily on convection, the natural circulation of heat within a room, caused by heat rising from the floor. Radiant floor

293

Radiation intensity of lignite-fired oxy-fuel flames  

SciTech Connect

The radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel flames is compared to corresponding conditions in air-fuel flames during combustion of lignite in the Chalmers 100 kW oxy-fuel test facility. In the oxy-fuel cases the flue-gas recycle rate was varied, so that, in principle, the same stoichiometry was kept in all cases, whereas the oxygen fraction in the recycled flue-gas mixture ranged from 25 to 29 vol.%. Radial profiles of gas concentration, temperature and total radiation intensity were measured in the furnace. The temperature, and thereby the total radiation intensity of the oxy-fuel flames, increases with decreasing flue-gas recycle rate. The ratio of gas and total radiation intensities increases under oxy-fuel conditions compared to air-firing. However, when radiation overlap between gas and particles is considered the ratios for air-firing and oxy-fuel conditions become more similar, since the gas-particle overlap is increased in the CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere. A large fraction of the radiation in these lignite flames is emitted by particles whose radiation was not significantly influenced by oxy-fuel operation. Therefore, an increment of gas radiation due to higher CO{sub 2} concentration is not evident because of the background of particle radiation, and, the total radiation intensities are similar during oxy-fuel and air-fuel operation as long as the temperature distributions are similar. (author)

Andersson, Klas; Johansson, Robert; Hjaertstam, Stefan; Johnsson, Filip; Leckner, Bo [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE - 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

295

Modelling of a passive reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) for a nuclear reactor core subject to environmental changes and the optimisation of the RCCS radiation heat shield heat shield.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is used in the PBMR to protect the concrete citadel surrounding the reactor from direct nuclear radiation… (more)

Verwey, Aldo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Tennessee Electricity Profile 2010 Tennessee full report Tennessee Electricity Profile 2010 Tennessee full report Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Tennessee) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC/SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 21,417 19 Electric Utilities 20,968 11 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 450 49 Net Generation (megawatthours) 82,348,625 19 Electric Utilities 79,816,049 15 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,532,576 45 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 138 13 Nitrogen Oxide 33 31 Carbon Dioxide 48,196 18 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.7 14 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 40 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,290 26 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 103,521,537 13 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 103,521,537 10

297

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Tennessee Electricity Profile 2010 Tennessee full report Tennessee Electricity Profile 2010 Tennessee full report Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Tennessee) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) RFC/SERC Primary Energy Source Coal Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 21,417 19 Electric Utilities 20,968 11 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 450 49 Net Generation (megawatthours) 82,348,625 19 Electric Utilities 79,816,049 15 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 2,532,576 45 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 138 13 Nitrogen Oxide 33 31 Carbon Dioxide 48,196 18 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.7 14 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 40 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,290 26 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 103,521,537 13 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 103,521,537 10

298

Temperature distribution of a tokamak with a constant heat conductivity  

SciTech Connect

An analytical expression of the detached plasma radius in and ohmically heated tokamak plasma was obtained. The assumption was made that the (anomalous) heat conductivity is constant and independent of minor radius, r. The resultant nonlinear differential equation has a universal solution for the plasma temperature as a function of r. The shape is very similar to the so-called profile consistency model. As the average plasma density increases, the tokamak plasma which is first attached to either limiter or divertor detaches itself from the limiter and forms a toroidal plasma whose boundary is clearly marked by a radiative boundary layer where the power input to the plasma is radiated away. As the plasma density increases, the radius of the plasma shrinks until the surface safety factor becomes less that {approximately}2, whereupon the plasma disruption starts. The density limit calculated by this model agrees with the experimental observation. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Yoshikawa, S.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

1-D Van der Waals Foams Heated by Ion Beam Energy Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

clude ionization, heat conduction, or radiation transport,dynamics. Similarly, heat conduction should be relevant on am, the timescale for heat conduction would be 1 µs, which is

Zylstra, A. B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Building Blocks of Tropical Diabatic Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rotated EOF analyses are used to study the composition and variability of large-scale tropical diabatic heating profiles estimated from eight field campaigns. The results show that the profiles are composed of a pair of building blocks. These are ...

Samson Hagos

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Evaluation of Heat Stress and Strain in Electric Utility Workers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Body Heat Content SR Solar Radiation T a Ambient temperatureB as in the WBGT), and Solar Radiation (SR), again directly

Brown, Eric Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Solar heat regulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heat regulating device is described for selectively heating with sunlight the air inside a building having a window and shielding and insulating the air inside the building from the heat of sunlight outside the building including: a frame for mounting the solar heat regulating device inside the building and adjacent to the window; a plurality of hollow vanes, each of the vanes having at least one passageway for passing air therethrough; the vanes having a heat absorptive surface on a first side thereof which allows solar radiation impinging on the heat absorptive surface to heat the air contained in the one passageway of the vanes; the vanes having a heat reflective surface on a second side of the vanes which reflects the solar radiation impinging on the second side of the vanes and shields the inside of the building from solar radiation impinging on the vanes; and the vanes having side portions extending between the first and second sides of the vanes, the side portions, and the first and second sides forming the one passageway through each of the vanes, the side portions and the first and second sides of the vanes terminating in top end and bottom end portions.

Boynton, S.L.

1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

303

Solar radiation data manual for buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Architects and engineers use solar resource information to help design passive solar and daylighting features for buildings. Solar resource information includes data on how much solar radiation and illuminance are available for different window orientations, and how they vary. This manual provides solar radiation and illuminance values for a horizontal window and four vertical windows (facing north, east, south, and west) for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The solar radiation values are monthly and yearly averages for the period of 1961--1990. Included are values showing the solar radiation incident on the window and the amount transmitted into the living space, with and without exterior shading of the window. Illuminance values are presented r average dismal profiles for 4 months of the year. In addition to the solar radiation and illuminance data, this manual contains tables listing climatic condition such as average temperature, average daily minimum and maximum temperature, record minimum and maxi mum temperature, average heating and cooling degree days, average humidity ratio, average wind speed, an average clearness index. The solar radiation, illuminance, and climatic data a presented in tables. Data for each station are presented on a single page, and the pages are arranged alphabetically by the state or territory two-letter abbreviation. Within a state or territory, the pages are arranged alp betically by city or island.

Marion, W.; Wilcox, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Testing of a sodium heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

The operation of a heat pipe with both thermal radiation and convection heat rejection has been experimentally examined. The thermal radiation heat rejection conditions are similar to those which would be experienced in a space environment. The experimental results show good agreement with the analytical model. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Holtz, R.E.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Network simulation solutions for laminar radiating dissipative magneto-gas dynamic heat transfer over a wedge in non-Darcian porous regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the steady-state, magnetohydrodynamic, optically thick, dissipative gas boundary layer flow and heat transfer past a non-isothermal porous wedge embedded in a scattering, homogenous, isotropic Darcy-Forchheimer porous medium, with significant ... Keywords: Boundary layers, Hartmann number, Joule heating, Magneto-gas dynamics, Network simulation

JoaquíN Zueco; O. Anwar BéG

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References ↑ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

307

Near-field heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a rough surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we focus on the surface roughness correction to the near-field radiative heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a material with a rough surface utilizing a direct perturbation theory up to second order in the surface profile. We discuss the different distance regimes for the local density of states above the rough material and the heat flux analytically and numerically. We show that the heat transfer rate is larger than that corresponding to a flat surface at short distances. At larger distances it can become smaller due to surface polariton scattering by the rough surface. For distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface profile, we show that the results converge to a proximity approximation, whereas in the opposite limit the rough surface can be replaced by an equivalent surface layer.

Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

308

Dispersed-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer Data near Spacer Grids in a Rod Bundle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Radiation Effects and Their Relationship to Geological Repository / Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

Graydon L. Yoder; Jr.; David G. Morris; Charles B. Mullins; Larry J. Ott

309

Transient heat flux shielding using thermal metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a heat shield based on a metamaterial engineering approach to shield a region from transient diffusive heat flow. The shield is designed with a multilayered structure to prescribe the appropriate spatial profile for heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity of the effective medium. The heat shield was experimentally compared to other isotropic materials.

Narayana, Supradeep; Sato, Yuki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Heat pipe heat amplifier  

SciTech Connect

In a heat pipe combination consisting of a common condenser section with evaporator sections at either end, two working fluids of different vapor pressures are employed to effectively form two heat pipe sections within the same cavity to support an amplifier mode of operation.

Arcella, F.G.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

312

Radiation receiver  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida M. H. Zhang State University of New York at Albany Albany, New York Stony Brook R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and...

314

Effects of Radiation and Turbulence on the Diabatic Heating and Water Budget of the Stratiform Region of a Tropical Cloud Cluster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, kinematic model, incorporating ice- and water-cloud microphysics, visible and infrared radiation, and convective adjustment, is used to diagnose the thermodynamic, water vapor, and hydrometeor fields of the stratiform clouds ...

Dean D. Churchill; Robert A. Houze Jr.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

316

Definition: Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat Heat Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat Heat is the form of energy that is transferred between systems or objects with different temperatures (flowing from the high-temperature system to the low-temperature system). Also referred to as heat energy or thermal energy. Heat is typically measured in Btu, calories or joules. Heat flow, or the rate at which heat is transferred between systems, has the same units as power: energy per unit time (J/s).[1][2][3][4] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition In physics and chemistry, heat is energy in transfer between a system and its surroundings other than by work or transfer of matter. The transfer can occur in two simple ways, conduction, and radiation, and in a more complicated way called convective circulation. Heat is not a property

317

Radiant Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat...

318

Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas-  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples Details Activities (5) Areas (5) Regions (0) Abstract: Surface heat flow measurements over active geothermal systems indicate strongly positive thermal anomalies. Whereas in "normal" geothermal settings, the surface heat flow is usually below 100-120 mW m- 2, in active geothermal areas heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on different lateral, depth and time scales. Borehole temperature profiles in active geothermal

319

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Particle Size Vertical Profile Using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and shapes. The vertical variation of ice crystal size can alter the radiative heatingcooling profiles in cirrus cloudy atmospheres and hence is an important component in the...

320

Optimized Structures for Low-Profile Phase Change Thermal Spreaders.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thin, low-profile phase change thermal spreaders can provide cooling solutions for some of today's most pressing heat flux dissipation issues. These thermal issues are only… (more)

Sharratt, Stephen A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Interpretation of Flux-Profile Observations at ITCE (1976)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At an International Turbulence Comparison Experiment (ITCE) in Australia (1976), wind, temperature and humidity profiles, plus vertical fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat were measured for a limited range of unstable conditions, ...

R. J. Francey; J. R. Garratt

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Be Sun-sible? about Heating Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Be "Sun-sible" about Heating Water Curriculum: Solar Power; (Electromagnetic radiation, conductionconvection, efficiency, Energy transformation, thermodynamics) Grade level: K-4...

323

Shallow and Deep Latent Heating Modes over Tropical Oceans Observed with TRMM PR Spectral Latent Heating Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional distributions of the apparent heat source (Q1) ? radiative heating (QR) estimated from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) utilizing the spectral latent heating (SLH) algorithm are analyzed. Mass-...

Yukari N. Takayabu; Shoichi Shige; Wei-Kuo Tao; Nagio Hirota

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

NREL GHP [Geothermal Heat Pump] Showcase: GHP Installation and Intensive in situ and Performance Monitoring at NREL's Solar Radiation and Research Laboratory; Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides an overview of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) showcase at NREL and how it will help the SRRL site move forward with the goal of being a model of sustainability within the NREL campus, providing an effective demonstration of GHP systems and needed space conditioning for laboratory expansion.

Anderson, E. R.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

326

Laser light absorption with density profile modifications  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional computer simulations studied plasma heating by electron plasma waves. The results emphasize the importance of nonlinear steepening of the density profile near the critical density. A typical simulation result is presented in order to illustrate these profile modifications. It is shown that large dc magnetic field generation is an inherent property of the absorption of obliquely-incident light. (MOW)

Kruer, W.; Valeo, E.; Estabrook, K.; Langdon, B.; Lasinski, B.

1974-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Does an accelerated electron radiate Unruh radiation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accelerated particle sees the Minkowski vacuum as thermally excited, and the particle moves stochastically due to an interaction with the thermal bath. This interaction fluctuates the particle's transverse momenta like the Brownian motion in a heat bath. Because of this fluctuating motion, it has been discussed that the accelerated charged particle emits extra radiation (the Unruh radiation) in addition to the classical Larmor radiation, and experiments are under planning to detect such radiation by using ultrahigh intensity lasers constructed in near future. There are, however, counterarguments that the radiation is canceled by an interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the fluctuating motion. In fact, in the case of an internal detector where the Heisenberg equation of motion can be solved exactly, there is no additional radiation after the thermalization is completed. In this paper, we revisit the issue in the case of an accelerated charged particle in the scalar QED. We first prove the e...

Iso, Satoshi; Zhang, Sen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Heat pipe development status  

SciTech Connect

Test heat pipes have been operated in the 1400 K to 1700 K range for periods in excess of 20,000 hours with the objective of understanding and controlling corrosion and failure mechanisms. The results of a post test analysis of one of these heat pipes that was operated for 25,216 hours at 1700 K are reviewed and the implications for heat pipe lifetime discussed. An in-process report of an investigation of transient heat pipe behavior is presented. This investigation is being conducted as a result of restart problems encountered during life test of a 2 m. radiation cooled heat pipe. The results of a series of shut-down tests from power and temperature are given and probable causes of the restart problem discussed.

Merrigan, M.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Solar heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Improved solar heating systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

1980-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

331

Mentee Profile  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mentee Profile Mentee Profile The information you provide on this form will assist us in providing you with a list of prospective mentor from which to choose the most appropriate match. Once you've completed the form, please email it to doementoringprogram@hq.doe.gov . Thank you for your interest in the DOE Mentoring Program. Name (last/first): Phone Number: Job Title/Series/Grade: Organization (indicate HQ or field - complete address): Email Address: Are you a Veteran? If yes, do want a veteran mentee? If yes, which branch of the service? Are you student or intern? Do you have a preference on mentor? For example, male, female, particular career field, specific person or other? If so, what or who? Do you want a mentor in your career field? What are your career goals?

332

Mentor Profile  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mentor Profile Mentor Profile The information you provide on this form will assist us in providing you with a list of prospective mentee from which to choose the most appropriate match. Once you've completed the form, please email it to doementoringprogram@hq.doe.gov . Thank you for your interest in the DOE Mentoring Program. Name (last/first): Phone Number: Job Title/Series/Grade: Organization (indicate HQ or field - complete address): Email Address: Are you a Veteran? If yes, do want a veteran mentee? If yes, which branch of the service? Do you want a student or intern mentee? Do you have a preference on mentee? For example, male, female, particular career field or other? If so, what or state name of pre selected mentee? Do you want a mentee in your career field? What are your hobbies?

333

Enhanced heat transfer for thermionic power modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermionic power module is capable of operating at very high heat fluxes, which in turn serve to reduce capital costs. The most efficient operation also requires uniform heat fluxes. The development of enhanced heat transfer systems is required to meet the demand for high heat fluxes (>20 w/cm/sup 2/) at high temperatures (>1500K) which advanced thermionic power modules place upon combustion systems. Energy transfer from the hot combustion gases may take place by convection, radiation, or a combination of radiation and convection. Enhanced convective heat transfer with a jet impingement system has been demonstrated in a thermionic converter. The recently-developed cellular ceramic radiative heat transfer system has also been applied to a thermionic converter. By comparing the jet impingement and cellular ceramic radiative heat transfer systems, an appropriate system may be selected for utilization in advanced thermionic power modules. Results are reported.

Johnson, D.C.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Measuring Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration...

335

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

336

Materials Reliability Program: Testing and Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Plate Heat JRQ to Assess Through-Wall Attenua tion of Radiation Embrittlement (MRP-243)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The change in neutron energy spectrum through the wall of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) requires the use of an exposure parameter or metric for assessing radiation embrittlement. This report looks at experimental fracture toughness and Charpy V-notch (CVN) data generated in a special International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) experiment designed to simulate an RPV wall of 190 mm thickness. These experimental data are compared with the current exposure metric of displacements per atom (dpa) coupled with ...

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

337

Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems  

SciTech Connect

The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to the satellite such as solar panels, radiators, antenna and.telescopes (for communications or sensors). Finally, the packages make thermal contact to the surface of the silicon heat pipe through soft thermal pads. Electronic components can be placed on both sides of the flexible circuit interconnect. Silicon heat pipes have a number of advantages over heat pipe constructed from other materials. Silicon heat pipes offer the ability to put the heat pipe structure beneath the active components of a processed silicon wafer. This would be one way of efficiently cooling the heat generated by wafer scale integrated systems. Using this technique, all the functions of a satellite could be reduced to a few silicon wafers. The integration of the heat pipe and the electronics would further reduce the size and weight of the satellite.

Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Heating Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...are used in many varied applications--from small household appliances to large industrial process heating systems and furnaces. In appliances or industrial process heating, the heating elements are usually either open

339

Surface profiling interferometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

Takacs, Peter Z. (P.O. Box 385, Upton, NY 11973); Qian, Shi-Nan (Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and, Hefei, Anhui, CN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A variety of heating technologies are available today. In addition to heat pumps, which are discussed separately, many homes and buildings use the following approaches:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Solar heat pipe feedback turbogenerator  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of radiant heat to electricity by a heat pipe-turbogenerator combination is described. The heat pipe-tubogenerator assembly is suitably externally insulated, as by a vacuum shield, to prevent heat losses and heat is recovered from the condenser portion of the heat pipe and returned to the evaporator portions. An application of the generic invention is discussed which it is employed on wall or roof portions of a building and serves as at least a partial supporting structure for these. In another application the solar heat pipe feedback turbogenerator may be incorporated in or used with reflective means, such as reflective sheet material of large area positioned to direct solar radiation onto the evaporator section of the heat pipe. The reflective means may be changed in position to follow the sun to produce maximum power during operation.

Decker, B.J.

1978-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

342

Heat Sink Performance Analysis through Numerical Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increase in dissipated power per unit area of electronic components sets higher demands on the performance of the heat sink. Also if we continue at our current rate of miniaturisation, laptops and other electronic devices can get heated up tremendously. Hence we require a better heat dissipating system to overcome the excess heat generating problem of using nanoelectronics, which is expected to power the next generation of computers. To handle the excessive and often unpredictable heating up of high performance electronic components like microprocessors, we need to predict the temperature profile of the heat sink used. This also helps us to select the best heat sink for the operating power range of any microprocessor. Understanding the temperature profile of a heat sink and a microprocessor helps us to handle its temperature efficiently for a range of loads. In this work, a method to estimate the normal response of a heat sink to various loads of a microprocessor is explained.

Aravindh, B Sri; Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Parameterization of Outgoing Infrared Radiation Derived from Detailed Radiative Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art radiative transfer models can calculate outgoing infrared (IR) irradiance at the top of the atmosphere (F) to an accuracy suitable for climate modeling given the proper atmospheric profiles of temperature and absorbing gases and ...

Starley L. Thompson; Stephen G. Warren

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Experimental and theoretical investigation of operational and survivability issues in thermal radiators for thermionic space nuclear power systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipes are a promising candidate for spacecraft radiators. This report describes a program designed to investigate the mass migration phenomenon in heat pipes. The program involved experiments to observe and measure the mass migration rates in both high and low operating temperature heat pipes. The low-temperature experiments were intended to simulate the operation of high-temperature, liquid metal heat pipes. Octadecane was the selected low-temperature working fluid. It is a paraffin and exhibits some of the characteristics of liquid metal working fluids. Sodium was the working fluid used in the high temperature experiment. A one-dimensional compressible flow model was developed for describing the hydrodynamics of rarefied vapor flow in heat pipe condensers. This model was compared with experimental data for the low-temperature octadecane heat pipes and the high-temperature sodium heat pipe. The model was found to satisfactorily predict the temperature profiles and location of freeze-fronts for the low-temperature heat pipes. Mass migration rate predictions using the model were satisfactory for the low-temperature heat pipes as well. However, the mass migration prediction for the high-temperature, sodium heat pipe was not in agreement with experimental data. An analytical model which accounts for property variations in the radial as well as longitudinal directions is recommended. A one-dimensional model was unsatisfactory for predicting mass migration rates in liquid metal heat pipes.

Keddy, M.D.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems collect and absorb solar radiation, then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system, from which the heat is distributed. If the system cannot provide adequate space heating, an auxiliary or back-up system provides the additional heat. Liquid systems are more often used when storage is included, and are well

346

Sustainable Heat Power Europe GmbH formerly Solar Heat Power Europe GmbH |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat Power Europe GmbH formerly Solar Heat Power Europe GmbH Heat Power Europe GmbH formerly Solar Heat Power Europe GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name Sustainable Heat & Power Europe GmbH (formerly Solar Heat & Power Europe GmbH) Place Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Sector Solar Product Engineering company involved in the project development, design and construction of solar thermal, PV and biogas power plants. References Sustainable Heat & Power Europe GmbH (formerly Solar Heat & Power Europe GmbH)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Sustainable Heat & Power Europe GmbH (formerly Solar Heat & Power Europe GmbH) is a company located in Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany .

347

MACRAD: A mass analysis code for radiators  

SciTech Connect

A computer code to estimate and optimize the mass of heat pipe radiators (MACRAD) is currently under development. A parametric approach is used in MACRAD, which allows the user to optimize radiator mass based on heat pipe length, length to diameter ratio, vapor to wick radius, radiator redundancy, etc. Full consideration of the heat pipe operating parameters, material properties, and shielding requirements is included in the code. Preliminary results obtained with MACRAD are discussed.

Gallup, D.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiation Budget of the Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the relationship between precipitation and radiative heating on intraseasonal time scales in the Tropics using collocated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative flux measurements from special field program data [...

Jia-Lin Lin; Brian E. Mapes

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

STANFORD SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LIGHTSOURCE The Stanford Synchrotron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Cells A new process that simultaneously combines the light and heat of solar radiation to generate electricity could offer more than double the efficiency of existing...

350

Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

Metz, Philip D. (Rocky Point, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Lower-hybrid heating and current drive on PLT  

SciTech Connect

Steady currents up to 165 kA for 3.5 seconds and 420 kA for 0.3 seconds have been maintained by 800 MHz lower hybrid waves. For line-averaged densities up to 7 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ the current is maintained with no input power from the ohmic heating transformer. The waves are launched with an array of six waveguides. Measurements of X rays and electron cyclotron radiation show that the rf power produces and maintains a suprathermal tail of electrons apparently independent of the number of fast electrons in the plasma prior to turning on the rf power. Measurements of current-drive efficiency and the electron tail provide direct evidence for a resonant wave-particle interaction. The radial profile of the rf-sustained current inferred from x-ray measurements is peaked in the center of the plasma and appears to obey the same q-value restraints as the inductively driven ohmic heating current. Current drive is observed to be accompanied always by radiation at frequencies greater than or equal to ..omega../sub ce/ and less than or equal to ..omega../sub pe/. The connection between this radiation and the current-drive mechanism is under study.

Hooke, W.; Bernabei, S.; Boyd, D.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Heat Budget of Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat budget estimates for the global tropics are derived from recent calculations of the oceanic heat budget and satellite measurements of net radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Annual mean heat export from the zone 30°N–30°S amounts to 101 ...

Stefan Hastenrath

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat and power applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0.85. The test site load profiles described in this report3.1: Electric-Only Sample Load Profile A.S. Siddiqui et al.Space Heating Sample Load Profile Figure 3.3: Sample Cooling

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Industry Profile | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industry Profile Industry Profile Industry Profile November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis The largest energy consuming industrial sectors account for the largest share of CHP capacity; namely: Chemicals (30%), Petroleum Refining (17%), and Paper Products (14%). Other industrial sectors include: Commercial/Institutional (12%), Food (8%), Primary Metals (5%), Other Manufacturing (8%), and Other Industrial (6%). Combined heat and power (CHP)-sometimes referred to as cogeneration-involves the sequential process of producing and utilizing electricity and thermal energy from a single fuel. CHP is widely recognized to save energy and costs, while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants. CHP is a realistic, near-term option for large energy efficiency improvements and significant CO2 reductions.

355

On the Wave Spectrum Generated by Tropical Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Convective heating profiles are computed from one month of rainfall rate and cloud-top height measurements using global Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and infrared cloud-top products. Estimates of the tropical wave response to this heating ...

David A. Ortland; M. Joan Alexander; Alison W. Grimsdell

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Deflagration Wave Profiles  

SciTech Connect

Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

357

Heat Conduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Differential equations for heat conduction in solids...conduction in solids General form with variable thermal properties General form with constant thermal properties General form, constant properties, without heat

358

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiator Labs Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer through this network, so building managers configure boiler systems to treat a building as a single zone keeping the coldest apartment above a minimum statutory temperature. This results in overheating of the other spaces in the building due to differences in exposure, level of insulation, distribution system heating,

359

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Competition » Radiator Labs Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer through this network, so building managers configure boiler systems to treat a building as a single zone keeping the coldest apartment above a minimum statutory temperature. This results in overheating of the other spaces in the building due to differences in exposure, level of insulation, distribution system heating,

360

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Competition » Radiator Labs Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer through this network, so building managers configure boiler systems to treat a building as a single zone keeping the coldest apartment above a minimum statutory temperature. This results in overheating of the other spaces in the building due to differences in exposure, level of insulation, distribution system heating,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

Daman, Ernest L. (Westfield, NJ); McCallister, Robert A. (Mountain Lakes, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Heat and mass transfer in a gas in a capillary induced by light with nonuniform intensity distribution over the beam cross section  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of the heat and drift fluxes induced by velocity-selective light absorption in a single-component gas in a capillary tube. The light intensity distribution across the beam is assumed to have a Gaussian profile. Kinetic equations are solved numerically to calculate flux profiles and kinetic coefficients quantifying the contributions of surface and collisional mechanisms to light-induced transfer as functions of the Knudsen number, the ratio of the rate of radiative decay of the exited level and intermolecular collision frequency, accommodation coefficient, and the ratio of the tube radius to the light beam radius.

Chernyak, V. G., E-mail: vladimir.chernyak@usu.ru; Polikarpov, A. P., E-mail: alexey.polikarpov@usu.ru [Ural State University (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

An Air–Soil Layer Coupled Scheme for Computing Surface Heat Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An air–soil layer coupled scheme is developed to compute surface fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat from data collected at the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement–Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM–CART) stations. This new scheme ...

Qin Xu; Binbin Zhou; Stephen D. Burk; Edward H. Barker

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from...

365

High temperature thermographic measurements of laser heated silica  

SciTech Connect

In situ spatial and temporal surface temperature profiles of CO{sub 2} laser-heated silica were obtained using a long wave infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe camera. Solutions to the linear diffusion equation with volumetric and surface heating are shown to describe the temperature evolution for a range of beam powers, over which the peak surface temperature scales linearly with power. These solutions were used with on-axis steady state and transient experimental temperatures to extract thermal diffusivity and conductivity for a variety of materials, including silica, spinel, sapphire, and lithium fluoride. Experimentally-derived thermal properties agreed well with reported values and, for silica, thermal conductivity and diffusivity are shown to be approximately independent of temperature between 300 and 2800K. While for silica our analysis based on a temperature independent thermal conductivity is shown to be accurate, for other materials studied this treatment yields effective thermal properties that represent reasonable approximations for laser heating. Implementation of a single-wavelength radiation measurement in the semi-transparent regime is generally discussed, and estimates of the apparent temperature deviation from the actual outer surface temperature are also presented. The experimental approach and the simple analysis presented yield surface temperature measurements that can be used to validate more complex physical models, help discriminate dominant heat transport mechanisms, and to predict temperature distribution and evolution during laser-based material processing.

Elhadj, S; Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Cooke, D J; Bude, J D; Johnson, M; Feit, M; Draggoo, V; Bisson, S E

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heating Structures of the TRMM Field Campaigns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating profiles calculated from sounding networks and other observations during three Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) field campaigns [the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX), TRMM Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (...

Courtney Schumacher; Minghua H. Zhang; Paul E. Ciesielski

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

368

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 222 194 17...

369

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,100...

370

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,928 1,316...

371

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

372

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

373

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

374

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

375

BWR refill-reflood program Task 4. 7: constitutive correlations for shear and heat transfer for the BWR version of TRAC  

SciTech Connect

TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) is a computer code for best estimate analysis of the thermal hydraulic conditions in a reactor system. The constitutive correlations for shear and heat transfer in the boiling water reactor (BWR) version of TRAC are described. A new model, that accounts for the effect of phase and velocity profiles, has been developed for the interfacial shear and a new set of constitutive correlations are derived. Improvements have been made to the heat transfer in the area of subcooled boiling, boiling transition, and thermal radiation.

Andersen, J.G.M.; Chu, K.H.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Heat Balance in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer during CASES-99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique set of nocturnal longwave radiative and sensible heat flux divergences was obtained during the 1999 Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99). These divergences are based on upward and downward longwave radiation ...

Jielun Sun; Sean P. Burns; Anthony C. Delany; Steven P. Oncley; Thomas W. Horst; Donald H. Lenschow

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Investigation of Heat Transfer Conditions in a Reverberatory Melting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The model comprises different physical phenomenon as gas f low, chemical reactions, i.e. combustion, conduction, radiation and latent heat release in the metal.

378

NREL Improves Window Heat Transfer Calculations (Fact Sheet)...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and interior radiation. The most significant errors were found in detailed window heat transfer algorithms due to implementation problems. The results show a decrease in...

379

Fiber-optic-coupled, laser heated thermoluminescence dosimeter ...  

Fiber-optic-coupled, laser heated thermoluminescence dosimeter for remote radiation sensing Alan L. Hustona) and Brian L. Justus Optical Sciences ...

380

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

382

TWO WELL STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR COMBINED HEATING AND AIRCONDITIONING BY GROUNDWATER HEATPUMPS IN SHALLOW AQUIFERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

since during the heating season the solar radiation is atHeating and cooling demand compared with air temperature and solarHeating and cooling demand compared with air temperature and solar

Pelka, Walter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Modeling of Heat Transfer in Rooms in the Modelica Buildings Library  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for convective and radiative heat transfer yielded a twofoldModeling of Heat Transfer in Rooms in the Modelica “of California. MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER IN ROOMS IN THE

Wetter, Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Heat Exchange Between Ocean and Atmosphere in the Eastern North Pacific for 1961-71  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Exchange Between Ocean and Atmosphere in the Eastern North Pacific for 1961-71 N. E. CLARK, L of total heat exchange and departuresfroma long-term mean; 2)long-term monthly mean valuesof the total heat exchange, incom- ing solar radiation, effectiveback radiation, and evaporative and sensible heat transfer

385

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

386

Active Solar Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

air in an "air collector." Both of these systems collect and absorb solar radiation, then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system, from which...

387

Heat Storage Within the Earth System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of the earth's heat budget provide a real-world constraint on the radiative forcing which is simulated in global climate change models. Assessments, such as the IPCC, would more effectively depict changes over time in the climate ...

Roger A. Pielke Sr.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation-resistant Microorganisms. ... Elucidated radiation protection by intracellular halides. ...

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Ground—Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, offers unique operational water vapor profiling capabilities, including active and passive remote ...

D. D. Turner; W. F. Feltz; R. A. Ferrare

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Heat Stroke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stress, from exertion or hot environments, places stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke A condition that occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature, and can cause death or permanent disability. Symptoms ■ High body temperature ■ Confusion ■ Loss of coordination ■ Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating ■ Throbbing headache ■ Seizures, coma First Aid ■ Request immediate medical assistance. ■ Move the worker to a cool, shaded area. ■ Remove excess clothing and apply cool water to their body. Heat Exhaustion The body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through sweating. Symptoms ■ Rapid heart beat ■ Heavy sweating ■ Extreme weakness or fatigue ■

391

Heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A device for reclaiming heat from stove pipes and the like. A semi-circular shaped hollow enclosed housing with a highly thermal-conductive concave surface is mounted contactingly to surround approximately one-half of the circumference of the stove pipe. The concave surface is formed to contact the pipe at a maximum number of points along that surface. The hollow interior of the housing contains thin multi-surfaced projections which are integral with the concave surface and conductively transfer heat from the stove pipe and concave surface to heat the air in the housing. A fan blower is attached via an air conduit to an entrance opening in the housing. When turned on, the blower pushes the heated interior air out a plurality of air exit openings in the ends of the housing and brings in lower temperature outside air for heating.

Parham, F.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

392

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m{sup 2} and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E). Heat was successfully extracted from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond by using a heat pipe heat exchanger made from 60 copper tubes with 21 mm inside diameter and 22 mm outside diameter. The length of the evaporator and condenser section was 800 mm and 200 mm respectively. R134a was used as the heat transfer fluid in the experiment. The theoretical model was formulated for the solar pond heat extraction on the basis of the energy conservation equations and by using the solar radiation data for the above location. Numerical methods were used to solve the modeling equations. In the analysis, the performance of heat exchanger is investigated by varying the velocity of inlet air used to extract heat from the condenser end of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). Air velocity was found to have a significant influence on the effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger. In the present investigation, there was an increase in effectiveness by 43% as the air velocity was decreased from 5 m/s to 1 m/s. The results obtained from the theoretical model showed good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

Tundee, Sura; Terdtoon, Pradit; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Singh, Randeep; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Bundoora East Campus, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Heat transfer. [heat transfer roller employing a heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A heat transfer roller embodying a heat pipe is disclosed. The heat pipe is mounted on a shaft, and the shaft is adapted for rotation on its axis.

Sarcia, D.S.

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

394

Entrainment into a Stratocumulus Layer with Distributed Radiative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the radiative cooling of a cloud layer strongly influences the turbulent flux profiles and the entrainment rate, and that the radiative cooling should be modeled as acting inside the turbulent layer. Numerical experiments ...

David A. Randall

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

User_TalentProfile  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Accessing and Modifying Talent Profile Accessing and Modifying Talent Profile © 2011 SuccessFactors, Inc. - 1 - SuccessFactors Learning Confidential. All rights reserved. Job Aid: Accessing and Modifying Talent Profile Purpose The purpose of this job aid is to guide users through the step-by-step process of accessing their talent profiles, adding information to their profiles, and editing existing talent profile information. Task A. Access Talent Profile Enter the web address (URL) of the user application into your browser Address field and press the Enter key. Enter your user ID in the User ID textbox. Enter your password in the Password textbox. Click Sign In. Access Talent Profile 4 Steps Task A Add Information to Talent Profile Sections 5 Steps Task B Edit Talent Profile Sections

396

Diabatic Divergence Profiles in Western Pacific Mesoscale Convective Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating in the atmosphere can be expressed as diabatic divergence ?d, which is nearly equal to the actual horizontal divergence ? in tropical convection. High-quality ? profile measurements from airborne Doppler radar “purls” in ten mesoscale ...

Brian E. Mapes; Robert A. Houze Jr.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Heat loss from an open cavity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cavity type receivers are used extensively in concentrating solar thermal energy collecting systems. The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia is a large scale field test for the collection of solar thermal energy. The STEP experiment consists of a large field array of solar collectors used to supplement the process steam, cooling and other electrical power requirements of an adjacent knitwear manufacturing facility. The purpose of the tests, conducted for this study, was to isolate and quantify the radiative, conductive, and convective components of total heat loss, and to determine the effects of operating temperature, receiver angle, and aperture size on cavity heat loss. An analytical model for radiative heat loss was developed and compared with two other methods used to determine radiative heat loss. A proposed convective heat loss correlation, including effects of aperture size, receiver operating temperature, and receiver angle is presented. The resulting data is a source to evaluate the STEP measurements.

McDonald, C.G. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

HEATING OF FLARE LOOPS WITH OBSERVATIONALLY CONSTRAINED HEATING FUNCTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We analyze high-cadence high-resolution observations of a C3.2 flare obtained by AIA/SDO on 2010 August 1. The flare is a long-duration event with soft X-ray and EUV radiation lasting for over 4 hr. Analysis suggests that magnetic reconnection and formation of new loops continue for more than 2 hr. Furthermore, the UV 1600 Angstrom-Sign observations show that each of the individual pixels at the feet of flare loops is brightened instantaneously with a timescale of a few minutes, and decays over a much longer timescale of more than 30 minutes. We use these spatially resolved UV light curves during the rise phase to construct empirical heating functions for individual flare loops, and model heating of coronal plasmas in these loops. The total coronal radiation of these flare loops are compared with soft X-ray and EUV radiation fluxes measured by GOES and AIA. This study presents a method to observationally infer heating functions in numerous flare loops that are formed and heated sequentially by reconnection throughout the flare, and provides a very useful constraint to coronal heating models.

Qiu Jiong; Liu Wenjuan; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

399

Beta Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

400

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

WHAT DO SPECTRAL LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES TELL US ABOUT THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, analysis of solar spectra obtained with the EUV Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) onboard the Hinode satellite has revealed the ubiquitous presence of asymmetries in transition region (TR) and coronal spectral line profiles. These asymmetries have been observed especially at the footpoints of coronal loops and have been associated with strong upflows that may play a significant role in providing the corona with hot plasma. Here, we perform a detailed study of the various processes that can lead to spectral line asymmetries, using both simple forward models and state-of-the-art three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere using the Bifrost code. We describe a novel technique to determine the presence and properties of faint secondary components in the wings of spectral line profiles. This method is based on least-squares fitting of observed so-called R(ed)B(lue) asymmetry profiles with pre-calculated RB asymmetry profiles for a wide variety of secondary component properties. We illustrate how this method could be used to perform reliable double Gaussian fits that are not over- or under-constrained. We also find that spectral line asymmetries appear in TR and coronal lines that are synthesized from our three-dimensional MHD simulations. Our models show that the spectral asymmetries are a sensitive measure of the velocity gradient with height in the TR of coronal loops. The modeled TR shows a large gradient of velocity that increases with height: this occurs as a consequence of ubiquitous, episodic heating at low heights in the model atmosphere. We show that the contribution function of spectral lines as a function of temperature is critical for sensitivity to velocity gradients and thus line asymmetries: lines that are formed over a temperature range that includes most of the TR are the most sensitive. As a result, lines from lithium-like ions (e.g., O VI) are found to be the most sensitive to line asymmetries. We compare the simulated line profiles directly with line profiles observed in the quiet Sun with SOHO/SUMER and Hinode/EIS and find that the shape of the profiles is very similar. In addition, the simulated profiles with the strongest blueward asymmetry occur in footpoint regions of coronal loops, which is similar to what we observe with SUMER and EIS. There is however a significant discrepancy between the simulations and observations: the simulated RB asymmetries are an order of magnitude smaller than the observations. We discuss the possible reasons for this discrepancy. In summary, our analysis shows that observations of spectral line asymmetries can provide a powerful new diagnostic to help constrain coronal heating models.

MartInez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); McIntosh, Scott W., E-mail: j.m.sykora@astro.uio.no [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

402

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

404

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Heat...

405

Study of Heat Loss: Commercial and Residential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is much savings involved in the prevention of heat loss. Many structures exhibit such loss. Much can be done to improve or minimize the heat loss in a structure. These include interior and exterior modifications. It has been shown that heat can move by means of convection, conduction, and radiation. Problems with heat loss can be due to moisture, and poor construction techniques. There is a beneficial cost savings involved in the prevention of heat loss. Prevention techniques include insulation, caulking, weather stripping, and double pane windows. There are tables available for one to reference and calculate the return on their investment or “payback tim”

Emmett Ientilucci

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for reclaiming heat from the discharge gas from a combustion fuel heating unit, which has: inlet and outlet sections; an expansion section whose circumference gradually increases in the direction of flow, thereby providing an increased area for heat transfer; flow splitter plates which lie within and act in conjunction with the expansion section wall to form flow compartments, which flow splitter plates and expansion section wall have a slope, with respect to the centroidal axis of the flow compartment not exceeding 0.1228, which geometry prevents a separation of the flow from the enclosing walls, thereby increasing heat transfer and maintaining the drafting function; and a reduction section which converges the flow to the outlet section.

Horkey, E.J.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

407

Process Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update uses real world examples to discuss applications of electrotechnology in industrial process heating and to highlight some of the emerging technologies in this field. These emerging technologies, when implemented in a plant, will provide significant energy savings as well as increase productivity. The report presents three case studies of successful implementation of two different electric process-heating technologies in three different industries. The case studies show that in some ...

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

HEAT EXCHANGER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

1962-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

409

Heat transport system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

Harkness, Samuel D. (McMurray, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

Skupinski, R.C.; Tower, L.K.; Madi, F.J.; Brusk, K.D.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

412

Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Ionizing Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

413

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vermont Electricity Profile 2010 Vermont profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Vermont) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) NPCC Primary Energy Source Nuclear Net Summer...

414

Unstable Radiative-Dynamical Interactions. Part II: Expanded Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basic theory of unstable radiative-dynamical interactions developed in a companion paid is extended to account for several complicating effects. Treating the effect of absorber perturbations on the shortwave radiative heating rate at all ...

Steven J. Ghan

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

An Accurate and Efficient Radiation Algorithm for Middle Atmosphere Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An accurate, efficient, and user-friendly radiation algorithm is developed for calculating net radiative heating rate in middle atmosphere models. The Curtis matrix interpolation scheme originally developed by Zhu is adopted with explicit ...

Xun Zhu

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Accelerator beam profile analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A beam profile analyzer employing sector or quadrant plates each servo controlled to outline the edge of a beam.

Godel, Julius B. (Bayport, NY); Guillaume, Marcel (Grivegnee, BE); Lambrecht, Richard M. (East Quogue, NY); Withnell, Ronald (East Setauket, NY)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Trade and Reliability; All Reports ‹ See all Electricity Reports State Electricity Profiles. ... Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010:

418

Impact of Changes to the Radiation Transfer Parameterizations Plus Cloud Optical. Properties in the ECMWF Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new radiation package, shown to correct most of the systematic errors of the operational ECMWF radiation scheme, has been extensively tested in the ECMWF forecast model. Improvements in the clear-sky fluxes and radiative heating/cooling rate ...

Jean-Jacques Morcrette

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

PHYSICS AND CONTROL OF ELMING H-MODE NEGATIVE CENTRAL SHEAR ADVANCED TOKAMAK SCENARIO BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES FOR ITER  

SciTech Connect

A271 PHYSICS AND CONTROL OF ELMING H-MODE NEGATIVE CENTRAL SHEAR ADVANCED TOKAMAK SCENARIO BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES FOR ITER. Key DIII-D AT experimental and modeling results are applied to examine the physics and control issues for ITER to operate in a negative central shear (NCS) AT scenario. The effects of a finite edge pressure pedestal and current density are included based on the DIII-D experimental profiles. Ideal and resistive stability analyses indicate that feedback control of resistive wall modes by rotational drive or flux conserving intelligent coils is crucial for these AT configurations to operate at attractive {beta}{sub N} values in the range of 3.0-3.5. Vertical stability and halo current analyses show that reliable disruption mitigation is essential and mitigation control using an impurity gas can significantly reduce the local mechanical stress to an acceptable level. Core transport and turbulence analyses demonstrate that control of the rotational shear profile is essential to maintain the good confinement necessary for high {beta}. Consideration of edge stability and core transport suggests that a sufficiently wide pedestal is necessary for the projected fusion performance. Heat flux analyses indicate that with core-only radiation enhancement the outboard peak divertor heat load is near the design limit of 10 MW/m{sup 2}

LAO,LL; CHAN,VS; EVANS,TE; HUMPHREYS,DA; LEUER,JA; MAHDAVI,MA; PETRIE,TW; SNYDER,PB; STJOHN,HE; STAEBLER,GM; STAMBAUGH,RD; TAYLOR,TS; TURNBULL,AD; WEST,WP; BRENNAN,DP

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Geothermal Energy: Residential Space Heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study, which was carried out under the auspices of the DGRST, was to determine the best way to use geothermal hot water for residential space heating. It quickly became apparent that the type of heating apparatus used in the housing units was most important and that heat pumps could be a valuable asset, making it possible to extract even more geothermal heat and thus substantially improve the cost benefit of the systems. Many factors play a significant role in this problem. Therefore, after a first stage devoted to analyzing the problem through a manual method which proved quite useful, the systematic consideration of all important aspects led us to use a computer to optimize solutions and process a large number of cases. The software used for this general study can also be used to work out particular cases: it is now available to any interested party through DGRST. This program makes it possible to: (1) take climatic conditions into account in a very detailed manner, including temperatures as well as insolation. 864 cases corresponding to 36 typical days divided into 24 hours each were chosen to represent the heating season. They make it possible to define the heating needs of any type of housing unit. (2) simulate and analyze the behavior in practice of a geothermal heating system when heat is extracted from the well by a simple heat exchanger. This simulation makes it possible to evaluate the respective qualities of various types of heating apparatus which can be used in homes. It also makes it possible to define the best control systems for the central system and substations and to assess quite accurately the presence of terminal controls, such as radiators with thermostatically controlled valves. (3) determine to what extent the addition of a heat pump makes it possible to improve the cost benefit of geothermal heating. When its average characteristics and heating use conditions (price, coefficient of performance, length of utilization, electrical rates, etc.) are taken into account, the heat pump should not be scaled for maximum heating power. Consequently, the program considers several possible sizes, with different installation schemes, and selects for each case the value which corresponds to the lowest cost of heating.

None

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

HEAT GENERATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, 449 MHz Profiler(williams-449_prof)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

Christopher Williams; Mike Jensen

423

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

424

Thirty Stage Annular Centrifugal Contactor Thermal Profile Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thirty stage 5 cm annular centrifugal contactor cascade has been assembled and tested to obtain thermal profiles during both ambient and heated input conditions of operation. Thermocouples were installed on every stage as well as feed inputs and Real-time data was taken during experiments lasting from two to eight hours at total flow rates of 0.5 to 1.4 liters per minute. Ambient temperature profile results show that only a small amount of heat is generated by the mechanical energy of the contactors. Steady state temperature profiles mimic the ambient temperature of the lab but are higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated inlet solutions gave temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients, more driven by the temperature of the inlet solutions than ambient lab temperature. Temperature effects of solution mixing, even at rotor speeds of 4000 rpm, were not measurable.

David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

426

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating...

427

Combined Heat and Power Projects | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combined Heat and Power Projects Combined Heat and Power Projects Combined Heat and Power Projects November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of CHP project profiles. Search the project profiles database. Project profiles can be searched by state, CHP TAP, market sector, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code, system size, technology/prime mover, fuel, thermal energy use, and year installed. View a list of project profiles by market sector. To view project profiles by state, click on a state on the map or choose a state from the drop-down list below. "An image of the United States representing a select number of CHP project profiles on a state-by-state basis View Energy and Environmental Analysis Inc.'s (EEA) database of all known

428

Microelectronic chip cooling: an experimental assessment of a liquid-passing heat sink, a microchannel heat rejection module, and a microchannel-based recirculating-liquid cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of heat transfer testing of heat absorption modules (HAM), heat rejection modules (HRM), and a recirculating-liquid cooling system are reported. Low-profile, Cu-based, microchannel heat exchangers (MHEs) were fabricated and used as the HAM as ...

Bin Lu; W. J. Meng; Fanghua Mei

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Radiation Physics Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Portal. Radiation Physics Portal. ... more. >> see all Radiation Physics programs and projects ... ...

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

430

Development of a Heat Transfer Model for the Integrated Facade Heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Façade heating is a special application of radiant heating and cooling technology and is used to enhance the indoor comfort level of offices, hotels and museums. Mullion radiators are typically used to implement façade heating. This paper analyzes the heat transfer process of facade heating (mullion radiators) in a pilot research project in Pittsburgh, PA. The heat transfer model for facade heating is developed and verified by measured data. The comparison shows that the heat transfer model predicts the measured temperatures with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the hot water return temperature, the mullion surface temperature, and the window surface temperature of 0.90°F, 0.98°F and 1.15°F, respectively. The factors which affect the heating capacity of mullion radiators have been analyzed. The analysis shows that the supply water temperature is the primary factor which affects the heating or cooing capacity of window mullions and the mullion surface temperature. Return water temperature and mullion surface temperature are quasi-linear functions often water supply temperature. Mullion surface temperature, indoor air temperature gradient on the glazing surface within one foot from mullions is much higher than in the central part of the window. The temperatures in the central 2 feet of a 4-foot window show almost no influence by the mullion surface temperature. Also, the conductive thermal resistance of the mullion double tubes with fillings between two tubes plays a decisive role in controlling the mullion and window frame temperatures.

Gong, X.; Archer, D. H.; Claridge, D. E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Energy and cost analysis of a solar-hydrogen combined heat and power system for remote power supply using a computer simulation  

SciTech Connect

A simulation program, based on Visual Pascal, for sizing and techno-economic analysis of the performance of solar-hydrogen combined heat and power systems for remote applications is described. The accuracy of the submodels is checked by comparing the real performances of the system's components obtained from experimental measurements with model outputs. The use of the heat generated by the PEM fuel cell, and any unused excess hydrogen, is investigated for hot water production or space heating while the solar-hydrogen system is supplying electricity. A 5 kWh daily demand profile and the solar radiation profile of Melbourne have been used in a case study to investigate the typical techno-economic characteristics of the system to supply a remote household. The simulation shows that by harnessing both thermal load and excess hydrogen it is possible to increase the average yearly energy efficiency of the fuel cell in the solar-hydrogen system from just below 40% up to about 80% in both heat and power generation (based on the high heating value of hydrogen). The fuel cell in the system is conventionally sized to meet the peak of the demand profile. However, an economic optimisation analysis illustrates that installing a larger fuel cell could lead to up to a 15% reduction in the unit cost of the electricity to an average of just below 90 c/kWh over the assessment period of 30 years. Further, for an economically optimal size of the fuel cell, nearly a half the yearly energy demand for hot water of the remote household could be supplied by heat recovery from the fuel cell and utilising unused hydrogen in the exit stream. Such a system could then complement a conventional solar water heating system by providing the boosting energy (usually in the order of 40% of the total) normally obtained from gas or electricity. (author)

Shabani, Bahman; Andrews, John; Watkins, Simon [School of Aerospace Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heat reclaimer for the exhaust flue of a heating unit comprises a housing having an air input space, an air output space, and an exhaust space, with a plurality of tubes connected between and communicating the air input space with the air output space and extending through the exhaust space. The exhaust flue of the heating unit is connected into the exhaust space of the housing and an exhaust output is connected to the housing extending from the exhaust space for venting exhaust coming from the heater into the exhaust space to a chimney, for example. A float or level switch is connected to the housing near the bottom of the exhaust space for switching, for example, an alarm if water accumulates in the exhaust space from condensed water vapor in the exhaust. At least one hole is also provided in the housing above the level of the float switch to permit condensed water to leave the exhaust space. The hole is provided in case the float switch clogs with soot. A wiping device may also be provided in the exhaust space for wiping the exterior surfaces of the tubes and removing films of water and soot which might accumulate thereon and reduce their heat transfer capacity.

Bellaff, L.

1981-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

Wolowodiuk, Walter (New Providence, NJ)

1976-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

434

Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon  

SciTech Connect

A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Phoenix, AZ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Natural Convection as a Heat Engine: A Theory for CAPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On many planets there is a continuous heat supply to the surface and a continuous emission of infrared radiation to space by the atmosphere. Since the heat source is located at higher pressure than the heat sink, the system is capable of doing ...

Nilton O. Rennó; Andrew P. Ingersoll

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Energy Basics: Absorption Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

437

Energy Basics: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

438

Preface: Organizational Profile  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Outpatient services provided at the hospital include diagnostic and therapeutic care, ambulatory surgery, medical and radiation oncology and ...

2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

439

Visual Simulation of Heat Shimmering and Mirage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — We provide a physically-based framework for simulating the natural phenomena related to heat interaction between objects and the surrounding air. We introduce a heat transfer model between the heat source objects and the ambient flow environment, which includes conduction, convection and radiation. The heat distribution of the objects is represented by a novel temperature texture. We simulate the thermal flow dynamics that models the air flow interacting with the heat by a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann model (HTLBM). The computational approach couples a multiple-relaxation-time LBM (MRTLBM) with a finite difference discretization of a standard advectiondiffusion equation for temperature. In heat shimmering and mirage, the changes in the index of refraction of the surrounding air are attributed to temperature variation. A nonlinear ray tracing method is used for rendering. Interactive performance is achieved by accelerating the computation of both the MRTLBM and the heat transfer, as well as the rendering on contemporary graphics hardware (GPU).

Ye Zhao; Yiping Han; Zhe Fan; Feng Qiu; Yu-chuan Kuo; Arie Kaufman; Klaus Mueller

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Entropy Budget of an Atmosphere in Radiative–Convective Equilibrium. Part I: Maximum Work and Frictional Dissipation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entropy budget of an atmosphere in radiative–convective equilibrium is analyzed here. The differential heating of the atmosphere, resulting from surface heat fluxes and tropospheric radiative cooling, corresponds to a net entropy sink. In ...

Olivier Pauluis; Isaac M. Held

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Solar heating unit  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating unit is disclosed for disposition exteriorly of a building window for heating the air within the space interiorly of the window embodying a casing with a transverse divider for creating a rear passage and a front passage which are in communication in their lower portions. The upper end of the rear passage connects with the forward end of a rearwardly extending lower duct having a cool air inlet at the rearward end thereof. The upper end of the front passage connects with the forward end of an upper duct progressing rearwardly above the lower duct and with there being a warm air outlet at the rearward extremity thereof. A heat exchanger is disposed within the front passage for impingement thereon of solar radiation passing through a transparent panel defining the front of said casing. A thermal responsive closure is provided at the upper end of said front passage for closing same when the temperature within the front passage has descended to a predetermined level.

Grisbrook, R.B.

1978-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

443

Efficient ion heating via finite-Larmor-radius ICRF  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ion heating by externally launched ion Bernstein waves is investigated in the ACT-1 hydrogen plasma. Detailed measurements of wave absorption and of the ion temperature profiles have clearly identified various heating layers near the ion cyclotron harmonics of deuterium-like and tritium-like ions. The observed heating of 10 eV/WATT/10/sup 10/ cm/sup -3/ and the power-balance estimates suggest excellent overall efficiency for FLR-ICRF heating.

Ono, M.; Wurden, G.A.; Wong, K.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Radiation Cataract  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation including patients undergoing diagnostic CT scans or radiotherapy, atomic bomb survivors, residents of radioactively contaminated buildings, victims of the...

445

Radiative Forcing of Stationary Planetary Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stationary wave components of the planetary-scale circulation are maintained by topographic forcing and by latent and sensible heat transfers and radiation. These waves have a potential vorticity balance mainly due to vertically differential ...

Leo J. Donner; Hsiao-Lan Kuo

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Effects of stratospheric perturbations on the solar radiation budget  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The changes in solar absorption and in local heating rates due to perturbations to O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/ concentrations caused by stratospheric injection of NO/sub x/ and CFM pollutants are assessed. The changes in species concentration profiles are derived from theoretical calculations using a transport-kinetics model. Because of significant changes in our understanding of stratospheric chemistry during the past year, the assessment of the effect of stratospheric perturbations on the solar radiation budget differs from previous assessments. Previously, a reduction in O/sub 3/ due to an NO/sub x/ injection caused a net decrease in the gaseous solar absorption;now the same perturbation leads to a net increase. The implication of these changes on the surface temperature is also discussed.

Luther, F.M.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Linear Development of Quasi-Geostrophic Baroclinic Disturbances with Condensational Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the linear solution to the initial value problem for the Eady model of baroclinic instability including condensational heating using a wave–CISK formulation with a uniform heating profile in the vertical. As in the dry case, ...

Peter R. Bannon

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds European Heat Pump Summit 2013, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 · Riga District Heating company · Operation #12;JSC RGAS SILTUMS · the biggest District Heating company in Latvia and in the Baltic states

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

449

Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 16   Ceramic heat exchanger systems...Soaking pit 870â??1230 1600â??2250 Fe, Si, alkalis Solar Turbines â?¦ 4â??8 OD Ã? 180 long (440 tubes) Aluminum melt furnaces 1010 1850 Alkali salts Plate fin GTE 0.6, 1.6 25â??46 Multiple 870â??1370 1600â??2250 Clean (good), alkalis (poor) Coors 0.25, 1.0 30 Ã? 30 Ã? 46 Multiple Clean (good), alkalis (poor) Radiant...

450

Electrically heated liquid tank employing heat pipe heat transfer means  

SciTech Connect

The heating apparatus for applying heat to the interior of a chamber includes a modular, removable, electrical, heat-producing unit and a heat pipe mountable in a wall of the chamber with one end of the pipe arranged to receive heat from the electrical heat producing unit exterior of the housing and with another end of the pipe constructed and arranged to apply heat to the medium within the chamber. The heat pipe has high conductivity with a low temperature differential between the ends thereof and the heat producing unit includes an electric coil positioned about and removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe. The electric coil is embedded in a high thermal conducitivity, low electrical conductivity filler material which is surrounded by a low thermal conductivity insulating jacket and which is received around a metal core member which is removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe.

Shutt, J.R.

1978-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

451

Texas Crop Profile: Onions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This profile of onion production in Texas gives an overview of basic commodity information; discusses insect, disease and weed pests; and covers cultural and chemical control methods.

Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

2000-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

452

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

1985-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

453

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar heat collector comprises an evacuated transparent pipe; a solar heat collection plate disposed in the transparent pipe; a heat pipe, disposed in the transparent pipe so as to contact with the solar heat collection plate, and containing an evaporable working liquid therein; a heat medium pipe containing a heat medium to be heated; a heat releasing member extending along the axis of the heat medium pipe and having thin fin portions extending from the axis to the inner surface of the heat medium pipe; and a cylindrical casing surrounding coaxially the heat medium pipe to provide an annular space which communicates with the heat pipe. The evaporable working liquid evaporates, receiving solar heat collected by the heat collection plate. The resultant vapor heats the heat medium through the heat medium pipe and the heat releasing member.

Yamamoto, T.; Imani, K.; Sumida, I.; Tsukamoto, M.; Watahiki, N.

1984-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

455

Geothermal district heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of a New Atmosphere–Soil–Vegetation Model. Part II: Impacts on In-Canopy Latent Heat Flux over a Winter Wheat Field Determined by Detailed Calculation of Canopy Radiation Transmission and Stomatal Resistance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the validation and sensitivity analysis of an atmosphere–soil–vegetation model. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer submodels for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation and a radiation scheme for the transmission ...

Haruyasu Nagai

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Actively driven thermal radiation shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Heat conduction in 2D strongly-coupled dusty plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform non-equilibrium simulations to study heat conduction in two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasmas. Temperature gradients are established by heating one part of the otherwise equilibrium system to a higher temperature. Heat conductivity is measured directly from the stationary temperature profile and heat flux. Particular attention is paid to the influence of damping effect on the heat conduction. It is found that the heat conductivity increases with the decrease of the damping rate, while its magnitude confirms previous experimental measurement.

Hou, Lu-Jing

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit  

SciTech Connect

Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Critchley, E. (Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit  

SciTech Connect

Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Critchley, E. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative heating profiles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Passive solar heating for buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. A survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the U.S., is provided. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

Balcomb, J.D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Energy Basics: Radiant Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

very low heat capacity and have the quickest response time of any heating technology. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about radiant heating...

465

Energy Basics: Radiant Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

low heat capacity and have the quickest response time of any heating technology. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about radiant heating in homes...

466

Bunch Profiling Using a Rotating Mask  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current method for measuring profiles of proton bunches in accelerators is severely lacking. One must dedicate a great deal of time and expensive equipment to achieve meaningful results. A new method to complete this task uses a rotating mask with slots of three different orientations to collect this data. By scanning over the beam in three different directions, a complete profile for each bunch is built in just seconds, compared to the hours necessary for the previous method. This design was successfully tested using synchrotron radiation emitted by SPEAR3. The profile of the beam was measured in each of the three desired directions. Due to scheduled beam maintenance, only one set of data was completed and more are necessary to solve any remaining issues. The data collected was processed and all of the RMS sizes along the major and minor axes, as well as the tilt of the beam ellipse were measured.

Miller, Mitchell; /SLAC /IIT, Chicago

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

467

Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits.

Im, Kwan H. (Naperville, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Burr Ridge, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace is described having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits. 7 figs.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

469

A Moored Profiling Instrument*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The specifications and performance of a moored vertical profiling instrument, designed to acquire near-full-ocean-depth profile time series data at high vertical resolution, are described. The 0.8-m-diameter by 0.4-m-wide device utilizes a ...

K. W. Doherty; D. E. Frye; S. P. Liberatore; J. M. Toole

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Handbook of heat transfer fundamentals (2nd edition)  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in heat transfer are discussed, providing data and methodology to solve a wide range of heat transfer problems. The topics considered include: basic concepts of heat transfer, mathematical methods, thermophysical properties, conduction, numerical methods in heat transfer, natural convection, and internal duct flow and external flows in forced convection. Also addressed are: rarefied gases, electric and magnetic fields, condensation, boiling, two-phase flow, and radiation.

Rohsenow, W.M.; Hartnett, J.P.; Ganic, E.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Application Study of a Single House Horizontal Heating System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is imperative to get new heating systems into the market and implement rate structures with heat meters for the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. Based on analysis of current heating technology, this paper analyzes the different forms of heating systems suited for single household metering. We introduce especially the single house horizontal spanning system and show how to select the heat flow rate of the radiator. We also study the distribution rule of the heat intermedium of horizontal heating system. To simplify the workload of engineering process and make the design more accurate, a new method for calculating the average temperature of the intermedium and the heat flow rate of this heating system is put forward. Comparison is also made between the system in question and the heating system in series. A few important questions are raised and discussed, such as the computation of combining different forms of radiators, the verification of the pipe radiation, the end of the radiator without spanning pipe, and the selection of the pipe diameter. At the same time, we study the influence of the horizontal heating system on the whole heating network, describe the characteristics of a single household horizontal heating system and the importance of its hydraulic computation, and analyze the influence of the gravitational head to this heating system. We also study the hydraulic condition of the single house horizontal system and the relationship of each party under the adjustment. In addition, the operation of single household horizontal heating system is verified in a real project, and its reliability is testified. This paper provides a method for further research on related issues of a single household metering heating system and is valuable for design, operation and management.

Hang, Y.; Ying, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Calculating thermal radiation fields from 3D flame reconstruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing fire safety into a building requires a designer to think through issues that include fire ignition, growth and spread. Radiative heat transfer from flames is the dominant method of spread. It is, therefore, necessary to determine the thermal ... Keywords: configuration factor, flame geometry, heat flux, radial basis function, thermal radiation field

Paul Mason; Chris Rogers

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Gravo-thermodynamics of the Intracluster Medium: negative heat capacity and dilation of cooling time scales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The time scale for cooling of the gravitationally bound gaseous intracluster medium (ICM) is not determined by radiative processes alone. If the ICM is in quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium in the fixed gravitational field of the dark matter halo then energy losses incurred by the gravitational potential energy of the gas should also be taken into account. This "gravitational heating" has been known for a while using explicit solutions to the equations of motion. Here, we re-visit this effect by applying the virial theorem to gas in quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium in an external gravitational field, neglecting the gravity of the gas. For a standard NFW form of halo profiles and for a finite gas density, the response of the gas temperature to changes in the total energy is significantly delayed. The effective cooling time could be prolonged by more than an order of magnitude inside the scale radius ($\\rs$) of the halo. Gas lying at a distance twice the scale radius, has negative heat capacity so that the temperature increases as a result of energy losses. Although external heating (e.g. by AGN activity) is still required to explain the lack of cool ICM near the center, the analysis here may circumvent the need for heating in farther out regions where the effective cooling time could be prolonged to become larger than the cluster age and also explains the increase of temperature with radius in these regions.

Adi Nusser

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

474

Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

476

Handbook of heat and mass transfer. Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This two-volume series, the work of more than 100 contributors, presents advanced topics in industrial heat and mass transfer operations and reactor design technology. Volume 1 emphasizes heat transfer operations. The contents are: Fundamentsls of momentum and heat transfer. Scaling in laminar and turbulent heat and mass transfer. Heat flux in the Benar-Rayleigh problem. Hydrodynamics of free liquid jets and their influence on heat transfer. Natural convection heat transfer to power law fluids. Natural convection in evaporating droplets. Principles of heat and mass transfer with liquid evaporation. Bubble nucleation, growth, and departure in boiling heat transfer. Forced convection boiling in uniformly heated channels. Transient boiling heat transfer under forced convection. Prediction of heat transfer during forced convection subcooled boiling. Liquid metal heat transfer in turbulent pipe flows. Mixed convection in buoyant plumes. Nucleation and growth in the diffusion cloud chamber. Convective and radiative heat transfer of flowing gaseous-solid suspensions. Heat transfer in gas-solid fluidized beds. Gas convection and unsteady conduction in fluid bed heat transfer. Heat transfer between tubes and gas-solid fluid beds. Periodic heat transfer through inhomogeneous layers.

Cheremisinoff, N.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an i