National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radiative flux analysis

  1. Radiative Flux Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Chuck

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIATION FLUX PROFILE OF THE 100 SUN PROMOTEO FACETTED DISH CONCENTRATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANALYSIS OF THE RADIATION FLUX PROFILE OF THE 100 SUN PROMOTEO FACETTED DISH CONCENTRATOR J, due to the need for both a tightly toleranced mirror support structure and a precise solar tracking on a commercially available satellite dish tracking actuation system, although a more cost effective tracking system

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIATION FLUX PROFILE ALONG A PV TROUGH CONCENTRATOR J.S. Coventry, A. Blakers, E. Franklin and G. Burgess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the main cost driver in a flat plate system. PV systems, whether flat plate or concentrating, normally haveANALYSIS OF THE RADIATION FLUX PROFILE ALONG A PV TROUGH CONCENTRATOR J.S. Coventry, A. Blakers, E, ACT, 0200 Australia, email: Joe.Coventry@anu.edu.au ABSTRACT: The primary advantage of a PV

  4. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  5. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  6. MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    Chapter 6 MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS: ALGORITHMS.1007/978-1-4419-0050-0_6, #12;142 Mapping Radiative Fluxes There are several global radiative flux data sets derived from either. For example, the CERES team uses the predefined albedo and emissivity maps to calculate surface radiative

  7. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  8. RADIATION ENTROPY FLUX AND ENTROPY PRODUCTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar radiation entropy flux among the dif- ferent expressions arises mainly from the difference and rising sea level [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007]. The major cause is most likely and for con- straining future detrimental climate changes. Development of such strategies requires accurate

  9. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  10. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  11. Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics - Energy InnovationOscillationSensitivity of Radiative Fluxes

  12. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 73

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gantt, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 73 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTR) FSAR set. This page change incorporates Engineering Change Notices (ECNs) issued subsequent to Amendment 72 and approved for incorparoration before May 6, 1993. These changes include: Chapter 3, design criteria structures, equipment, and systems; chapter 5B, reactor coolant system; chapter 7, instrumentation and control systems; chapter 9, auxiliary systems; chapter 11, reactor refueling system; chapter 12, radiation protection and waste management; chapter 13, conduct of operations; chapter 17, technical specifications; chapter 20, FFTF criticality specifications; appendix C, local fuel failure events; and appendix Fl, operation at 680{degrees}F inlet temperature.

  13. Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux, and A. J. Klimas (2005), Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt 2005. [1] In developing models of the radiation belt energetic electron flux, it is important

  14. Analysis of formaldehyde fluxes above a Ponderosa Pine forest measured via eddy-covariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Digangi, FABCDE

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of formaldehyde fluxes above a Ponderosa Pine Go To Analysis of formaldehyde fluxes above a Ponderosa 2011: Analysis of formaldehyde fluxes above a Ponderosa 

  15. Structure of Earth's outer radiation belt inferred from long-term electron flux dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

    mapped the radiation-belt structure by quantifying the electron flux variability over the entire radialStructure of Earth's outer radiation belt inferred from long-term electron flux dynamics D September 2003; published 15 October 2003. [1] We map the spatial structure of the electron belts over

  16. Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

    Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux 2005. [1] In developing models of the radiation belt energetic electron flux, it is important identify its peaks in reference to the radial regions P0 (L = 3.1­4.0, inner edge of the outer belt), P1 (4

  17. ARM - PI Product - Radiative Flux Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSAProductsMerged and corrected

  18. Heat flux splitter for near-field thermal radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Frechette, Luc; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility to efficiently split the near-field heat flux exchanged between graphene nano-disks by tuning their doping. This result paves the way for the developement of an active control of propagation directions for heat fluxes exchanged in near-field throughout integrated nanostructures networks.

  19. Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; McComiskey, Allison C.

    2006-09-30

    The direct radiative forcing (DRF) of aerosols, the change in net radiative flux due to aerosols in non-cloudy conditions, is an essential quantity for understanding the human impact on climate change. Our work has addressed several key issues that determine the accuracy, and identify the uncertainty, with which aerosol DRF can be modeled. These issues include the accuracy of several radiative transfer models when compared to measurements and to each other in a highly controlled closure study using data from the ARM 2003 Aerosol IOP. The primary focus of our work has been to determine an accurate approach to assigning aerosol properties appropriate for modeling over averaged periods of time and space that represent the observed regional variability of these properties. We have also undertaken a comprehensive analysis of the aerosol properties that contribute most to uncertainty in modeling aerosol DRF, and under what conditions they contribute the most uncertainty. Quantification of these issues enables the community to better state accuracies of radiative forcing calculations and to concentrate efforts in areas that will decrease uncertainties in these calculations in the future.

  20. Back-reaction of the Hawking radiation flux on a gravitationally collapsing star II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Mersini-Houghton

    2015-05-15

    A star collapsing gravitationally into a black hole emits a flux of radiation, known as Hawking radiation. When the initial state of a quantum field on the background of the star, is placed in the Unruh vacuum in the far past, then in the exterior Hawking radiation corresponds to a flux of positive energy radiation travelling outwards from near the surface to future infinity. Based on pair creation, the evaporation of the collapsing star can be equivalently described by the absorption of an ingoing negative energy flux of radiation travelling towards the center of the star. Here, we are interested in the evolution of the star during its collapse. Thus we include the backreaction of the negative energy Hawking flux in the interior geometry of the collapsing star when writing the full 4-dimensional Einstein and hydrodynamic equations. Hawking radiation emitted before the star passes through its Schwarzschild radius slows down and reverses the collapse of the star. The star evaporates without forming an horizon or a singularity. This study provides a more realistic investigation than the one first presented in [1], since the backreaction of Hawking radiation flux on the collapsing star is studied in the case when the initial state of the?field is in Unruh's vacuum.

  1. Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior Y. Fan National the e ect of radiative heating on the evolution of thin magnetic ux tubes in the solar interior Solar Observatoryy, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719. G. H. Fisher Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ

  2. Solar surface emerging flux regions: a comparative study of radiative MHD modeling and Hinode SOT observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. M. Cheung; M. Schuessler; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title

    2008-10-31

    We present results from numerical modeling of emerging flux regions on the solar surface. The modeling was carried out by means of 3D radiative MHD simulations of the rise of buoyant magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone and into the photosphere. Due to the strong stratification of the convection zone, the rise results in a lateral expansion of the tube into a magnetic sheet, which acts as a reservoir for small-scale flux emergence events at the scale of granulation. The interaction of the convective downflows and the rising magnetic flux undulates it to form serpentine field lines emerging into the photosphere. Observational characteristics including the pattern of emerging flux regions, the cancellation of surface flux and associated high speed downflows, the convective collapse of photospheric flux tubes, the appearance of anomalous darkenings, the formation of bright points and the possible existence of transient kilogauss horizontal fields are discussed in the context of new observations from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. Implications for the local helioseismology of emerging flux regions are also discussed.

  3. Accelerated Detector - Quantum Field Correlations: From Vacuum Fluctuations to Radiation Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih-Yuin Lin; B. L. Hu

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we analyze the interaction of a uniformly accelerated detector with a quantum field in (3+1)D spacetime, aiming at the issue of how kinematics can render vacuum fluctuations the appearance of thermal radiance in the detector (Unruh effect) and how they engender flux of radiation for observers afar. Two basic questions are addressed in this study: a) How are vacuum fluctuations related to the emitted radiation? b) Is there emitted radiation with energy flux in the Unruh effect? We adopt a method which places the detector and the field on an equal footing and derive the two-point correlation functions of the detector and of the field separately with full account of their interplay. From the exact solutions, we are able to study the complete process from the initial transient to the final steady state, keeping track of all activities they engage in and the physical effects manifested. We derive a quantum radiation formula for a Minkowski observer. We find that there does exist a positive radiated power of quantum nature emitted by the detector, with a hint of certain features of the Unruh effect. We further verify that the total energy of the dressed detector and a part of the radiated energy from the detector is conserved. However, this part of the radiation ceases in steady state. So the hint of the Unruh effect in radiated power is actually not directly from the energy flux that the detector experiences in Unruh effect. Since all the relevant quantum and statistical information about the detector (atom) and the field can be obtained from the results presented here, they are expected to be useful, when appropriately generalized, for addressing issues of quantum information processing in atomic and optical systems, such as quantum decoherence, entanglement and teleportation.

  4. The Sensitivity of Latent Heat Flux to Changes in the Radiative Forcing: A Framework for Comparing Models and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    A climate model must include an accurate surface physics scheme in order to examine the interactions between the land and atmosphere. Given an increase in the surface radiative forcing, the sensitivity of latent heat flux ...

  5. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: Flux variability analysis in relation to 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior 13C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH4+ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO2 efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the 13C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  6. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 more glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius...

  7. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali Meidianti, Rahma Wildian, Fitriyani, Dian; Tongkukut, Seni H. J.; Arkundato, Artoto

    2014-09-30

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  9. ARM: Short Wave Flux Analysis: 15-min resolution on SIRS data, Long algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, Tom; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Anderberg, Mary; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    Short Wave Flux Analysis: 15-min resolution on SIRS data, Long algorithm. Measurements began in January, 1994, and have continued to the present time. Data collected are from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) location.

  10. Use of a moments method for the analysis of flux distributions in subcritical assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Hsiang-Shou

    1968-01-01

    A moments method has been developed for the analysis of flux distributions in subcritical neutron-multiplying assemblies. The method determines values of the asymptotic axial and radial buckling, and of the extrapolated ...

  11. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, A.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1997-06-01

    This report covers progress made during Phase 2 of a three-phase DOE-sponsored project to develop and demonstrate the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux burner (also referred to as the Radiation Stabilized Burner, or RSB) for use in industrial watertube boilers and process heaters. The goal of the DOE-sponsored work is to demonstrate an industrial boiler burner with NOx emissions below 9 ppm and CO emissions below 50 ppm (corrected to 3% stack oxygen). To be commercially successful, these very low levels of NOx and CO must be achievable without significantly affecting other measures of burner performance such as reliability, turndown, and thermal efficiency. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated that sub-9 ppm NOx emissions and sub-50 ppm CO emissions (corrected to 3% oxygen) could be achieved with the RSB in a 3 million Btu/Hr laboratory boiler using several methods of NOx reduction. The RSB was also tested in a 60 million Btu/hr steam generator used by Chevron for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR). In the larger scale tests, fuel staging was demonstrated, with the RSB consistently achieving sub-20 ppm NOx and as low as 10 ppm NOx. Large-scale steam generator tests also demonstrated that flue gas recirculation (FGR) provided a more predictable and reliable method of achieving sub-9 ppm NOx levels. Based on the results of tests at San Francisco Thermal and Chevron, the near-term approach selected by Alzeta for achieving low NOx is to use FGR. This decision was based on a number of factors, with the most important being that FGR has proved to be an easier approach to transfer to different facilities and boiler designs. In addition, staging has proved difficult to implement in a way that allows good combustion and emissions performance in a fully modulating system. In Phase 3 of the project, the RSB will be demonstrated as a very low emissions burner product suitable for continuous operation in a commercial installation. As such, the Phase 3 field demonstration will represent the first installation in which the RSB will be operated continuously with a sub-9 ppm guarantee.

  12. Analysis of Contribution from Edge Radiation to Optical Diffraction Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Liu, P. Evtushenko, A. Freyberger, C. Liu, A.H. Lumpkin

    2009-05-01

    Beam size measurement with near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) has been carried out successfully at CEBAF. The ODR station is installed on the Hall-A beam line after eight bending magnets. The ODR images were affected by an unexpected radiation. Some calculations for analyzing the source of the radiation will be presented. Furthermore, two schemes will be proposed to alleviate the contamination.

  13. Pitch angle distribution analysis of radiation belt electrons based on Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Pitch angle distribution analysis of radiation belt electrons based on Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite Medium Electrons A data J. L. Gannon,1 X. Li,1 and D. Heynderickx2 Received 13 the Medium Electrons A instrument on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES), a survey

  14. Filtration method characterizing the reversibility of colloidal fouling layers at a membrane surface: analysis through critical flux and osmotic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    surface: analysis through critical flux and osmotic pressure Benjamin Espinasse, Patrice Bacchin* , Pierre of the critical flux on these conditions is discussed and analysed through the osmotic pressure of the colloidal dispersion. Keywords: Critical flux, ultrafiltration, colloids, membrane, irreversibility, fouling, osmotic

  15. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  16. Investigation of radiation flux in certain band via the preheat of aluminum sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chen [Department of Modern Physics, CAS Key Lab of Basic Plasma Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China) [Department of Modern Physics, CAS Key Lab of Basic Plasma Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, Zhebin; Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhao, Bin; Hu, Guangyue; Zheng, Jian [Department of Modern Physics, CAS Key Lab of Basic Plasma Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)] [Department of Modern Physics, CAS Key Lab of Basic Plasma Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Quantitative evaluation of the fractions of high energy x-rays in a hohlraum is crucial to the indirect driven-drive scheme of inertial confinement fusion and many other applications in high energy density physics. Preheat of a sample due to x-rays sensitively depends on optical thin photons. Analyzing the motion of a sample due to preheat can thus provide valuable information of those x-rays. In this article, we propose a method to infer the temporal evolution of the x-ray fluxes in the bands of our interest. By matching the simulation results to the motions of an aluminum sample, we can infer the time-resolved x-ray fluxes around the aluminum K-edge and the gold M-band inside the hohlraum.

  17. Particle flux transformation in the mesopelagic water column: process analysis and global balance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidi, Lionel

    2008-10-10

    IN THE MESOPELAGIC WATER COLUMN: PROCESS ANALYSIS AND GLOBAL BALANCE A Dissertation by LIONEL GUIDI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Oceanography PARTICLE FLUX TRANSFORMATION IN THE MESOPELAGIC WATER COLUMN: PROCESS ANALYSIS AND GLOBAL BALANCE A Dissertation by LIONEL GUIDI Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  18. Fourier analysis of the flux-tube distribution in SU(3) lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arata Yamamoto

    2010-04-16

    This letter presents a novel analysis of the action/energy density distribution around a static quark-antiquark pair in SU(3) lattice quantum chromodynamics. Using the Fourier transformation of the link variable, we remove the high-momentum gluon and extract the flux-tube component from the action/energy density. When the high-momentum gluon is removed, the statistical fluctuation is drastically suppressed, and the singularities from the quark self-energy disappear. The obtained flux-tube component is broadly distributed around the line connecting the quark and the antiquark.

  19. Fusion Engineering and Design 45 (1999) 377407 Critical heat flux analysis and R&D for the design of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    1999-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 45 (1999) 377­407 Critical heat flux analysis and R&D for the design and the design analysis performed in converging on a choice of reference configuration and parameters which of the ITER divertor have to be designed for high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m2 over :10 s). Accommodation

  20. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Donald

    2013-01-01

    data acquisition system. Support facilities at LBL include the Solar Energydata to the atmos- pheric processes that attenuate the solar radiation available to terres- trial solar energy

  1. Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories (Journal Article) | SciTech20Home

  2. Volterra network modeling of the nonlinear finite-impulse reponse of the radiation belt flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A. [Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing(ISARS), National Observatory of Athens (NOA), Metaxa and Vasillis Pavlou Street, Penteli, Athens 15236 (Greece); Vassiliadis, D. [Department of Physics, Hodges Hall, PO Box 6315, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 (United States)

    2011-01-04

    We show how a general class of spatio-temporal nonlinear impulse-response forecast networks (Volterra networks) can be constructed from a taxonomy of nonlinear autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous inputs (NAR-MAX) input-output equations, and used to model the evolution of energetic particle f uxes in the Van Allen radiation belts. We present initial results for the nonlinear response of the radiation belts to conditions a month earlier. The essential features of spatio-temporal observations are recovered with the model echoing the results of state space models and linear f nite impulse-response models whereby the strongest coupling peak occurs in the preceding 1-2 days. It appears that such networks hold promise for the development of accurate and fully data-driven space weather modelling, monitoring and forecast tools.

  3. RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF THE PRESSURE VESSEL INTERNALS OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOLDEN,N.E.; RECINIELLO,R.N.; HU,J.P.; RORER,D.C.

    2002-08-18

    In preparation for the eventual decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor after the permanent removal of its fuel elements from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, both measurements and calculations of the decay gamma-ray dose rate have been performed for the reactor pressure vessel and vessel internal structures which included the upper and lower thermal shields, the transition plate, and the control rod blades. The measurements were made using Red Perspex{trademark} polymethyl methacrylate high-level film dosimeters, a Radcal ''peanut'' ion chamber, and Eberline's high-range ion chamber. To compare with measured gamma-ray dose rate, the Monte Carlo MCNP code and geometric progressive Microshield code were used to model the gamma transport and dose buildup.

  4. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  5. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

    1999-12-01

    The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

  6. A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Service, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824 USA.25 #12;RANDOM ERRORS IN ENERGY AND CO2 FLUX1 A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3 4 Forest Service, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824, USA.11 3 LI-COR Biosciences, Inc., 4421 Superior Street

  7. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSON RL

    2008-07-18

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel.

  8. FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card – Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Functional Area Qualification Standard Gap Analysis Qualification Cards outline the differences between the last and latest version of the FAQ Standard.

  9. Length Scale Analysis of Surface Energy Fluxes Derived from Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Gillies, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    thermal measurements. Remote Sens. Rev., 1, 197–247. ——, and F. E. Boland, 1996: Will a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration lead to an increase or a decrease in water consumption by crops? Ecol. Modell., 88, 241–246. ——, and D. Ripley.../plain; charset=UTF-8 1212 VOLUME 4J O U R N A L O F H Y D R O M E T E O R O L O G Y q 2003 American Meteorological Society Length Scale Analysis of Surface Energy Fluxes Derived from Remote Sensing NATHANIEL A. BRUNSELL* Department of Plants, Soils...

  10. Analysis of global radiation budgets and cloud forcing using three-dimensional cloud nephanalysis data base. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, B.

    1990-12-01

    A one-dimensional radiative transfer model was used to compute the global radiative budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface for January and July. 1979. The model was also used to determine the global cloud radiative forcing for all clouds and for high and low cloud layers. In the computations. the authors used the monthly cloud data derived from the Air Force Three-Dimensional Cloud Nephanalysis (3DNEPH). These data were used in conjunction with conventional temperature and humidity profiles analyzed during the 1979 First GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Global Experiment (FGGE) year. Global surface albedos were computed from available data and were included in the radiative transfer analysis. Comparisons of the model-produced outgoing solar and infrared fluxes with those derived from Nimbus 7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERS) data were made to validate the radiative model and cloud cover. For reflected solar and emitted infrared (IR) flux, differences within 20 w/sq m meters were shown.

  11. Time Variations of the Superkamiokande Solar Neutrino Flux Data by Rayleigh Power Spectrum Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koushik Ghosh; Probhas Raychaudhuri

    2006-06-05

    We have used the Rayleigh Power Spectrum Analysis of the solar neutrino flux data from 1) 5-day-long samples from Super-Kamiokande-I detector during the period from June, 1996 to July, 2001; 2) 10 -day-long samples from the same detector during the same period and (3) 45-day long from the same detector during the same period. According to our analysis (1) gives periodicities around 0.25, 23.33, 33.75 and 42.75 months; (2) exhibits periodicities around 0.5, 1.0, 28.17, 40.67 and 52.5 months and (3) shows periodicities around 16.5 and 28.5 months. We have found almost similar periods in the solar flares, sunspot data, solar proton data.

  12. ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE VISIBILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE a new method for imaging spectroscopy analysis of hard X-ray emission during solar flares. The method the method to a solar flare observed on 2002 February 20 by the RHESSI instrument. The event is characterized

  13. Metabolic network reconstruction and flux variability analysis of storage synthesis in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) embryos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational simulation of large-scale biochemical networks can be used to analyze and predict the metabolic behavior of an organism, such as a developing seed. Based on the biochemical literature, pathways databases and decision rules defining reaction directionality we reconstructed bna572, a stoichiometric metabolic network model representing Brassica napus seed storage metabolism. In the highly compartmentalized network about 25% of the 572 reactions are transport reactions interconnecting nine subcellular compartments and the environment. According to known physiological capabilities of developing B. napus embryos, four nutritional conditions were defined to simulate heterotrophy or photoheterotrophy, each in combination with the availability of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate) or amino acids as nitrogen sources. Based on mathematical linear optimization the optimal solution space was comprehensively explored by flux variability analysis, thereby identifying for each reaction the range of flux values allowable under optimality. The range and variability of flux values was then categorized into flux variability types. Across the four nutritional conditions, approximately 13% of the reactions have variable flux values and 10-11% are substitutable (can be inactive), both indicating metabolic redundancy given, for example, by isoenzymes, subcellular compartmentalization or the presence of alternative pathways. About one-third of the reactions are never used and are associated with pathways that are suboptimal for storage synthesis. Fifty-seven reactions change flux variability type among the different nutritional conditions, indicating their function in metabolic adjustments. This predictive modeling framework allows analysis and quantitative exploration of storage metabolism of a developing B. napus oilseed.

  14. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  15. The SubAntarctic Flux and Dynamics Experiment (SAFDE): Renewal Proposal for Data Analysis and Model Comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Douglas S.

    The Sub­Antarctic Flux and Dynamics Experiment (SAFDE): Renewal Proposal for Data Analysis and Model Comparisons A "Group Proposal" Submitted to the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean's modeling work is fully funded by LANL, he does not require additional funding from NSF, except that some

  16. A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; McFarlane, Sally A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Ma, Po-Lun; Yan, Huiping; Bao, Jie

    2013-11-08

    In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes (FNET) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to 16 selected uncertain parameters mainly related to the cloud microphysics and aerosol schemes in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). We adopted a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach to effectively explore the high dimensional parameter space. The output response variables (e.g., FNET) were simulated using CAM5 for each parameter set, and then evaluated using generalized linear model analysis. In response to the perturbations of these 16 parameters, the CAM5-simulated global annual mean FNET ranges from -9.8 to 3.5 W m-2 compared to the CAM5-simulated FNET of 1.9 W m-2 with the default parameter values. Variance-based sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbation to the global FNET variance. The results indicate that the changes in the global mean FNET are dominated by those of cloud forcing (CF) within the parameter ranges being investigated. The size threshold parameter related to auto-conversion of cloud ice to snow is confirmed as one of the most influential parameters for FNET in the CAM5 simulation. The strong heterogeneous geographic distribution of FNET variation shows parameters have a clear localized effect over regions where they are acting. However, some parameters also have non-local impacts on FNET variance. Although external factors, such as perturbations of anthropogenic and natural emissions, largely affect FNET variations at the regional scale, their impact is weaker than that of model internal parameters in terms of simulating global mean FNET in this study. The interactions among the 16 selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion of the total FNET variations over most regions of the globe. This study helps us better understand the CAM5 model behavior associated with parameter uncertainties, which will aid the next step of reducing model uncertainty via calibration of uncertain model parameters with the largest sensitivity.

  17. Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular method are adopted to solve the global heat transfer and the radiative heat exchange, respectively rate QJ diffuse radiation heat transfer rate QX net rate of radiative heat loss QT heat generation rate

  18. Root cause analysis of solder flux residue incidence in the manufacture of electronic power modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Pranav

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the root causes of the incidence of solder flux residue underneath electronic components in the manufacture of power modules. The existing deionized water-based centrifugal cleaning process was ...

  19. Statistical Analysis of Microgravity Two-Phase Slug Flow via the Drift Flux Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsen, Benjamin A

    2014-05-01

    of microgravity two-phase flow data difficult. Multiple researchers have postulated the microgravity drift flux model parameters to predict void fraction, however, these methods were initially developed with no consideration given to a microgravity environment...

  20. Analysis of ordinary and radiative muon capture in liquid hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shung-ichi Ando; Fred Myhrer; Kuniharu Kubodera

    2001-10-04

    A simultaneous analysis is made of the measured rates of ordinary muon capture (OMC) and radiative muon capture (RMC) in liquid hydrogen, using theoretical estimates for the relevant atomic capture rates that have been obtained in chiral perturbation theory with the use of the most recent values of the coupling constants. We reexamine the basic formulas for relating the atomic OMC and RMC rates to the liquid-hydrogen OMC and RMC rates, respectively. Although the analysis is significantly influenced by ambiguity in the molecular state population, we can demonstrate that, while the OMC data can be reproduced, the RMC data can be explained only with unrealistic values of the coupling constants; the degree of difficulty becomes even more severe when we try to explain the OMC and RMC data simultaneously.

  1. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  2. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Shewanella spp. Reveals Evolutionary Robustness in Central Carbon Metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Martin, Hector Garcia; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Deutschbauer, Adam; Llora, Xavier; Meadows, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-08-19

    Shewanella spp. are a group of facultative anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in marine and fresh-water environments. In this study, we profiled the central metabolic fluxes of eight recently sequenced Shewanella species grown under the same condition in minimal med-ium with [3-13C] lactate. Although the tested Shewanella species had slightly different growth rates (0.23-0.29 h31) and produced different amounts of acetate and pyruvate during early exponential growth (pseudo-steady state), the relative intracellular metabolic flux distributions were remarkably similar. This result indicates that Shewanella species share similar regulation in regard to central carbon metabolic fluxes under steady growth conditions: the maintenance of metabolic robustness is not only evident in a single species under genetic perturbations (Fischer and Sauer, 2005; Nat Genet 37(6):636-640), but also observed through evolutionary related microbial species. This remarkable conservation of relative flux profiles through phylogenetic differences prompts us to introduce the concept of metabotype as an alternative scheme to classify microbial fluxomics. On the other hand, Shewanella spp. display flexibility in the relative flux profiles when switching their metabolism from consuming lactate to consuming pyruvate and acetate.

  3. Combined analysis of solar neutrino and solar irradiance data: further evidence for variability of the solar neutrino flux and its implications concerning the solar core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Sturrock

    2008-05-23

    A search for any particular feature in any single solar neutrino dataset is unlikely to establish variability of the solar neutrino flux since the count rates are very low. It helps to combine datasets, and in this article we examine data from both the Homestake and GALLEX experiments. These show evidence of modulation with a frequency of 11.85 yr-1, which could be indicative of rotational modulation originating in the solar core. We find that precisely the same frequency is prominent in power spectrum analyses of the ACRIM irradiance data for both the Homestake and GALLEX time intervals. These results suggest that the solar core is inhomogeneous and rotates with sidereal frequency 12.85 yr-1. We find, by Monte Carlo calculations, that the probability that the neutrino data would by chance match the irradiance data in this way is only 2 parts in 10,000. This rotation rate is significantly lower than that of the inner radiative zone (13.97 yr-1) as recently inferred from analysis of Super-Kamiokande data, suggesting that there may be a second, inner tachocline separating the core from the radiative zone. This opens up the possibility that there may be an inner dynamo that could produce a strong internal magnetic field and a second solar cycle.

  4. Management and Analysis of Radiation Portal Monitor Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, Nathan C; Alcala, Scott; Crye, Jason Michael; Lousteau, Angela L

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) receives, archives, and analyzes data from radiation portal monitors (RPMs). Over time the amount of data submitted for analysis has grown significantly, and in fiscal year 2013, ORNL received 545 gigabytes of data representing more than 230,000 RPM operating days. This data comes from more than 900 RPMs. ORNL extracts this data into a relational database, which is accessed through a custom software solution called the Desktop Analysis and Reporting Tool (DART). DART is used by data analysts to complete a monthly lane-by-lane review of RPM status. Recently ORNL has begun to extend its data analysis based on program-wide data processing in addition to the lane-by-lane review. Program-wide data processing includes the use of classification algorithms designed to identify RPMs with specific known issues and clustering algorithms intended to identify as-yet-unknown issues or new methods and measures for use in future classification algorithms. This paper provides an overview of the architecture used in the management of this data, performance aspects of the system, and additional requirements and methods used in moving toward an increased program-wide analysis paradigm.

  5. Analysis of radiation belt energetic electron phase space density using THEMIS SST measurements: Crosssatellite calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Laboratory (LANL) satellite LANL01A synchronous orbit particle analyzer (SOPA) for a half year period SOPA instrument, the THEMIS SST underestimates the electron fluxes within a factor of 2 for the 40 and the SOPA measurements from the LANL01A and 1989­048 satellites, we analyze the response of radiation belt

  6. Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salah, Wa'el; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Hoorani, H.

    2009-09-15

    The calculation for the optics of the synchrotron radiation small and wide angle x-ray scattering beamline, currently under construction at SESAME is described. This beamline is based on a cylindrically bent germanium (111) single crystal with an asymmetric cut of 10.5 deg., followed by a 1.2 m long rhodium coated plane mirror bent into a cylindrical form. The focusing properties of bent asymmetrically cut crystals have not yet been studied in depth. The present paper is devoted to study of a particular application of a bent asymmetrically cut crystal using ray tracing simulations with the SHADOW code. These simulations show that photon fluxes of order of 1.09x10{sup 11} photons/s will be available at the experimental focus at 8.79 keV. The focused beam dimensions will be 2.2 mm horizontal full width at half maximum (FWHM) by 0.12 mm vertical (FWHM).

  7. Biological detection of low radiation doses by combining results of two microarray analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mary, Jeremie - Groupe de Recherche sur l'Apprentissage Automatique, Université Charles de Gaulle

    Biological detection of low radiation doses by combining results of two microarray analysis methods in Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing in the absence and continuous presence of varying low doses of radiation harmful effects of low doses of radiation released by these sites. The threshold dose concept, designed

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Low Dose Arsenic and Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Keratinocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocke, David M.

    Proteomic Analysis of Low Dose Arsenic and Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Keratinocytes Susanne R that keratinocytes responded to either low dose arsenic and/or low dose ionizing radiation exposure, resulting arsenic; human; ionizing radiation; keratinocyte; low dose *Corresponding author: Susanne Berglund

  9. Author's personal copy Monte Carlo methods for design and analysis of radiation detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    Author's personal copy Monte Carlo methods for design and analysis of radiation detectors William L Radiation detectors Inverse problems Detector design a b s t r a c t An overview of Monte Carlo as a practical method for designing and analyzing radiation detectors is provided. The emphasis is on detectors

  10. Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Fibrous Insulation Materials Using the ZonalGEF Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Walter W.

    Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Fibrous Insulation Materials Using the Zonal­GEF Method Walter to analyze radiative heat transfer in high porosity insulation materials which have a large scattering. Radiative heat transfer in this class of material is nonlocalized in the optically thick limit

  11. Detection of coincident radiations in a single transducer by pulse shape analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, William K. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2008-03-11

    Pulse shape analysis determines if two radiations are in coincidence. A transducer is provided that, when it absorbs the first radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a shorter time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed first radiation and, when it absorbs the second radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a longer time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed second radiation. When radiation is absorbed, the output pulse is detected and two integrals are formed, the first over a time period representative of the first time constant and the second over a time period representative of the second time constant. The values of the two integrals are examined to determine whether the first radiation, the second radiation, or both were absorbed in the transducer, the latter condition defining a coincident event.

  12. Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2007-09-14

    Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

  13. Scattering of particles by radiation fields: a comparative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Maria Haney; Robert T. Jantzen

    2014-08-22

    The features of the scattering of massive neutral particles propagating in the field of a gravitational plane wave are compared with those characterizing their interaction with an electromagnetic radiation field. The motion is geodesic in the former case, whereas in the case of an electromagnetic pulse it is accelerated by the radiation field filling the associated spacetime region. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term entering the equations of motion proportional to the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame. The corresponding classical scattering cross sections are evaluated too.

  14. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    influence on the heat transfer as the radiation. Since thethe heat transfer analysis, the difference of net radiationheat transfer involved i n this project were conduction, convection and radiation.

  15. Analysis of the empirical relations between visible solar radiation, the solar altitude and the transparency of the atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Occhipinti, Antonio

    1965-01-01

    ls determined by a four parameter system including the two parameters which characterize the transmission of the direct solar radiation. The four parameter model ls )ustified in terms of actual measurements for clear sky conditions. The system... Sketch Illustrating Coordinate System, . 39 4, 2 The Coordinate System Used to Describe the Multiple Scattering Radiation Field 41 4, 3 Optical Thickness Coordinate Schematic of the Zv + 2 Radiant Fluxes of the Diffuse Radiation Field Model 47 4. 5...

  16. Hanford waste treatment plant Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) canister radiation dose rate and radiolytic heat load analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIERSON, R.M.

    2003-09-02

    This document provides an analysis of anticipated radiation dose rates and heat loads for immobilized high level waste (IHW) canisters

  17. Summary of Prometheus Radiation Shielding Nuclear Design Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Stephens

    2006-01-13

    This report transmits a summary of radiation shielding nuclear design studies performed to support the Prometheus project. Together, the enclosures and references associated with this document describe NRPCT (KAPL & Bettis) shielding nuclear design analyses done for the project.

  18. Analysis of the cumulative neutrino flux from Fermi-LAT blazar populations using 3 years of IceCube data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glüsenkamp, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse neutrino flux up to PeV energies raises the question of which populations of astrophysical sources contribute to this diffuse signal. One extragalactic candidate source population to produce high-energy neutrinos are Blazars. We present results from a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from Blazar populations selected with the 2nd Fermi-LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using an IceCube data set that has been optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to previous searches with IceCube, the investigated populations contain up to hundreds of sources, the biggest one being the entire Blazar sample measured by the Fermi-LAT. No significant neutrino signal was found from any of these populations. Some implications of this non-observation for the origin of the observed PeV diffuse signal will be discussed.

  19. RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING FOR RADIATION-CHEMISTRY COUPLING ANALYSIS A. de Guilhem de Lataillade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    an accurate Monte Carlo algorithm with a simple Taylor expansion of radiative exchanges as function is a subject of renewed interest, with the acceptance of the fact that reacting flow models are not complete walls. It is known, for example, that substantial fractions of flame energy can be converted

  20. Physics of String Flux Compactifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederik Denef; Michael R. Douglas; Shamit Kachru

    2007-01-06

    We provide a qualitative review of flux compactifications of string theory, focusing on broad physical implications and statistical methods of analysis.

  1. Physical analysis of the radiation shielding for the medical accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q. F.; Xing, Q. Z.; Kong, C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Radiation safety standards today require comprehensive shielding protection schemes for all particle accelerators. The original shielding system of BJ-20 (BeiJing-20 MeV), the high-energy medical electron linac, was designed only for the 18 MeV level. And the dose caused by the lost electrons in the 270 deg. bending magnet system was neglected. In this paper, the leakage dose of BJ-20 is carefully analyzed. The radiation leakage dose distribution of the photons coming from the accelerator head is obtained for energy levels of 6, 12, 14, and 18 MeV. The dose of the photoneutrons is especially analyzed for the 18 MeV level. The result gives that even neglecting the dose from the 270 deg. bending magnet system, the shielding system is still not enough for the energy levels lower than 18 MeV. The radiation leakage produced by electrons that are lost in the 270 deg. bending magnet system has been particularly studied. Using beam transport theory and Monte Carlo sampling methods, which have been combined in calculations, we have obtained the distribution of the energy, position, and direction of the lost electrons. These data were then further processed by the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code as input data. The results show that when the electron loss rate in the 270 deg. bending magnet system is 13.5%, the radiation leakage dose of the photons generated by the lost electrons is 0.1% higher than that at the isocenter, and the corresponding relative leakage dose of the photoneutrons reaches 0.045% around an angle of 170 deg. at 18 MeV level. Both of these parameters exceed radioprotection safety standards for medical accelerators. The original shielding design is therefore not suitable and is also incomplete since the radiation produced by the electrons being lost in the 270 deg. bending magnet system was neglected and the leakage dose for the low-energy levels was not considered in the original design. Our calculations provide a very useful tool for further optimization and design improvement that will enable this radiation shielding to conform to present day safety standards.

  2. Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-induced Gastric Bleeding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pan, Charlie C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amarnath, Sudha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William D. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we described dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. The parameters of a Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for the occurrence of {>=}grade 3 gastric bleed, adjusted for cirrhosis, were fitted to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for NTCP models. Results: Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds at a median time of 4.0 months (mean, 6.5 months; range, 2.1-28.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range, 46-86 Gy), respectively, after biocorrection of each part of the 3D dose distributions to equivalent 2-Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis predicted gastric bleed. Best-fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n=0.10 and m=0.21 and with TD{sub 50} (normal) = 56 Gy and TD{sub 50} (cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD{sub 50} value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  4. Dosimetry for quantitative analysis of the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in radiation therapy patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    for studying low- dose radiation at the doses discussed hereof the Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation in Radiationof the Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation in Ra- diation

  5. Title: Prompt Creation of New Radiation Belts Cluster: Cross-Theme Theory and Data Analysis/SECTP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotko, William

    Title: Prompt Creation of New Radiation Belts Cluster: Cross-Theme Theory and Data Analysis/SECTP Contributor: William Lotko/Dartmouth College · Radiation belt genesis via shock-induced magnetospheric compression The unexpected creation of new electron and proton radiation belts during the March 24, 1991

  6. Title: Prompt Creation of New Radiation Belts Cluster: Cross-Theme Theory and Data Analysis/SECTP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotko, William

    Title: Prompt Creation of New Radiation Belts Cluster: Cross-Theme Theory and Data Analysis-pushing code for radiation belt particles in a global MHD simulation of the solar wind/SECTP Contributor: William Lotko/Dartmouth College · Radiation belt genesis via shock-induced magnetospheric

  7. Flux and flexibility : a comparative institutional analysis of evolving university-industry relationships in MIT, Cambridge and Tokyo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatakenaka, Sachi, 1961-

    2002-01-01

    University-industry relationships are in a state of flux. They represent important strategic issues for universities, for industry, and for governments alike. This confluence of interests has led to experimentation in which ...

  8. "Development of an Integrated EMSL MS and NMR Metabolic Flux Analysis Capability In Support of Systems Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fluxes using stable isotope labeling and either nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or mass spectrometry (MS research in systems biology and metabolic engineering. It will allow us to provide a complete package

  9. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of estimating these frequencies for future work. Modeling of nuisance source populations is only useful if it helps in understanding detector system performance in real operational environments. Examples of previous studies in which nuisance source models played a key role are briefly discussed. These include screening of in-bound urban traffic and monitoring of shipping containers in transit to U.S. ports.

  10. A new approach to automatic radiation spectrum analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmos, P.; Diaz, J.C.; Perez, J.M.; Aguayo, P.; Bru, A.; Garcia-Belmonte, G.; de Pablos, J.L. ); Gomez, P.; Rodellar, V. )

    1991-08-01

    In this paper the application of adaptive methods to the solution of the automatic radioisotope identification problem using the energy spectrum is described. The identification is carried out by means of neural networks, which allow the use of relatively reduced computational structures, while keeping high pattern recognition capability. In this context, it has been found that one of these simple structures, once adequately trained, is quite suitable to identify a given isotope present in a mixture of elements as well as the relative proportions of each identified substance. Preliminary results are good enough to consider these adaptive structures as powerful and simple tools in the automatic spectrum analysis.

  11. Thermal stress analysis of eccentric tube receiver using concentrated solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Shuai, Yong; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Guo; Tan, Heping [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-10-15

    In the parabolic trough concentrator with tube receiver system, the heat transfer fluid flowing through the tube receiver can induce high thermal stress and deflection. In this study, the eccentric tube receiver is introduced with the aim to reduce the thermal stresses of tube receiver. The ray-thermal-structural sequential coupled numerical analyses are adopted to obtain the concentrated heat flux distributions, temperature distributions and thermal stress fields of both the eccentric and concentric tube receivers. During the sequential coupled numerical analyses, the concentrated heat flux distribution on the bottom half periphery of tube receiver is obtained by Monte-Carlo ray tracing method, and the fitting function method is introduced for the calculated heat flux distribution transformation from the Monte-Carlo ray tracing model to the CFD analysis model. The temperature distributions and thermal stress fields are obtained by the CFD and FEA analyses, respectively. The effects of eccentricity and oriented angle variation on the thermal stresses of eccentric tube receiver are also investigated. It is recommended to adopt the eccentric tube receiver with optimum eccentricity and 90 oriented angle as tube receiver for the parabolic trough concentrator system to reduce the thermal stresses. (author)

  12. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lewicki...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, less soil heat flux). While incomplete (R2 0.77 for 1:1 line), the degree of energy balance...

  13. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  14. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by ?-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nault, Rance; Abdul-Fattah, Hiba; Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V.; Moon, Thomas W.

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist ?-naphthoflavone (?NF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 ?M ?NF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by ?NF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to ?NF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism.

  15. Validation and Simplification of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jing; Wang Meihua; Won, Minhee; Shaw, Edward G.; Coughlin, Christopher; Curran, Walter J.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Previous recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of patients with malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] and anaplastic astrocytoma [AA]) produced six prognostic groups (I-VI) classified by six factors. We sought here to determine whether the classification for GBM could be improved by using an updated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) GBM database excluding AA and by considering additional baseline variables. Methods and Materials: The new analysis considered 42 baseline variables and 1,672 GBM patients from the expanded RTOG glioma database. Patients receiving radiation only were excluded such that all patients received radiation+carmustine. 'Radiation dose received' was replaced with 'radiation dose assigned.' The new RPA models were compared with the original model by applying them to a test dataset comprising 488 patients from six other RTOG trials. Fitness of the original and new models was evaluated using explained variation. Results: The original RPA model explained more variations in survival in the test dataset than did the new models (20% vs. 15%) and was therefore chosen for further analysis. It was reduced by combining Classes V and VI to produce three prognostic classes (Classes III, IV, and V+VI), as Classes V and VI had indistinguishable survival in the test dataset. The simplified model did not further improve performance (explained variation 18% vs. 20%) but is easier to apply because it involves only four variables: age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. Applying this simplified model to the updated GBM database resulted in three distinct classes with median survival times of 17.1, 11.2, and 7.5 months for Classes III, IV, and V+VI, respectively. Conclusions: The final model, the simplified original RPA model combining Classes V and VI, resulted in three distinct prognostic groups defined by age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. This classification will be used in future RTOG GBM trials.

  16. Filtration method characterizing the reversibility of colloidal fouling layers at a membrane surface: analysis through critical flux and osmotic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Espinasse; Patrice Bacchin; Pierre Aimar

    2008-01-17

    A filtration procedure was developed to measure the reversibility of fouling during cross-flow filtration based on the square wave of applied pressure. The principle of this method, the apparatus required, and the associated mathematical relationships are detailed. This method allows for differentiating the reversible accumulation of matter on, and the irreversible fouling of, a membrane surface. Distinguishing these two forms of attachment to a membrane surface provides a means by which the critical flux may be determined. To validate this method, experiments were performed with a latex suspension at different degrees of destabilization (obtained by the addition of salt to the suspension) and at different cross-flow velocities. The dependence of the critical flux on these conditions is discussed and analysed through the osmotic pressure of the colloidal dispersion.

  17. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Is the Hawking flux "thermal"? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word "thermal". The original 1850's notions of thermality --- based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized "black bodies" or "lamp black surfaces" --- when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900's, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but "without" any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, and quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lum...

  18. Performance Evaluation of Undulator Radiation at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu, Geoffrey Krafft, Guimei Wang

    2010-05-01

    The performance of undulator radiation (UR) at CEBAF with a 3.5 m helical undulator is evaluated and compared with APS undulator-A radiation in terms of brilliance, peak brilliance, spectral flux, flux density and intensity distribution.

  19. Collection and analysis of environmental radiation data using a desktop computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogolak, C V

    1982-04-01

    A portable instrumentation sytem using a Hewlett-Packard HP-9825 desktop computer for the collection and analysis of environmental radiation data is described. Procedures for the transmission of data between the HP-9825 and various nuclear counters are given together with a description of the necessary hardware and software. Complete programs for the analysis of Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra, high pressure ionization chamber monitor data, /sup 86/Kr monitor data and air filter sample alpha particle activity measurements are presented. Some utility programs, intended to increase system flexibility, are included.

  20. Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moharil, Ravindra M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India); Kulkarni, Prakash S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440011, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents the hourly mean solar radiation and standard deviation as inputs to simulate the solar radiation over a year. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique is applied and MATLAB program is developed for reliability analysis of small isolated power system using solar photovoltaic (SPV). This paper is distributed in two parts. Firstly various solar radiation prediction methods along with hourly mean solar radiation (HMSR) method are compared. The comparison is carried on the basis of predicted electrical power generation with actual power generated by SPV system. Estimation of solar photovoltaic power using HMSR method is close to the actual power generated by SPV system. The deviation in monsoon months is due to the cloud cover. In later part of the paper various reliability indices are obtained by HMSR method using MCS technique. Load model used is IEEE-RTS. Reliability indices, additional load hours (ALH) and additional power (AP) reduces exponentially with increase in load indicates that a SPV source will offset maximum fuel when all of its generated energy is utilized. Fuel saving calculation is also investigated. Case studies are presented for Sagardeep Island in West Bengal state of India. (author)

  1. Analysis of the spectroscopy of a hybrid system composed of a superconducting flux qubit and diamond NV centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Cai; Y. Matsuzaki; K. Kakuyanagi; H. Toida; X. Zhu; N. Mizuochi; K. Nemoto; K. Semba; W. J. Munro; S. Saito; H. Yamaguchi

    2015-05-28

    A hybrid system that combines the advantages of a superconducting flux qubit and an electron spin ensemble in diamond is one of the promising devices to realize quantum information processing. Exploring the properties of the superconductor diamond system is essential for the efficient use of this device. When we perform spectroscopy of this system, significant power broadening is observed. However, previous models to describe this system are known to be applicable only when the power broadening is negligible. Here, we construct a new approach to analyze this system with strong driving, and succeed to reproduce the spectrum with the power broadening. Our results provide an efficient way to analyze this hybrid system.

  2. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matt Visser

    2015-05-06

    Is the Hawking flux "thermal"? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word "thermal". The original 1850's notions of thermality --- based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized "black bodies" or "lamp black surfaces" --- when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900's, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but "without" any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, and quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only "approximately" Planck-shaped over a bounded frequency range. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is "approximately" Planck-shaped from both above and below --- the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  3. Harmonic Analysis of Time Variations Observed in the Solar Radio Flux Measured at 810 MHz from 1957 to 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zieba; J. Maslowski; A. Michalec; G. Michalek; A. Kulak

    2007-01-15

    Long-running measurements of the solar radio flux density at 810 MHz were processed. Based on the least-squares method and using modified periodograms and an iterative technique of fitting and subtracting sinusoids in the time domain, frequency, amplitude, and phase characteristics of any analyzed time series were obtained. Solar cycles 20, 21, and 22 and shorter segments around solar minima and maxima were examined separately. Also, dynamic studies with 405, 810, and 1620 day windows were undertaken. The harmonic representations obtained for all these time series indicate large differences among solar cycles and their segments. We show that the solar radio flux at 810 MHz violates the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule for the pair of cycles 22-23. Analyzing the period 1957-2004, the following spectral periods longer than 1350 days were detected: 10.6, 8.0, 28.0, 5.3, 55.0, 3.9, 6.0, 4.4, and 14.6 yr. For spectral periods between 270 and 1350 days the 11 yr cycle is not recognized. We think that these harmonics form ``impulses of activity'' or a quasi-biennial cycle defined in the Benevolenskaya model of the ``double magnetic cycle.'' The value of about 0.09 is proposed for the interaction parameter (between the low- and high-frequency components) of this model. We confirm the intermittent behavior of the periodicity near 155 days. Correlation coefficients between the radio emission at 810 MHz and sunspot numbers, as well as the radio emission at 2800 MHz calculated for 540 day intervals, depend on the solar cycle phase.

  4. Asymmetric Dual Axis Energy Recovery Linac for Ultra-High Flux sources of coherent X-ray/THz radiation: Investigations Towards its Ultimate Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ainsworth, R; Konoplev, I V; Seryi, A

    2015-01-01

    Truly compact and high current, efficient particle accelerators are required for sources of coherent high brightness and intensity THz and X-Ray radiation to be accepted by university or industrial R&D laboratories. The demand for compactness and efficiency can be satisfied by superconducting RF energy recovery linear accelerators (SRF ERL) allowing effectively minimising the footprint and maximising the efficiency of the system. However such set-ups are affected by regenerative beam-break up (BBU) instabilities which limit the beam current and may terminate the beam transport as well as energy recuperation. In this paper we suggest and discuss a SRF ERL with asymmetric configuration of accelerating and decelerating cavities resonantly coupled. In this model of SRF ERL we propose an electron bunch passing through accelerating and decelerating cavities each once and we show that in this case the regenerative BBU instability can be minimised allowing high currents to be achieved. We study the BBU start curr...

  5. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  6. Lunar impact flashes from Geminids, analysis of luminous efficiencies and the flux of large meteoroids on Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Jose L; Morales, Nicolas; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Aceituno, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    We analyze lunar impact flashes recorded by our team during runs in December 2007, 2011, 2013 and 2014. In total, 12 impact flashes with magnitudes ranging between 7.1 and 9.3 in V band were identified. From these, 9 events could be linked to the Geminid stream. Using these observations the ratio of luminous energy emitted in the flashes with respect to the kinetic energy of the impactors for meteoroids of the Geminid stream is estimated. By making use of the known Geminids meteoroid flux on Earth we found this ratio to be 2.1x10$^{-3}$ on average. We compare this luminous efficiency with other estimations derived in the past for other meteoroid streams and also compare it with other estimations that we present here for the first time by making use of crater diameter measurements. We think that the luminous efficiency has to be revised downward, not upward, at least for sporadic impacts. This implies an increase in the influx of kilogram-sized and larger bodies on Earth that has been derived thus far through ...

  7. Comparison of low and high dose ionising radiation using topological analysis of gene coexpression networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Monika; Yunis, Reem; Chen, Xiucui; Rocke, David M

    2012-01-01

    gene networks for low-dose radiation using graph theoreticalthe detrimental effects of low dose radiation is not wellfollowing 10 cGy (low dose radiation) and 100 cGy (high dose

  8. Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

    2012-05-01

    This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

  9. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    2008-01-15

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  10. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  11. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  12. Measuring the CO2 flux at the air/water interface in lakes using flow injection analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

    measurements. The use of flow analysis for the determination of dissolved carbon dioxide by membrane separation a hydrophobic membrane into a flow of deionized water, generating a gradient of conductivity proportional the processes related to the carbon cycle within the aquatic environment. The direction of CO2 gas exchange

  13. Development of a New Analysis Tool for Evaluating and Correcting for Weather Conditions that Constrain Radiation Portal Monitor Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL] [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) for the continuous measurement of environmental radionuclide decay. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of combining a variety of data streams into an array of real-time plots. Once acquired, data streams are analyzed to store static images and extract data based on previously defined thresholds. AMRAP is currently used at ORNL to combine data streams from an Ortec Detective high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a TSA Systems radiation portal monitor (RPM), and an Orion weather station. The combined data are used to study the rain-induced increase in RPM background radiation levels. RPMs experience an increase in background radiation during precipitation due to the deposition of atmospheric radionuclides on the ground. Using AMRAP results in a real-time analysis workstation specifically dedicated to the study of RPM background radiation levels. By means of an editable library of common inputs, AMRAP is adaptable to remote monitoring applications that would benefit from the real-time visualization and analysis of radiation measurements. To study rain-induced increases in background radiation levels observed in radiation portal monitors (RPMs), researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a software package that allows data with different formats to be analyzed and plotted in near real time. The Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) was developed to operate in the background and capture plots of important data based on previously defined thresholds. After executing AMRAP, segments of a data stream can be captured without additional post-processing. AMRAP can also display previously recorded data to facilitate a detailed offline analysis. Without access to these capabilities in a single software package, analyzing multiple continuously recorded data streams with different formats is impractical. Commercially available acquisition software packages record and analyze radiation measurements but are not designed to perform real-time analysis in conjunction with data from other vendors. The lack of collaboration between vendors is problematic when research requires different data streams to be correlated in time and immediately analyzed. AMRAP was specifically developed to provide a solution to this problem. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of plotting and analyzing data from different vendors in near real time.

  14. Vertebral Compression Fracture (VCF) After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): Analysis of Predictive Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, Marcelo V.R.; Al-Omair, Ameen; Atenafu, Eshetu G.; Masucci, Giuseppina Laura; Letourneau, Daniel; Korol, Renee; Yu, Eugene; Howard, Peter; Lochray, Fiona; Costa, Leodante B. da; Fehlings, Michael G.; Sahgal, Arjun; Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are increasingly observed after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of VCF after spine SBRT and identify clinical and dosimetric factors predictive for VCF. The analysis incorporated the recently described Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) criteria. Methods and Materials: The primary endpoint of this study was the development of a de novo VCF (ie, new endplate fracture or collapse deformity) or fracture progression based on an existing fracture at the site of treatment after SBRT. We retrospectively scored 167 spinal segments in 90 patients treated with spine SBRT according to each of the 6 SINS criteria. We also evaluated the presence of paraspinal extension, prior radiation, various dosimetric parameters including dose per fraction ({>=}20 Gy vs <20 Gy), age, and histology. Results: The median follow-up was 7.4 months. We identified 19 fractures (11%): 12 de novo fractures (63%) and 7 cases of fracture progression (37%). The mean time to fracture after SBRT was 3.3 months (range, 0.5-21.6 months). The 1-year fracture-free probability was 87.3%. Multivariate analysis confirmed that alignment (P=.0003), lytic lesions (P=.007), lung (P=.03) and hepatocellular (P<.0001) primary histologies, and dose per fraction of 20 Gy or greater (P=.004) were significant predictors of VCF. Conclusions: The presence of kyphotic/scoliotic deformity and the presence of lytic tumor were the only predictive factors of VCF based on the original 6 SINS criteria. We also report that patients with lung and hepatocellular tumors and treatment with SBRT of 20 Gy or greater in a single fraction are at a higher risk of VCF.

  15. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  16. Level Crossing Analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: A method for detecting cosmic strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sadegh Movahed; Shahram Khosravi

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we study the footprint of cosmic string as the topological defects in the very early universe on the cosmic microwave background radiation. We develop the method of level crossing analysis in the context of the well-known Kaiser-Stebbins phenomenon for exploring the signature of cosmic strings. We simulate a Gaussian map by using the best fit parameter given by WMAP-7 and then superimpose cosmic strings effects on it as an incoherent and active fluctuations. In order to investigate the capability of our method to detect the cosmic strings for the various values of tension, $G\\mu$, a simulated pure Gaussian map is compared with that of including cosmic strings. Based on the level crossing analysis, the superimposed cosmic string with $G\\mu\\gtrsim 4\\times 10^{-9}$ in the simulated map without instrumental noise and the resolution $R=1'$ could be detected. In the presence of anticipated instrumental noise the lower bound increases just up to $G\\mu\\gtrsim 5.8\\times 10^{-9}$.

  17. Developing the Theory of Flux Limits from $?$-Ray Cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Cairns

    2007-05-18

    Dark matter annihilation and other processes may precipitate a flux of diffuse ultra-high energy $\\gamma$-rays. These $\\gamma$-rays may be observable in present day experiments which observe diffuse fluxes at the GeV scale. Yet the universe is presently opaque to $\\gamma$-rays above 10 TeV. It is generally assumed that cascade radiation is observable at all high energies, however the disparity in energy from production to observation has important consequences for theoretical flux limits. We detail the physics of cascade radiation development and consider the influence of energy and redshift scale on arbitrary flux limits that result from electromagnetic cascade.

  18. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  19. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  20. On solar neutrino fluxes in radiochemical experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Ikhsanov; Yu. N. Gnedin; E. V. Miletsky

    2005-12-08

    We analyze fluctuations of the solar neutrino flux using data from the Homestake, GALLEX, GNO, SAGE and Super Kamiokande experiments. Spectral analysis and direct quantitative estimations show that the most stable variation of the solar neutrino flux is a quasi-five-year periodicity. The revised values of the mean solar neutrino flux are presented in Table 4. They were used to estimate the observed pp-flux of the solar electron neutrinos near the Earth. We consider two alternative explanations for the origin of a variable component of the solar neutrino deficit.

  1. Six-Week Time Series Of Eddy Covariance Co2 Flux At Mammoth Mountain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, less soil heat flux). While incomplete (R2 0.77 for 1:1 line), the degree of energy balance...

  2. Radiation densitometry in tree-ring analysis: a review and procedure manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, M.L.; Taylor, F.G.; Doyle, T.W.; Foster, B.E.; Cooper, C.; West, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    An x-ray densitometry of wood facility is being established by the Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge Natioanl Laboratory (ORNL). The objective is to apply tree-ring data to determine whether or not there is a fertilizer effect on tree growth from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide since the beginning of the industrial era. Intra-ring width and density data, including ring-mass will be detemined from tree-ring samples collected from sites located throughout the United States and Canada. This report is designed as a guide to assist ORNL scientists in building the x-ray densitometry system. The history and development of x-ray densitometry in tree-ring research is examined and x-ray densitometry is compared with other techniques. Relative wood and tree characteristics are described as are environmental and genetic factors affecting tree growth responses. Methods in x-ray densitometry are examined in detail and the techniques used at four operating laboratories are described. Some ways that dendrochronology has been applied in dating, in wood quality, and environmental studies are presented, and a number of tree-ring studies in Canada are described. An annotated bibliography of radiation densitometry in tree-ring analysis and related subjects is included.

  3. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for Delivery of Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perks, Julian R., E-mail: julian.perks@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stanic, Sinisa; Stern, Robin L.; Henk, Barbara; Nelson, Marsha S.; Harse, Rick D.; Mathai, Mathew; Purdy, James A.; Valicenti, Richard K.; Siefkin, Allan D.; Chen, Allen M. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To improve the quality and safety of our practice of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), we analyzed the process following the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) method. Methods: The FMEA was performed by a multidisciplinary team. For each step in the SBRT delivery process, a potential failure occurrence was derived and three factors were assessed: the probability of each occurrence, the severity if the event occurs, and the probability of detection by the treatment team. A rank of 1 to 10 was assigned to each factor, and then the multiplied ranks yielded the relative risks (risk priority numbers). The failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers were then considered to implement process improvement measures. Results: A total of 28 occurrences were derived, of which nine events scored with significantly high risk priority numbers. The risk priority numbers of the highest ranked events ranged from 20 to 80. These included transcription errors of the stereotactic coordinates and machine failures. Conclusion: Several areas of our SBRT delivery were reconsidered in terms of process improvement, and safety measures, including treatment checklists and a surgical time-out, were added for our practice of gantry-based image-guided SBRT. This study serves as a guide for other users of SBRT to perform FMEA of their own practice.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in locally advanced prostate cancer: secondary analysis of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) 8610

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    of Radiation Oncology, Prince Edward Island Cancer Treatmentof Radiation Oncology, Prince Edward Island Cancer Treatment

  5. Gamma-Ray Signatures for State-Of-Health Analysis and Monitoring of Widely-Arrayed Radiation Portal Monitor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Angel, Linda K.; Wright, Ingrid H.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Pospical, A. Jill; Ellis, John E.

    2008-05-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has deployed a large array of radiation portal monitors for the Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection. These portal monitors scan incoming vehicles crossing the U.S. border and shipping containers leaving international ports for radioactive material via gamma-ray and neutron detection. Data produced and captured by these systems are recorded for every vehicle related to radiation signature, sensor/system status, and local background, as well as a host of other variables. Within the Radiation Portal Monitor Project at PNNL, state-of-health observation and analysis for the whole RPM system using these data to determine functionality and performance is being developed. (PIET-43741-TM-492)

  6. Time Variations of the Solar Neutrino Flux Data from Sage and Gallex-Gno Detectors Obtained by Rayleigh Power Spectrum Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koushik Ghosh; Probhas Raychaudhuri

    2006-06-05

    We have used Rayleigh power spectrum analysis of the monthly solar neutrino flux data from (1) SAGE detector during the period from 1st January 1990 to 31st December 2000; (2) SAGE detector during the period from April 1998 to December 2001; (3) GALLEX detector during the period from May 1991 to January 1997; (4) GNO detector during the period from May 1998 to December 2001; (5) GALLEX-GNO detector (combined data) from May 1991 to December 2001 and (6) average of the data from GNO and SAGE detectors during the period from May 1998 to December 2001. (1) exhibits periodicity around 1.3, 4.3, 5.5, 6.3, 7.9, 8.7, 15.9, 18.7, 23.9, 32.9 and 48.7 months. (2) shows periodicity around 1.5, 2.9, 4.5, 10.1 months. For (3) we observe periodicity around 1.7, 18.7 and 26.9 months. For (4) periodicity is seen around 3.5, 5.5, 7.7 and 10.5 months. (5) gives periodicity around 1.7, 18.5, 28.5 and 42.1 months while (6) shows periodicity around 4.3, 6.9, 10.3 and 18.1 months. We have found almost similar periods in the solar flares, sunspot data, solar proton data which indicates that the solar activity cycle may be due to the variable character of nuclear energy generation inside the sun.

  7. Definitions of Clear-sky Fluxes and Implications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, Abhishek

    2012-02-14

    .2 Clear-sky Fluxes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2. SATELLITE-INFERRED CLEAR-SKY FLUXES : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 2.1 CERES Instrument : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 2.1.1 CERES... observation systems such as satellite system, radiosonde, solar panels etc. and simulation results from model generated scenarios including climate-model, reanalysis with assimilation system, radiative transfer models, to name a few, have helped...

  8. High flux heat transfer in a target environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Valid for: Consider turbulent heat transfer in a 1.5mm diameter pipe ­ Dittus Boelter correlationHigh flux heat transfer in a target environment T. Davenne High Power Targets Group Rutherford · Radiation Cooling · Forced Convection · Nucleate Boiling · Critical Heat Flux · Other ideas · Summary #12

  9. Correlation analysis of mean global radiation values with mean brightness values for one year 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolczynski, Edward Franklin

    1971-01-01

    quantities of global radiation, = kb. sin h i oi where i denotes the number of the month (1 to 12), Q. is the individual monthly quantity of global radiation, h . is the solar altitude relat- oi ed to noon of the middle day of the month, and k is the coei... which now exists in the data bank of this field. B. ~Db' t' The objective of the proposed research is to investigate a pos- sible relationship between global radiation, as measured from ground- based instruments, and mean brightness values...

  10. Hypofractionation vs Conventional Radiation Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Matched-Cohort Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, Geert O., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Jansen, Marc H. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lauwers, Selmer J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nowak, Peter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bouffet, Eric [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Saran, Frank [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schieving, Jolanda H. [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Kaspers, Gertjan J. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hargrave, Darren [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Despite conventional radiation therapy, 54 Gy in single doses of 1.8 Gy (54/1.8 Gy) over 6 weeks, most children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the role of hypofractionation radiation therapy given over 3 to 4 weeks. A 1:1 matched-cohort analysis with conventional radiation therapy was performed to assess response and survival. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven children, aged 3 to 14, were treated according to 1 of 2 hypofractionation regimens over 3 to 4 weeks (39/3 Gy, n=16 or 44.8/2.8 Gy, n=11). All patients had symptoms for {<=}3 months, {>=}2 signs of the neurologic triad (cranial nerve deficit, ataxia, long tract signs), and characteristic features of DIPG on magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-seven patients fulfilling the same diagnostic criteria and receiving at least 50/1.8 to 2.0 Gy were eligible for the matched-cohort analysis. Results: With hypofractionation radiation therapy, the overall survival at 6, 9, and 12 months was 74%, 44%, and 22%, respectively. Progression-free survival at 3, 6, and 9 months was 77%, 43%, and 12%, respectively. Temporary discontinuation of steroids was observed in 21 of 27 (78%) patients. No significant difference in median overall survival (9.0 vs 9.4 months; P=.84) and time to progression (5.0 vs 7.6 months; P=.24) was observed between hypofractionation vs conventional radiation therapy, respectively. Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed DIPG, a hypofractionation regimen, given over 3 to 4 weeks, offers equal overall survival with less treatment burden compared with a conventional regimen of 6 weeks.

  11. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Mitra, Nandita; Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James; Rengan, Ramesh; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received {>=}50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received {<=}78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving {>=}1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of patients.

  12. Analysis of a flexible polymeric film with imbedded micro heat pipes for spacecraft radiators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniels, Deborah Marie

    2001-01-01

    times higher. Greater flexibility and lower mass make it more amenable to structural integration than the graphite material. Recently developed space-stable polymers offer resistance to harsh temperature and radiation environments, helping to clear...

  13. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  14. PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION AND THE BUILD-UP OF SIGMOIDAL FLUX ROPES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Green, L. M.

    2012-11-10

    In this study we explore the scenario of photospheric flux cancellation being the primary formation mechanism of sigmoidal flux ropes in decaying active regions. We analyze magnetogram and X-ray observations together with data-driven non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models of observed sigmoidal regions to test this idea. We measure the total and canceled fluxes in the regions from MDI magnetograms, as well as the axial and poloidal flux content of the modeled NLFFF flux ropes for three sigmoids-2007 February, 2007 December, and 2010 February. We infer that the sum of the poloidal and axial flux in the flux ropes for most models amounts to about 60%-70% of the canceled flux and 30%-50% of the total flux in the regions. The flux measurements and the analysis of the magnetic field structure show that the sigmoids first develop a strong axial field manifested as a sheared arcade and then, as flux cancellation proceeds, form long S-shaped field lines that contribute to the poloidal flux. In addition, the dips in the S-shaped field lines are located at the sites of flux cancellation that have been identified from the MDI magnetograms. We find that the line-of-sight-integrated free energy is also concentrated at these locations for all three regions, which can be liberated in the process of eruption. Flare-associated brightenings and flare loops coincide with the location of the X-line topology that develops at the site of most vigorous flux cancellation.

  15. Measurement and Analysis of Radio-frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Different Mobile Base Transceiver Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ushie, P O; Bolaji, Ayinmode; Osahun, O D

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs. The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of other factors, including wave interference from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is below the standard limit (4.5W/sqm for 900MHz and 9W/sqm for 18000MHz) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and other regulatory agencies.

  16. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Holliday, Emma; Eastwick, Gary; Takita, Cristiane; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  17. Analysis of Cloud-resolving Simulations of a Tropical Mesoscale Convective System Observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical Fluxes and Draft Properties in Convective and Stratiform Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Rio, Catherine; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Pauluis, Olivier; Varble, Adam; Fan, Jiwen

    2012-10-02

    We analyze three cloud-resolving model simulations of a strong convective event observed during the TWP-ICE campaign, differing in dynamical core, microphysical scheme or both. Based on simulated and observed radar reflectivity, simulations roughly reproduce observed convective and stratiform precipitating areas. To identify the characteristics of convective and stratiform drafts that are difficult to observe but relevant to climate model parameterization, independent vertical wind speed thresholds are calculated to capture 90% of total convective and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Convective updrafts are fairly consistent across simulations (likely owing to fixed large-scale forcings and surface conditions), except that hydrometeor loadings differ substantially. Convective downdraft and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes vary notably below the melting level, but share similar vertically uniform draft velocities despite differing hydrometeor loadings. All identified convective and stratiform downdrafts contain precipitation below ~10 km and nearly all updrafts are cloudy above the melting level. Cold pool properties diverge substantially in a manner that is consistent with convective downdraft mass flux differences below the melting level. Despite differences in hydrometeor loadings and cold pool properties, convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are linearly correlated with convective area, the ratio of ice in downdrafts to that in updrafts is ~0.5 independent of species, and the ratio of downdraft to updraft mass flux is ~0.5-0.6, which may represent a minimum evaporation efficiency under moist conditions. Hydrometeor loading in stratiform regions is found to be a fraction of hydrometeor loading in convective regions that ranges from ~10% (graupel) to ~90% (cloud ice). These findings may lead to improved convection parameterizations.

  18. Spectrally enhancing near-field radiative heat transfer by exciting magnetic polariton in SiC gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we theoretically demonstrate, for the first time, that near field radiative transport between 1D periodic grating microstructures separated by subwavelength vacuum gaps can be significantly enhanced by exciting magnetic resonance or polariton. Fluctuational electrodynamics that incorporates scattering matrix theory with rigorous coupled wave analysis is employed to exactly calculate the near field radiative heat flux between two SiC gratings. Besides the well known coupled surface phonon polaritons (SPhP), an additional spectral radiative heat flux peak, which is due to magnetic polariton, is found within the phonon absorption band of SiC. The mechanisms, behaviors and interplays between magnetic polariton, coupled SPhP, single interface SPhP, and Wood's anomaly in the near field radiative transport are elucidated in detail. The findings will open up a new way to control near field radiative heat transfer by magnetic resonance with micro or nanostructured metamaterials.

  19. Updated Mortality Analysis of Radiation Workers at Rocketdyne (Atomics International), 1948-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boice Jr JD, Colen SS, Mumma MT, Ellis ED, Eckerman DF, Leggett RW, Boecker BB, Brill B, Henderson BE

    2011-08-01

    Updated analyses of mortality data are presented on 46,970 workers employed 1948-1999 at Rocketdyne (Atomics International). Overall, 5,801 workers were involved in radiation activities, including 2,232 who were monitored for intakes of radionuclides, and 41,169 workers were engaged in rocket testing or other non-radiation activities. The worker population is unique in that lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought, updated and incorporated into the analyses. Further, radiation doses from intakes of 14 different radionuclides were calculated for 16 organs or tissues using biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). Because only negligible exposures were received by the 247 workers monitored for radiation activities after 1999, the mean dose from external radiation remained essentially the same at 13.5 mSv (maximum 1 Sv) as reported previously, as did the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined at 19.0 mSv (maximum 3.6 Sv). An additional 9 years of follow-up, from December 31,1999 through 2008, increased the person-years of observation for the radiation workers by 21.7% to 196,674 (mean 33.9 years) and the number of cancer deaths by 50% to 684. Analyses included external comparisons with the general population and the computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and internal comparisons using proportional hazards models and the computation of relative risks (RRs). A low SMR for all causes of death (SMR 0.82; 95% CI 0.78-0.85) continued to indicate that the Rocketdyne radiation workers were healthier than the general population and were less likely to die. The SMRs for all cancers taken together (SMR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.95), lung cancer (SMR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76-1.00) and leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (SMR 1.04; 95% 0.67-1.53) were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant dose-response trends for any cancer. For all cancers excluding leukemia, the RR at 100 mSv was estimated as 0.98 (95% CI 0.82-1.17), and for all leukemia other than CLL it was 1.06 (95% CI 0.50-2.23). Uranium was the primary radionuclide contributing to internal exposures, but no significant increases in lung and kidney disease were seen. The extended follow-up reinforces the findings in the previous study in failing to observe a detectable increase in cancer deaths associated with radiation, but strong conclusions still cannot be drawn because of small numbers and relatively low career doses. Larger combined studies of early workers in the United States using similar methodologies are warranted to refine and clarify radiation risks after protracted exposures.

  20. Structural design and analysis of a lightweight composite sandwich space radiator panel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Sudharsan

    2005-02-17

    The goal of this study is to design and analyze a sandwich composite panel with lightweight graphite foam core and carbon epoxy face sheets that can function as a radiator for the given payload in a satellite. This arrangement provides a lightweight...

  1. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  2. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard; Williams, Paul T; Phillips, Rick; Erickson, Marjorie A; Kirk, Mark T; Stevens, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

  3. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  4. A New Natural Gamma Radiation Measurement System for Marine Sediment and Rock Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasiliev, M A; Chubarian, G; Olsen, R; Bennight, C; Cobine, T; Fackler, D; Hastedt, M; Houpt, D; Mateo, Z; Vasilieva, Y B

    2010-01-01

    A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are ...

  5. Synchrotron radiation x-ray topography and defect selective etching analysis of threading dislocations in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sintonen, Sakari, E-mail: sakari.sintonen@aalto.fi; Suihkonen, Sami; Jussila, Henri; Tuomi, Turkka O.; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Rudzi?ski, Mariusz [Epitaxy Department, Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Knetzger, Michael; Meissner, Elke [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Danilewsky, Andreas [Kristallographie Institut für Geo- und Umweltnaturwissenschaften, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-08-28

    The crystal quality of bulk GaN crystals is continuously improving due to advances in GaN growth techniques. Defect characterization of the GaN substrates by conventional methods is impeded by the very low dislocation density and a large scale defect analysis method is needed. White beam synchrotron radiation x-ray topography (SR-XRT) is a rapid and non-destructive technique for dislocation analysis on a large scale. In this study, the defect structure of an ammonothermal c-plane GaN substrate was recorded using SR-XRT and the image contrast caused by the dislocation induced microstrain was simulated. The simulations and experimental observations agree excellently and the SR-XRT image contrasts of mixed and screw dislocations were determined. Apart from a few exceptions, defect selective etching measurements were shown to correspond one to one with the SR-XRT results.

  6. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  7. Radiation environment along the INTEGRAL orbit measured with the IREM monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hajdas; P. Bühler; C. Eggel; P. Favre; A. Mchedlishvili; A. Zehnder

    2003-08-15

    The INTEGRAL Radiation Environment Monitor (IREM) is a payload supporting instrument on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The monitor continually measures electron and proton fluxes along the orbit and provides this information to the spacecraft on board data handler. The mission alert system broadcasts it to the payload instruments enabling them to react accordingly to the current radiation level. Additionally, the IREM conducts its autonomous research mapping the Earth radiation environment for the space weather program. Its scientific data are available for further analysis almost without delay.

  8. Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality at the SGP Extended Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w1.½tankSurface Radiation Measurement

  9. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; et al

    2015-02-02

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia hasmore »the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.« less

  10. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; Zhao, Huabiao; Joswiak, Daniel R.; Li, Jiule; Xie, Ying

    2015-01-01

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia has the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.

  11. The Flux Qubit Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Yan; S. Gustavsson; A. Kamal; J. Birenbaum; A. P. Sears; D. Hover; T. J. Gudmundsen; J. L. Yoder; T. P. Orlando; J. Clarke; A. J. Kerman; W. D. Oliver

    2015-08-25

    The scalable application of quantum information science will stand on reproducible and controllable high-coherence quantum bits (qubits). In this work, we revisit the design and fabrication of the superconducting flux qubit, achieving a planar device with broad frequency tunability, strong anharmonicity, high reproducibility, and coherence times in excess of 40 us at its flux-insensitive point. Qubit relaxation times across 21 qubits of widely varying designs are consistently matched with a single model involving ohmic charge noise, quasiparticle fluctuations, resonator loss, and 1/f flux noise, a noise source previously considered primarily in the context of dephasing. We furthermore demonstrate that qubit dephasing at the flux-insensitive point is dominated by residual thermal photons in the readout resonator. The resulting photon shot noise is mitigated using a dynamical decoupling protocol, reaching T2 ~ 80 us , approximately the 2T1 limit. In addition to realizing a dramatically improved flux qubit, our results uniquely identify photon shot noise as limiting T2 in contemporary state-of-art qubits based on transverse qubit-resonator interaction.

  12. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: Practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao -Liang; Chen, Yu -Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collectionmore »times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high-quality data, and will allow construction of chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination.« less

  13. Radiation Modeling In Fluid Flow Iain D. Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    Collector #12;4 Fundamentals of Radiation (1) · All matter with non-zero temperature emits thermal radiation with energy flux given by the Stefan-Boltzmann Law: e.g., Sun: T=5800 K, total radiated power = 4 distribution (Planck spectrum) !q =T 4 W/m2 #12;5 Planck Radiation Spectrum #12;6 Solar Radiation Spectrum

  14. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R. [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115 (United States); Zheng, Shao-Liang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138 (United States); Chen, Yu-Sheng [ChemMatCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago c/o Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Clardy, Jon, E-mail: jon-clardy@hms.harvard.edu [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes complete practical guidelines and insights for the crystalline sponge method, which have been derived through the first use of synchrotron radiation on these systems, and includes a procedure for faster synthesis of the sponges. These guidelines will be applicable to crystal sponge data collected at synchrotrons or in-house facilities, and will allow researchers to obtain reliable high-quality data and construct chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high-quality data, and will allow construction of chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination.

  15. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  16. Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Definitive Radiation Therapy? Analysis of a Single-Institution Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P.R. of China (China); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Levy, Lawrence B.; O'Reilly, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gold, Kathryn A. [Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Preclinical studies have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) can mitigate radiation-induced lung injury. We sought here to investigate possible associations between ACEI use and the risk of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) among patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients who received definitive radiation therapy for stages I to III NSCLC between 2004 and 2010 at a single tertiary cancer center. Patients must have received a radiation dose of at least 60 Gy for a single primary lung tumor and have had imaging and dosimetric data available for analysis. RP was quantified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess potential associations between ACEI use and risk of symptomatic RP. Results: Of 413 patients analyzed, 65 were using ACEIs during RT. In univariate analysis, the rate of RP grade ?2 seemed lower in ACEI users than in nonusers (34% vs 46%), but this apparent difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). In multivariate analysis of all patients, ACEI use was not associated with the risk of symptomatic RP (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; P=.07) after adjustment for sex, smoking status, mean lung dose (MLD), and concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis showed that ACEI use did have a protective effect from RP grade ?2 among patients who received a low (?20-Gy) MLD (P<.01) or were male (P=.04). Conclusions: A trend toward reduction in symptomatic RP among patients taking ACEIs during RT for NSCLC was not statistically significant on univariate or multivariate analyses, although certain subgroups may benefit from use (ie, male patients and those receiving low MLD). The evidence at this point is insufficient to establish whether the use of ACEIs does or does not reduce the risk of RP.

  17. Numerical analysis of radiation dynamics in a combined hohlraum in the X-ray opacity experiments on the 'Iskra-5' laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondarenko, S V; Novikova, E A [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation); Dolgoleva, G V [M.V. Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    We report the results of numerical analysis of radiation dynamics (laser absorption and X-ray generation) by using SNDLIRA code in a combined box used in the X-ray opacity measurements on the 'Iskra-5' facility (laser radiation wavelength, ? = 0.66 ?m; laser pulse duration, ?{sub 0.5} ? 0.6 ns; and energy, 900 J). Combined boxes used in these experiments comprised three sections: two illuminators delivering laser radiation and a central diagnostic section with a test sample. We have proposed a scheme for step-by-step calculation of the heating dynamics of the sample under study in a three-section hohlraum. Two designs of a combined box, which differ in the ways the laser radiation is injected, are discussed. It is shown that the axial injection of the beams results in intense secondary laser irradiation of the illuminator edge which leads to its partial disruption and penetration of laser radiation into the central diagnostic section. In this case the sample under study is exposed to additional uncontrolled action of scattered laser radiation. Such an undesirable action may be avoided by using the lateral injection of the beams through four holes on the lateral side of the illuminators. For the latter case we have calculated the heating dynamics for the sample and found an optimal time delay for an X-ray probe pulse. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  18. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  19. Integrated Molecular Analysis Indicates Undetectable Change in DNA Damage in Mice after Continuous Irradiation at ~ 400-fold Natural Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olipitz, Werner

    Background: In the event of a nuclear accident, people are exposed to elevated levels of continuous low dose-rate radiation. Nevertheless, most of the literature describes the biological effects of acute radiation.

  20. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: Practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao -Liang; Chen, Yu -Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high-quality data, and will allow construction of chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination.

  1. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  2. Semiquantitative Analysis Using Thallium-201 SPECT for Differential Diagnosis Between Tumor Recurrence and Radiation Necrosis After Gamma Knife Surgery for Malignant Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Shigeo; Shuto, Takashi; Takase, Hajime; Ohtake, Makoto; Tomura, Nagatsuki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Sonoda, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Semiquantitative analysis of thallium-201 chloride single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 201}Tl SPECT) was evaluated for the discrimination between recurrent brain tumor and delayed radiation necrosis after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: The medical records were reviewed of 75 patients, including 48 patients with metastatic brain tumor and 27 patients with high-grade glioma who underwent GKS in our institution, and had suspected tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis on follow-up neuroimaging and deteriorating clinical status after GKS. Analysis of {sup 201}Tl SPECT data used the early ratio (ER) and the delayed ratio (DR) calculated as tumor/normal average counts on the early and delayed images, and the retention index (RI) as the ratio of DR to ER. Results: A total of 107 tumors were analyzed with {sup 201}Tl SPECT. Nineteen lesions were removed surgically and histological diagnoses established, and the other lesions were evaluated with follow-up clinical and neuroimaging examinations after GKS. The final diagnosis was considered to be recurrent tumor in 65 lesions and radiation necrosis in 42 lesions. Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated significant differences in DR (P=.002) and RI (P<.0001), but not in ER (P=.372), between the tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis groups, and no significant differences between metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas in all indices (P=.926 for ER, P=.263 for DR, and P=.826 for RI). Receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that RI was the most informative index with the optimum threshold of 0.775, which provided 82.8% sensitivity, 83.7% specificity, and 82.8% accuracy. Conclusions: Semiquantitative analysis of {sup 201}Tl SPECT provides useful information for the differentiation between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis in metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas after GKS, and the RI may be the most valuable index for this purpose.

  3. Impact of Boost Radiation in the Treatment of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Population-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakovitch, Eileen; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario; University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Narod, Steven A.; Women’s College Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario ; Nofech-Moses, Sharon; Hanna, Wedad; University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Saskin, Refik; Taylor, Carole; Tuck, Alan; Youngson, Bruce; Miller, Naomi; Done, Susan J.; Sengupta, Sandip; Elavathil, Leela; Henderson General Hospital, 711 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario ; Jani, Prashant A.; Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, Ontario ; Bonin, Michel; Metcalfe, Stephanie; Paszat, Lawrence; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario; University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of a population of women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation and to evaluate the independent effect of boost radiation on the development of local recurrence. Methods and Materials: All women diagnosed with DCIS and treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in Ontario from 1994 to 2003 were identified. Treatments and outcomes were identified through administrative databases and validated by chart review. The impact of boost radiation on the development of local recurrence was determined using survival analyses. Results: We identified 1895 cases of DCIS that were treated by breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy; 561 patients received boost radiation. The cumulative 10-year rate of local recurrence was 13% for women who received boost radiation and 12% for those who did not (P=.3). The 10-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate among women who did and who did not receive boost radiation was 88% and 87%, respectively (P=.27), 94% and 93% for invasive LRFS (P=.58), and was 95% and 93% for DCIS LRFS (P=.31). On multivariable analyses, boost radiation was not associated with a lower risk of local recurrence (hazard ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.59-1.15) (P=.25). Conclusions: Among a population of women treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation for DCIS, additional (boost) radiation was not associated with a lower risk of local or invasive recurrence.

  4. ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cook, David

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  6. Large fluxes and rapid turnover of mineral-associated carbon across topographic gradients in a humid tropical forest: insights from paired 14C analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, S. J.; McNicol, G.; Natake, T.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-04-29

    It has been proposed that the large soil carbon (C) stocks of humid tropical forests result predominantly from C stabilization by reactive minerals, whereas oxygen (O2) limitation of decomposition has received much less attention. We examined the importance of these factors in explaining patterns of C stocks and turnover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using radiocarbon (14C) measurements of contemporary and archived samples. Samples from ridge, slope, and valley positions spanned three soil orders (Ultisol, Oxisol, Inceptisol) representative of humid tropical forests, and differed in texture, reactive metal content, O2 availability, and root biomass. Mineral-associated C comprised themore »large majority (87 ± 2%, n = 30) of total soil C. Turnover of most mineral-associated C (66 ± 2%) was rapid (11 to 26 years; mean and SE: 18 ± 3 years) in 25 of 30 soil samples across surface horizons (0–10 and 10–20 cm depths) and all topographic positions, independent of variation in reactive metal concentrations and clay content. Passive C with centennial–millennial turnover was typically much less abundant (34 ± 3%), even at 10–20 cm depths. Carbon turnover times and concentrations significantly increased with concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) across all samples, suggesting that O2 availability may have limited the decomposition of mineral-associated C over decadal scales. Steady-state inputs of mineral-associated C were statistically similar among the three topographic positions, and could represent 10–25% of annual litter production. Observed trends in mineral-associated ?14C over time could not be fit using the single-pool model used in many other studies, which generated contradictory relationships between turnover and ?14C as compared with a more realistic two-pool model. The large C fluxes in surface and near-surface soils documented here are supported by findings from paired 14C studies in other types of ecosystems, and suggest that most mineral-associated C cycles relatively rapidly (decadal scales) across ecosystems that span a broad range of state factors.« less

  7. Large fluxes and rapid turnover of mineral-associated carbon across topographic gradients in a humid tropical forest: insights from paired 14C analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, S. J.; McNicol, G.; Natake, T.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-01-16

    It has been proposed that the large soil carbon (C) stocks of humid tropical forests result predominantly from C stabilization by reactive minerals, whereas oxygen (O2) limitation of decomposition has received much less attention. We examined the importance of these factors in explaining patterns of C stocks and turnover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using radiocarbon (14C) measurements of contemporary and archived samples. Samples from ridge, slope, and valley positions spanned three soil orders (Ultisol, Oxisol, Inceptisol) representative of humid tropical forests, and differed in texture, reactive metal content, O2 availability, and root biomass. Mineral-associated C comprised themore »large majority (87 ± 2%, n = 30) of total soil C. Turnover of most mineral-associated C (74 ± 4%) was rapid (9 to 29 years, mean and SE 20 ± 2 years) in 25 of 30 soil samples across surface horizons (0–10 and 10–20 cm depths) and all topographic positions, independent of variation in reactive metal concentrations and clay content. Passive C with centennial – millennial turnover was much less abundant (26%), even at 10–20 cm depths. Carbon turnover times and concentrations significantly increased with concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) across all samples, suggesting that O2 availability may have limited the decomposition of mineral associated C over decadal scales. Steady-state inputs of mineral-associated C were similar among the three topographic positions, and could represent 10–30% of annual litterfall production (estimated by doubling aboveground litterfall). Observed trends in mineral-associated ?14C over time could not be fit using the single pool model used in many other studies, which generated contradictory relationships between turnover and ?14C as compared with a more realistic constrained two-pool model. The large C fluxes in surface and near-surface soils implied by our data suggest that other studies using single-pool ?14C models of mineral-associated C dynamics, unconstrained by multiple time points, may have systematically underestimated C turnover.« less

  8. High flux reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lake, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heath, Russell L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Liebenthal, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R. (Summit, NJ); Leyse, Carl F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parsons, Kent (Idaho Falls, ID); Ryskamp, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wadkins, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fillmore, Gary N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  9. Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohri, Nisha; Cordeiro, Peter G.; Keam, Jennifer; Ballangrud, Ase; Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang; Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying; McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N.; Ho, Alice Y.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary determinant of target coverage and normal tissue doses.

  10. Radiation-thermoacoustic microscopy of condensed media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyamshev, L.M.; Chelnokov, B.I.

    1984-07-01

    Possibilities are discussed for the application of scanning radiation-thermoacoustic microscopy, using different types of radiation, for microstructure analysis. (AIP)

  11. The Effect of Diurnal Sea Surface Temperature Warming on Climatological Air–Sea Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayson, Carol Anne

    Diurnal sea surface warming affects the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and upwelling longwave radiation. Diurnal warming most typically reaches maximum values of 3°C, although very localized events may reach 7°–8°C. ...

  12. A Measurement of the Flux of Cosmic Ray Iron at 5 x 10^13 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Clem; W. Droege; P. A. Evenson; H. Fischer; G. Green; D. Huber; H. Kunow; D. Seckel

    2001-03-23

    We present results from the initial flight of our Balloon Air CHerenkov (BACH) payload. BACH detects air Cherenkov radiation from cosmic ray nuclei as coincident flashes in two optical modules. The flight (dubbed PDQ BACH) took place on April 22, 1998 from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. During an exposure of 2.75 hours, with a typical threshold energy for iron nuclei of 2.2$\\times10^{13}$ eV, we observed several events cleanly identifiable as iron group nuclei. Analysis of the data yields a new flux measurement that is fully consistent with that reported by other investigations.

  13. Pathway confirmation and flux analysis of central metabolicpathways in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using gaschromatography-mass spectrometry and fourier transform-ion cyclotronresonance mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yinjie; Pingitore, Francesco; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Phan,Richard; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2006-07-11

    It has been proposed that during growth under anaerobic oroxygen-limited conditions Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses theserine-isocitrate lyase pathway common to many methylotrophic anaerobes,in which formaldehyde produced from pyruvate is condensed with glycine toform serine. The serine is then transformed through hydroxypyruvate andglycerate to enter central metabolism at phosphoglycerate. To examine itsuse of the serine-isocitrate lyase pathway under anaerobic conditions, wegrew S. oneidensis MR-1 on [1-13C]lactate as the sole carbon source witheither trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) or fumarate as an electron acceptor.Analysis of cellular metabolites indicates that a large percentage(>75 percent) of lactate was partially oxidized to either acetate orpyruvate. The 13C isotope distributions in amino acids and other keymetabolites indicate that, under anaerobic conditions, a complete serinepathway is not present, and lactate is oxidized via a highly reversibleserine degradation pathway. The labeling data also suggest significantactivity in the anaplerotic (malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxylase) and glyoxylate shunt (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase)reactions. Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often observedto be incomplete in many other anaerobes (absence of 2-oxoglutaratedehydrogenase activity), isotopic labeling supports the existence of acomplete TCA cycle in S. oneidensis MR-1 under TMAO reductioncondition.

  14. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straume, Tore

    2008-01-01

    analysis of low–dose radiation -associated changes incellular responses to low-dose radiation using genomic gene-cellular responses to low-dose radiation and to reduce the

  15. Diagnostic options for radiative divertor feedback control on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94550 (United States); Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A radiative divertor technique is used in present tokamak experiments and planned for ITER to mitigate high heat loads on divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) to prevent excessive material erosion and thermal damage. In NSTX, a large spherical tokamak with lithium-coated graphite PFCs and high divertor heat flux (q{sub peak} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 15 MW/m{sup 2}), radiative divertor experiments have demonstrated a significant reduction of divertor peak heat flux simultaneously with good core H-mode confinement using pre-programmed D{sub 2} or CD{sub 4} gas injections. In this work diagnostic options for a new real-time feedback control system for active radiative divertor detachment control in NSTX-U, where steady-state peak divertor heat fluxes are projected to reach 20-30 MW/m{sup 2}, are discussed. Based on the NSTX divertor detachment measurements and analysis, the control diagnostic signals available for NSTX-U include divertor radiated power, neutral pressure, spectroscopic deuterium recombination signatures, infrared thermography of PFC surfaces, and thermoelectric scrape-off layer current. In addition, spectroscopic 'security' monitoring of possible confinement or pedestal degradation is recommended. These signals would be implemented in a digital plasma control system to manage the divertor detachment process via an actuator (impurity gas seeding rate).

  16. RESEARCH Open Access Spatial variation of net radiation and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    and decreased by 4 W m-2 at night in the unclipped treatments. Net radiation decreased by 25 W m-2 (6% of Rn treatments. The Rn was lower by 11­21 W m-2 (~20­40% of Rn) measured by CNR1 than by Q7.1 at night, while is the sensible heat flux, LE is the latent heat flux, G is the soil heat flux, Q is the sum of other heat fluxes

  17. The multiple absorption coefficient zonal method (MACZM), an efficient computational approach for the analysis of radiative heat transfer in multidimensional inhomogeneous nongray media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, W W

    2006-01-01

    the effect of radiation heat transfer in multi-dimensionaleffects of the radiation heat transfer, particularly in3-D Surface Radiation Calculation”, Numerical heat Transfer,

  18. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  19. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  20. Solar axion flux from the axion-electron coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redondo, Javier

    2013-12-01

    In non-hadronic axion models, where axions couple to electrons at tree level, the solar axion flux is completely dominated by the ABC reactions (Atomic recombination and deexcitation, Bremsstrahlung and Compton). In this paper the ABC flux is computed from available libraries of monochromatic photon radiative opacities (OP, LEDCOP and OPAS) by exploiting the relations between axion and photon emission cross sections. These results turn to be ? 30% larger than previous estimates due to atomic recombination (free-bound electron transitions) and deexcitation (bound-bound), which where not previously taken into account.

  1. The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

    2003-05-20

    A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

  2. Submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research, September 1996 Surface Airsea Fluxes and Upper Ocean Heat Budget at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    was obtained from the CTD data, surface fluxes, and assumptions about solar radiative absorption with depth of the budget. The results show variability typical of the tropics: low winds (LW) with maximum solar radiation were made with the Integrated Sounding System (ISS) with ancillary measurements of long­wave radiation

  3. Heat flux solarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E.; Echarri, R.; Samson, I.

    2010-12-15

    The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

  4. Do Intermediate Radiation Doses Contribute to Late Rectal Toxicity? An Analysis of Data From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 94-06

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Winter, Kathryn [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses, from 30 to 50 Gy, contribute to the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer receiving radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 1009 patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 94-06 were analyzed using three approaches. First, the contribution of intermediate doses to a previously published fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model was determined. Next, the extent to which intermediate doses provide additional risk information, after taking the LKB model into account, was investigated. Third, the proportion of rectum receiving doses higher than a threshold, VDose, was computed for doses ranging from 5 to 85 Gy, and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine which of these parameters were significantly associated with time to Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Results: Doses <60 Gy had no detectable impact on the fit of the LKB model, as expected on the basis of the small estimate of the volume parameter (n = 0.077). Furthermore, there was no detectable difference in late rectal toxicity among cohorts with similar risk estimates from the LKB model but with different volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model selected V75 as the only value of VDose significantly associated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: There is no evidence from these data that intermediate doses influence the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Instead, the critical doses for this endpoint seem to be {>=}75 Gy. It is hypothesized that cases of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity occurring among patients with V75 less than approximately 12% may be due to a 'background' level of risk, likely due mainly to biological factors.

  5. Fire Imposed Heat Fluxes for Structural Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jowsey, Allan

    The last two decades have seen new insights, data and analytical methods to establish the behaviour of structures in fire. These methods have slowly migrated into practice and now form the basis for modern quantitative ...

  6. Linear Theory Analysis of Self-Amplified Parametric X-ray Radiation from High Current Density Electron Bunches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobach, Ihar; Feranchuk, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Linear theory of the parametric beam instability or the self-amplification of parametric x-ray radiation (PXR) from relativistic electrons in a crystal is considered taking into account finite emittance of the electron beam and absorption of the radiation. It is shown that these factors change essentially the estimation of threshold parameters of the electron bunches for the coherent X-ray generation. The boundary conditions for the linear theory of the effect is analyzed in details and it is shown that the grazing incidence diffraction geometry is optimal for the growth of instability. Numerical estimations of amplification and coherent photon yield in dependence on the electron current density are presented for the case of mm-thickness Si crystal and 100 MeV electrons. Possible improvements of the experimental scheme for optimization of the coherent radiation intensity are discussed.

  7. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  8. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  9. ARM - PI Product - Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related LinksOxides ofProductsASRC RSS

  10. Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters9 Posters117537

  11. The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. Jeffrey GriffinHydrates |the New

  12. Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the Cabauw

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By SarahMODELING CLOUD1 H( 7 Be,radialNonlinear/

  13. Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    S1 Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties..................................................................................................7 Figure S3. A typical solar and spectral flux density of radiation, D0(), from the irradiation

  14. Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhijit Bandyopadhyay; Sandhya Choubey; Srubabati Goswami; S. T. Petcov

    2006-08-30

    We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

  15. Status of experimental data base development relevant to space radiation transport and protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Guetersloh, Stephen; Zeitlin, Cary; Miller, Jack

    2004-01-01

    in regards to radiation protection. Thus far, analysis hasto space radiation transport and protection L. Heilbronn, S.

  16. ICRCCM Phase 2: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1992-01-01

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, our team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). The data collected during SPECTRE form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities of our group during the project's Third year to meet our stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: SPECTRE Activities, ICRCCM Activities, and summary information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes our initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  17. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete [1]. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete [2] does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure [3]. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  18. Secondary Malignancies From Prostate Cancer Radiation Treatment: A Risk Analysis of the Influence of Target Margins and Fractionation Patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasu, Alexandru; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Franzen, Lars; Widmark, Anders; Nilsson, Per

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: This study explores the implications for cancer induction of treatment details such as fractionation, planning target volume (PTV) definition, and interpatient variations, which are relevant for the radiation treatment of prostate carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Treatment planning data from 100 patients have been analyzed with a risk model based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation competition model. The risk model can account for dose heterogeneity and fractionation effects characteristic for modern radiotherapy. Biologically relevant parameters from clinical and experimental data have been used with the model. Results: The results suggested that changes in prescribed dose could lead to a modification of the risks for individual organs surrounding the clinical target volume (CTV) but that the total risk appears to be less affected by changes in the target dose. Larger differences are observed for modifications of the margins between the CTV and the PTV because these have direct impact onto the dose level and dose heterogeneity in the healthy tissues surrounding the CTV. Interpatient anatomic variations also have to be taken into consideration for studies of the risk for cancer induction from radiotherapy. Conclusions: The results have shown the complex interplay between the risk for secondary malignancies, the details of the treatment delivery, and the patient heterogeneity that may influence comparisons between the long-term effects of various treatment techniques. Nevertheless, absolute risk levels seem very small and comparable to mortality risks from surgical interventions, thus supporting the robustness of radiation therapy as a successful treatment modality for prostate carcinomas.

  19. Preliminary analysis of the possibility of making use of part of the energy flow of zero-point radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Alvargonzalez; L. S. Soto

    2008-03-07

    The energy flow of zero-point radiation is very great, but difficult to put to use. However, the observations made by Sparnaay in 1958 and by Lamoureux in 1997 reveal the possibility of making use of a very small fraction of that immense amount. This possibility is big enough for such a minute fraction to have significant importance, but such a possibility requires miniaturisation to a degree which may be unattainable. It is worth trying to achieve it, since it would open the way to interstellar travel.

  20. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  1. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  2. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  3. Regulating the aqueous phase monomer balance for flux improvement in polyamide thin film composite membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, D. H. N.; Song, Q.; Qiblawey, H. A. M.; Sivaniah, E.

    2015-04-03

    -temperature development of thin film composite reverse osmosis membranes from cellulose acetate with antibacterial properties. J. Memb. Sci. 453, 212–220 (2014). 22. Rupiasih, N. N., Suyanto, H., Sumadiyasa, M. & Wendri, N. Study of Effects of Low Doses UV Radiation... . The original support produced PA TFC membranes with very low water flux and high salt rejection (Figure 2(a)). Increasing the MPD contact time further reduced the flux through this membrane. Typical pre-treatments such as soaking in water overnight also...

  4. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  5. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  6. Type II superconductivity and magnetic flux transport in neutrons stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. Jones

    2005-10-13

    The transition to a type II proton superconductor which is believed to occur in a cooling neutron star is accompanied by changes in the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and by the formation of proton vortices with quantized magnetic flux. Analysis of the electron Boltzmann equation for this system and of the proton supercurrent distribution formed at the transition leads to the derivation of a simple expression for the transport velocity of magnetic flux in the liquid interior of a neutron star. This shows that flux moves easily as a consequence of the interaction between neutron and proton superfluid vortices during intervals of spin-down or spin-up in binary systems. The differences between the present analysis and those of previous workers are reviewed and an error in the paper of Jones (1991) is corrected.

  7. Radiative heat transfer in a parallelogram shaped cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dez, V Le

    2015-01-01

    An exact analytical description of the internal radiative field inside an emitting-absorbing gray semi-transparent medium enclosed in a two-dimensional parallelogram cavity is proposed. The expressions of the incident radiation and the radiative flux field are angularly and spatially discretized with a double Gauss quadrature, and the temperature field is obtained by using an iterative process. Some numerical solutions are tabulated and graphically presented as the benchmark solutions. Temperature and two components of the radiative flux are finally sketched on the whole domain. It is shown that the proposed method gives perfectly smooth results.

  8. A density-temperature description of the outer electron radiation belt during geomagnetic storms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cayton, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Electron flux measurements from 7 satellites in geosynchronous orbit from 1990-2007 are fit with relativistic bi-Maxwellians, yielding a number density n and temperature T description of the outer electron radiation belt. For 54.5 spacecraft years of measurements the median value ofn is 3.7x10-4 cm-3 and the median value ofT is 142 keY. General statistical properties of n, T, and the 1.1-1.5 MeV flux J are investigated, including local-time and solar-cycle dependencies. Using superposed-epoch analysis triggered on storm onset, the evolution of the outer electron radiation belt through high-speed-steam-driven storms is investigated. The number density decay during the calm before the storm is seen, relativistic-electron dropouts and recoveries from dropout are investigated, and the heating of the outer electron radiation belt during storms is examined. Using four different triggers (SSCs, southward-IMF CME sheaths, southward-IMF magnetic clouds, and minimum Dst), CME-driven storms are analyzed with superposed-epoch techniques. For CME-driven storms an absence of a density decay prior to storm onset is found, the compression of the outer electron radiation belt at time of SSC is analyzed, the number-density increase and temperature decrease during storm main phase is seen, and the increase in density and temperature during storm recovery phase is observed. Differences are found between the density-temperature and the flux descriptions, with more information for analysis being available in the density-temperature description.

  9. The Impact of Brachytherapy on Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality for Definitive Radiation Therapy of High-Grade Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Xinglei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Keith, Scott W. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mishra, Mark V.; Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: timothy.showalter@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: This population-based analysis compared prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in a cohort of patients with high-risk prostate cancer after nonsurgical treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), or combination (BT + EBRT). Methods and Materials: We identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database patients diagnosed from 1988 through 2002 with T1-T3N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma of poorly differentiated grade and treated with BT, EBRT, or BT + EBRT. During this time frame, the database defined high grade as prostate cancers with Gleason score 8-10, or Gleason grade 4-5 if the score was not recorded. This corresponds to a cohort primarily with high-risk prostate cancer, although some cases where only Gleason grade was recorded may have included intermediate-risk cancer. We used multivariate models to examine patient and tumor characteristics associated with the likelihood of treatment with each radiation modality and the effect of radiation modality on PCSM. Results: There were 12,745 patients treated with EBRT (73.5%), BT (7.1%), or BT + EBRT (19.4%) included in the analysis. The median follow-up time for all patients was 6.4 years. The use of BT or BT + EBRT increased from 5.1% in 1988-1992 to 31.4% in 1998-2002. Significant predictors of use of BT or BT + EBRT were younger age, later year of diagnosis, urban residence, and earlier T-stage. On multivariate analysis, treatment with either BT (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.86) or BT + EBRT (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence ratio, 0.66-0.90) was associated with significant reduction in PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Conclusion: In patients with high-grade prostate cancer, treatment with brachytherapy is associated with reduced PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Our results suggest that brachytherapy should be investigated as a component of definitive treatment strategies for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  10. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  11. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  12. Electron loss rates from the outer radiation belt caused by the filling of the outer plasmasphere: the calm before the storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Measurements from 7 spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit are analyzed to determine the decay rate of the number density of the outer electron radiation belt prior to the onset of high-speed-stream-driven geomagnetic storms. Superposed-data analysis is used wan(?) a collection of 124 storms. When there is a calm before the storm, the electron number density decays exponentially before the storm with a 3.4-day e-folding time: beginning about 4 days before storm onset, the density decreases from {approx}4x10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} to {approx}1X 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3}. When there is not a calm before the storm, the number-density decay is very smalL The decay in the number density of radiation-belt electrons is believed to be caused by pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the atmospheric loss cone as the outer plasmasphere fills during the calms. While the radiation-belt electron density decreases, the temperature of the electron radiation belt holds approximately constant, indicating that the electron precipitation occurs equally at all energies. Along with the number density decay, the pressure of the outer electron radiation belt decays and the specific entropy increases. From the measured decay rates, the electron flux to the atmosphere is calculated and that flux is 3 orders of magnitude less than thermal fluxes in the magnetosphere, indicating that the radiation-belt pitch-angle scattering is 3 orders weaker than strong diffusion. Energy fluxes into the atmosphere are calculated and found to be insufficient to produce visible airglow.

  13. Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Brunetti, E.; Vieux, G.; Yang, X.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Jaroszynski, D. A. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)] [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Maneuski, D.; Montgomery, R.; Smith, G.; Hoek, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Shea, V. O. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)] [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Issac, R. C. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom) [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Research Department of Physics, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam 686666, Kerala (India); Lemos, N. R. C.; Dias, J. M. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas eFusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)] [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas eFusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Symes, D. R. [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-11-15

    Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator.

  14. Plasma focus ion beam fluence and flux—For various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Saw, S. H. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A recent paper derived benchmarks for deuteron beam fluence and flux in a plasma focus (PF) [S. Lee and S. H. Saw, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112703 (2012)]. In the present work we start from first principles, derive the flux equation of the ion beam of any gas; link to the Lee Model code and hence compute the ion beam properties of the PF. The results show that, for a given PF, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow, and damage factors are relatively constant from H{sub 2} to N{sub 2} but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper provides much needed benchmark reference values and scaling trends for ion beams of a PF operated in any gas.

  15. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  16. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakimura, N.; Nebashi, R.; Sugibayashi, T.; Natsui, M.; Hanyu, T.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400?-?A peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14?MeV cm{sup 2}/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10{sup ?12} per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (I{sub C0}) became less than 30??A.

  17. Quantum Fusion of Domain Walls with Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bolognesi; M. Shifman; M. B. Voloshin

    2009-07-20

    We study how fluxes on the domain wall world volume modify quantum fusion of two distant parallel domain walls into a composite wall. The elementary wall fluxes can be separated into parallel and antiparallel components. The parallel component affects neither the binding energy nor the process of quantum merger. The antiparallel fluxes, instead, increase the binding energy and, against naive expectations, suppress quantum fusion. In the small flux limit we explicitly find the bounce solution and the fusion rate as a function of the flux. We argue that at large (antiparallel) fluxes there exists a critical value of the flux (versus the difference in the wall tensions), which switches off quantum fusion altogether. This phenomenon of flux-related wall stabilization is rather peculiar: it is unrelated to any conserved quantity. Our consideration of the flux-related all stabilization is based on substantiated arguments that fall short of complete proof.

  18. Station for X-ray structural analysis of materials and single crystals (including nanocrystals) on a synchrotron radiation beam from the wiggler at the Siberia-2 storage ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiker, D. M. Kovalchuk, M. V.; Korchuganov, V. N.; Shilin, Yu. N.; Shishkov, V. A.; Sulyanov, S. N.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Rubinsky, S. V.; Rusakov, A. A.

    2007-11-15

    The design of the station for structural analysis of polycrystalline materials and single crystals (including nanoobjects and macromolecular crystals) on a synchrotron radiation beam from the superconducting wiggler of the Siberia-2 storage ring is described. The wiggler is constructed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The X-ray optical scheme of the station involves a (1, -1) double-crystal monochromator with a fixed position of the monochromatic beam and a sagittal bending of the second crystal, segmented mirrors bent by piezoelectric motors, and a (2{theta}, {omega}, {phi}) three-circle goniometer with a fixed tilt angle. Almost all devices of the station are designed and fabricated at the Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Bruker APEX11 two-dimensional CCD detector will serve as a detector in the station.

  19. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  20. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  1. Anthropogenic and Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Fluxes From Typical Land Uses in Houston, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner, Nicholas D

    2013-04-29

    the development of a correction for latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes due to a low-pass filtering of the true water vapor and CO2 atmospheric signals. A method of spectral analysis was used to develop a correction scheme for this flux underestimation...

  2. Gamma spectroscopic measurements using the PID350 pixelated CdTe radiation detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Karafasoulis; K. Zachariadou; S. Seferlis; I. Papadakis; D. Loukas; C. Lambropoulos; C. Potiriadis

    2010-11-15

    Spectroscopic measurements are presented using the PID350 pixelated gamma radiation detectors. A high-speed data acquisition system has been developed in order to reduce the data loss during the data reading in case of a high flux of photons. A data analysis framework has been developed in order to improve the resolution of the acquired energy spectra, using specific calibration parameters for each PID350's pixel. Three PID350 detectors have been used to construct a stacked prototype system and spectroscopic measurements have been performed in order to test the ability of the prototype to localize radioactive sources.

  3. Quantitative analysis of electron energy loss spectra and modelling of optical properties of multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet radiation regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusenleitner, S.; Hauschild, D.; Reinert, F.; Handick, E.

    2014-03-28

    Ruthenium capped multilayer coatings for use in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation regime have manifold applications in science and industry. Although the Ru cap shall protect the reflecting multilayers, the surface of the heterostructures suffers from contamination issues and surface degradation. In order to get a better understanding of the effects of these impurities on the optical parameters, reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) measurements of contaminated and H cleaned Ru multilayer coatings were taken at various primary electron beam energies. Experiments conducted at low primary beam energies between 100?eV and 1000?eV are very surface sensitive due to the short inelastic mean free path of the electrons in this energy range. Therefore, influences of the surface condition on the above mentioned characteristics can be appraised. In this paper, it can be shown that carbon and oxide impurities on the mirror surface decrease the transmission of the Ru cap by about 0.75% and the overall reflectance of the device is impaired as the main share of the non-transmitted EUV light is absorbed in the contamination layer.

  4. Generalized drift-flux correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.; Hochreiter, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A one-dimensional drift-flux model with five conservation equations is frequently employed in major computer codes, such as TRAC-PD2, and in simulator codes. In this method, the relative velocity between liquid and vapor phases, or slip ratio, is given by correlations, rather than by direct solution of the phasic momentum equations, as in the case of the two-fluid model used in TRAC-PF1. The correlations for churn-turbulent bubbly flow and slug flow regimes were given in terms of drift velocities by Zuber and Findlay. For the annular flow regime, the drift velocity correlations were developed by Ishii et al., using interphasic force balances. Another approach is to define the drift velocity so that flooding and liquid hold-up conditions are properly simulated, as reported here. The generalized correlation is used to reanalyze the MB-2 test data for two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe. The results are applied to the generalized drift flux velocity, whose relationship to the other correlations is discussed. Finally, the generalized drift flux correlation is implemented in TRAC-PD2. Flow reversal from countercurrent to cocurrent flow is computed in small-diameter U-shaped tubes and is compared with the flooding curve.

  5. Wide-cross whole-genome radiation hybrid (WWRH) mapping and identification of cold-responsive genes using oligo-gene microarray analysis in cotton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Wenxiang

    2005-02-17

    The first part of this research focused on wide-cross whole-genome radiation hybrid (WWRH) mapping of the cotton (Gossypium) genome. Radiation hybrid mapping has been used extensively to map the genomes of human and certain animal species...

  6. RADIATION MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation Exposure due to a Boiling Water Reactor Plume fromIN THE VICINITY OF A BOILING WATER REACTOR EXPOSURE RATE

  7. Vector Analysis of Prostate Patient Setup With Image-Guided Radiation Therapy via kV Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perks, Julian, E-mail: julian.perks@ucdmc.ucdavis.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Turnbull, Helen; Liu Tianxiao; Purdy, James; Valicenti, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze the daily setup variations in a cohort of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate cancer patients who had received daily image-guided RT without the use of fiducial markers to determine if daily image guidance is necessary. Methods and Materials: 2134 Kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were analyzed, with three shifts recorded for each image. The number of times that the vector of the combined shifts would have exceeded the planning tumor volume (PTV) margin was tallied. Then, the average scalar shift of the first five images was removed from all subsequent images for a given patient, and the number of days for which the shift vector was greater than the three-dimensional clinical tumor volume-PTV (3D CTV-PTV) margin (8 mm, created with rolling ball technique) was recorded. Additionally, the scalar shifts from every other fraction were studied to determine if the individual patient's shift vector would be adequately sampled if CBCT was not performed daily, thus reducing patient imaging dose without compromising treatment quality. Results: There were 297 cases where the vector shift was initially greater than the PTV margin. By correcting each patient's data set by the average shift of their first five images the total was 248 cases. By considering only every other image of each patient data set (after correction for the first 5 days), only 137 days in which the CTV was outside the PTV would have been seen. Conclusions: Daily imaging is recommended for prostate cancer IMRT patients in order to know the 3D (vector) position of the CTV and to ensure that it is always within the PTV margin. Correcting the data set by the average shift from the first 5 days reduces the overall number of outlier days but does not eliminate them completely.

  8. DCE-MRI defined subvolumes of a brain metastatic lesion by principle component analysis and fuzzy-c-means clustering for response assessment of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farjam, Reza; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue; Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Med Inn Building C478, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic modelfree framework to analyze the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data for assessment of response of brain metastases to radiation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with 45 analyzable brain metastases had MRI scans prior to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and at the end of the 2-week therapy. The volumetric DCE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner with approximately 5 s temporal resolution and a total scan time of about 3 min. DCE curves from all voxels of the 45 brain metastases were normalized and then temporally aligned. A DCE matrix that is constructed from the aligned DCE curves of all voxels of the 45 lesions obtained prior to WBRT is processed by principal component analysis to generate the principal components (PCs). Then, the projection coefficient maps prior to and at the end of WBRT are created for each lesion. Next, a pattern recognition technique, based upon fuzzy-c-means clustering, is used to delineate the tumor subvolumes relating to the value of the significant projection coefficients. The relationship between changes in different tumor subvolumes and treatment response was evaluated to differentiate responsive from stable and progressive tumors. Performance of the PC-defined tumor subvolume was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in prediction of nonresponsive lesions and compared with physiological-defined tumor subvolumes. Results: The projection coefficient maps of the first three PCs contain almost all response-related information in DCE curves of brain metastases. The first projection coefficient, related to the area under DCE curves, is the major component to determine response while the third one has a complimentary role. In ROC analysis, the area under curve of 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.86 ± 0.06 were achieved for the PC-defined and physiological-defined tumor subvolume in response assessment. Conclusions: The PC-defined subvolume of a brain metastasis could predict tumor response to therapy similar to the physiological-defined one, while the former is determined more rapidly for clinical decision-making support.

  9. Type IIB flux vacua from G-theory I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Candelas; Andrei Constantin; Cesar Damian; Magdalena Larfors; Jose Francisco Morales

    2015-02-02

    We construct non-perturbatively exact four-dimensional Minkowski vacua of type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. These solutions are found by gluing together, consistently with U-duality, local solutions of type IIB supergravity on $T^4 \\times \\mathbb{C}$ with the metric, dilaton and flux potentials varying along $\\mathbb{C}$ and the flux potentials oriented along $T^4$. We focus on solutions locally related via U-duality to non-compact Ricci-flat geometries. More general solutions and a complete analysis of the supersymmetry equations are presented in the companion paper [1]. We build a precise dictionary between fluxes in the global solutions and the geometry of an auxiliary $K3$ surface fibered over $\\mathbb{CP}^1$. In the spirit of F-theory, the flux potentials are expressed in terms of locally holomorphic functions that parametrize the complex structure moduli space of the $K3$ fiber in the auxiliary geometry. The brane content is inferred from the monodromy data around the degeneration points of the fiber.

  10. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  11. Radiation belt electrons respond to multiple solar wind inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiation belt electrons respond to multiple solar wind inputs E. J. Rigler,1 M. Wiltberger,1 and D is clearly valuable from a practical standpoint, but the latter helps build confidence in any physical on the fractional or percent variance of radiation belt electron flux that can be attributed to each different solar

  12. Quantitative Comparison of Measured Plasma Sheet Electron Energy Flux and Remotely Sensed Auroral Electron Energy Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fillingim, Matthew

    Electron Energy Flux M. O. Fillingim1, (matt@ess.washington.edu), G. K. Parks2, D. Chua1, G. A. Germany3, R intensity ~ precipitating electron energy flux Peak energy flux "near" WIND fQuantitative Comparison of Measured Plasma Sheet Electron Energy Flux and Remotely Sensed Auroral

  13. Simulation of plasmaneutral dynamics for radiation cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    of America Abstract. An advanced heat removal scenario is required to handle the high input power of magnetic the heat flux effectively for future power plants. That is, radiation due to impurities will lower which is limited, but the momentum exhaust due to charge exchange (CX) friction and viscosity may allow

  14. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  15. Development of a robust modeling tool for radiation-induced segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ying; Field, Kevin G; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels in Light Water Reactor (LWR) components has been linked to changes in grain boundary composition due to irradiation induced segregation (RIS). This work developed a robust RIS modeling tool to account for thermodynamics and kinetics of the atom and defect transportation under combined thermal and radiation conditions. The diffusion flux equations were based on the Perks model formulated through the linear theory of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Both cross and non-cross phenomenological diffusion coefficients in the flux equations were considered and correlated to tracer diffusion coefficients through Manning’s relation. The preferential atomvacancy coupling was described by the mobility model, whereas the preferential atom-interstitial coupling was described by the interstitial binding model. The composition dependence of the thermodynamic factor was modeled using the CALPHAD approach. Detailed analysis on the diffusion fluxes near and at grain boundaries of irradiated austenitic stainless steels suggested the dominant diffusion mechanism for chromium and iron is via vacancy, while that for nickel can swing from the vacancy to the interstitial dominant mechanism. The diffusion flux in the vicinity of a grain boundary was found to be greatly influenced by the composition gradient formed from the transient state, leading to the oscillatory behavior of alloy compositions in this region. This work confirms that both vacancy and interstitial diffusion, and segregation itself, have important roles in determining the microchemistry of Fe, Cr, and Ni at irradiated grain boundaries in austenitic stainless steels.

  16. From Vacuum Fluctuations to Radiation: Accelerated Detectors and Black Holes.(2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Massar; R. Parentani

    1995-02-10

    The energy and particle fluxes emitted by an accelerated two level atom are analysed in detail. It is shown both perturbatively and non perturbatively that the total number of emitted photons is equal to the number of transitions characterizing thermal equilibrium thereby confirming that each internal transition is accompanied by the emission of a Minkowski quantum. The mean fluxes are then decomposed according to the final state of the atom and the notion of conditional flux is introduced. This notion is generalized so as to study the energy content of the vacuum fluctuations that induce the transitions of the accelerated atom. The physical relevance of these conditional fluxes is displayed and contact is made with the formalism of Aharonov et al. The same decomposition is then applied to isolate, in the context of black hole radiation, the energy content of the particular vacuum fluctuations which are converted into on mass shell quanta. It is shown that initially these fluctuations are located around the light like geodesic that shall generate the horizon and have exponentially large energy densities. Upon exiting from the star they break up into two pieces. The external one is red shifted and becomes an on mass shell quantum, the other, its ''partner", ends up in the singularity. We avail ourselves of this analysis to study back reaction effects to the production of a single quantum.

  17. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  18. CRAD, Radiological Controls- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  19. Estimating Internal Wave Energy Fluxes in the Ocean JONATHAN D. NASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasubramanian, Ravi

    Estimating Internal Wave Energy Fluxes in the Ocean JONATHAN D. NASH College of Oceanic FE u p cgE is a fundamental quan- tity in internal wave energetics to identify energy sources, wave propagation, and energy sinks. Internal wave radiation transports energy from the boundaries

  20. ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwelling irradianceheat flux

  1. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  2. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  3. SU-E-T-248: Near Real-Time Analysis of Radiation Delivery and Imaging, Accuracy to Ensure Patient Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wijesooriya, K; Seitter, K; Desai, V; Read, P; Larner, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and optimize an effective software method for comparing planned to delivered control point machine parameters for all VARIAN TrueBeam treatments so as to permit (1) assessment of a large patient pool throughout their treatment course to quantify treatment technique specific systematic and random uncertainty of observables, (2) quantify the site specific daily imaging shifts required for target alignment, and (3) define tolerance levels for mechanical parameters and imaging parameters based on statistical analysis data gathered, and the dosimetric impact of variations. Methods: Treatment and imaging log files were directly compared to plan parameters for Eclipse and Pinnacle planned treatments via 3D, IMRT, control point, RapidArc, and electrons. Each control point from all beams/arcs (7984) for all fractions (1940) of all patients treated over six months were analyzed. At each control point gantry angle, collimator angle, couch angle, jaw positions, MLC positions, MU were compared. Additionally per-treatment isocenter shifts were calculated. Results were analyzed as a whole in treatment type subsets: IMRT, 3D, RapidArc; and in treatment site subsets: brain, chest/mediastinum, esophagus, H and N, lung, pelvis, prostate. Results: Daily imaging isocenter shifts from initial external tattoo alignment were dependent on the treatment site with < 0.5 cm translational shifts for H and N, Brain, and lung SBRT, while pelvis, esophagus shifts were ?1 cm. Mechanical delivery parameters were within tolerance levels for all sub-beams. The largest variations were for RapidArc plans: gantry angle 0.11±0.12,collimator angle 0.00±0.00, jaw positions 0.48±0.26, MLC leaf positions 0.66±0.08, MU 0.14±0.34. Conclusion: Per-control point validation reveals deviations between planned and delivered parameters. If used in a near real-time error checking system, patient safety can be improved by equipping the treatment delivery system with additional forcing functions which by-pass human error avenues.

  4. mu-Scale Variations Of Elemental Composition In Individual Atmospheric Particles By Means Of Synchrotron Radiation Based mu-XRF Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schleicher, N.; Kramar, U.; Norra, S.; Dietze, V.; Kaminski, U.; Cen, K.; Yu, Y.

    2010-04-06

    Atmospheric pollution poses a huge challenge especially for densely populated urban areas. Although a tremendous knowledge already exists on atmospheric particulate pollution, only very limited knowledge is available on mineral and chemical composition of single atmospheric particles because most studies on air pollution focus on total mass concentrations or bulk elemental analysis. However, it is of particular importance to investigate the properties of single particles since according to their individually composition they differ in their specific impact on climate change, negative environment and health effects, as well as accelerating the weathering of stone buildings in urban areas. Particles with sulfate and nitrate coatings together with sufficient moisture increase metal solubility and possibly catalyze further surface reactions on stone facades of buildings. From the viewpoint of health effects of aerosols it is important to consider agglomerations processes of fine anthropogenic and highly toxic particles with coarse geogenic and less toxic particles. With respect to fundamental research in mineralogy, processes forming composed coarse particles consisting of geogenic and anthropogenic substances are valuable to study since a new type of particle is produced. In this context, the important and still in detail unknown role of geogenic particles as catchers for anthropogenic aerosols can be investigated more closely. Coarse particles can provide a possible sink for fine particles. Moreover, the intermixture of particles from geogenic and anthropogenic sources and the spatial and temporal variations of contributions from different sources, which plays a decisive role in the study area of Beijing, can be clarified with this approach. For this study, particles were collected with the passive sampling device Sigma-2 and analyzed for particles from 3 to 96 {mu}m. The analyzed particles showed a very inhomogeneous distribution in their elemental composition. For this study, synchrotron radiation based mu-X-ray fluorescence analysis (mu-SXRF) proved to be an excellent tool to investigate mu-scalic distributions of main and trace element concentrations within individual airborne particles.

  5. Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.E.

    1991-12-01

    The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Reactor Neutrino Flux Uncertainty Suppression on Multiple Detector Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andi Cucoanes; Pau Novella; Anatael Cabrera; Muriel Fallot; Anthony Onillon; Michel Obolensky; Frederic Yermia

    2015-01-02

    This publication provides a coherent treatment for the reactor neutrino flux uncertainties suppression, specially focussed on the latest $\\theta_{13}$ measurement. The treatment starts with single detector in single reactor site, most relevant for all reactor experiments beyond $\\theta_{13}$. We demonstrate there is no trivial error cancellation, thus the flux systematic error can remain dominant even after the adoption of multi-detector configurations. However, three mechanisms for flux error suppression have been identified and calculated in the context of Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO sites. Our analysis computes the error {\\it suppression fraction} using simplified scenarios to maximise relative comparison among experiments. We have validated the only mechanism exploited so far by experiments to improve the precision of the published $\\theta_{13}$. The other two newly identified mechanisms could lead to total error flux cancellation under specific conditions and are expected to have major implications on the global $\\theta_{13}$ knowledge today. First, Double Chooz, in its final configuration, is the only experiment benefiting from a negligible reactor flux error due to a $\\sim$90\\% geometrical suppression. Second, Daya Bay and RENO could benefit from their partial geometrical cancellation, yielding a potential $\\sim$50\\% error suppression, thus significantly improving the global $\\theta_{13}$ precision today. And third, we illustrate the rationale behind further error suppression upon the exploitation of the inter-reactor error correlations, so far neglected. So, our publication is a key step forward in the context of high precision neutrino reactor experiments providing insight on the suppression of their intrinsic flux error uncertainty, thus affecting past and current experimental results, as well as the design of future experiments.

  7. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  8. Does the momentum flux generated by gravitational contraction drive AGB mass-loss?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Lewis

    1997-07-23

    Gravitational contraction always generates a radially directed momentum flux. A particularly simple example occurs in the electron-degenerate cores of AGB stars, which contract steadily under the addition of helium ashes from shell hydrogen burning. The resulting momentum flux is quantified here. And since the cores of AGB stars lack efficient momentum cancellation mechanisms, they can maintain equilibrium by exporting their excess momentum flux to the stellar envelope, which disposes of much of it in a low velocity wind. Gravitational contraction easily accounts for the momentum flux in the solar wind, as well as the flux required to lift mass into the dust formation zone of every AGB star, whereon radiation pressure continues its ejection as a low velocity wind. This mechanism explains the dependence of the AGB mass-loss rate on core mass; its generalization to objects with angular momentum and/or strong magnetic fields suggests a novel explanation of why most planetary nebulae and proto planetary nebulae exhibit axial symmetry. Quasistatic contraction is inherently biased to the generation of the maximum possible momentum flux. Its formalism is therefore readily adapted to providing an upper limit to the momentum flux needed to sustain mass loss when this begins from a semi-continuous rather than impulsive process.

  9. Outer radiation belt boundary location relative to the magnetopause: Implications for magnetopause shadowing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Outer radiation belt boundary location relative to the magnetopause: Implications for magnetopause fluxes of the outer radiation belt often decrease rapidly in response to solar wind disturbances. If the MPS is essential for outer radiation belt electron losses, a close relationship between the outer edge

  10. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 3265, 1998. The Global Response of Relativistic Radiation Belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.

    Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 3265, 1998. 1 The Global Response of Relativistic Radiation Belt Electrons of the radiation belts at Lª4, however, there was a single enhancement followed by a gradual decay. Radial profiles electron fluxes increased simultaneously at Lª4-6. (2) During the passage of the cloud the radiation belts

  11. Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific James H radiative fluxes and heating rates. Maxima in cloud occurrence are found in the boundary layer and the upper radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D05201, doi:10.1029/2006JD

  12. Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site D--Two Radiation Belt Activity Indices, based on electron flux measurement >300 keV and >1.6 MeV, and one Solar updated. Index Terms- CRATERRE project, Radiation belts activity, Space environment I. INTRODUCTION

  13. Swift detection of all previously undetected blazars in a micro-wave flux-limited sample of WMAP foreground sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giommi, P; Cavazzuti, E; Colafrancesco, S; Cucchiara, A; Falcone, A; Kennea, J; Nesci, R; Perri, M; Tagliaferri, G; Tramacere, A; Tosti, G; Blustin, A J; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Burrows, D N; Chincarini, G; Dean, A J; Gehrels, N; Krimm, H; Marshall, F; Parsons, A M; Zhang, B

    2007-01-01

    Almost the totality of the bright foreground sources in the WMAP CMB maps are blazars, a class of sources that show usually also X-ray emission. However, 23 objects in a flux-limited sample of 140 blazars of the WMAP catalog (first year) were never reported before as X-ray sources. We present here the results of 41 Swift observations which led to the detection of all these 23 blazars in the 0.3-10 keV band. We conclude that all micro-wave selected blazars are X-ray emitters and that the distribution of the micro-wave to X-ray spectral slope $\\alpha_{mu x}$ of LBL blazars is very narrow, confirming that the X-ray flux of most blazars is a very good estimator of their micro-wave emission. The X-ray spectral shape of all the objects that were observed long enough to allow spectral analysis is flat and consistent with inverse Compton emission within the commonly accepted view where the radiation from blazars is emitted in a Sychrotron-Inverse-Compton scenario. We predict that all blazars and most radio galaxies a...

  14. The size of macroscopic superposition states in flux qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Korsbakken; F. K. Wilhelm; K. B. Whaley

    2010-03-27

    The question as to whether or not quantum mechanics is applicable to the macroscopic scale has motivated efforts to generate superposition states of macroscopic numbers of particles and to determine their effective size. Superpositions of circulating current states in flux qubits constitute candidate states that have been argued to be at least mesoscopic. We present a microscopic analysis that reveals the number of electrons participating in these superpositions to be surprisingly but not trivially small, even though differences in macroscopic observables are large.

  15. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  16. RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

  17. Contribution of GRB Emission to the GeV Extragalactic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Casanova; B. L. Dingus; Bing Zhang

    2006-11-03

    TeV gamma rays emitted by GRBs are converted into electron-positron pairs via interactions with the extragalactic infrared radiation fields. In turn the pairs produced, whose trajectories are randomized by magnetic fields, will inverse Compton scatter off the cosmic microwave background photons. The beamed TeV gamma ray flux from GRBs is thus transformed into a GeV isotropic gamma ray flux, which contributes to the total extragalactic gamma-ray background emission. Assuming a model for the extragalactic radiation fields, for the GRB redshift distribution and for the GRB luminosity function, we evaluate the contribution of the GRB prompt and scattered emissions to the measured extragalactic gamma-ray flux. To estimate this contribution we optimistically require that the energy flux at TeV energies is about 10 times stronger than the energy flux at MeV energies. The resulting gamma-ray diffuse background is only a small fraction of what is observed, allowing blazars and other sources to give the dominant contribution.

  18. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  19. ICRCCM Phase 2: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models. Technical report, 1 November 1991--1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1992-12-31

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, our team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). The data collected during SPECTRE form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities of our group during the project`s Third year to meet our stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: SPECTRE Activities, ICRCCM Activities, and summary information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes our initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  20. Prognostic Importance of Gleason 7 Disease Among Patients Treated With External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Detailed Biopsy Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Zumsteg, Zach; Ghadjar, Pirus; Pangasa, Misha; Pei, Xin; Fine, Samson W.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of primary Gleason (pG) grade among a large cohort of Gleason 7 prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: From May 1989 to January 2011, 1190 Gleason 7 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with EBRT at a single institution. Of these patients, 613 had a Gleason 7 with a minimum of a sextant biopsy with nonfragmented cores and full biopsy core details available, including number of cores of cancer involved, percentage individual core involvement, location of disease, bilaterality, and presence of perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 1-16 years). The prognostic implication for the following outcomes was analyzed: biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: The 8-year bRFS rate for pG3 versus pG4 was 77.6% versus 61.3% (P<.0001), DMFS was 96.8% versus 84.3% (P<.0001), and PCSM was 3.7% versus 8.1% (P=.002). On multivariate analysis, pG4 predicted for significantly worse outcome in all parameters. Location of disease (apex, base, mid-gland), perineural involvement, maximum individual core involvement, and the number of Gleason 3+3, 3+4, or 4+3 cores did not predict for distant metastases. Conclusions: Primary Gleason grade 4 independently predicts for worse bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM among Gleason 7 patients. Using complete core information can allow clinicians to utilize pG grade as a prognostic factor, despite not having the full pathologic details from a prostatectomy specimen. Future staging and risk grouping should investigate the incorporation of primary Gleason grade when complete biopsy core information is used.

  1. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  2. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  3. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  4. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Christopher L; Reinovsky, Robert E; Reass, William A; Griego, Jeffrey R; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E

    2010-06-28

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  5. Today's Material Gauss' Law and Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    Field Lines' #12;© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Concept of Flux Consider a box surrounding a region;© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Concept of Flux Consider a box surrounding a region of space. We can.1 ­ 22.3 Next lecture · More on Gauss's law #12;Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing

  6. DETECTING GRAVITY MODES IN THE SOLAR {sup 8} B NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, Ilídio; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2014-09-10

    The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the {sup 8} B neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order 2, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun's core is smaller than 5.8 × 10{sup –4}. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the {sup 8} B neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the {sup 8} B neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

  7. Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

  8. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01

    I. Applications of Radiation Detectors 1) X-Rays, Gammaof the Conference DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY VictorT E D LBL9651 DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY - DISCLAIM*

  9. Electronic structure of superposition states in flux qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Korsbakken; F. K. Wilhelm; K. B. Whaley

    2010-04-13

    Flux qubits, small superconducting loops interrupted by Josephson junctions, are successful realizations of quantum coherence for macroscopic variables. Superconductivity in these loops is carried by $\\sim 10^6$ -- $10^{10}$ electrons, which has been interpreted as suggesting that coherent superpositions of such current states are macroscopic superpositions analogous to Schr\\"odinger's cat. We provide a full microscopic analysis of such qubits, from which the macroscopic quantum description can be derived. This reveals that the number of microscopic constituents participating in superposition states for experimentally accessible flux qubits is surprisingly but not trivially small. The combination of this relatively small size with large differences between macroscopic observables in the two branches is seen to result from the Fermi statistics of the electrons and the large disparity between the values of superfluid and Fermi velocity in these systems.

  10. Parallel detection and elimination of strongly connected components for radiation transport sweeps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLendon, William Clarence

    2001-01-01

    Discrete ordinate methods are commonly used to simulate radiation transport for fire or weapons modeling. The computation proceeds by sweeping the flux across a grid. A particular cell cannot be computed until all the cells immediately upwind...

  11. Barotropic Impacts of Surface Friction on Eddy Kinetic Energy and Momentum Fluxes: An Alternative to the Barotropic Governor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.

    Barotropic Impacts of Surface Friction on Eddy Kinetic Energy and Momentum Fluxes: An Alternative energy decreases, a response that is inconsistent with the conventional barotropic governor mechanism on eddy momentum fluxes and eddy kinetic energy. Analysis of the pseudomomentum budget shows

  12. Applications of the DFLU flux to systems of conservation laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adimurthi, Adimurthi; Jaffré, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    The DFLU numerical flux was introduced in order to solve hyperbolic scalar conservation laws with a flux function discontinuous in space. We show how this flux can be used to solve systems of conservation laws. The obtained numerical flux is very close to a Godunov flux. As an example we consider a system modeling polymer flooding in oil reservoir engineering.

  13. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  14. Interpolation of surface radiative temperature measured from polar orbiting satellites to a diurnal cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Menglin

    for the clear-sky (cloud free) conditions are presented. This cloud-free version of algorithm is evaluated using this temperature and that of the overlying air. Over land, this difference and hence the energy fluxes are maintained by net radiative forcing minus changes in heat storage of the surface. Thus fluxes of sensible

  15. Signatures of Energy Flux in Particle Production: A Black Hole Birth Cry and Death Gasp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Good, Michael R R

    2015-01-01

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  16. Signatures of Energy Flux in Particle Production: A Black Hole Birth Cry and Death Gasp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael R. R. Good; Yen Chin Ong

    2015-06-24

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  17. Modeling high-energy cosmic ray induced terrestrial and atmospheric neutron flux: A lookup table

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overholt, Andrew; Atri, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    Under current conditions, the cosmic ray spectrum incident on the Earth is dominated by particles with energies solar flares, supernovae and gamma ray bursts produce high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) with drastically higher energies. The Earth is likely episodically exposed to a greatly increased HECR flux from such events, some of which lasting thousands to millions of years. The air showers produced by HECRs ionize the atmosphere and produce harmful secondary particles such as muons and neutrons. Neutrons currently contribute a significant radiation dose at commercial passenger airplane altitude. With higher cosmic ray energies, these effects will be propagated to ground level. This work shows the results of Monte Carlo simulations quantifying the neutron flux due to high energy cosmic rays at various primary energies and altitudes. We provide here lookup tables that can be used to determine neutron fluxes from primaries with total energies 1 GeV - 1 PeV...

  18. Simulation of Electric Field in Semi Insulating Au/CdTe/Au Detector under Flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franc, J.; James, R.; Grill, R.; Kubat, J.; Belas, E.; Hoschl, P.; Moravec, P.; Praus, P.

    2009-08-02

    We report our simulations on the profile of the electric field in semi insulating CdTe and CdZnTe with Au contacts under radiation flux. The type of the space charge and electric field distribution in the Au/CdTe/Au structure is at high fluxes result of a combined influence of charge formed due to band bending at the electrodes and from photo generated carriers, which are trapped at deep levels. Simultaneous solution of drift-diffusion and Poisson equations is used for the calculation. We show, that the space charge originating from trapped photo-carriers starts to dominate at fluxes 10{sup 15}-10{sup 16}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, when the influence of contacts starts to be negligible.

  19. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  20. Solids mass flow indication with radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E. (Irwin, PA); Estriplet, Isnard (Irwin, PA)

    1985-06-04

    Method and apparatus for indicating mass flow of a solid particulate material through a rotary feeder. A radiation source and detector are positioned in a manner whereby radiation flux is directed through, and attenuated by, particulate material contained in rotating pockets. A Cesium-137 gamma source can be mounted within the shaft of the feeder, and one or more detectors can be mounted outside of the feeder housing. The detected signal is indicative of the mass of particulate material contained within a given pocket rotating within the feeder.

  1. Tangential force, Frictional Torque and Heating Rate of a Small Neutral Rotating Particle Moving through the Equilibrium Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

    2013-02-04

    For the first time, based on the fluctuation-electromagnetic theory, we have calculated the drug force, the radiation heat flux and the frictional torque on a small rotating particle moving at a relativistic velocity through the equilibrium background radiation (photon gas). The particle and background radiation are characterized by different temperatures corresponding to the local thermodynamic equilibrium in their own reference frames.

  2. Neutrino flux variations and solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikhsanov, R N

    2003-01-01

    We investigate temporal variations of the solar neutrino flux in 1970-1997. The periods of 11, 5 and 2 years have been found in the variations of the neutrino flux. The results indicate that a periodicity close to 5 years is the most significant in the data from both the Homestake and GALLEX experiments. Two groups of the solar activity indices have been distinguished regarding their interconnection with the neutrino flux series. The first group contains the indices showing predominantly 11-year period, while a periodicity at approximately 5 years is observed in the second group. The correlation coefficients between the neutrino flux and indices from the first group are negative, with their module not exceeding 0.5. The second group is characterized by positive correlation with the neutrino counting rates with coefficients not lower than 0.6. A discussion of findings is presented.

  3. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  4. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  5. Flux expulsion variation in SRF cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posen, S; Romanenko, A; Melnychuk, O; Sergatskov, D A; Martinello, M; Checchin, M; Crawford, A C

    2015-01-01

    Treating a cavity with nitrogen doping significantly increases $Q_0$ at medium fields, reducing cryogenic costs for high duty factor linear accelerators such as LCLS II. N-doping also makes cavities more sensitive to increased residual resistance due to trapped magnetic flux, making it critical to either have extremely effective magnetic shielding, or to prevent flux from being trapped in the cavity during cooldown. In this paper, we report on results of a study of flux expulsion. We discuss possible ways in which flux can be pinned in the inner surface, outer surface, or bulk of a cavity, and we present experimental results studying these mechanisms. We show that grain structure appears to play a key role and that a cavity that expelled flux poorly changed to expelling flux well after a high temperature furnace treatment. We further show that after furnace treatment, this cavity exhibited a significant improvement in quality factor when cooled in an external magnetic field. We conclude with implications for ...

  6. Electric Flux Tube in Magnetic Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinfeng Liao; Edward Shuryak

    2007-12-06

    In this paper we study a methodical problem related to the magnetic scenario recently suggested and initiated by the authors \\cite{Liao_ES_mono} to understand the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP): the electric flux tube in monopole plasma. A macroscopic approach, interpolating between Bose condensed (dual superconductor) and classical gas medium is developed first. Then we work out a microscopic approach based on detailed quantum mechanical calculation of the monopole scattering on electric flux tube, evaluating induced currents for all partial waves. As expected, the flux tube looses its stability when particles can penetrate it: we make this condition precise by calculating the critical value for the product of the flux tube size times the particle momentum, above which the flux tube dissolves. Lattice static potentials indicate that flux tubes seem to dissolve at $T>T_{dissolution} \\approx 1.3 T_c$. Using our criterion one gets an estimate of the magnetic density $n\\approx 4.4 \\sim 6.6 fm^{-3}$ at this temperature.

  7. Flow instabilities of magnetic flux tubes II. Longitudinal flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Holzwarth; D. Schmitt; M. Schuessler

    2007-04-27

    Flow-induced instabilities are relevant for the storage and dynamics of magnetic fields in stellar convection zones and possibly also in other astrophysical contexts. We continue the study started in the first paper of this series by considering the stability properties of longitudinal flows along magnetic flux tubes. A linear stability analysis was carried out to determine criteria for the onset of instability in the framework of the approximation of thin magnetic flux tubes. In the non-dissipative case, we find Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for flow velocities exceeding a critical speed that depends on the Alfv{\\'e}n speed and on the ratio of the internal and external densities. Inclusion of a friction term proportional to the relative transverse velocity leads to a friction-driven instability connected with backward (or negative energy) waves. We discuss the physical nature of this instability. In the case of a stratified external medium, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the friction-driven instability can set in for flow speeds significantly lower than the Alfv{\\'e}n speed. Dissipative effects can excite flow-driven instability below the thresholds for the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the undulatory (Parker-type) instabilities. This may be important for magnetic flux storage in stellar convection zones and for the stability of astrophysical jets.

  8. Energy propagation by transverse waves in multiple flux tube systems using filling factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Doorsselaere, T.; Gijsen, S. E.; Andries, J.; Verth, G. E-mail: stief.gijsen@wis.kuleuven.be E-mail: g.verth@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, it has been found that transverse waves are present at all times in coronal loops or spicules. Their energy has been estimated with an expression derived for bulk Alfvén waves in homogeneous media, with correspondingly uniform wave energy density and flux. The kink mode, however, is localized in space with the energy density and flux dependent on the position in the cross-sectional plane. The more relevant quantities for the kink mode are the integrals of the energy density and flux over the cross-sectional plane. The present paper provides an approximation to the energy propagated by kink modes in an ensemble of flux tubes by means of combining the analysis of single flux tube kink oscillations with a filling factor for the tube cross-sectional area. This finally allows one to compare the expressions for energy flux of Alfvén waves with an ensemble of kink waves. We find that the correction factor for the energy in kink waves, compared to the bulk Alfvén waves, is between f and 2f, where f is the density filling factor of the ensemble of flux tubes.

  9. Constraints on GRB TeV Emission from the GeV Extragalactic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casanova, S; Zhang, B; Zhang, Bing

    2006-01-01

    TeV gamma rays emitted by GRBs are converted into electron-positron pairs via interactions with the extragalactic infrared radiation fields. In turn the pairs produced, whose trajectories are randomized by magnetic fields, will inverse Compton scatter off the cosmic microwave background photons. The beamed TeV gamma ray flux from GRBs is thus transformed into a GeV isotropic gamma ray flux, which contributes to the total extragalactic gamma-ray background emission. Assuming a model for the extragalactic radiation fields, for the GRB redshift distribution and for the GRB luminosity function, we use the measured GeV extragalactic gamma-ray flux to set upper limits on the GRB emission in TeV gamma rays that is predicted in several models.

  10. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel Ruggirello RachelRadiation DrySafety Home

  11. Radiative Flow in a Luminous Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Fukue

    2006-01-07

    Radiatively-driven flow in a luminous disk is examined in the subrelativistic regime of $(v/c)^1$, taking account of radiation transfer. The flow is assumed to be vertical, and the gravity and gas pressure are ignored. When internal heating is dropped, for a given optical depth and radiation pressure at the flow base (disk ``inside''), where the flow speed is zero, the flow is analytically solved under the appropriate boundary condition at the flow top (disk ``surface''), where the optical depth is zero. The loaded mass and terminal speed of the flow are both determined by the initial conditions; the mass-loss rate increases as the initial radiation pressure increases, while the flow terminal speed increases as the initial radiation pressure and the loaded mass decrease. In particular, when heating is ignored, the radiative flux $F$ is constant, and the radiation pressure $P_0$ at the flow base with optical depth $\\tau_0$ is bound in the range of $2/3 flow terminal speed becomes zero, while, in the limit of $cP_0/F = 2/3$, the loaded mass becomes zero and the terminal speed approaches $(3/8)c$, which is the terminal speed above the luminous flat disk under an approximation of the order of $(v/c)^1$. We also examine the case where heating exists, and find that the flow properties are qualitatively similar to the case without heating.

  12. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  13. Relationship of edge localized mode burst times with divertor flux loop signal phase in JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, S. C., E-mail: S.C.Chapman@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Dendy, R. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Todd, T. N.; Webster, A. J.; Morris, J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Watkins, N. W. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Centre for the Analysis of Time Series, London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering and Innovation, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Calderon, F. A. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    A phase relationship is identified between sequential edge localized modes (ELMs) occurrence times in a set of H-mode tokamak plasmas to the voltage measured in full flux azimuthal loops in the divertor region. We focus on plasmas in the Joint European Torus where a steady H-mode is sustained over several seconds, during which ELMs are observed in the Be II emission at the divertor. The ELMs analysed arise from intrinsic ELMing, in that there is no deliberate intent to control the ELMing process by external means. We use ELM timings derived from the Be II signal to perform direct time domain analysis of the full flux loop VLD2 and VLD3 signals, which provide a high cadence global measurement proportional to the voltage induced by changes in poloidal magnetic flux. Specifically, we examine how the time interval between pairs of successive ELMs is linked to the time-evolving phase of the full flux loop signals. Each ELM produces a clear early pulse in the full flux loop signals, whose peak time is used to condition our analysis. The arrival time of the following ELM, relative to this pulse, is found to fall into one of two categories: (i) prompt ELMs, which are directly paced by the initial response seen in the flux loop signals; and (ii) all other ELMs, which occur after the initial response of the full flux loop signals has decayed in amplitude. The times at which ELMs in category (ii) occur, relative to the first ELM of the pair, are clustered at times when the instantaneous phase of the full flux loop signal is close to its value at the time of the first ELM.

  14. Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility.

  15. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  16. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

  17. Radiative Flow in a Luminous Disk II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Fukue

    2006-01-07

    Radiatively-driven transfer flow perpendicular to a luminous disk is examined in the subrelativistic regime of $(v/c)^1$, taking into account the gravity of the central object. The flow is assumed to be vertical, and the gas pressure is ignored, while internal heating is assumed to be proportional to the gas density. The basic equations were numerically solved as a function of the optical depth, and the flow velocity, the height, the radiative flux, and the radiation pressure were obtained for a given radius, an initial optical depth, and initial conditions at the flow base (disk ``inside''), whereas the mass-loss rate was determined as an eigenvalue of the boundary condition at the flow top (disk ``surface''). For sufficiently luminous cases, the flow resembles the case without gravity. For less-luminous cases, however, the flow velocity decreases, and the flow would be impossible due to the existence of gravity in the case that the radiative flux is sufficiently small. Application to a supercritical accretion disk with mass loss is briefly discussed.

  18. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  19. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  20. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  1. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  2. Energy flux of timeharmonic waves in anisotropic dissipative media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Energy flux of time­harmonic waves in anisotropic dissipative media Vlastislav Ÿ Cerven/transmission problem. Energy flux quantities related to the summary wavefield, composed of several waves, are derived in the summary energy flux in addition to the energy fluxes of the individual waves. The interaction energy

  3. Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind A. B. Barker1 October 2005. [1] On the basis of the correlation between the solar wind and radiation belt electron fluxes, we develop a model to simulate the MeV electron phase space density variations from L = 3 to L

  4. A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, Pincus

    A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud.-J. Morcrette, A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud, which computes fluxes at each level. [3] The description of clouds in current LSMs is quite simple: Most

  5. The ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morselli, Aldo

    for human neurophysiological, electrophysiological and psychophysics experiments, studies on particle fluxes experiments, while providing novel information on the radiation environment onboard the ISS and on the brainThe ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation L

  6. A Coupled AtmosphereOcean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    of the ocean. Shortwave radiation from the sun contributes most of the heat fluxes that penetrate the airA Coupled Atmosphere­Ocean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation WEI-LIANG LEE AND K. N. LIOU Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California

  7. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of trying to oppose it. It is robust and could be particularly useful for PM generators and electric vehicle drives. Recent efforts have introduced a brushless machine that transfers a magneto-motive force (MMF) generated by a stationary excitation coil to the rotor [4]. Although a conventional PM machine may be field weakened using vector control, the air-gap flux density cannot be effectively enhanced. In Hsu's new machine, the magnetic field generated by the rotor's PM may be augmented by the field from the stationery excitation coil and channeled with flux guides to its desired destination to enhance the air-gap flux that produces torque. The magnetic field can also be weakened by reversing the current in the stationary excitation winding. A patent for advanced technology in this area is pending. Several additional RTFC methods have been discussed in open literature. These include methods of changing the number of poles by magnetizing and demagnetizing the magnets poles with pulses of current corresponding to direct-axis (d-axis) current of vector control [5,6], changing the number of stator coils [7], and controlling the air gap [8]. Test experience has shown that the magnet strengths may vary and weaken naturally as rotor temperature increases suggesting that careful control of the rotor temperature, which is no easy task, could yield another method of RTFC. The purpose of this report is to (1) examine the interaction of rotor and stator flux with regard to RTFC, (2) review and summarize the status of RTFC technology, and (3) compare and evaluate methods for RTFC with respect to maturity, advantages and limitations, deployment difficulty and relative complexity.

  8. Freezing E3-brane instantons with fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Bianchi; Andres Collinucci; Luca Martucci

    2012-02-22

    E3-instantons that generate non-perturbative superpotentials in IIB N=1 compactifications are more frequent than currently believed. Worldvolume fluxes will typically lift the E3-brane geometric moduli and their fermionic superpartners, leaving only the two required universal fermionic zero-modes. We consistently incorporate SL(2, Z) monodromies and world-volume fluxes in the effective theory of the E3-brane fermions and study the resulting zero-mode spectrum, highlighting the relation between F-theory and perturbative IIB results. This leads us to a IIB derivation of the index for generation of superpotential terms, which reproduces and generalizes available results. Furthermore, we show how worldvolume fluxes can be explicitly constructed in a one-modulus compactification, such that an E3-instanton has exactly two fermonic zero-modes. This construction is readily applicable to numerous scenarios.

  9. Super-radiance and flux conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical foundations of the phenomenon known as super-radiance still continues to attract considerable attention. Despite many valiant attempts at pedagogically clear presentations, the effect nevertheless still continues to generate some significant confusion. Part of the confusion arises from the fact that super-radiance in a quantum field theory [QFT] context is not the same as super-radiance (super-fluorescence) in some condensed matter contexts; part of the confusion arises from traditional but sometimes awkward normalization conventions, and part is due to sometimes unnecessary confusion between fluxes and probabilities. We shall argue that the key point underlying the effect is flux conservation, (and, in the presence of dissipation, a controlled amount of flux non-conservation), and that attempting to phrase things in terms of reflection and transmission probabilities only works in the absence of super-radiance. To help clarify the situation we present a simple exactly solvable toy model exhibi...

  10. Swift detection of all previously undetected blazars in a micro-wave flux-limited sample of WMAP foreground sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Giommi; M. Capalbi; E. Cavazzuti; S. Colafrancesco; A. Cucchiara; A. Falcone; J. Kennea; R. Nesci; M. Perri; G. Tagliaferri; A. Tramacere; G. Tosti; A. J. Blustin; G. Branduardi-Raymont; D. N. Burrows; G. Chincarini; A. J. Dean; N. Gehrels; H. Krimm; F. Marshall; A. M. Parsons; B. Zhang

    2007-03-07

    Almost the totality of the bright foreground sources in the WMAP CMB maps are blazars, a class of sources that show usually also X-ray emission. However, 23 objects in a flux-limited sample of 140 blazars of the WMAP catalog (first year) were never reported before as X-ray sources. We present here the results of 41 Swift observations which led to the detection of all these 23 blazars in the 0.3-10 keV band. We conclude that all micro-wave selected blazars are X-ray emitters and that the distribution of the micro-wave to X-ray spectral slope $\\alpha_{mu x}$ of LBL blazars is very narrow, confirming that the X-ray flux of most blazars is a very good estimator of their micro-wave emission. The X-ray spectral shape of all the objects that were observed long enough to allow spectral analysis is flat and consistent with inverse Compton emission within the commonly accepted view where the radiation from blazars is emitted in a Sychrotron-Inverse-Compton scenario. We predict that all blazars and most radio galaxies above the sensitivity limit of the WMAP and of the Planck CMB missions are X-ray sources detectable by the present generation of X-ray satellites. An hypothetical all-sky soft X-ray survey with sensitivity of approximately $10^{-15}$ erg/s would be crucial to locate and remove over 100,000 blazars from CMB temperature and polarization maps and therefore accurately clean the primordial CMB signal from the largest population of extragalactic foreground contaminants.

  11. PRECIPITATION OF RADIATION BELT ELECTRONS BY LIGHTNING-GENERATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRECIPITATION OF RADIATION BELT ELECTRONS BY LIGHTNING-GENERATED MAGNETOSPHERICALLY REFLECTING-order model to estimate the L-shell dependence of the precipitation flux of energetic electrons driven by MR L-shell extent) peak in the precipitation signature can result due to the focusing of the whistler

  12. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio (Rome, IT); Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Bennett, Timothy (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1993-01-01

    Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

  13. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  14. Classical and quantum flux energy conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin-Moruno, Prado

    2013-01-01

    The classical energy conditions are known to not be fundamental physics -- they are typically violated by semiclassical quantum effects. Consequently, some effort has gone into finding possible semiclassical replacements for the classical energy conditions -- the most well developed being the Ford-Roman quantum inequalities. In the current article we shall instead develop classical and quantum versions of a "flux energy condition" (FEC and QFEC) based on the notion of constraining the possible fluxes measured by timelike observers. The classical FEC will be seen to be satisfied by some quantum states, while its quantum analogue (the QFEC) is satisfied under a rather wide range of conditions.

  15. Dynamical Horizons: Energy, Angular Momentum, Fluxes and Balance Laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhay Ashtekar; Badri Krishnan

    2002-11-03

    Dynamical horizons are considered in full, non-linear general relativity. Expressions of fluxes of energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves across these horizons are obtained. Fluxes are local, the energy flux is positive and change in the horizon area is related to these fluxes. The flux formulae also give rise to balance laws analogous to the ones obtained by Bondi and Sachs at null infinity and provide generalizations of the first and second laws of black hole mechanics.

  16. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations.

  17. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01

    J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (NewSons, Inc. from "Radiation Detection and Measurement," G. F.

  18. Radiative accelerations for evolutionary model calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richer, J.; Michaud, G.; Rogers, F.; Iglesias, C.; Turcotte, S.; LeBlanc, F.

    1998-01-01

    Monochromatic opacities from the OPAL database have been used to calculate radiative accelerations for the 21 included chemical species. The 10{sup 4} frequencies used are sufficient to calculate the radiative accelerations of many elements for T{gt}10{sup 5}K, using frequency sampling. This temperature limit is higher for less abundant elements. As the abundances of Fe, He, or O are varied, the radiative acceleration of other elements changes, since abundant elements modify the frequency dependence of the radiative flux and the Rosseland opacity. Accurate radiative accelerations for a given element can only be obtained by allowing the abundances of the species that contribute most to the Rosseland opacity to vary during the evolution and recalculating the radiative accelerations and the Rosseland opacity during the evolution. There are physical phenomena that cannot be included in the calculations if one uses only the OPAL data. For instance, one should correct for the momentum given to the electron in a photoionization. Such effects are evaluated using atomic data from Opacity Project, and correction factors are given. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  19. ICRCCM phase II: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models. Final report, 1 May 1990--30 April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1993-12-31

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, the team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). SPECTRE was to establish an absolute standard against which to compare models, and aimed to remove the hidden variables (unknown humidities, aerosols, etc.) which radiation modelers had invoked to excuse disagreements with observation. The data collected during SPECTRE were to form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities during the project`s Third year to meet stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: (1) SPECTRE Activities, (2) ICRCCM Activities, and (3) Summary Information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes their initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  20. Flux tubes in the SU(3) vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario S. Cardaci; Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai; Rossella Falcone; Alessandro Papa

    2011-09-30

    We analyze the distribution of the chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum. We find that the transverse profile of the flux tube resembles the dual version of the Abrikosov vortex field distribution and give an estimate of the London penetration length in the confined vacuum.

  1. Diagnosis of Ocean Mesoscale Eddy Tracer Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    Diagnosis of Ocean Mesoscale Eddy Tracer Fluxes Baylor Fox-Kemper U. Colorado-Boulder, with Scott - 10,000 km, yrs->centuries) => resolved · Mesoscale variability (10 - 100 km, mo -> yrs) => resolved) => parameterized Boundary Layer Models Mesoscale resolving models Climate models Submesoscale variability Coupling

  2. Engineering Notes Microgravity Demonstrations of Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Mason A.

    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 DOI: 10.2514/1.50343 I. Introduction MAGNETIC flux pinning, a noncontacting interaction between Type II superconductors and magnetic fields, has been studied at length by the scientific community for its applications to levitating objects in a 1g environment [1­3]. However, due

  3. Orientation of eddy fluxes in geostrophic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. "Balu"

    of potential vorticity (PV) in geostrophic turbulence. We take two different points of view, a classical of the eddy flux of PV with the appropriate mean gradient or the large-scale gradient of PV is required-temporal characteristics of the flow. One way to improve on this is to adopt unsteady RA. In this case, averages

  4. Adaptive Representation of Specular Light Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    Adaptive Representation of Specular Light Flux Normand Bri`ere Pierre Poulin D´epartement d in all but the simplest con- figurations. To capture their appearance, we present an adaptive approach based upon light beams. The coher- ence between light rays forming a light beam greatly re- duces

  5. Energies of Quantum QED Flux Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H Weigel

    2006-01-26

    In this talk I present recent studies on vacuum polarization energies and energy densities induced by QED flux tubes. I focus on comparing three and four dimensional scenarios and the discussion of various approximation schemes in view of the exact treatment.

  6. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÑON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium

  7. SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, C. L.; Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A. E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu

    2013-03-10

    We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

  8. Muon Flux at the Geographical South Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Bai; T. K. Gaisser; A. Karle; K. Rawlins; G. M. Spiczak; Todor Stanev

    2006-02-17

    The muon flux at the South-Pole was measured for five zenith angles, $0^{\\circ}$, $15^{\\circ}$, $35^{\\circ}$, $82.13^{\\circ}$ and $85.15^{\\circ}$ with a scintillator muon telescope incorporating ice Cherenkov tank detectors as the absorber. We compare the measurements with other data and with calculations.

  9. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  10. Radiation Control (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

  11. RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Radiative and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin andof the Second Nation- al Passive Solar Conference (owned rights. ,I I RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING* LAIVRENCE

  12. Time-Resolved Magnetic Flux and AC-Current Distributions in Superconducting YBCO Thin Films and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    Time-Resolved Magnetic Flux and AC-Current Distributions in Superconducting YBCO Thin Films on superconductors. The high time and spatial resolutions of the measurements also offer good quantitative data analysis of the MO images. Y Ba2Cu3O7-8 (YBCO) was discovered as a high-temperature superconductor (HTSC

  13. Integrability of D1-brane on Group Manifold with Mixed Three Form Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluson, J

    2015-01-01

    We consider D1-brane as a natural probe of the group manifold with mixed three form fluxes. We determine Lax connection for given theory. Then we switch to the canonical analysis and calculate the Poisson brackets between spatial components of Lax connections and we argue for integrability of given theory.

  14. Radiation Protection and Licensing FNAL Radiation Physics Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    (ALARA). January 13, 2012 Radiation Protection and Licensing #12;4 Shielding for Prompt Radiation Protect

  15. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to...

  16. Analysis of Piston Heat Flux for Highly Complex Piston Shapes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-10lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Optical...

  17. Six-week time series of eddy covariance CO2 flux at Mammoth Mountain, California: performance evaluation and role of meteorological forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer; Lewicki, J.L.; Fischer, M.L.; Hilley, G.E.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} and heat fluxes were measured over a six-week period (09/08/2006 to 10/24/2006) by the eddy covariance (EC) technique at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK), Mammoth Mountain, CA, a site with complex terrain and high, spatially heterogeneous CO{sub 2} emission rates. EC CO{sub 2} fluxes ranged from 218 to 3500 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (mean = 1346 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}). Using footprint modeling, EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by the chamber method on a grid repeatedly over a 10-day period. Half-hour EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were moderately correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.42) with chamber fluxes, whereas average-daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were well correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.70) with chamber measurements. Average daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were correlated with both average daily wind speed and atmospheric pressure; relationships were similar to those observed between chamber CO{sub 2} fluxes and the atmospheric parameters over a comparable time period. Energy balance closure was assessed by statistical regression of EC energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, less soil heat flux). While incomplete (R{sup 2} = 0.77 for 1:1 line), the degree of energy balance closure fell within the range observed in many investigations conducted in contrasting ecosystems and climates. Results indicate that despite complexities presented by the HLTK, EC can be reliably used to monitor background variations in volcanic CO{sub 2} fluxes associated with meteorological forcing, and presumably changes related to deeply derived processes such as volcanic activity.

  18. THE EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLUX FROM 0.1 nm TO 160 {mu}m: QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATES FOR PLANETARY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claire, Mark W.; Sheets, John; Meadows, Victoria S.; Cohen, Martin; Ribas, Ignasi; Catling, David C.

    2012-09-20

    Understanding changes in the solar flux over geologic time is vital for understanding the evolution of planetary atmospheres because it affects atmospheric escape and chemistry, as well as climate. We describe a numerical parameterization for wavelength-dependent changes to the non-attenuated solar flux appropriate for most times and places in the solar system. We combine data from the Sun and solar analogs to estimate enhanced UV and X-ray fluxes for the young Sun and use standard solar models to estimate changing visible and infrared fluxes. The parameterization, a series of multipliers relative to the modern top of the atmosphere flux at Earth, is valid from 0.1 nm through the infrared, and from 0.6 Gyr through 6.7 Gyr, and is extended from the solar zero-age main sequence to 8.0 Gyr subject to additional uncertainties. The parameterization is applied to a representative modern day flux, providing quantitative estimates of the wavelength dependence of solar flux for paleodates relevant to the evolution of atmospheres in the solar system (or around other G-type stars). We validate the code by Monte Carlo analysis of uncertainties in stellar age and flux, and with comparisons to the solar proxies {kappa}{sup 1} Cet and EK Dra. The model is applied to the computation of photolysis rates on the Archean Earth.

  19. The effect of nonuniform axial heat flux distribution on the critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todreas, Neil E.

    1965-01-01

    A systematic experimental and analytic investigation of the effect of nonuniform axial heat flux distribution on critical heat rilux was performed with water in the quality condition. Utilizing a model which ascribes the ...

  20. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using gages inserted flush with the surface. The geometry is the same as heat-flux gages covered by Test Method E 511, but the measurement principle is different. The gages covered by this standard all use a measurement of the temperature gradient normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface. Although in a majority of cases the net heat flux is to the surface, the gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This general test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Two different gage types that are commercially available are described in detail in later sections as examples. A summary of common heat-flux gages is given by Diller (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages used for aerospace applications are generally small (0.155 to 1.27 cm diameter), have a fast time response ...

  1. Modeling high-energy cosmic ray induced terrestrial and atmospheric neutron flux: A lookup table

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Overholt; Adrian Melott; Dimitra Atri

    2013-06-05

    Under current conditions, the cosmic ray spectrum incident on the Earth is dominated by particles with energies solar flares, supernovae and gamma ray bursts produce high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) with drastically higher energies. The Earth is likely episodically exposed to a greatly increased HECR flux from such events, some of which lasting thousands to millions of years. The air showers produced by HECRs ionize the atmosphere and produce harmful secondary particles such as muons and neutrons. Neutrons currently contribute a significant radiation dose at commercial passenger airplane altitude. With higher cosmic ray energies, these effects will be propagated to ground level. This work shows the results of Monte Carlo simulations quantifying the neutron flux due to high energy cosmic rays at various primary energies and altitudes. We provide here lookup tables that can be used to determine neutron fluxes from primaries with total energies 1 GeV - 1 PeV. By convolution, one can compute the neutron flux for any arbitrary CR spectrum. Our results demonstrate that deducing the nature of primaries from ground level neutron enhancements would be very difficult.

  2. Flow instabilities of magnetic flux tubes IV. Flux storage in the solar overshoot region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isik, Emre

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effects of material flows on the dynamics of toroidal magnetic flux tubes located close to the base of the solar convection zone, initially within the overshoot region. The problem is to find the physical conditions in which magnetic flux can be stored for periods comparable to the dynamo amplification time, which is of the order of a few years. We carry out nonlinear numerical simulations to investigate the stability and dynamics of thin flux tubes subject to perpendicular and longitudinal flows. We compare the simulations with the results of simplified analytical approximations. We determine ranges of the flow parameters for which a linearly Parker-stable magnetic flux tube is stored in the middle of the overshoot region for a period comparable to the dynamo amplification time. The residence time for magnetic flux tubes with fluxes of 2x10^{21} Mx in the convective overshoot layer is comparable to the dynamo amplification time, provided that the average speed and the duration of the downflow...

  3. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01

    RPL) The interaction of radiation with matter in crystallineradiation. Some interactions with crystalline matter are

  4. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M.; Reardon, Michael A.; Geesey, Constance; Wijesooriya, Krishni

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p?0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  5. MAGNETIC FLUX CONSERVATION IN THE HELIOSHEATH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J. D. [Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Decker, R. B. [Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Drake, J. F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ness, N. F. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Opher, M., E-mail: jdr@space.mit.edu, E-mail: lburlagahsp@verizon.net, E-mail: robert.decker@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: drake@umd.edu, E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.com, E-mail: mopher@bu.edu [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Voyager 1(V1) and Voyager 2(V2) have observed heliosheath plasma since 2005 December and 2007 August, respectively. The observed speed profiles are very different at the two spacecrafts. Speeds at V1 decreased to zero in 2010 while the average speed at V2 is a constant 150 km s{sup -1} with the direction rotating tailward. The magnetic flux is expected to be constant in these heliosheath flows. We show that the flux is constant at V2 but decreases by an order of magnitude at V1, even after accounting for divergence of the flows and changes in the solar field. If reconnection were responsible for this decrease, the magnetic field would lose 70% of its free energy to reconnection and the energy density released would be 0.6 eV cm{sup -3}.

  6. Vacuum Tunneling in an Electroweak Model in Extra Dimensions With an External Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron J. Roy

    2009-04-14

    With the standard system for an SU(2) Higgs field in M_4 X S_1, the top and bottom component of the Higgs spinor have exactly the same coeficients for the quadratic and quadric terms. This makes the vacuum degenerate and thus there are no tunneling effects to zeroth order in radiative corrections of the vector gauge felds in the standard model with this extra dimensional geometry. However, if we include an external magnetic flux that permeates our manifold, then the top component of the Higgs spinor will have an additional term in its coefficient due to this theoretical flux with the usual charge assignments for the standard model. This extra term gives rise to two nondegenerate vacuum states for the resulting potential. We will compute the tunneling probability per unit time per unit volume between these vacuum states for the zero modes of our system as well as investigate the masses for the fields of the model using the false vacuum.

  7. Energy flux density in a thermoacoustic couple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, N.; Chen, S. |; Olson, R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    The hydro- and thermodynamical processes near and within a thermoacoustic couple are simulated and analyzed by numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes, continuity, and energy equations for an ideal gas, concentrating on the time-averaged energy flux density in the gas. The numerical results show details of the heat sink at one end of the plates in the thermoacoustic couple. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The Cosmic Ray Muon Flux at WIPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esch, E I; Hime, A; Pichlmaier, A; Reifarth, R; Wollnik, H

    2005-01-01

    In this work a measurement of the muon intensity at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, USA is presented. WIPP is a salt mine with a depth of 655 m. The vertical muon flux was measured with a two panels scintillator coincidence setup to Phi_{vert}=3.10(+0.05/-0.07)*10^(-7)s^(-1)cm^(-2)sr^(-1).

  9. The Cosmic Ray Muon Flux at WIPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. -I. Esch; T. J. Bowles; A. Hime; A. Pichlmaier; R. Reifarth; H. Wollnik

    2004-08-25

    In this work a measurement of the muon intensity at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, USA is presented. WIPP is a salt mine with a depth of 655 m. The vertical muon flux was measured with a two panels scintillator coincidence setup to Phi_{vert}=3.10(+0.05/-0.07)*10^(-7)s^(-1)cm^(-2)sr^(-1).

  10. Heat flux dynamics in dissipative cascaded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvatore Lorenzo; Alessandro Farace; Francesco Ciccarello; G. Massimo Palma; Vittorio Giovannetti

    2015-03-24

    We study the dynamics of heat flux in the thermalization process of a pair of identical quantum system that interact dissipatively with a reservoir in a {\\it cascaded} fashion. Despite the open dynamics of the bipartite system S is globally Lindbladian, one of the subsystems "sees" the reservoir in a state modified by the interaction with the other subsystem and hence it undergoes a non-Markovian dynamics. As a consequence, the heat flow exhibits a non-exponential time behaviour which can greatly deviate from the case where each party is independently coupled to the reservoir. We investigate both thermal and correlated initial states of $S$ and show that the presence of correlations at the beginning can considerably affect the heat flux rate. We carry out our study in two paradigmatic cases -- a pair of harmonic oscillators with a reservoir of bosonic modes and two qubits with a reservoir of fermionic modes -- and compare the corresponding behaviours. In the case of qubits and for initial thermal states, we find that the trace distance discord is at any time interpretable as the correlated contribution to the total heat flux.

  11. Surface Magnetic Flux Maintenance In Quiet Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Iida

    2012-12-27

    We investigate surface processes of magnetic patches, namely merging, splitting, emergence, and cancellation, by using an auto-detection technique. We find that merging and splitting are locally predominant in the surface level, while the frequencies of the other two are less by one or two orders of magnitude. The frequency dependences on flux con- tent of surface processes are further investigated. Based on these observations, we discuss a possible whole picture of the maintenance. Our conclusion is that the photospheric magnetic field structure, especially its power-law nature, is maintained by the processes locally in the surface not by the interactions between different altitudes. We suggest a scenario of the flux maintenance as follows: The splitting and merging play a crucial role for the generation of the power-law distribution, not the emergence nor cancellation do. This power-law distribution results in another power-law one of the cancellation with an idea of the random convective transport. The cancellation and emergence have a common value for the power-law indices in their frequency distributions, which may suggest a "recycle of fluxes by submergence and re-emergence".

  12. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1991-05-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair.

  13. Prediction of critical heat flux in water-cooled plasma facing components using computational fluid dynamics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, James H.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Several commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes now have the capability to analyze Eulerian two-phase flow using the Rohsenow nucleate boiling model. Analysis of boiling due to one-sided heating in plasma facing components (pfcs) is now receiving attention during the design of water-cooled first wall panels for ITER that may encounter heat fluxes as high as 5 MW/m2. Empirical thermalhydraulic design correlations developed for long fission reactor channels are not reliable when applied to pfcs because fully developed flow conditions seldom exist. Star-CCM+ is one of the commercial CFD codes that can model two-phase flows. Like others, it implements the RPI model for nucleate boiling, but it also seamlessly transitions to a volume-of-fluid model for film boiling. By benchmarking the results of our 3d models against recent experiments on critical heat flux for both smooth rectangular channels and hypervapotrons, we determined the six unique input parameters that accurately characterize the boiling physics for ITER flow conditions under a wide range of absorbed heat flux. We can now exploit this capability to predict the onset of critical heat flux in these components. In addition, the results clearly illustrate the production and transport of vapor and its effect on heat transfer in pfcs from nucleate boiling through transition to film boiling. This article describes the boiling physics implemented in CCM+ and compares the computational results to the benchmark experiments carried out independently in the United States and Russia. Temperature distributions agreed to within 10 C for a wide range of heat fluxes from 3 MW/m2 to 10 MW/m2 and flow velocities from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in these devices. Although the analysis is incapable of capturing the stochastic nature of critical heat flux (i.e., time and location may depend on a local materials defect or turbulence phenomenon), it is highly reliable in determining the heat flux where boiling instabilities begin to dominate. Beyond this threshold, higher heat fluxes lead to the boiling crisis and eventual burnout. This predictive capability is essential in determining the critical heat flux margin for the design of complex 3d components.

  14. High photon flux table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Krebs, Manuel; Hoffmann, Armin; Pronin, Oleg; Pervak, Vladimir; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) enables extreme ultraviolet radiation with table-top setups. Its exceptional properties, such as coherence and (sub)-femtosecond pulse durations, have led to a diversity of applications. Some of these require a high photon flux and megahertz repetition rates, e.g. to avoid space charge effects in photoelectron spectroscopy. To date this has only been achieved with enhancement cavities. Here, we establish a novel route towards powerful HHG sources. By achieving phase-matched HHG of a megahertz fibre laser we generate a broad plateau (25 eV - 40 eV) of strong harmonics, each containing more than $10^{12}$ photons/s, which constitutes an increase by more than one order of magnitude in that wavelength range. The strongest harmonic (H25, 30 eV) has an average power of 143 $\\mu$W ($3\\cdot10^{13}$ photons/s). This concept will greatly advance and facilitate applications in photoelectron or coincidence spectroscopy, coherent diffractive imaging or (multidimensional) surface science.

  15. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  16. Invariability of Central Metabolic Flux Distribution in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Under Environmental or Genetic Perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yinjie; Martin, Hector Garcia; Deutschbauer, Adam; Feng, Xueyang; Huang, Rick; Llora, Xavier; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-04-21

    An environmentally important bacterium with versatile respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, displayed significantly different growth rates under three culture conditions: minimal medium (doubling time {approx} 3 hrs), salt stressed minimal medium (doubling time {approx} 6 hrs), and minimal medium with amino acid supplementation (doubling time {approx}1.5 hrs). {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis indicated that fluxes of central metabolic reactions remained relatively constant under the three growth conditions, which is in stark contrast to the reported significant changes in the transcript and metabolite profiles under various growth conditions. Furthermore, ten transposon mutants of S. oneidensis MR-1 were randomly chosen from a transposon library and their flux distributions through central metabolic pathways were revealed to be identical, even though such mutational processes altered the secondary metabolism, for example, glycine and C1 (5,10-Me-THF) metabolism.

  17. Performance and safety parameters for the high flux isotope reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm III, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm Consulting, LLC, 945 Laurel Hill Road, Knoxville, TN 37923 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDF/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data. (authors)

  18. Performance and Safety Parameters for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [Primm Consulting, LLC

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDV/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared when available with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data.

  19. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. II. Radiative Transfer via the Two-Stream Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heng, Kevin; Lee, Jaemin

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior) and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically under-determined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We further demonstrate that traditional non-isothermal treatments of each atmospheric layer lead to unphysical contributions to the ...

  20. Thermal evolution of a radiating anisotropic star with shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N F Naidu; M Govender; K S Govinder

    2005-12-02

    We study the effects of pressure anisotropy and heat dissipation in a spherically symmetric radiating star undergoing gravitational collapse. An exact solution of the Einstein field equations is presented in which the model has a Friedmann-like limit when the heat flux vanishes. The behaviour of the temperature profile of the evolving star is investigated within the framework of causal thermodynamics. In particular, we show that there are significant differences between the relaxation time for the heat flux and the relaxation time for the shear stress.

  1. The Complete Flux Scheme for Spherically Symmetric Conservation Laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    and M.J.H. Anthonissen Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mathematics and Computer Science for computing the numerical fluxes. The approximation for the flux is based on the complete differential to a spherically symmet- ric conservation law of advection-diffusion-reaction type. For the numer- ical flux we use

  2. Quantum Radiation of Uniformly Accelerated Spherical Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Frolov; D. Singh

    2001-06-07

    We study quantum radiation generated by a uniformly accelerated motion of small spherical mirrors. To obtain Green's function for a scalar massless field we use Wick's rotation. In the Euclidean domain the problem is reduced to finding an electric potential in 4D flat space in the presence of a metallic toroidal boundary. The latter problem is solved by a separation of variables. After performing an inverse Wick's rotation we obtain the Hadamard function in the wave-zone regime and use it to calculate the vacuum fluctuations and the vacuum expectation for the energy density flux in the wave zone.

  3. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.; Buncher, C.; Denniston, C.; Gilbert, E.; Hahn, F.; Hertzberg, V.; Maxon, H.; Scott, B.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: cluster observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, O.

    2014-11-20

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ?10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor ? {sub e?} is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for ? {sub e?} ? 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  5. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ting; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    We make a comparative analysis for two filaments that showed quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are carried out to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17-20 and September 29. The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4*10^21 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed within 3 days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2*10^20 Mx, about one ...

  6. Measurement of Heat Flux at Metal-Mold Interface during Casting Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    All previous studies on interfacial heat transfer coefficient have been based on indirect methods for estimating the heat flux that employed either inverse heat transfer analysis procedures or instrumentation arrangements to measure temperatures and displacements near the metal-mold interface. In this paper, the heat transfer at the metal-mold interfaces is investigated using a sensor for the direct measurement of heat flux. The heat flux sensor (HFS) was rated for 700oC and had a time response of less than 10 ms. Casting experiments were conducted using graphite molds for aluminum alloy A356. Several casting experiments were performed using a graphite coating and a boron nitride coating. The measurement errors were estimated. The temperature of the mold surface was provided by the HFS while the temperature of the casting surface was measured using a thermocouple. Results for the heat transfer coefficients were obtained based on measured heat flux and temperatures. Four stages were clearly identified for the variation in time of the heat flux. Values of the heat transfer coefficient were in good agreement with data from previous studies.

  7. Geometrical investigation of the kinetic evolution of the magnetic field in a periodic flux rope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restante, A. L.; Lapenta, G. [Afdeling Plasma-astrofysica, Departement Wiskunde, KULeuven, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [Afdeling Plasma-astrofysica, Departement Wiskunde, KULeuven, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Intrator, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Flux ropes are bundles of magnetic field wrapped around an axis. Many laboratory, space, and astrophysics processes can be represented using this idealized concept. Here, a massively parallel 3D kinetic simulation of a periodic flux rope undergoing the kink instability is studied. The focus is on the topology of the magnetic field and its geometric structures. The analysis considers various techniques such as Poincaré maps and the quasi-separatrix layer (QSL). These are used to highlight regions with expansion or compression and changes in the connectivity of magnetic field lines and consequently to outline regions where heating and current may be generated due to magnetic reconnection. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first QSL analysis of a fully kinetic 3D particle in cell simulation and focuses the existing QSL method of analysis to periodic systems.

  8. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  9. Scattering in the inner accretion disk and the waveforms and polarization of millisecond flux oscillations in LMXBs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei Y. Sazonov; Rashid A. Sunyaev

    2000-11-19

    The scattering by the inner accretion disk of X-ray radiation generated near the surface of a spinning neutron star in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) has observable effects on the waveforms of millisecond X-ray flux oscillations produced e.g. during type-I bursts or in the millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4--3658. We study these effects in the framework of a simplified model in which there is a single emitting spot on the stellar surface, which is visible both directly and in X-rays scattered from the disk. The main signature of scattering from a thin disk is that the pulse of scattered flux leads (if the star rotates in the same sense as the disk) or lags (in the contrary case) the primary pulse of direct emission by a quarter of a spin cycle. This is caused by Doppler boosting of radiation in the sub-relativistic Keplerian flow. The disk-scattered flux is revealed better in energy-resolved waveforms and the phase dependence of the polarized flux component. The phenomenon discussed permits direct testing of the presence of standard thin disks near the neutron stars in LMXBs and should be observable with future X-ray timing experiments having a few times better sensitivity than RXTE and also with sensitive X-ray polarimeters.

  10. Contents A course 424304 / 2013 1 Exergy analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .8 Real distillation column analysis II: exergy analysis 3.9 Distillation + heat pump and other: applications (heat exchangers, tube flow, combustion, endoreversibility) 1.6 Mixing exergy 1.7 Heat radiation. pinch analysis 1.11 Final remarks 2a Thermal radiation 2a.1 Heat radiation, black bodies 2a.2 Radiation

  11. AmeriFlux Network Data from the ORNL AmeriFlux Website

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996 to provide continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. It is fed by sites from North America, Central America, and South America. DOE's CDIAC stores and maintains AmeriFlux data, and this web site explains the different levels of data available there, with links to the CDIAC ftp site. A separate web-based data interface is also provided; it allows users to graph, query, and download Level 2 data for up to four sites at a time. Data may be queried by site, measurement period, or parameter. More than 550 site-years of level 2 data are available from AmeriFlux sites through the interface.

  12. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2010 Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in2007), Comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes over three borealharvest influence carbon dioxide fluxes of black spruce

  13. The porous media model for the hydraulic system of a conifer tree: linking sap flux data to1 transpiration rate2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    hydraulic system but also11 requires a direct estimation of its properties. Our proposed PM model play a dominant role in controlling CO2 uptake and4 partitioning of net radiation between latent-atmosphere flux measurement networks6 and free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments require a quantitative

  14. HOW MUCH MEMORY RADIATION PROTECTION DO ONBOARD MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS REQUIRE?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    data sets in a low-Earth orbit radi- ation environment, commercial RAM would suffice; no radiation is an open area of research. Key words: radiation, onboard data analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION Space missions of computational power, available memory, storage space, and high doses of radiation. Radiation causes errors

  15. The X-ray through Optical Fluxes and Line Strengths of Tidal Disruption Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Nathaniel; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Observations of luminous flares resulting from the possible tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes have raised a number of puzzles. Outstanding questions include the origin of the optical and ultraviolet (UV) flux, the weakness of hydrogen lines in the spectrum, and the occasional simultaneous observation of x-rays. Here we study the emission from tidal disruption events (TDEs) produced as radiation from black hole accretion propagates through an extended, optically thick envelope formed from stellar debris. We analytically describe key physics controlling spectrum formation, and present detailed radiative transfer calculations that model the spectral energy distribution (SED) and optical line strengths of TDEs near peak brightness. The steady-state transfer is coupled to a non local thermodynamic equilibrium treatment of the excitation and ionization states of hydrogen, helium and oxygen (as a representative metal). Our calculations show how an extended envelope can reprocess a fraction of sof...

  16. A Radiative Transport Model for Heating Paints using High Density Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Duty, Chad E; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Nichols, Mark; Blue, Craig A; Ott, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The energy distribution and ensuing temperature evolution within paint-like systems under the influence of infrared radiation was studied. Thermal radiation effects as well as those due to heat conduction were considered. A complete set of material properties was derived and discussed. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the temperature in the paint film. The heat flux of the incident radiation from the plasma arc lamp was measured using a heat flux sensor with a very short response time. The comparison between the computed and experimental results for temperature show that the models that are based on spectral four-flux RTE and accurate optical properties yield accurate results for the black paint systems.

  17. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Poon, Siu-Joe (Palo Alto, CA); Duwez, Pol E. (Pasadena, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  18. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  19. ARM - VAP Product - lblch1flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeTheProductswacrarsclarsclwacrbnd1kolliasuth DocumentationProductslbllblch1flux

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01)govCampaignsFIRE-Arctic- Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer ARM

  1. Flux Power Incorporated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flatsInformationFlintInformationFlux Power

  2. MiniBooNE Flux Data Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment ofLana7,MimickingThe Neutrino Flux

  3. Polymer Composites for Radiation Scintillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Reference G. F. Knoll, Radiation detection and measurement,MI, 1985. G. F. Knoll, Radiation detection and measurement,applications in radiation detection. First, a brief review

  4. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  5. Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

  6. The Matrix Element Method and QCD Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Alwall; A. Freitas; O. Mattelaer

    2011-04-22

    The matrix element method (MEM) has been extensively used for the analysis of top-quark and W-boson physics at the Tevatron, but in general without dedicated treatment of initial state QCD radiation. At the LHC, the increased center of mass energy leads to a significant increase in the amount of QCD radiation, which makes it mandatory to carefully account for its effects. We here present several methods for inclusion of QCD radiation effects in the MEM, and apply them to mass determination in the presence of multiple invisible particles in the final state. We demonstrate significantly improved results compared to the standard treatment.

  7. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  8. Radiation protection at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  9. Effects of Increased Upward Flux of Saline Water Caused by CO2 Storage or Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, Lawrence; Xie, Shuang; Falta, Ronald W.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR

    2015-08-01

    Injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. Saline groundwater occurs naturally at shallow depths in many sedimentary basins, so an upward flux of solutes could degrade the quality of freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems. One problem could occur where saline water flowed upward along preferential paths, like faults or improperly abandoned wells. Diffuse upward flow through the natural stratigraphy could also occur in response to basin pressurization. This process would be slower, but diffuse upward flow could affect larger areas than flow through preferential paths, and this motivated us to evaluate this process. We analyzed idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, freshwater aquifer underlain by saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The analysis was conducted in two stages, one that simulated the development of a freshwater aquifer by flushing out saline water, and another that simulated the effect of a pulse-like increase in the upward flux from the basin. The results showed that increasing the upward flux from a basin increased the salt concentration and mass loading of salt to streams, and decrease the depth to the fresh/salt transition. The magnitude of these effects varied widely, however, from a small, slow process that would be challenging to detect, to a large, rapid response that could be an environmental catastrophe. The magnitude of the increased flux, and the initial depth to the fresh/salt transition in groundwater controlled the severity of the response. We identified risk categories for salt concentration, mass loading, and freshwater aquifer thickness, and we used these categories to characterize the severity of the response. This showed that risks would likely be minor if the upward flux was smaller than a few tenths of the magnitude of recharge, according to the 2D analyses. The 3D analyses also show that upward flux could occur without a significant increase in the risk categories. The major contribution of this work is that it shows how a large increase in diffuse upward flux from a basin could cause significant problems, but a small increase in upward flux may occur without significantly affecting risks to the shallow freshwater flow system. This heightens the importance of understanding interactions between shallow and deep hydrologic systems when characterizing CO2 storage projects.

  10. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  11. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  12. Parylene-based active micro space radiator with thermal contact switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Ai; Suzuki, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Thermal management is crucial for highly functional spacecrafts exposed to large fluctuations of internal heat dissipation and/or thermal boundary conditions. Since thermal radiation is the only means for heat removal, effective control of radiation is required for advanced space missions. In the present study, a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) active radiator using the contact resistance change has been proposed. Unlike previous bulky thermal louvers/shutters, higher fill factor can be accomplished with an array of electrostatically driven micro diaphragms suspended with polymer tethers. With an early prototype developed with parylene MEMS technologies, radiation heat flux enhancement up to 42% has been achieved.

  13. Supersymmetric branes on curved spaces and fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triendl, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss general supersymmetric brane configurations in flux backgrounds of string and M-theory and derive a necessary condition for the worldvolume theory to be supersymmetric on a given curved manifold. This condition resembles very much the conditions found from coupling a supersymmetric field theory to off-shell supergravity but can be derived in any dimension and for up to sixteen supercharges. Apart from the topological twist, all couplings appearing in the supersymmetry condition are linked to fluxes in the bulk. We explicitly derive the condition for D3-, M2- and M5-branes, in which case the results are also useful for constructing holographic duals to the corresponding field theories. In $N=1$ setups we compare the supersymmetry conditions to those that arise by coupling the field theory to off-shell supergravity. We find that the couplings of both old and new minimal supergravity are simultaneously realized, indicating that off-shell supergravity should be coupled via the S-multiplet of 16/16 supe...

  14. RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakhor, Avideh

    RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2002 D. Delacroix* J. P. Guerre** P. Leblanc'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

  15. Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    eld radiative heat transfer dominates radiation transferstudy Far field radiation Heat transfer coefficient, h r (W/nanoscale radiation to enhance radiative heat transfer. The

  16. Numerical Study on In-Situ Prominence Formation by Radiative Condensation in the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    We propose an in-situ formation model for inverse-polarity solar prominence and demonstrate it using self-consistent 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, including thermal conduction along magnetic fields and optically thin radiative cooling. The model enables us to form cool dense plasma clouds inside a flux rope by radiative condensation, which is regarded as an inverse-polarity prominence. Radiative condensation is triggered by changes in the magnetic topology, i.e., formation of the flux rope from the sheared arcade field, and by thermal imbalance due to the dense plasma trapped inside the flux rope. The flux rope is created by imposing converging and shearing motion on the arcade field. Either when the footpoint motion is in the anti-shearing direction or when heating is proportional to local density, the thermal state inside the flux rope becomes cooling-dominant, leading to radiative condensation. By controlling the temperature of condensation, we investigate the relationship between the t...

  17. Modulation and amplification of radiative far field heat transfer : towards a simple radiative thermal transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jeremie; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We show in this article that phase change materials (PCM) exhibiting a phase transition between a dielectric state and a metallic state are good candidates to perform modulation as well as amplification of radiative thermal flux. We propose a simple situation in plane parallel geometry where a so-called radiative thermal transistor could be achieved. In this configuration, we put a PCM between two blackbodies at different temperatures. We show that the transistor effect can be achieved easily when this material has its critical temperature between the two blackbody temperatures. We also see, that the more the material is reflective in the metallic state, the more switching effect is realized whereas the more PCM transition is stiff in temperature, the more thermal amplification is high. We finally take the example of VO2 that exhibits an insulator-metallic transition at 68{\\textdegree}C. We show that a demonstrator of a radiative transistor could easily be achieved in view of the heat flux levels predicted. F...

  18. Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuh-Ing

    Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation J. Y. Liu Institute of Space Science and Center for Space in the ionospheric foF2 due to sunspot number R, solar radio noise (10.7 cm) flux F10.7, and solar EUV fluxes

  19. RECONCILING MODELS OF LUMINOUS BLAZARS WITH MAGNETIC FLUXES DETERMINED BY RADIO CORE-SHIFT MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek

    2014-11-20

    Estimates of magnetic field strength in relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei, obtained by measuring the frequency-dependent radio core location, imply that the total magnetic fluxes in those jets are consistent with the predictions of the magnetically arrested disk (MAD) scenario of jet formation. On the other hand, the magnetic field strength determines the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation, which forms the low-energy bump of the observed blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs of the most powerful blazars are strongly dominated by the high-energy bump, which is most likely due to the external radiation Compton mechanism. This high Compton dominance may be difficult to reconcile with the MAD scenario, unless (1) the geometry of external radiation sources (broad-line region, hot-dust torus) is quasi-spherical rather than flat, or (2) most gamma-ray radiation is produced in jet regions of low magnetization, e.g., in magnetic reconnection layers or in fast jet spines.

  20. Radiation detector using a bulk high T[sub c] superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Artuso, J.F.; Franks, L.A.; Hull, K.L.; Symko, O.G.

    1993-12-07

    A radiation detector is provided, wherein a bulk high T[sub c] superconducting sample is placed in a magnetic field and maintained at a superconducting temperature. Photons of incident radiation will cause localized heating in superconducting loops of the sample destroying trapped flux and redistributing the fluxons, and reducing the critical current of the loops. Subsequent cooling of the sample in the magnetic field will cause trapped flux redistributed Abrikosov fluxons and trapped Josephson fluxons. The destruction and trapping of the fluxons causes changes in the magnetization of the sample inducing currents in opposite directions in a pickup coil which is coupled by an input coil to an rf SQUID. 4 figures.

  1. Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan F.; Washburn, Libe; Schwager Emery, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    was conducted using a flux buoy designed to simultaneouslybubbling gas flux and the buoy’s position with differentialgas flux using a flux buoy (Washburn et al. 2001) showed

  2. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  3. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore »continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  4. The solar internetwork. I. Contribution to the network magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goši?, M.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2014-12-10

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 × 10{sup 24} Mx day{sup –1} over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  5. Small Scale Magnetic Flux Emergence Observed with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenichi Otsuji; Kazunari Shibata; Reizaburo Kitai; Satoru Ueno; Shin'ichi Nagata; Takuma Matsumoto; Tahei Nakamura; Hiroko Watanabe; Saku Tsuneta; Yoshinori Suematsu; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Toshifumi Shimizu; Yukio Katsukawa; Theodore D. Tarbell; Bruce W. Lites; Richard A. Shine; Alan M. Title

    2007-09-20

    We observed small scale magnetic flux emergence in a sunspot moat region by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite. We analyzed filtergram images observed in the wavelengths of Fe 6302 angstrom, G-band and Ca II H. In Stokes I images of Fe 6302 angstrom, emerging magnetic flux were recognized as dark lanes. In G-band, they showed their shapes almost the same as in Stokes I images. These magnetic flux appeared as dark filaments in Ca II H images. Stokes V images of Fe 6302 angstrom showed pairs of opposite polarities at footpoints of each filament. These magnetic concentrations are identified to correspond to bright points in G-band/Ca II H images. From the analysis of time-sliced diagrams, we derived following properties of emerging flux, which are consistent with the previous works. (1) Two footpoints separate each other at a speed of 4.2 km/s during the initial phase of evolution and decreases to about 1 km/s in 10 minutes later. (2) Ca II H filaments appear almost simultaneously with the formation of dark lanes in Stokes I in the observational cadence of 2 minutes. (3) The lifetime of the dark lanes in Stokes I and G-band is 8 minutes, while that of Ca filament is 12 minutes. An interesting phenomena was observed that an emerging flux tube expands laterally in the photosphere with a speed of 3.8 km/s. Discussion on the horizontal expansion of flux tube will be given with refernce to previous simulation studies.

  6. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Surface-Mounted One-Dimensional Flat Gages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using flat gages mounted onto the surface. Conduction heat flux is not the focus of this standard. Conduction applications related to insulation materials are covered by Test Method C 518 and Practices C 1041 and C 1046. The sensors covered by this test method all use a measurement of the temperature difference between two parallel planes normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface in keeping with Fourier’s Law. The gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Different sensor types are described in detail in later sections as examples of the general method for measuring heat flux from the temperature gradient normal to a surface (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages have broad application from aerospace to biomedical en...

  7. Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation and a unit of exposure 14 Biological effects of radiation and units of dose 19 ALARA policy

  8. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  9. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Emily B.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

  10. Polymer Composites for Radiation Scintillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Principles of radiation interaction in matter and detection,Principles of radiation interaction in matter and detection,

  11. High Flux Isotope Reactor system RELAP5 input model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic computational model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been developed using the RELAP5 program. The purpose of the model is to provide a state-of-the art thermal-hydraulic simulation tool for analyzing selected hypothetical accident scenarios for a revised HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The model includes (1) a detailed representation of the reactor core and other vessel components, (2) three heat exchanger/pump cells, (3) pressurizing pumps and letdown valves, and (4) secondary coolant system (with less detail than the primary system). Data from HFIR operation, component tests, tests in facility mockups and the HFIR, HFIR specific experiments, and other pertinent experiments performed independent of HFIR were used to construct the model and validate it to the extent permitted by the data. The detailed version of the model has been used to simulate loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), while the abbreviated version has been developed for the operational transients that allow use of a less detailed nodalization. Analysis of station blackout with core long-term decay heat removal via natural convection has been performed using the core and vessel portions of the detailed model.

  12. Variability of Gas Composition and Flux Intensity in Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, J F; Schwager, Katherine; Washburn, Libe

    2005-01-01

    of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marineof gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine

  13. Updated determination of the solar neutrino fluxes from solar neutrino data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergstrom, Johannes; Maltoni, Michele; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Serenelli, Aldo M; Song, Ningqiang

    2016-01-01

    We present an update of the determination of the solar neutrino fluxes from a global analysis of the solar and terrestrial neutrino data in the framework of three-neutrino mixing. Using a Bayesian analysis we reconstruct the posterior probability distribution function for the eight normalization parameters of the solar neutrino fluxes plus the relevant masses and mixing, with and without imposing the luminosity constraint. We then use these results to compare the description provided by different Standard Solar Models. Our results show that, at present, both models with low and high metallicity can describe the data with equivalent statistical agreement. We also argue that even with the present experimental precision the solar neutrino data have the potential to improve the accuracy of the solar model predictions.

  14. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V. Bogy, David B.

    2014-02-10

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  15. Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.

  16. Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadi Godazgar; Mahdi Godazgar; Olaf Krueger; Hermann Nicolai

    2015-07-28

    We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.

  17. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  18. HFBR handbook, 1992: High flux beam reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axe, J.D.; Greenberg, R.

    1992-10-01

    Welcome to the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), one of the world premier neutron research facilities. This manual is intended primarily to acquaint outside users (and new Brookhaven staff members) with (almost) everything they need to know to work at the HFBR and to help make the stay at Brookhaven pleasant as well as profitable. Safety Training Programs to comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) mandates are in progress at BNL. There are several safety training requirements which must be met before users can obtain unescorted access to the HFBR. The Reactor Division has prepared specific safety training manuals which are to be sent to experimenters well in advance of their expected arrival at BNL to conduct experiments. Please familiarize yourself with this material and carefully pay strict attention to all the safety and security procedures that are in force at the HFBR. Not only your safety, but the continued operation of the facility, depends upon compliance.

  19. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  20. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  1. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  2. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  3. Volterra network modeling of the nonlinear finite-impulse reponse of the radiation belt flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    , and geomagnetically-induced currents on the ground which may lead to electrical grid blackouts[5, 7, 6]. A highly that such networks hold promise for the development of accurate and fully data-driven space weather modelling

  4. Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura| National2.11DESERT *BerkeleyBerkeley8 Best Estimate

  5. Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexico Independent StatisticsSpainTurkey Determine

  6. Irradiators for measuring the biological effects of low dose-rate ionizing radiation fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Matthew Allen

    2011-01-01

    Biological response to ionizing radiation differs with radiation field. Particle type, energy spectrum, and dose-rate all affect biological response per unit dose. This thesis describes methods of spectral analysis, ...

  7. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnets - U Machine Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  8. Magnetic pinning of flux lattice in superconducting-nanomagnet hybrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    of flux lattice in superconducting-nanomagnet hybrids D.This plays a key role in superconductor properties such as ?ingre- dients in superconductor based applications. The

  9. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current Source Inverters for HEVs and FCVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wireless Charging Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

  10. Ising interaction between capacitively-coupled superconducting flux qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiko Satoh; Yuichiro Matsuzaki; Kosuke Kakuyanagi; Koichi Semba; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Shiro Saito

    2015-01-30

    Here, we propose a scheme to generate a controllable Ising interaction between superconducting flux qubits. Existing schemes rely on inducting couplings to realize Ising interactions between flux qubits, and the interaction strength is controlled by an applied magnetic field On the other hand, we have found a way to generate an interaction between the flux qubits via capacitive couplings. This has an advantage in individual addressability, because we can control the interaction strength by changing an applied voltage that can be easily localized. This is a crucial step toward the realizing superconducting flux qubit quantum computation.

  11. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Machine without Permanent Magnets John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles...

  12. Observations of Diurnal to Weekly Variations of Monoterpene-Dominated Fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds from Mediterranean Forests: Implications for Regional Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fares, Silvano; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Xiaoyan, Jiang; Guenther, Alex B.; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco

    2013-09-04

    Most vascular plants species, especially trees, emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Global estimates of BVOC emissions from plants range from 1 to 1.5 Pg C yr?1.1 Mediterranean forest trees have been described as high BVOC emitters, with emission depending primarily on light and temperature, and therefore being promoted by the warm Mediterranean climate. In the presence of sufficient sunlight and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the oxidation of BVOCs can lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas with detrimental effects on plant health, crop yields, and human health. BVOCs are also precursors for aerosol formation, accounting for a significant fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in the atmosphere. The presidential Estate of Castelporziano covers an area of about 6000 ha located 25 km SW from the center of Rome, Italy (Figure 1) and hosts representative forest ecosystems typical of Mediterranean areas: holm oak forests, pine forests, dune vegetation, mixed oak and pine forests. Between 1995 and 2011, three intensive field campaigns were carried out on Mediterranean-type ecosystems inside the Estate. These campaigns were aimed at measuring BVOC emissions and environmental parameters, to improve formulation of basal emission factors (BEFs), that is, standardized emissions at 30 °C and 1000 ?mol m?2s?1 of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). BEFs are key input parameters of emission models. The first campaign in Castelporziano was a pioneering integrated study on biogenic emissions (1993? 19964). BVOC fluxes from different forest ecosystems were mainly investigated using plant- and leaf enclosures connected to adsorption tubes followed by GC?MS analysis in the laboratory. This allowed a first screening of Mediterranean species with respect to their BVOC emission potential, environmental control, and emission algorithms. In particular, deciduous oak species revealed high isoprene emissions (Quercus f rainetto, Quercus petrea, Quercus pubescens), while evergreen oaks emitted monoterpenes only, for example, Quercus ilex = holm oak. Differences in constitutive emission patterns discovered in Castelporziano supplied basic information to discriminate oak biodiversity in following studies.Ten years later, a second experimental campaign took place in spring and summer 2007 on a dune-shrubland experimental site. In this campaign, the use of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS14) provided the fast BVOC observations necessary for quasi-real-time flux measurements using Disjunct Eddy Covariance. This allowed for the first time continuous measurements and BEFs calculation at canopy level. Finally, in September 2011 a third campaign was performed with the aim of further characterizing and improving estimates of BVOC fluxes from mixed Mediterranean forests dominated by a mixed holm oak and stone pine forest, using for the first time a proton transfer reaction?time-of-flight?mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). In contrast to the standard quadrupole PTR-MS, which can only measure one m/z ratio at a discrete time, thus being inadequate to quantify fluxes of more than a handful of compounds simultaneously, PTR-TOF-MS allowed simultaneous measurements (10 Hz) of fluxes of all BVOCs at the canopy level by Eddy Covariance.17?20, 50 In this work, we reviewed BEFs from previous campaigns in Castelporziano and calculated new BEFs from the campaign based on PTR-TOF-MS analysis. The new BEFs were used to parametrize the model of emissions of gases and aerosols from nature (MEGAN v2.11).

  13. Can we detect "Unruh radiation" in the high intensity lasers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

    2011-02-23

    An accelerated particle sees the Minkowski vacuum as thermally excited, which is called the Unruh effect. Due to an interaction with the thermal bath, the particle moves stochastically like the Brownian motion in a heat bath. It has been discussed that the accelerated charged particle may emit extra radiation (the Unruh radiation) besides the Larmor radiation, and experiments are under planning to detect such radiation by using ultrahigh intensity lasers. There are, however, counterarguments that the radiation is canceled by an interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. In this reports, we review our recent analysis on the issue of the Unruh radiation. In this report, we particularly consider the thermalization of an accelerated particle in the scalar QED, and derive the relaxation time of the thermalization.

  14. Analytical Solutions for Radiative Transfer: Implications for Giant Planet Formation by Disk Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan P. Boss

    2008-12-12

    The disk instability mechanism for giant planet formation is based on the formation of clumps in a marginally-gravitationally unstable protoplanetary disk, which must lose thermal energy through a combination of convection and radiative cooling if they are to survive and contract to become giant protoplanets. While there is good observational support for forming at least some giant planets by disk instability, the mechanism has become theoretically contentious, with different three dimensional radiative hydrodynamics codes often yielding different results. Rigorous code testing is required to make further progress. Here we present two new analytical solutions for radiative transfer in spherical coordinates, suitable for testing the code employed in all of the Boss disk instability calculations. The testing shows that the Boss code radiative transfer routines do an excellent job of relaxing to and maintaining the analytical results for the radial temperature and radiative flux profiles for a spherical cloud with high or moderate optical depths, including the transition from optically thick to optically thin regions. These radial test results are independent of whether the Eddington approximation, diffusion approximation, or flux-limited diffusion approximation routines are employed. The Boss code does an equally excellent job of relaxing to and maintaining the analytical results for the vertical (theta) temperature and radiative flux profiles for a disk with a height proportional to the radial distance. These tests strongly support the disk instability mechanism for forming giant planets.

  15. Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

  16. Atomic Radiation (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

  17. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  18. Scheme to increase the output average spectral flux of the European XFEL at $14.4$ keV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    Techniques like inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) are currently limited by the photon flux available at X-ray sources. At $14.4$ keV, third generation synchrotron radiation sources produce a maximum of $10^{10}$ photons per second in a meV bandwidth. In this work we discuss about the possibility of increasing this flux a thousand-fold by exploiting high repetition rate self-seeded pulses at the European XFEL. Here we report on a feasibility study for an optimized configuration of the SASE2 beamline at the European XFEL which combines self-seeding and undulator tapering techniques in order to increase the average spectral flux at $14.4$ keV. In particular, we propose to perform monochromatization at $7.2$ keV with the help of self-seeding, and amplify the seed in the first part of output undulator. The amplification process can be stopped at a position well before saturation, where the electron beam gets considerable bunching at the 2nd harmonic of the coherent radiation. ...

  19. Fungal, bacterial, and archaeal communities mediating C cycling and trace gas flux in peatland ecosystems subject to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fungal, bacterial, and archaeal communities mediating C cycling and trace gas flux in peatland microbial community profiling in a network of natural peatland ecosystems spanning large-scale climate the drivers of microbial community composition via metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of samples from

  20. Magnetic flux concentrations from turbulent stratified convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Käpylä, P J; Kleeorin, N; Käpylä, M J; Rogachevskii, I

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) Context: The mechanisms that cause the formation of sunspots are still unclear. Aims: We study the self-organisation of initially uniform sub-equipartition magnetic fields by highly stratified turbulent convection. Methods: We perform simulations of magnetoconvection in Cartesian domains that are $8.5$-$24$ Mm deep and $34$-$96$ Mm wide. We impose either a vertical or a horizontal uniform magnetic field in a convection-driven turbulent flow. Results: We find that super-equipartition magnetic flux concentrations are formed near the surface with domain depths of $12.5$ and $24$ Mm. The size of the concentrations increases as the box size increases and the largest structures ($20$ Mm horizontally) are obtained in the 24 Mm deep models. The field strength in the concentrations is in the range of $3$-$5$ kG. The concentrations grow approximately linearly in time. The effective magnetic pressure measured in the simulations is positive near the surface and negative in the bulk of the convection zone. Its ...

  1. Wave momentum flux parameter: a descriptor for nearshore waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Wave momentum flux parameter: a descriptor for nearshore waves Steven A. Hughes* US Army Engineer Available online 7 October 2004 Abstract A new parameter representing the maximum depth-integrated wave momentum flux occurring over a wave length is proposed for characterizing the wave contribution

  2. Heat flux carried by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current mean flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    Heat flux carried by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current mean flow Che Sun Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA Received 18 of historical hydrographic data is applied to study the heat flux problem in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

  3. SpecNet Revisited: Bridging Flux and Remote Sensing Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coburn, Craig

    as a Working Group in 2003 with the goals of integrating remote sensing with biosphere-atmosphere carbon flux-effective technologies, improving the light-use efficiency model of carbon dioxide flux, consideration of view gases in addition to carbon dioxide, adoption of standardized and automated field sensors and sampling

  4. Flux-induced Isometry Gauging in Heterotic Strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Gao, Peng

    2007-01-05

    We study the effect of flux-induced isometry gauging of the scalar manifold in N = 2 heterotic string compactification with gauge fluxes. We show that a vanishing theorem by Witten provides the protection mechanism. The other ungauged isometries in hyper moduli space could also be protected, depending on the gauge bundle structure. We also discuss the related issue in IIB setting.

  5. www.sfei.org/rmp SEDIMENT FLUX to and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    www.sfei.org/rmp SEDIMENT FLUX to and from LOWER SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO BAY Sediment enters South San, the first to examine flux of suspended- sediment between the main basin of South Bay and Lower South Bay from other Bay segments could be a significant source of sediment for the salt-marsh restoration

  6. Carbon fluxes and storage in forests and landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    , as they store 45 % of the terrestrial carbon and account for ~50 % of soil calbon sequestration (Bonan 2008Chapter 6 Carbon fluxes and storage in forests and landscapes Jiquan Chen, Ranjeet John, Ge Sun this chapter with a discussion of the major carbon fluxes (e.g., gross primary ploductlon, ecosystem

  7. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS G. Liu, Y. Liu, T. Toto, M. Jensen advantage of the long-term observations of surface fluxes collected by the DOE ARM program at the Great the ARM measurements based on the EC (Eddy- Correlation) and EBBR (Energy Balance Bowen Ratio) methods

  8. Anomaly-free representations of the holonomy-flux algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SangChul Yoon

    2008-09-07

    We work on the uniqueness, gr-qc/0504147, of representations of the holonomy-flux algebra in loop quantum gravity. We argue that for analytic diffeomorphisms, the flux operators can be only constants as functions on the configuration space in representations with no anomaly, which are zero in the standard representation.

  9. UV Radiation Fields Produced by Young Embedded Star Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Fatuzzo; F. C. Adams

    2007-12-20

    A large fraction of stars form within young embedded clusters, and these environments produce a substantial ultraviolet (UV) background radiation field, which can provide feedback on the star formation process. To assess the possible effects of young stellar clusters on the formation of their constituent stars and planets, this paper constructs the expected radiation fields produced by these clusters. We include both the observed distribution of cluster sizes $N$ in the solar neighborhood and an extended distribution that includes clusters with larger $N$. The paper presents distributions of the FUV and EUV luminosities for clusters with given stellar membership $N$, distributions of FUV and EUV luminosity convolved over the expected distribution of cluster sizes $N$, and the corresponding distributions of FUV and EUV fluxes. These flux distributions are calculated both with and without the effects of extinction. Finally, we consider the effects of variations in the stellar initial mass function on these radiation fields. Taken together, these results specify the distributions of radiation environments that forming solar systems are expected to experience.

  10. Upgrading scientific capabilities at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.D.; Farrar, M.B.

    1997-07-14

    Following termination of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project, a program of upgrades to the Department of Energy`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was devised by a team of researchers and reactor operators and has been proposed to the department. HFIR is a multipurpose research reactor, commissioned in 1965, with missions in four nationally important areas: isotope production, especially transuranic isotopes; neutron scattering; neutron activation analysis; and irradiation testing of materials. For neutron scattering, there are two major enhancements and several smaller ones. The first is the installation of a small, hydrogen cold neutron source in one of the four existing beam tubes: because of the high reactor power, and the use of new design concepts developed for ANS, the cold source will be as bright as, or brighter than, the Institute Laue Langevin liquid deuterium vertical cold source, although space limitations mean that there will be far fewer cold beams and instruments at HFIR. This project is underway, and the cold source is expected to come on line following an extended shutdown in 1999 to replace the reactor`s beryllium reflector. The second major change proposed would put five thermal neutron guides at an existing beam port and construct a new guide hall to accommodate instruments on these very intense beams.

  11. Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2006-12-12

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  12. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hasegawa, H.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Eriksson, S.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Kawano, H.

    2015-02-03

    We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that amore »magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D Grad–Shafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.« less

  13. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara (Japan). Institute of Space and Astronautical Science.] (ORCID:000000021172021X); Sonnerup, B. U. Ö. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Eriksson, S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nakamura, T. K. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kawano, H. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that a magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D Grad–Shafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.

  14. ON THE JITTER RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelner, S. R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-6917 Heidelberg (Germany); Aharonian, F. A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Khangulyan, D., E-mail: skelner@rambler.ru, E-mail: Felix.Aharonian@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: khangul@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    In a small-scale turbulent medium, when the nonrelativistic Larmor radius R{sub L} = mc {sup 2}/eB exceeds the correlation length {lambda} of the magnetic field, the magnetic Bremsstrahlung radiation of charged relativistic particles unavoidably proceeds to the so-called jitter radiation regime. The cooling timescale of parent particles is identical to the synchrotron cooling time, thus this radiation regime can be produced with very high efficiency in different astrophysical sources characterized by high turbulence. The jitter radiation has distinct spectral features shifted toward high energies, compared to synchrotron radiation. This effect makes the jitter mechanism an attractive broad-band gamma-ray production channel, which, in highly magnetized and turbulent environments, can compete or even dominate over other high-energy radiation mechanisms. In this paper, we present a novel study of the spectral properties of the jitter radiation performed within the framework of perturbation theory. The derived general expression for the spectral power of radiation is presented in a compact and convenient form for numerical calculations.

  15. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  16. Photochemistry Radiation and Photolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    energy is done (i.e. energy per unit time) #12;Sample Problem: A microwave oven puts out radiation at 50? How does a microwave oven heat food anyway? First note that 50 GHz is a frequency (Hz = s-1) E = hn, as a function of l · Amount of solar radiation, as a function of

  17. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  18. A nonstorm time enhancement of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    A nonstorm time enhancement of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt Quintin Schiller (based on the Dst index), relativistic electron fluxes were enhanced over 2.5 orders of magnitude Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), onboard the Van Allen Probes; Relativistic Electron and Proton

  19. Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    heat transfer from the flame to the fuel bed is negligible. Radiative effects are more significant], the basic approach to modeling Sf is to equate the heat flux per unit area from the gas to the fuel surface Colloquium topic area: 7. Microgravity combustion Keywords: Microgravity-Experiments, Microgravity

  20. Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric observations-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer data match closely with those from the Cimel sun- photometer data for two of the sunphotometer to retrieve aerosol optical depths, a, along with observed surface flux data from field campaigns

  1. Adaptive Linear Prediction of Radiation Belt Electrons Using the Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to changes in solar wind bulk speed using linear prediction filters [Baker et al., 1990; Vassiliadis et alAdaptive Linear Prediction of Radiation Belt Electrons Using the Kalman Filter E.J. Rigler, D improvement in zero-time-lag electron log-flux "predictions" relative to models that are based on time

  2. Enhanced Cooling for High Heat Flux Applications Using Droplet Impact and Optical Cavitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Optical Radiation Interaction with Matter, Leningrad,Optical Radiation Interaction with Matter, Leningrad,Optical Radiation Interaction with Matter, Leningrad,

  3. Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    energy, is energy in the form of waves or particles moving through space. Visi- ble light, heat, radio in the form of electromagnetic waves. Examples include gamma rays, ultraviolet light, and radio waves waves, and alpha particles are examples of radiation. When people feel warmth from sunlight

  4. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore »the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.« less

  5. Radiation induced strand breakage analyzed by tunel technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Marissa Dawn

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to fully characterize the effectiveness and limits of using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique for analysis of radiation ...

  6. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-03-10

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10{sup 16} g with a momentum of 0.57x10{sup 22} g cm s{sup -1} by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  7. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Solar Radia- tion. Solar Energy~' No. 3, P:1. 5. Evans,of Conservation and Solar Energy, U.S. Department of Energyof the International Solar Energy Society, Atlanta, and

  8. Early Salvage Hormonal Therapy for Biochemical Failure Improved Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients After Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy Plus Radiation Therapy-A Secondary Analysis of Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mydin, Aminudin R., E-mail: aminudinrahman@googlemail.com [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Dunne, Mary T.; Finn, Marie A. [Clinical Trials Resource Unit, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)] [Clinical Trials Resource Unit, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Armstrong, John G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the survival benefit of early vs late salvage hormonal therapy (HT), we performed a secondary analysis on patients who developed recurrence from Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01, a randomized trial comparing 4 vs 8 months neoadjuvant HT plus radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate- and high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 patients from the trial who recurred were analyzed at a median follow-up of 8.5 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of salvage HT: 57 patients had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) {<=}10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 1, early), 21 patients had PSA >10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 2, late), and 24 patients had distant metastases (group 3, late). The endpoint analyzed was overall survival (OS) calculated from 2 different time points: date of enrolment in the trial (OS1) and date of initiation of salvage HT (OS2). Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression model. Results: The OS1 differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS1 at 10 years was 78% in group 1, 42% in group 2, and 29% in group 3. The OS2 also differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS2 at 6 years was 70% in group 1, 47% in group 2, and 22% in group 3. Group 1 had the longest median time from end of RT to biochemical failure compared with groups 2 and 3 (3.3, 0.9, and 1.7 years, respectively; P<.0005). Group 1 also had the longest median PSA doubling time compared with groups 2 and 3 (9.9, 3.6, and 2.4 months, respectively; P<.0005). On multivariate analysis, timing of salvage HT, time from end of RT to biochemical failure, and PSA nadir on salvage HT were significant predictors of survival. Conclusion: Early salvage HT based on PSA {<=}10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases improved survival in patients with prostate cancer after failure of initial treatment with neoadjuvant HT plus RT.

  9. Prognostic Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Dose-Escalated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine: Analysis of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Dose Escalation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jvainsh@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abrams, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Khan, Gazala [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Leslie, William [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Although established in the postresection setting, the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is less clear. We examined the prognostic utility of CA19-9 in patients with unresectable LAPC treated on a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with unresectable LAPC were treated at the University of Michigan on a phase 1/2 trial of IMRT dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. CA19-9 was obtained at baseline and during routine follow-up. Cox models were used to assess the effect of baseline factors on freedom from local progression (FFLP), distant progression (FFDP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Stepwise forward regression was used to build multivariate predictive models for each endpoint. Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for the present analysis. On univariate analysis, baseline CA19-9 and age predicted OS, CA19-9 at baseline and 3 months predicted PFS, gross tumor volume (GTV) and black race predicted FFLP, and CA19-9 at 3 months predicted FFDP. On stepwise multivariate regression modeling, baseline CA19-9, age, and female sex predicted OS; baseline CA19-9 and female sex predicted both PFS and FFDP; and GTV predicted FFLP. Patients with baseline CA19-9 ?90 U/mL had improved OS (median 23.0 vs 11.1 months, HR 2.88, P<.01) and PFS (14.4 vs 7.0 months, HR 3.61, P=.001). CA19-9 progression over 90 U/mL was prognostic for both OS (HR 3.65, P=.001) and PFS (HR 3.04, P=.001), and it was a stronger predictor of death than either local progression (HR 1.46, P=.42) or distant progression (HR 3.31, P=.004). Conclusions: In patients with unresectable LAPC undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy, baseline CA19-9 was independently prognostic even after established prognostic factors were controlled for, whereas CA19-9 progression strongly predicted disease progression and death. Future trials should stratify by baseline CA19-9 and incorporate CA19-9 progression as a criterion for progressive disease.

  10. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    occurring within the detector, radiation may also change theLBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS Richard H.LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS* Richard H.

  11. Radiative Reactions and Coherence Modeling in the High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles N. Vittitoe; Mario Rabinowitz

    2003-06-03

    A high altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with a peak field intensity of 5 x 10^4 V/m carries momentum that results in a retarding force on the average Compton electron (radiating coherently to produce the waveform) with magnitude near that of the geomagnetic force responsible for the coherent radiation. The retarding force results from a self field effect. The Compton electron interaction with the self generated magnetic field due to the other electrons accounts for the momentum density in the propagating wave; interaction with the self generated electric field accounts for the energy flux density in the propagating wave. Coherent addition of radiation is also quantitatively modeled.

  12. Benchmarking gyrokinetic simulations in a toroidal flux-tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Bravenec, R. [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)] [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A flux-tube model is implemented in the global turbulence code GEM [Y. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] in order to facilitate benchmarking with Eulerian codes. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. The initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ?B, etc.) to be equal to the values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. This implementation shows disagreement with Eulerian codes in linear simulations. An alternative flux-tube model based on a complete local equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation [J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 105009 (2009)] is then implemented. This results in better agreement between Eulerian codes and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The PIC algorithm based on the v{sub ||}-formalism [J. Reynders, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1992] and the gyrokinetic ion/fluid electron hybrid model with kinetic electron closure [Y. Chan and S. E. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 18, 055703 (2011)] are also implemented in the flux-tube geometry and compared with the direct method for both the ion temperature gradient driven modes and the kinetic ballooning modes.

  13. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, B/252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Shimizu, Toshifumi [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  14. Colour flux-tubes in static Pentaquark systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Bicudo; Nuno Cardoso; Marco Cardoso

    2011-11-01

    The colour fields created by the static tetraquark and pentaquark systems are computed in quenched SU(3) lattice QCD, with gauge invariant lattice operators, in a 24^3 x 48 lattice at beta=6.2 . We generate our quenched configurations with GPUs, and detail the respective benchmanrks in different SU(N) groups. While at smaller distances the coulomb potential is expected to dominate, at larger distances it is expected that fundamental flux tubes, similar to the flux-tube between a quark and an antiquark, emerge and confine the quarks. In order to minimize the potential the fundamental flux tubes should connect at 120o angles. We compute the square of the colour fields utilizing plaquettes, and locate the static sources with generalized Wilson loops and with APE smearing. The tetraquark system is well described by a double-Y-shaped flux-tube, with two Steiner points, but when quark-antiquark pairs are close enough the two junctions collapse and we have an X-shaped flux-tube, with one Steiner point. The pentaquark system is well described by a three-Y-shaped flux-tube where the three flux the junctions are Steiner points.

  15. Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combinations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, Kim; Piatt, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  16. Precision Measurement of the ($e^+ + e^?$) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türko?lu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray ($e^+ + e^?$) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million ($e^+ + e^?$) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index ?=?3.170±0.008(stat+syst)±0.008(energy?scale).

  17. Precision Measurement of the(e++e-)Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; et al

    2014-11-26

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e++e-) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e++e-) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index ?= -3.170 ± 0.008(stat+syst) ± 0.008(energy scale).

  18. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade...

  19. Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

  20. Energy flux fluctuations in a finite volume of turbulent flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh Bandi; Walter Goldburg; John Cressman Jr.; Alain Pumir

    2006-07-19

    The flux of turbulent kinetic energy from large to small spatial scales is measured in a small domain B of varying size R. The probability distribution function of the flux is obtained using a time-local version of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. The measurements, made at a moderate Reynolds number, show frequent events where the flux is backscattered from small to large scales, their frequency increasing as R is decreased. The observations are corroborated by a numerical simulation based on the motion of many particles and on an explicit form of the eddy damping.

  1. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  2. Lessons Learned in the Update of a Safety Limit for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, David Howard

    2009-01-01

    A recent unreviewed safety question (USQ) regarding a portion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) transient decay heat removal analysis focused on applicability of a heat transfer correlation at the low flow end of reactor operations. During resolution of this issue, review of the correlations used to establish the safety limit (SL) on reactor flux-to-flow ratio revealed the need to change the magnitude of the SL at the low flow end of reactor operations and the need to update the hot spot fuel damage criteria to incorporate current knowledge involving parallel channel flow stability. Because of the original safety design strategy for the reactor, resolution of the issues for the flux-to-flow ratio involved reevaluation of all key process variable SLs and limiting control settings (LCSs) using the current version of the heat transfer analysis code for the reactor. Goals of the work involved updating and upgrading the SL analysis where necessary, while preserving the safety design strategy for the reactor. Changes made include revisions to the safety design criteria at low flows to address the USQ, update of the process- and analysis input-variable uncertainty considerations, and upgrade of the safety design criteria at high flow. The challenges faced during update/upgrade of this SL and LCS are typical of the problems found in the integration of safety into the design process for a complex facility. In particular, the problems addressed in the area of instrument uncertainties provide valuable lessons learned for establishment and configuration control of SLs for large facilities.

  3. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  4. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  5. Heat flux modeling using ion drift effects in DIII-D H-mode plasmas with resonant magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wingen, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States) [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Schmitz, O. [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung-Plasma Physik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany)] [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung-Plasma Physik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Spatschek, K. H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The heat flux patterns measured in low-collisionality DIII-D H-mode plasmas strongly deviate from simultaneously measured CII emission patterns, used as indicator of particle flux, during applied resonant magnetic perturbations. While the CII emission clearly shows typical striations, which are similar to magnetic footprint patterns obtained from vacuum field line tracing, the heat flux is usually dominated by one large peak at the strike point position. The vacuum approximation, which only considers applied magnetic fields and neglects plasma response and plasma effects, cannot explain the shape of the observed heat flux pattern. One possible explanation is the effect of particle drifts. This is included in the field line equations and the results are discussed with reference to the measurement. Electrons and ions show different drift motions at thermal energy levels in a guiding center approximation. While electrons hardly deviate from the field lines, ions can drift several centimetres away from field line flux surfaces. A model is presented in which an ion heat flux, based on the ion drift motion from various kinetic energies as they contribute to a thermal Maxwellian distribution, is calculated. The simulated heat flux is directly compared to measurements with a varying edge safety factor q{sub 95}. This analysis provides evidence for the dominate effect of high-energy ions in carrying heat from the plasma inside the separatrix to the target. High-energy ions are deposited close to the unperturbed strike line, while low-energy ions can travel into the striated magnetic topology.

  6. Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Elder, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance(kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of lightweight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

  7. Backreaction of Hawking Radiation on a Gravitationally Collapsing Star I: Black Holes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Mersini-Houghton

    2014-06-05

    Particle creation leading to Hawking radiation is produced by the changing gravitational field of the collapsing star. The two main initial conditions in the far past placed on the quantum field from which particles arise, are the Hartle Hawking vacuum and the Unruh vacuum. The former leads to a time symmetric thermal bath of radiation, while the latter to a flux of radiation coming out of the collapsing star. The energy of Hawking radiation in the interior of the collapsing star is negative and equal in magnitude to its value at future infinity. This work investigates the backreaction of Hawking radiation on the interior of a gravitationally collapsing star, in a Hartle-Hawking initial vacuum. It shows that due to the negative energy Hawking radiation in the interior, the collapse of the star stops at a finite radius, before the singularity and the event horizon of a black hole have a chance to form. That is, the star bounces instead of collapsing to a black hole. A trapped surface near the last stage of the star's collapse to its minimum size may still exist temporarily. Its formation depends on the details of collapse. Results for the case of Hawking flux of radiation with the Unruh initial state, will be given in a companion paper II.

  8. Multiple Scattering of Seismic Waves from Ensembles of Upwardly Lossy Thin Flux Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Chris S

    2015-01-01

    Our previous semi-analytic treatment of f- and p-mode multiple scattering from ensembles of thin flux tubes (Hanson and Cally, Astrophys. J. 781, 125; 791, 129, 2014) is extended by allowing both sausage and kink waves to freely escape at the top of the model using a radiative boundary condition there. As expected, this additional avenue of escape, supplementing downward loss into the deep solar interior, results in substantially greater absorption of incident f- and p-modes. However, less intuitively, it also yields mildly to substantially smaller phase shifts in waves emerging from the ensemble. This may have implications for the interpretation of seismic data for solar plage regions, and in particular their small measured phase shifts.

  9. RADIATION RESEARCH 165, 240247 (2006) 0033-7587/06 $15.00

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocke, David M.

    2006-01-01

    of the Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation in Radiation Therapy Patients Joerg Lehmann,a,b,1 Robin L. Stern by Radiation Research Society INTRODUCTION The significance of the biological activity of low-dose ionizing., Hartmann Siantar, C. L. and Goldberg, Z. Dosimetry for Quantitative Analysis of the Effects of Low-Dose

  10. Simulating and Detecting Radiation-Induced Errors for Onboard Machine Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulating and Detecting Radiation-Induced Errors for Onboard Machine Learning Robert Granat, Kiri-based fault tolerance (ABFT) methods into onboard data analysis algorithms to detect radiation-induced errors for detecting and recovering from such errors. A common hardware technique for achieving radiation protection

  11. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER USING DISCRETE ORDINATES METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    TWO-DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER USING DISCRETE ORDINATES METHOD Zhixiong Guo for the first time to solve transient radiative heat transfer in a two-dimensional rectangular enclosure of solution method of radiative heat transfer in participating media in recent decades. However, the analysis

  12. Numerical Passage from Radiative Heat Transfer to Nonlinear Diffusion Models \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeiser, Christian

    Numerical Passage from Radiative Heat Transfer to Nonlinear Diffusion Models \\Lambda A. Klar y C. Schmeiser z Abstract Radiative heat transfer equations including heat conduction are consid­ ered situations are presented. Keywords. radiative heat transfer, asymptotic analysis, nonlinear diffusion limit

  13. SEPARATION OF THE RIBBON FROM GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX USING THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF IBEX OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Fairchild, K.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Allegrini, F.; Dayeh, M.; Livadiotis, G.; Reno, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Janzen, P.; Reisenfeld, D.; Bzowski, M.; Sokó?, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Christian, E. R.; DeMajistre, R.; Frisch, P.; and others

    2014-11-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the IBEX ribbon, which stretches across much of the sky observed in energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). The ribbon covers a narrow (?20°-50°) region that is believed to be roughly perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field. Superimposed on the IBEX ribbon is the globally distributed flux that is controlled by the processes and properties of the heliosheath. This is a second study that utilizes a previously developed technique to separate ENA emissions in the ribbon from the globally distributed flux. A transparency mask is applied over the ribbon and regions of high emissions. We then solve for the globally distributed flux using an interpolation scheme. Previously, ribbon separation techniques were applied to the first year of IBEX-Hi data at and above 0.71 keV. Here we extend the separation analysis down to 0.2 keV and to five years of IBEX data enabling first maps of the ribbon and the globally distributed flux across the full sky of ENA emissions. Our analysis shows the broadening of the ribbon peak at energies below 0.71 keV and demonstrates the apparent deformation of the ribbon in the nose and heliotail. We show global asymmetries of the heliosheath, including both deflection of the heliotail and differing widths of the lobes, in context of the direction, draping, and compression of the heliospheric magnetic field. We discuss implications of the ribbon maps for the wide array of concepts that attempt to explain the ribbon's origin. Thus, we present the five-year separation of the IBEX ribbon from the globally distributed flux in preparation for a formal IBEX data release of ribbon and globally distributed flux maps to the heliophysics community.

  14. Application of Stochastic Radiative Transfer Theory to the ARM Cloud-Radiative Parameterization Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana E. Veron

    2012-04-09

    This project had two primary goals: (1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and (2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, climatology of cloud properties was developed at the ARM CART sites, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed in the final report.

  15. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  16. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  17. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  18. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  19. Radiative-convective instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Allison A.

    Radiative-moist-convective equilibrium (RCE) is a simple paradigm for the statistical equilibrium the earth's climate would exhibit in the absence of lateral energy transport. It has generally been assumed that for a given ...

  20. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.