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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thunderhead Radiation Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX Chuck Long Jay Mace Intent * Provide downwelling broadband radiation measurements at Thunderhead * Physically small footprint portable system * Designed to provide inputs necessary for Radiative Flux Analysis Basic RFA System COPS Hornisgrinde Deployment 1200m elevation System Components * Eppley ventilated PSP * Eppley ventilated PIR * Delta-T SPN-1 * Vaisala HMP-50 T/RH probe * Campbell CR23X datalogger SPN-1 Radiometer * Uses 7 thermopile detectors and a patented shading pattern * Measures Total and Diffuse SW with no moving parts * Includes internal heaters Relative accuracy StDev = 13.6 Winter Mountain Deployment Frost/Snow Mitigation * NSA Heated Ventilator Evaluation IOP - Testing various configurations and

2

Cloud Identification for ERBE Radiative Flux Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Derivation of top of atmosphere radiative fluxes requires the use of measured satellite radiances and assumptions about the anisotropy of the Earth's radiation field. The primary modification of the Earth's anisotropy is caused by variations in ...

Bruce A. Wielicki; Richard N. Green

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

RADIATION FROM COMOVING POYNTING FLUX ACCELERATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We derive analytic formulas for the radiation power output when electrons are accelerated by a relativistic comoving kinetic Poynting flux, and validate these analytic results with particle-in-cell simulations. We also derive analytically the critical frequency of the radiation spectrum. Potential astrophysical applications of these results are discussed. A quantitative model of gamma-ray bursts based on the breakout of kinetic Poynting flux is presented.

Liang, Edison; Noguchi, Koichi [Rice University, Houston TX 77005-1892 (United States)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

Radiation from Comoving Poynting Flux Acceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive analytic formulas for the radiation power output when electrons are accelerated by a relativistic comoving kinetic Poynting flux, and validate these analytic results with Particle-In-Cell simulations. We also derive analytically the critical frequency of the radiation spectrum. Potential astrophysical applications of these results are discussed. A quantitative model of gamma-ray bursts based on the breakout of kinetic Poynting flux is presented.

Liang, Edison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Radiation from Kinetic Poynting Flux Acceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive analytic formulas for the power output and critical frequency of radiation by electrons accelerated by relativistic kinetic Poynting flux, and validate these results with Particle-In-Cell plasma simulations. We find that the in-situ radiation power output and critical frequency are much below those predicted by the classical synchrotron formulae. We discuss potential astrophysical applications of these results.

Edison Liang; Koichi Noguchi

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

6

The Global Character of the Flux of Downward Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four different types of estimates of the surface downwelling longwave radiative flux (DLR) are reviewed. One group of estimates synthesizes global cloud, aerosol, and other information in a radiation model that is used to calculate fluxes. Because ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Martin Wild; Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.; Tristan L’Ecuyer; Seiji Kato; David S. Henderson

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Experiments with Cloud Properties: Impact on Surface Radiative Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface provides the primary forcing of the climate system, and thus, information on this parameter is needed at a global scale. Several satellite-based estimates of surface radiative fluxes are available, but ...

H. Wang; R. T. Pinker; P. Minnis; M. M. Khaiyer

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Surface Radiative Fluxes in Sub-Sahel Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports results of observations of radiative fluxes measured in sub-Sahel Africa during a 2-yr period (1992–94). Shortwave radiation in the solar spectrum (0.2–4.0 ?m), photosynthetically active radiation (0.4–0.7 ?m), and longwave ...

F. Miskolczi; T. O. Aro; M. Iziomon; R. T. Pinker

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

ARM - PI Product - Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsAtmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & ProductsAtmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux 1997.01.01 - 2010.12.31 Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description This data product contains atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

10

Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, T. B. Zhuravleva, and S. Y. Popov Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch...

11

Parameterization of Radiative Flux Profiles within Layer Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical structure of radiative flux profiles within clouds can have a significant impact on the thermodynamic processes that maintain and dissipate the clouds, particularly in the case of marine stratus and stratocumulus. However, dynamic ...

Howard P. Hanson; Vernon E. Derr

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Diurnal Covariation in Soil Heat Flux and Net Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diurnal variation in soil heat flux is a key constraint on the amount of energy available for sensible and latent heating of the lower troposphere. Many studies have demonstrated that soil heat flux G is strongly correlated with net radiation Rn. ...

Joseph A. Santanello Jr.; Mark A. Friedl

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada Introduction A single-column model (SCM) is used to examine the sensitivity of basic quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes to various parameter- izations of clouds and cloud microphysics. The SCM was run at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites using forcing data derived from forecast products. The forecast

14

The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Las Vegas, Nevada Introduction We have used a single-column model (SCM) to examine the sensitivity of fundamental quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes to various parameterizations of clouds and cloud microphysics. When an SCM, which consists of one isolated column of a global atmospheric model, is forced with observational estimates of horizontal advection terms, the parameterizations within the SCM produce time-dependent fields which can be

15

Validation of General Circulation Model Radiative Fluxes Using Surface Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface radiative fluxes of the ECHAM3 General Circulation Model (GCM) with T2 1, T42, and T 106 resolutions have been validated using observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, World Climate Program-Water Project A7). GEBA ...

Martin Wild; Atsumu Ohmura; Hans Gilgen; Erich Roeckner

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Would be the photon a composed particle? quantization of field fluxes in electromagnetic radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[En] Here it is made a comparative analysis between the classical and the quantum expressions for the energy of electromagnetic radiation (ER). The comparison points to the possibility of the quantization of the magnetic and the electric field fluxes in the ER.

Celso de Araujo Duarte

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Surface Solar Radiation Flux and Cloud Radiative Forcing for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP): A Satellite, Surface Observations, and Radiative Transfer Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents surface solar radiation flux and cloud radiative forcing results obtained by using a combination of satellite and surface observations interpreted by means of a simple plane-parallel radiative transfer model called 2001. This ...

Catherine Gautier; Martin Landsfeld

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Satellite Determinations of the Relationship between Total Longwave Radiation Flux and Infrared Window Radiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nimbus-7 satellite observations are used to determine the relationship between the total longwave radiation flux and the radiance in the 10-12 ?m infrared window. The total longwave fluxes are obtained from the earth radiation budget (ERB) narrow-...

George Ohring; Arnold Gruber; Robert Ellingson

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Radiation from Poynting Flux Acceleration and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the radiation output of electrons accelerated by Poynting flux numerically from Particle-In-Cell simulations, and derive an analytic formula to explain these numerical results. We show that the in-situ power output and critical frequency are much below those predicted by the classical synchrotron formulae. We then apply these results to a model of long gamma-ray bursts. This model predicts spectral break energies remarkably consistent with the observed values.

Liang, Edison

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Estimation of Surface Radiation and Energy Flux Densities from Single-Level Weather Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme is proposed that relates surface flux densities of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum to routine weather data. The scheme contains parameterizations concerning the radiation components and the surface energy flux densities. The ...

Wim C. de Rooy; A. A. M. Holtslag

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Enhanced flux balance analysis to model metabolic networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) is a widely used technique to predict rates of reactions in metabolic networks in cells under steady state using only stoichiometric information about the reactions. In this work, we introduce Enhanced Flux Balance Analysis ...

Nishanth Ulhas Nair; Navin Goyal; Nagasuma R. Chandra

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Feedbacks between Eddy Heat Fluxes and Radiative Heating in an Energy-Balance Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of midlatitude temperature structure to changes in radiative forcing is examined in an analytical energy-balance model that includes parameterized eddy heat fluxes and linear radiative heating. The characteristics of heat-...

Lee E. Branscome; Enda O'Brien

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The CERES/ARM/GEWEX Experiment (CAGEX) for the Retrieval of Radiative Fluxes with Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results from a temporally intensive, limited area, radiative transfer model experiment are on-line for investigating the vertical profile of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes from the surface to the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The CERES/...

Thomas P. Charlock; Timothy L. Alberta

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

A Variational Method for Computing Surface Heat Fluxes from ARM Surface Energy and Radiation Balance Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variational method is developed to compute surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat from observed wind, temperature, humidity, and surface energy and radiation budget by the surface energy and radiation balance systems (SERBS). In comparison ...

Qin Xu; Chong-Jian Qiu

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Calculating Monthly Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates fromMonthly Cloud Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiative transfer model from NCAR’s general circulation model CCM3 is modified to calculate monthly radiative fluxes and heating rates from monthly observations of cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project ...

John W. Bergman; Harry H. Hendon

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Observations and Modeling of Downward Radiative Fluxes (Solar and Infrared) in Urban/Rural Areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pollutants (gaseous and aerosol) contained in urban atmospheres alter radiative fluxes at the surface.Numerous radiative models have been developed, and while few experimental data are available, results areoften contradictory. We have taken ...

Claude Estournel; Raoul Vehil; Daniel Guedalia; Jacques Fontan; Aimé Druilhet

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Flux: for brass quintet with analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper will examine the piece Flux: for Brass Quintet, completed in the spring of 2010 by Robert DeVet. It will first examine the system… (more)

Devet, Robert

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of a New Atmosphere–Soil–Vegetation Model. Part II: Impacts on In-Canopy Latent Heat Flux over a Winter Wheat Field Determined by Detailed Calculation of Canopy Radiation Transmission and Stomatal Resistance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the validation and sensitivity analysis of an atmosphere–soil–vegetation model. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer submodels for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation and a radiation scheme for the transmission ...

Haruyasu Nagai

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Coupling of the Radiative, Convective, and Surface Fluxes over the Equatorial Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An idealized energy-balance model for a closed circulation is first presented to illustrate the coupling between the net tropospheric radiative cooling, the surface fluxes and the mean subsidence away from the precipitation zones. Then a one-...

A. K. Betts; W. Ridgway

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux by Actinometer and of Maximal Polarization of Sky Brightness in the Solar Almucantar A. Kh. Shukurov, K. A....

32

Solar Radiative Fluxes for Stochastic, Scale-invariant Broken Cloud Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiative fluxes for broken, cumuloform cloud fields are examined from the point of view of subgrid parameterization for general circulation models (GCMs). A simple stochastic scaling model is used to simulate extensive broken cloud fields ...

Howard W. Barker; John A. Davies

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Validation of Parameterized Algorithms Used to Derive TRMM–CERES Surface Radiative Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterized shortwave and longwave algorithms developed at the Langley Research Center have been used to derive surface radiative fluxes in the processing of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data obtained from flight ...

Shashi K. Gupta; David P. Kratz; Anne C. Wilber; L. Cathy Nguyen

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions, an issue that has been largely neglected so far. We the representation of biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We

35

Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

primary radiation flux measurements at the SGP extended facilities are obtained from the Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS). In this study, we examine the radiation...

36

Comparison of radon fluxes with gamma-radiation exposure rates and soil /sup 226/Ra concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radon fluxes and contact gamma-radiation-exposure rates were measured at the grid points of rectangular grids on three properties in Edgemont, South Dakota that were known to have deposits of residual radioactivity relatively near to the surface. The coefficient of determination, r/sup 2/, between the radon fluxes and the contact gamma-radiation-exposure rates varied from 0.89 to 0.31 for the three properties. The property having the highest fluxes and residual radioactivity of relatively uniform depth showed the highest correlation between fluxes and exposure rates, and the property having residual radioactivity that varied considerably in depth showed the lowest. Correlations between fluxes and /sup 226/Ra concentrations measured in boreholes that varied in depth from 60 to 195 cm were lower than those between fluxes and exposure rates, indicating that exposure rates are better than /sup 226/Ra measurements for detecting elevated radon fluxes from near-surface deposits. Measurements made on one property at two different times indicated that if the average flux were determined from a large number (40) of measurements at one time, the average flux at a later time could be estimated from a few measurements using the assumption that the change in the flux at individual locations will be equal to the change in the average flux. Flux measurements around two buildings showing elevated indoor radon-daughter concentrations, but around which no residual radioactivity had been discovered by /sup 226/Ra and gamma-radiation measurements, provided no clear indication of the presence of such material, possibly because none was present.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, V.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

An Analysis of Moisture Fluxes into the Gulf of California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the nature of episodes of enhanced warm-season moisture flux into the Gulf of California. Both spatial structure and primary time scales of the fluxes are examined using the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis data for the period 1980–...

Man-Li C. Wu; Siegfried D. Schubert; Max J. Suarez; Norden E. Huang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Differential evolution and its application to metabolic flux analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metabolic flux analysis with measurement data from 13C tracer experiments has been an important approach for exploring metabolic networks. Though various methods were developed for 13C positional enrichment or isotopomer modelling, ...

Jing Yang; Sarawan Wongsa; Visakan Kadirkamanathan; Stephen A. Billings; Phillip C. Wright

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Arctic Ocean Radiative Fluxes and Cloud Forcing Estimated from the ISCCP C2 Cloud Dataset, 1983?1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983?90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes compare well with ...

Axel J. Schweiger; Jeffrey R. Key

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are compared with calculations made with a state-of-the art radiative transfer model (Modtran). The model is driven by measurements that give an as accurate as possible...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High-resolution clouds and radiative fluxes from satellites| Transferabilty of methods and application to monsoon issues.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? High-resolution information on clouds and radiative fluxes is produced for the Indian and African monsoon regions of interest to the GEWEX Project as articulated… (more)

Wonsick, Margaret M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Aerosol Radiative Impact on Spectral Solar Flux at the Surface, Derived from Principal-Plane Sky Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of the spectral solar flux reaching the surface in cloud-free conditions are required to determine the aerosol radiative impact and to test aerosol models that are used to calculate radiative forcing of climate. Spectral ...

Y. J. Kaufman; D. Tanré; B. N. Holben; S. Mattoo; L. A. Remer; T. F. Eck; J. Vaughan; Bernadette Chatenet

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Solar radiation flux and insolation data for southern Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Weather data pertinent to the development of solar energy heating in the Northern Intermountain region were desired for the purpose of assessing the usefulness and potential economics of utilizing solar energy in the region. The data reported herein are for several southern Idaho stations and for Salt Lake City, and are considered to be representative of the area from the eastern slopes of the Cascades to the western slopes of the northern Rockies. While existing data are not highly accurate and are derived from widely separated stations, approximate estimates may be made for the solar flux in the area. Methods for acquiring more detailed data in specific locations are described in this report. (auth)

Buchenauer, C.J.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The relevance of particle flux monitors in accelerator-based activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

One of the most critical parameters in activation analysis is the flux density of the activating radiation, its spatial distribution in particular. The validity of the basic equation for calculating the activity induced to the exposed item depends upon the fulfilment of several conditions, the most relevant of them being equal doses of incident activating radiation received by the unknown sample, the calibration material and the reference material, respectively. This requirement is most problematic if accelerator-produced radiation is used for activation. Whilst nuclear research reactors usually are equipped with exposure positions that provide fairly homogenous activation fields for thermal neutron activation analysis accelerator-generated particle beams (neutrons, photons, charged particles) usually exhibit axial and, in particular, sharp radial flux gradients. Different experimental procedures have been developed to fulfil the condition mentioned above. In this paper, three variants of the application of flux monitors in photon activation analysis are discussed (external monitor, additive and inherent internal monitor). Experiments have indicated that the latter technique yields highest quality of the analytical results.

Segebade, Chr.; Maimaitimin, M.; Sun Zaijing [Idaho Accelerator Centre, Idaho State University, 1500 Alvin Ricken Drive, Pocatello, ID 83201 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

45

Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences  

SciTech Connect

Broadband shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes observed both at the surface and from space during the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger in 2006 are presented. The surface fluxes were measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF) at Niamey airport, while the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on the Meteosat-8 satellite. The data are analyzed as daily averages, in order to minimise sampling differences between the surface and top of atmosphere instruments, while retaining the synoptic and seasonal changes that are the main focus of this study. A cloud mask is used to identify days with cloud from those with predominantly clear skies. The influence of temperature, water vapor, aerosols and clouds is investigated. Aerosols are ubiquitous throughout the year and have a significant impact on both the shortwave and longwave fluxes. The large and systematic seasonal changes in temperature and column integrated water vapor (CWV) through the dry and wet seasons are found to exert strong influences on the longwave fluxes. These influences are often in opposition to each other, because the highest temperatures occur at the end of the dry season when the CWV is lowest, while in the wet season the lowest temperatures are associated with the highest values of CWV. Apart from aerosols, the shortwave fluxes are also affected by clouds and by the seasonal changes in CWV. The fluxes are combined to provide estimates of the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere throughout 2006. The longwave divergence is remarkably constant through the year, because of a compensation between the seasonal variations in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and surface net longwave radiation. A simple model of the greenhouse effect is used to interpret this result in terms of the dependence of the normalized greenhouse effect at the TOA and of the effective emissivity of the atmosphere at the surface on the CWV. It is shown that, as the CWV increases, the atmosphere loses longwave energy to the surface with about the same increasing efficiency with which it traps the OLR, thus keeping the atmospheric longwave divergence roughly constant. The shortwave divergence is mainly determined by the CWV and aerosol loadings and the effect of clouds is much smaller than on the component fluxes.

Slingo, A.; White, H. E.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

46

Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations October 2002 Y. Shi and C. N. Long DOE, ARM, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research Contents 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1 2. Input Data ............................................................................................................................................... 1 3. Configuration Files.................................................................................................................................

47

Year-Round Observation of Longwave Radiative Flux Divergence in Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Longwave radiative flux divergence within the lowest 50 m of the atmospheric boundary layer was observed during the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Greenland Summit experiment. The dataset collected at 72°35?N, 38°30?W, 3203 m MSL is ...

S. W. Hoch; P. Calanca; R. Philipona; A. Ohmura

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature  

SciTech Connect

We conducted observations and modeling at a forest site to assess importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions. We used the terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes And Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the calculated biomass energy storages. Effects of energy storages on flux exchanges and variations of radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without the storages. We found that with the storages, FAPIS predictions agreed with measurements well; without them, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all surface energy fluxes. The biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 Wm-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Without-storage simulations produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with with-storage simulations. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the biomass energy storages act to dampen diurnal temperature range. Therefore, biomass heat and biochemical energy storages are an integral and substantial part of the surface energy budget and play a role in modulating land surface temperatures and must be considered in studies of land - atmosphere interactions and climate modeling.

Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Liu, Qing [ORNL; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility Y. Shi and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Algorithm and Methodology The Best Estimate Flux value-added product (VAP) processes data started on March 22, 1997, when data from the three central facility (CF) radiometer systems, Solar Infrared Station (SIRS) E13, C1, and baseline surface radiation network (BSRN) (sgpsirs1duttE13.c1, sgpsirs1duttC1.c1, and sgpbsrn1duttC1.c1), were all available. In 2001, the diffuse shortwave (SW) instruments were switched to shaded black and white instruments, and the name BSRN was switched to broadband radiometer station (BRS). Before that time, this VAP uses corrected diffuse SW from the DiffCorr1Dutt VAP as

50

The prototype of a detector for monitoring the cosmic radiation neutron flux on ground  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a comparison between the results of experimental tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the efficiency of a detector prototype for on-ground monitoring the cosmic radiation neutron flux. The experimental tests were made using one conventional {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source in several incidence angles and the results were compared to that ones obtained with a Monte Carlo simulation made with MCNPX Code.

Lelis Goncalez, Odair; Federico, Claudio Antonio; Mendes Prado, Adriane Cristina; Galhardo Vaz, Rafael; Tizziani Pazzianotto, Mauricio [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv/DCTA - Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Semmler, Renato [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP - Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

51

Flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Wavelength (Angstroms) Flux (in arbitrary units) SN 1990N SN 1989B SN 1993O SN 1981B SN 1994D SN 1997ap Iron Peak Blends Ca II Si II & Co II Fe II & III Day -7 Day -5 Day -4 Day -2 ± 2 Day 0 Day +2 * -50 0 50 100 150 Observed days from peak Observed I magnitude 27 26 25 24 23 Observed R magnitude 27 26 25 24 Observed I magnitude 27 26 25 24 23 R band Ground-based I band HST I band (b) (c) (a) Pre-SN observation 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 log(cz) 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 effective m B 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 redshift z Hamuy et al (A.J. 1996) Supernova Cosmology Project 6 8 % 9 0 % 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 ! M Age < 9.6 Gyr (H = 50 km s -1 Mpc -1 ) No Big Bang 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ! " z ~ 0 . 4 z = 0 . 8 3 6 8 % 9 0 % 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 ! M Age < 9.6 Gyr (H=50 km/s/Mpc)

52

Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Sensitivity of Latent Heat Flux to Changes in the Radiative Forcing: A Framework for Comparing Models and Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A climate model must include an accurate surface physics scheme in order to examine the interactions between the land and atmosphere. Given an increase in the surface radiative forcing, the sensitivity of latent heat flux to available energy ...

Jonathan M. Winter; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Evaluation of Cirrus Parameterizations for Radiative Flux Computations in Climate Models Using TOVS–ScaRaB Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combined simultaneous satellite observations are used to evaluate the performance of parameterizations of the microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds used for radiative flux computations in climate models. Atmospheric and cirrus ...

C. J. Stubenrauch; F. Eddounia; J. M. Edwards; A. Macke

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Application of an Artificial Neural Network Simulation for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from CERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux estimates from shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiance measurements by applying empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) for scene ...

Konstantin Loukachine; Norman G. Loeb

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Sensitivity of Latent Heat Flux to Changes in the Radiative Forcing: A Framework for Comparing Models and Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A climate model must include an accurate surface physics scheme in order to examine the interactions between the land and atmosphere. Given an increase in the surface radiative forcing, the sensitivity of latent heat flux ...

Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

57

Parallel Jacobian-free Newton Krylov solution of the discrete ordinates method with flux limiters for 3D radiative transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study introduces a parallel Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) general minimal residual (GMRES) solution for the discretized radiative transfer equation (RTE) in 3D, absorbing, emitting and scattering media. For the angular and spatial discretization ... Keywords: Collimated radiation, Discrete ordinates method (DOM) SN, Electromagnetic radiation, Flux limiters, General Minimal Residual (GMRES), Gram-Schmidt, Householder, Jacobian free Newton-Krylov (JFNK), Parallel MPI, Radiative transfer equation (RTE), TVD, Threads

William F. Godoy; Xu Liu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations  

SciTech Connect

This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for best estimate evaluation of radiation fluxes at Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF). It uses the data available from the three co-located surface radiometer platforms at the SGP CF to automatically determine the best estimate of the irradiance measurements available. The Best Estimate Flux (BEFlux) value-added procedure (VAP) was previously named Best Estimate ShortWave (BESW) VAP, which included all of the broadband and spectral shortwave (SW) measurements for the SGP CF. In BESW, multiple measurements of the same quantities were handled simply by designating one as the primary measurement and using all others to merely fill in any gaps. Thus, this “BESW” is better termed “most continuous,” since no additional quality assessment was applied. We modified the algorithm in BESW to use the average of the closest two measurements as the best estimate when possible, if these measurements pass all quality assessment criteria. Furthermore, we included longwave (LW) fields in the best estimate evaluation to include all major components of the surface radiative energy budget, and renamed the VAP to Best Estimate Flux (BEFLUX1LONG).

Shi, Y; Long, CN

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites: Utility of Trajectory Clustering for Characterizing Aerosol Climatology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites: Utility of Trajectory Clustering for Characterizing Aerosol Climatology E. Andrews Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environment University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, P. J. Sheridan, and J. M. Harris Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado P. K. Quinn Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seattle, Washington Abstract The uncertainties associated with assumptions of generic aerosol properties in radiative transfer codes are unknown, which means that these uncertainties are frequently invoked when models and

60

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Multidimensional Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multidimensional Analysis of Human Epithelial Cell Response to Low Dose Radiation Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA. (Jointly funded by...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

On the use of flux limiters in the discrete ordinates method for 3D radiation calculations in absorbing and scattering media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of flux limiters to the discrete ordinates method (DOM), S"N, for radiative transfer calculations is discussed and analyzed for 3D enclosures for cases in which the intensities are strongly coupled to each other such as: radiative equilibrium ... Keywords: Discrete ordinates method (DOM), Flux limiters, Newton-Krylov GMRES, Non-homogeneous 3D media, Radiation heat transfer, Radiative transfer equation (RTE), TVD schemes

William F. Godoy; Paul E. DesJardin

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Spatial Variability of Net Radiation and Soil Heat Flux Density on Two Logged Sites at Montmorency, Quebec  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Net radiation data from 32 sample points and soil heat flux density values from six sample points on two logged sites at Montmorency in 1979 are presented. The two sites were of different ages; one had been clearcut in 1975 and the other in 1978. ...

J. H. McCaughey

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A multi-sensor approach for assessing the impacts of ultraviolet-absorbing aerosols on top of atmosphere radiative fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One year (June 2006-May 2007) of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes are used with Ozone Monitoring Instrument-Aerosol Index (OMI-AI) data to assess the direct radiative ...

Thomas A. Jones; Sundar A. Christopher

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Structural Analysis of Airborne Flux Estimates over a Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft-based observations of turbulence fields of velocity, moisture, and temperature are used to study coherent turbulent structures that dominate turbulent transfer of moisture and heat above three different eco-systems. Flux traces are ...

Paulo Caramori; Peter Schuepp; Raymond Desjardins; Ian MacPherson

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Modeling Surface Sensible Heat Flux Using Surface Radiative Temperatures in a Simple Urban Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sensible heat fluxes over a light industrial area in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, are analyzed from observed tower fluxes and modeled using a bulk heat transfer approach. The bulk transfer models are initialized using remotely sensed ...

J. A. Voogt; C. S. B. Grimmond

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

Nakos, James Thomas

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Inverse Analysis Adjustment of the SOC Air–Sea Flux Climatology Using Ocean Heat Transport Constraints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from a linear inverse analysis of the Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) air–sea flux climatology using 10 hydrographic ocean heat transport constraints distributed throughout the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. A ...

Jeremy P. Grist; Simon A. Josey

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Length Scale Analysis of Surface Energy Fluxes Derived from Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wavelet multiresolution analysis was used to examine the variation in dominant length scales determined from remotely sensed airborne- and satellite-derived surface energy flux data. The wavelet cospectra are computed between surface radiometric ...

Nathaniel A. Brunsell; Robert R. Gillies

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime ...

R. Moriwaki; M. Kanda

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Radiative Flux Estimation from a Broadband Radiometer Using Synthetic Angular Models in the EarthCARE Mission Framework. Part II: Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instantaneous top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance-to-flux conversion for the broadband radiometer (BBR) on board the Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) was assessed in Part I of this paper, by developing theoretical ...

Carlos Domenech; Ernesto Lopez-Baeza; David P. Donovan; Tobias Wehr

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Comparison of Daily Averaged Reflection, Transmission, and Absorption for Selected Radiative Flux Transfer Approximations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares accuracy for the daily averaged reflection, transmission, and absorption of solar flux derived from the delta-four-stream approximation and a few selected two-stream approximations. In the chosen variety of two-stream ...

Xun Zhu; Albert Arking

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Impact of Covariance Localization on Ensemble Estimation of Surface Downwelling Longwave and Shortwave Radiation Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate estimates of terrestrial hydrologic states and fluxes are, in large part, dependent on accurate estimates of the spatiotemporal variability and uncertainty of land surface forcings, including downwelling longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) ...

B. A. Forman; S. A. Margulis

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Character of Solar and Circumsolar Radiation. Proceedings ~all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from thethat attenuate the solar radiation available to terres-

Grether, Donald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from thea suitable site for solar radiation measurements. A requestused to estimate the solar radiation per unit wavelength at

Grether, D.F.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

A faster algorithm for smoothed particle hydrodynamics with radiative transfer in the flux-limited diffusion approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a new, faster implicit algorithm for solving the radiation hydrodynamics equations in the flux-limited diffusion approximation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This improves on the method elucidated in Whitehouse & Bate by using a Gauss-Seidel iterative method rather than iterating over the exchange of energy between pairs of particles. The new algorithm is typically many thousands of times faster than the old one, which will enable more complex problems to be solved. The new algorithm is tested using the same tests performed by Turner & Stone for ZEUS-2D, and repeated by Whitehouse & Bate.

Stuart C. Whitehouse; Matthew R. Bate; Joe J. Monaghan

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

76

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II: Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper ...

Norman G. Loeb; Konstantin Loukachine; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Bruce A. Wielicki; David F. Young

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part II: Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument due to uncertainties in radiance-to-flux conversion from CERES Terra angular distribution models (ADMs) are evaluated ...

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato; Konstantin Loukachine; Natividad Manalo-Smith; David R. Doelling

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The Arm Mobile Facility and Its First International Deployment: Measuring Radiative Flux Divergence in West Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was recently developed to enable collection of detailed climate data in locations not currently sampled by ARM's five fixed sites. The AMF includes a comprehensive suite of active ...

Mark A. Miller; Anthony Slingo

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Simple Radiative Transfer Methods for Calculating Domain-Averaged Solar Fluxes in Inhomogeneous Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of cloud fraction as a means of incorporating horizontal cloud inhomogeneity in radiative transfer calculations is widespread in the atmospheric science community. This study addresses some issues pertaining to the use of cloud fraction ...

P. M. Gabriel; K. F. Evans

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Diurnal Variability of the Hydrologic Cycle and Radiative Fluxes: Comparisons between Observations and a GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simulated diurnal cycle is in many ways an ideal test bed for new physical parameterizations. The purpose of this paper is to compare observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the ...

Xin Lin; David A. Randall; Laura D. Fowler

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Estimation of the Latent Heat Flux over Full Canopy Covers from the Radiative Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the bulk aerodynamic method and proposes an alternative algorithm for estimating evapotranspiration from radiative temperature over unstressed full-canopy cover crops. Both approaches are studied using calibration and ...

M. Ibáñez; P. J. Pérez; J. I. Rosell; F. Castellví

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fluctuation of Mass Flux in a Cloud-Resolving Simulation with Interactive Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was shown by Craig and Cohen that fluctuations of cumulus clouds under homogeneous large-scale forcing satisfy the Gibbs canonical ensemble in a strict radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE). In the limit of random noninteracting convective ...

J. Davoudi; N. A. McFarlane; T. Birner

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Uncertainty Based on a Radiative Perturbation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To provide a lower bound for the uncertainty in measurement-based clear- and all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), a radiative perturbation analysis is performed for the ideal case in which the perturbations in global mean aerosol ...

Norman G. Loeb; Wenying Su

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Computation of Ground Surface Conduction Heat Flux by Fourier Analysis of Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for computing the ground surface heat flux density is tested at two places in West Africa during the rainy season and during the dry season. This method is based upon the Fourier analysis of the experimental ground surface temperature. ...

Guy Cautenet; Michel Legrand; Yaya Coulibaly; Christian Boutin

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

The Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Model: Optimization and Evaluation of Simulated Radiative Fluxes and Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work continues the presentation and evaluation of the Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Model (OLAM), focusing on the model’s ability to represent radiation and precipitation. OLAM is a new, state-of-the-art earth system model, capable of user-specified ...

David Medvigy; Robert L. Walko; Martin J. Otte; Roni Avissar

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A two dimensional modeling study of the sensitivity of ozone to radiative flux uncertainties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative processes strongly effect equilibrium trace gas concentrations both directly, through photolysis reactions, and indirectly through temperature and transport processes. We have used the LLNL 2-D chemical-radiative-transport model to investigate the net sensitivity of equilibrium ozone concentrations to several changes in radiative forcing. Doubling CO/sub 2/ from 300 ppmv to 600 ppmv resulted in a temperature decrease of 5 K to 8 K in the middle stratosphere along with an 8% to 16% increase in ozone in the same region. Replacing our usual shortwave scattering algorithms with a simplified Rayleigh algorithm led to a 1% to 2% increase in ozone in the lower stratosphere. Finally, modifying our normal CO/sub 2/ cooling rates by corrections derived from line-by-line calculations resulted in several regions of heating and cooling. We observed temperature changes on the order of 1 K to 1.5 K with corresponding changes of 0.5% to 1.5% in O/sub 3/. Our results for doubled CO/sub 2/ compare favorably with those by other authors. Results for our two perturbation scenarios stress the need for accurately modeling radiative processes while confirming the general validity of current models. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Defining Top-of-the-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a ...

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato; Bruce A. Wielicki

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Optimisation of a transverse flux linear PM generator using 3D Finite Element Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Several transverse flux and longitudinal flux linear generator topologies exist for freepiston Stirling engine applications. In this thesis the transverse flux permanent magnet… (more)

Schutte, Jacques

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Volterra network modeling of the nonlinear finite-impulse reponse of the radiation belt flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show how a general class of spatio-temporal nonlinear impulse-response forecast networks (Volterra networks) can be constructed from a taxonomy of nonlinear autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous inputs (NAR-MAX) input-output equations, and used to model the evolution of energetic particle f uxes in the Van Allen radiation belts. We present initial results for the nonlinear response of the radiation belts to conditions a month earlier. The essential features of spatio-temporal observations are recovered with the model echoing the results of state space models and linear f nite impulse-response models whereby the strongest coupling peak occurs in the preceding 1-2 days. It appears that such networks hold promise for the development of accurate and fully data-driven space weather modelling, monitoring and forecast tools.

Taylor, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A. [Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing(ISARS), National Observatory of Athens (NOA), Metaxa and Vasillis Pavlou Street, Penteli, Athens 15236 (Greece); Vassiliadis, D. [Department of Physics, Hodges Hall, PO Box 6315, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 (United States)

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

91

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

total direct solar (from the disk of the sun) radiation.by the direct solar (coming from the disk of the sun) plussolar radiation (that originating from the disk of the sun)

Grether, Donald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

MACRAD: A mass analysis code for radiators  

SciTech Connect

A computer code to estimate and optimize the mass of heat pipe radiators (MACRAD) is currently under development. A parametric approach is used in MACRAD, which allows the user to optimize radiator mass based on heat pipe length, length to diameter ratio, vapor to wick radius, radiator redundancy, etc. Full consideration of the heat pipe operating parameters, material properties, and shielding requirements is included in the code. Preliminary results obtained with MACRAD are discussed.

Gallup, D.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar and circumsolar radiation vs angular distance from the center of the sun)solar radiation (that originating from the disk of the sun)solar constant of 1367 W/m and then corrected for the actual earth-sun

Grether, D.F.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility Best Estimate Radiative Flux CD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The BEFlux VAP directly compares data from the three Normal Incidence Perheliometers, shaded pyranometers, and shaded pyrgeometers at the SGP CF. Extensive analysis with several years of data has produced limits of typical ranges of agreement when these instruments are performing as expected. These limits are used to screen the data, and then the average is taken of the two that agree best, given that at least two instruments agree to within the established limits. This is done for the downwelling direct normal and diffuse shortwave, and the downwelling longwave. The total (global) downwelling shortwave is then the sum of the direct and diffuse components.

Long, CN

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

New Insights into the Ocean Heat Budget Closure Problem from Analysis of the SOC Air–Sea Flux Climatology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results from an analysis of the Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) global air–sea heat flux climatology, which has been calculated using in situ weather reports from voluntary observing ships covering the period 1980–93, are presented. ...

Simon A. Josey; Elizabeth C. Kent; Peter K. Taylor

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

An Analysis of Universality in Blackbody Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Through the formulation of his law of thermal emission, Kirchhoff conferred upon blackbody radiation the quality of universality [G.Kirchhoff, Annalen der Physik 109, 275 (1860)]. Consequently, modern physics holds that such radiation is independent of the nature and shape of the emitted object. Recently, Kirchhoff's experimental work and theoretical conclusions have been reconsidered [P.M.L. Robitaille, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 31(6), 1263 (2003). In this work, Einstein's derivation of the Planckian relation is reexamined. It is demonstrated that claims of universality in blackbody radiation are invalid.

Pierre-Marie Robitaille

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Diagnosis of the Net Cloud Mass Flux in Gate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic analysis of the net cloud mass flux for the mean state of Phase III is presented. In the upper troposphere, the environmental mass flux is shown to be slightly larger than the adiabatic sinking motion required by radiative cooling. ...

Yi-Leng Chen

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Integrating Flux Balance Analysis into Kinetic Models to Decipher the Dynamic Metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 sequentially utilizes lactate and its waste products (pyruvate and acetate) during batch culture. To decipher MR-1 metabolism, we integrated genome-scale flux balance analysis (FBA) into a multiple-substrate Monod model to perform the dynamic flux balance analysis (dFBA). The dFBA employed a static optimization approach (SOA) by dividing the batch time into small intervals (i.e.,,400 mini-FBAs), then the Monod model provided time-dependent inflow/ outflow fluxes to constrain the mini-FBAs to profile the pseudo-steady-state fluxes in each time interval. The mini-FBAs used a dual-objective function (a weighted combination of ‘‘maximizing growth rate’ ’ and ‘‘minimizing overall flux’’) to capture trade-offs between optimal growth and minimal enzyme usage. By fitting the experimental data, a bi-level optimization of dFBA revealed that the optimal weight in the dual-objective function was time-dependent: the objective function was constant in the early growth stage, while the functional weight of minimal enzyme usage increased significantly when lactate became scarce. The dFBA profiled biologically meaningful dynamic MR-1 metabolisms: 1. the oxidative TCA cycle fluxes increased initially and then decreased in the late growth stage; 2. fluxes in the pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis were stable in the exponential growth period; and 3. the glyoxylate shunt was up-regulated when acetate became the main carbon source for MR-1 growth.

Xueyang Feng; You Xu; Yixin Chen; Yinjie J. Tang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Time Variations of the Superkamiokande Solar Neutrino Flux Data by Rayleigh Power Spectrum Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used the Rayleigh Power Spectrum Analysis of the solar neutrino flux data from 1) 5-day-long samples from Super-Kamiokande-I detector during the period from June, 1996 to July, 2001; 2) 10 -day-long samples from the same detector during the same period and (3) 45-day long from the same detector during the same period. According to our analysis (1) gives periodicities around 0.25, 23.33, 33.75 and 42.75 months; (2) exhibits periodicities around 0.5, 1.0, 28.17, 40.67 and 52.5 months and (3) shows periodicities around 16.5 and 28.5 months. We have found almost similar periods in the solar flares, sunspot data, solar proton data.

Koushik Ghosh; Probhas Raychaudhuri

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

100

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave, and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve the ...

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato; Konstantin Loukachine; Natividad Manalo-Smith

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Retrieval of Surface Solar Radiation Budget under Ice Cloud Sky: Uncertainty Analysis and Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates and accounts for the influence of various ice cloud parameters on the retrieval of the surface solar radiation budget (SSRB) from reflected flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The optical properties of ice clouds ...

Ying Zhang; Zhanqing Li; Andreas Macke

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Design of the AmeriFlux Portable Eddy Covariance System and Uncertainty Analysis of Carbon Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The AmeriFlux network continues to improve the understanding of carbon, water, and energy fluxes across temporal and spatial scales. The network includes 120 research sites that contribute to the understanding of processes within and among ...

T. W. Ocheltree; H. W. Loescher

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

Filippetto, D; Zolotorev, Max Samuil; Stupakov, G V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The Impact of Ice Crystal Shapes, Size Distributions, and Spatial Structures of Cirrus Clouds on Solar Radiative Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds depend on ice particle shape, size, and orientation, as well as on the spatial cloud structure. Radiation schemes in atmospheric circulation models rely on estimates of cloud optical thickness only. ...

I. Schlimme; A. Macke; J. Reichardt

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Metabolic network reconstruction and flux variability analysis of storage synthesis in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) embryos  

SciTech Connect

Computational simulation of large-scale biochemical networks can be used to analyze and predict the metabolic behavior of an organism, such as a developing seed. Based on the biochemical literature, pathways databases and decision rules defining reaction directionality we reconstructed bna572, a stoichiometric metabolic network model representing Brassica napus seed storage metabolism. In the highly compartmentalized network about 25% of the 572 reactions are transport reactions interconnecting nine subcellular compartments and the environment. According to known physiological capabilities of developing B. napus embryos, four nutritional conditions were defined to simulate heterotrophy or photoheterotrophy, each in combination with the availability of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate) or amino acids as nitrogen sources. Based on mathematical linear optimization the optimal solution space was comprehensively explored by flux variability analysis, thereby identifying for each reaction the range of flux values allowable under optimality. The range and variability of flux values was then categorized into flux variability types. Across the four nutritional conditions, approximately 13% of the reactions have variable flux values and 10-11% are substitutable (can be inactive), both indicating metabolic redundancy given, for example, by isoenzymes, subcellular compartmentalization or the presence of alternative pathways. About one-third of the reactions are never used and are associated with pathways that are suboptimal for storage synthesis. Fifty-seven reactions change flux variability type among the different nutritional conditions, indicating their function in metabolic adjustments. This predictive modeling framework allows analysis and quantitative exploration of storage metabolism of a developing B. napus oilseed.

Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement and Modeling Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP B. Schmid and J. Redemann Bay Area Environmental Research Institute National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California W. P. Arnott Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada A. Bucholtz and J. Reid Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California P. Colarco Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland D. Covert and R. Elleman University of Washington Seattle, Washington J. Eilers, P. Pilewskie, and A. Strawa National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames, Research Center Moffett Field, California R. A. Ferrare

107

Analysis of metabolic flux phenotypes for two Arabidopsis mutants with severe impairment in seed storage lipid synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Major storage reserves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds are triacylglycerols (seed oils) and proteins. Seed oil content is severely reduced for the regulatory mutant wrinkled1 (wri1-1; At3g54320) and for a double mutant in two isoforms of plastidic pyruvate kinase (pkp{beta}{sub 1}pkp{alpha}; At5g52920 and At3g22960). Both already biochemically well-characterized mutants were now studied by {sup 13}C metabolic flux analysis of cultured developing embryos based on comparison with their respective genetic wild-type backgrounds. For both mutations, in seeds as well as in cultured embryos, the oil fraction was strongly reduced while the fractions of proteins and free metabolites increased. Flux analysis in cultured embryos revealed changes in nutrient uptakes and fluxes into biomass as well as an increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle activity for both mutations. While in both wild types plastidic pyruvate kinase (PK{sub p}) provides most of the pyruvate for plastidic fatty acid synthesis, the flux through PK{sub p} is reduced in pkp{beta}{sub 1}pkp{alpha} by 43% of the wild-type value. In wri1-1, PK{sub p} flux is even more reduced (by 82%), although the genes PKp{beta}{sub 1} and PKp{alpha} are still expressed. Along a common paradigm of metabolic control theory, it is hypothesized that a large reduction in PK{sub p} enzyme activity in pkp{beta}{sub 1}pkp{alpha} has less effect on PK{sub p} flux than multiple smaller reductions in glycolytic enzymes in wri1-1. In addition, only in the wri1-1 mutant is the large reduction in PK{sub p} flux compensated in part by an increased import of cytosolic pyruvate and by plastidic malic enzyme. No such limited compensatory bypass could be observed in pkp{beta}{sub 1}pkp{alpha}.

Lonien, J.; Schwender, J.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Modeling And Analysis of Radial Flux Toroidally Wound Twin Rotor Permanent Magnet Motor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The main objective of current thesis is the study of Radial Flux Twin Rotor Permanent Magnet (RFTWTRPM) motor. The tasks were to review the literature… (more)

Pratapa, Ravi Kishore

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

Primm, Trent [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Radiation Analysis for the Human Lunar Return Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the radiation hazards that are anticipated on an early Human Lunar Return (HLR) mission in support of NASA deep space exploration activities is presented. The HLR mission study emphasized a low cost lunar return to expand human capabilities ...

Wilson J. W.; Simonsen L. C.; Shinn J. L.; Dubey R. R.; Jordan W.; Kim M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Annual Cycle of Surface Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual cycles of upward and downward longwave fluxes at the earth’s surface are investigated by use of the NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget Dataset. Principal component analysis is used to quantify ...

Pamela E. Mlynczak; G. Louis Smith; Anne C. Wilber; Paul W. Stackhouse

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Determination of Clear-Sky Radiative Flux Profiles, Heating Rates, and Optical Depths Using Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles as a Platform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the authors report results obtained using an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV) as an experimental platform for atmospheric radiative transfer research. These are the first ever climate measurements made from a UAV and represent a ...

Francisco P. J. Valero; Shelly K. Pope; Robert G. Ellingson; Anthony W. Strawa; John Vitko Jr.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Biologically Based Analysis of Lung  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biologically Based Analysis of Lung Cancer Incidence in a Large Biologically Based Analysis of Lung Cancer Incidence in a Large Canadian Occupational Cohort with Low-LET Low-dose Radiation Exposure, and Comparison with Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors. Authors: W.D. Hazelton, D. Krewski, S.H. Moolgavkar Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g., initiation with one or more stages,

115

A Multilayer Upper-Boundary Condition for Longwave Radiative Flux to Correct Temperature Biases in a Mesoscale Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An upper-level cold bias in potential temperature tendencies of 10 K day?1, strongest at the top of the model, is observed in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model forecasts. The bias originates from the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ...

Steven M. Cavallo; Jimy Dudhia; Chris Snyder

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The Use of Two-Stream Approximations for the Parameterization of Solar Radiative Energy Fluxes through Vegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-stream approximations have been used widely and for a long time in the field of radiative transfer through vegetation in various contexts and in the last 10 years also to model the hemispheric reflectance of vegetated surfaces in numerical ...

Joachim H. Josepoh; Jean Laquinta; Bernard Pinty

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

As-Run Thermal Analysis of the GTL-1 Experiment Irradiated in the ATR South Flux Trap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GTL-1 experiment was conducted to assess corrosion the performance of the proposed Boosted Fast Flux Loop booster fuel at heat flux levels {approx}30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 W/cm2 to 593 W/cm2. Miniplates fabricated with three different fuel variations (without fines, annealed, and with standard powder) performed equally well, with negligible irradiation-induced swelling and a normal fission density gradient. Both the standard and the modified prefilm procedures produced hydroxide films that adequately protected the miniplates from failure. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Results of the thermal analysis are given at four times during the cycle: BOC at 0 effective full power days (EFPD), middle of cycle (MOC) at 18 EFPD, MOC at 36 EFPD, and end of cycle at 48.9 EFPD. The highest temperatures and heat fluxes occur at the BOC and decrease in a linear manner throughout the cycle. Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant-hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average measured hydroxide thickness on each miniplate. The hydroxide layers are the largest on miniplates nearest to the core midplane, where heat flux and temperature are highest. The hydroxide layer thickness averages 20.4 {mu}m on the six hottest miniplates (B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, and C4). This tends to exacerbate the heating of these miniplates, since a thicker hydroxide layer reduces the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant. These six hottest miniplates have the following thermal characteristics at BOC: (1) Peak fuel centerline temperature >300 C; (2) Peak cladding temperature >200 C; (3) Peak hydroxide temperature >190 C; (4) Peak hydroxide-water interface temperature >140 C; and (5) Peak heat flux >565 W/cm2.

Donna P. Guillen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility  

SciTech Connect

The calculation for the optics of the synchrotron radiation small and wide angle x-ray scattering beamline, currently under construction at SESAME is described. This beamline is based on a cylindrically bent germanium (111) single crystal with an asymmetric cut of 10.5 deg., followed by a 1.2 m long rhodium coated plane mirror bent into a cylindrical form. The focusing properties of bent asymmetrically cut crystals have not yet been studied in depth. The present paper is devoted to study of a particular application of a bent asymmetrically cut crystal using ray tracing simulations with the SHADOW code. These simulations show that photon fluxes of order of 1.09x10{sup 11} photons/s will be available at the experimental focus at 8.79 keV. The focused beam dimensions will be 2.2 mm horizontal full width at half maximum (FWHM) by 0.12 mm vertical (FWHM).

Salah, Wa'el [Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East (SESAME), P.O. Box 7, Allan 19252 (Jordan); Department of Physics, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Bp 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Hoorani, H. [Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East (SESAME), P.O. Box 7, Allan 19252 (Jordan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Metabolic Flux Analysis of Shewanella spp. Reveals Evolutionary Robustness in Central Carbon Metabolism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shewanella spp. are a group of facultative anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in marine and fresh-water environments. In this study, we profiled the central metabolic fluxes of eight recently sequenced Shewanella species grown under the same condition in minimal med-ium with [3-13C] lactate. Although the tested Shewanella species had slightly different growth rates (0.23-0.29 h31) and produced different amounts of acetate and pyruvate during early exponential growth (pseudo-steady state), the relative intracellular metabolic flux distributions were remarkably similar. This result indicates that Shewanella species share similar regulation in regard to central carbon metabolic fluxes under steady growth conditions: the maintenance of metabolic robustness is not only evident in a single species under genetic perturbations (Fischer and Sauer, 2005; Nat Genet 37(6):636-640), but also observed through evolutionary related microbial species. This remarkable conservation of relative flux profiles through phylogenetic differences prompts us to introduce the concept of metabotype as an alternative scheme to classify microbial fluxomics. On the other hand, Shewanella spp. display flexibility in the relative flux profiles when switching their metabolism from consuming lactate to consuming pyruvate and acetate.

Tang, Yinjie J.; Martin, Hector Garcia; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Deutschbauer, Adam; Llora, Xavier; Meadows, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

120

Combined analysis of solar neutrino and solar irradiance data: further evidence for variability of the solar neutrino flux and its implications concerning the solar core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A search for any particular feature in any single solar neutrino dataset is unlikely to establish variability of the solar neutrino flux since the count rates are very low. It helps to combine datasets, and in this article we examine data from both the Homestake and GALLEX experiments. These show evidence of modulation with a frequency of 11.85 yr-1, which could be indicative of rotational modulation originating in the solar core. We find that precisely the same frequency is prominent in power spectrum analyses of the ACRIM irradiance data for both the Homestake and GALLEX time intervals. These results suggest that the solar core is inhomogeneous and rotates with sidereal frequency 12.85 yr-1. We find, by Monte Carlo calculations, that the probability that the neutrino data would by chance match the irradiance data in this way is only 2 parts in 10,000. This rotation rate is significantly lower than that of the inner radiative zone (13.97 yr-1) as recently inferred from analysis of Super-Kamiokande data, suggesting that there may be a second, inner tachocline separating the core from the radiative zone. This opens up the possibility that there may be an inner dynamo that could produce a strong internal magnetic field and a second solar cycle.

P. A. Sturrock

2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The application of a synchrotron radiation microprobe to trace element analysis  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation is light emitted by electrons when accelerated in a circular orbit. Properties of synchrotron radiation important to trace element analysis by x-ray fluorescence analysis include a broad, continuous and tunable energy spectrum for K- and L-shell excitation of all elements; a linearly polarized source reducing the scattered radiation backgrounds; low energy deposition in the target; and an appreciable flux in narrow energy bandwidths for chemical speciation. Experiments to date have generally used ''white'' continuous spectra with a low energy absorber and no focussing, but future runs will use focussing mirrors which increase intensities by a factor of more than 1000. Monochromators will be used to select the energy and bandwidths appropriate to the experiment. Detection limits for thin biomedical samples using a solid-state detector, a 0.5 mm beam and a 5 min counting interval were in the range of 30 ppB for calcium to 50 ppB for zinc. A prototype wet cell was designed, constructed and tested using cat cardiac myocytes with the result that major trace elements such as iron could be quantitated in single myocytes. The x-ray microprobe was used to localize gallium in fetal rat bone explants after being cultured in BGJ media containing 25 ..mu..M Ga(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The high brightness of x rays from a synchrotron source makes possible the development of computerized tomography on a micrometer scale. A tomogram of a freeze-dried caterpillar head was produced in a 50 min scan. The pixel size was 30 ..mu..m using a 20-..mu..m beam. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Schidlovsky, G.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A Comparison Between Modeled and Measured Clear-Sky Radiative Shortwave Fluxes in Arctic Environments, with Special Emphasis on Diffuse Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the SBDART radiative transfer model to predict clear-sky diffuse and direct normal broadband shortwave irradiances is investigated. Model calculations of these quantities are compared with data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. The model tends to consistently underestimate the direct normal irradiances at both sites by about 1%. In regards to clear-sky diffuse irradiance, the model overestimates this quantity at the SGP site in a manner similar to what has been observed in other studies (Halthore and Schwartz, 2000). The difference between the diffuse SBDART calculations and Halthore and Schwartz’s MODTRAN calculations is very small, thus demonstrating that SBDART performs similarly to MODTRAN. SBDART is then applied to the NSA site, and here it is found that the discrepancy between the model calculations and corrected diffuse measurements (corrected for daytime offsets, Dutton et al., 2001) is 0.4 W/m2 when averaged over the 12 cases considered here. Two cases of diffuse measurements from a shaded “black and white” pyranometer are also compared with the calculations and the discrepancy is again minimal. Thus, it appears as if the “diffuse discrepancy” that exists at the SGP site does not exist at the NSA sites. We cannot yet explain why the model predicts diffuse radiation well at one site but not at the other.

Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Donna M.

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

123

Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain  

SciTech Connect

A recently discovered thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius M10EXG, ferments a range of C5 (e.g., xylose) and C6 sugars (e.g., glucose) and istolerant to high ethanol concentrations (10percent, v/v). We have investigated the central metabolism of this bacterium using both in vitro enzyme assays and 13C-based flux analysis to provide insights into the physiological properties of this extremophile and explore its metabolism for bio-ethanol or other bioprocess applications. Our findings show that glucose metabolism in G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG proceeds via glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle; the Entner?Doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase activity were not detected. Anaplerotic reactions (including the glyoxylate shunt, pyruvate carboxylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) were active, but fluxes through those pathways could not be accuratelydetermined using amino acid labeling. When growth conditions were switched from aerobic to micro-aerobic conditions, fluxes (based on a normalized glucose uptake rate of 100 units (g DCW)-1 h-1) through the TCA cycle and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were reduced from 64+-3 to 25+-2 and from 30+-2 to 19+-2, respectively. The carbon flux under micro-aerobic growth was directed formate. Under fully anerobic conditions, G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG used a mixed acid fermentation process and exhibited a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG reduces the maximum ethanol yieldby approximately threefold, thus indicating that both pathways should be modified to maximize ethanol production.

Tang, Yinjie J.; Sapra, Rajat; Joyner, Dominique; Hazen, Terry C.; Myers, Samuel; Reichmuth, David; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

124

Error Analysis and Sampling Strategy Design for Using Fixed or Mobile Platforms to Estimate Ocean Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For estimating lateral flux in the ocean using fixed or mobile platforms, the authors present a method of analyzing the estimation error and designing the sampling strategy. When an array of moorings is used, spatial aliasing leads to an error in ...

Yanwu Zhang; James G. Bellingham; Yi Chao

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

Prieto, Carlos Allende

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

Carlos Allende Prieto

2007-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

127

Next-to-leading tail-induced spin-orbit effects in the gravitational radiation flux of compact binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The imprint of non-linearities in the propagation of gravitational waves --- the tail effect --- is responsible for new spin contributions to the energy flux and orbital phasing of spinning black hole binaries. The spin-orbit (linear in spin) contribution to this effect is currently known at leading post-Newtonian order, namely 3PN for maximally spinning black holes on quasi-circular orbits. In the present work, we generalize these tail-originated spin-orbit terms to the next-to-leading 4PN order. This requires in particular extending previous results on the dynamical evolution of precessing compact binaries. We show that the tails represent the only spin-orbit terms at that order for quasi-circular orbits, and we find perfect agreement with the known result for a test particle around a Kerr black hole, computed by perturbation theory. The BH-horizon absorption terms have to be added to the PN result computed here. Our work completes the knowledge of the spin-orbit effects to the phasing of compact binaries up to the 4PN order, and will allow the building of more faithful PN templates for the inspiral phase of black hole binaries, improving the capabilities of ground-based and space-based gravitational wave detectors.

Sylvain Marsat; Alejandro Bohe; Luc Blanchet; Alessandra Buonanno

2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

128

Radiation Protection Job-Task-Analysis and Recommendations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION & NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Radiation Protection Job-Task-Analysis and Recommendations Sanders, David Parker, Jack Wu, Sarah 11/15/2012 R a d i a t i o n P r o t e c t i o n T a s k - A n a l y s i s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s P a g e | 1 Table of Contents Executive Summary................................................................................................ 2 Acronyms ............................................................................................................... 3 Purpose .................................................................................................................. 4 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 4 Team Participants .................................................................................................. 4

129

Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis within Three-Dimensional Clouds Subjected to Solar and Sky Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional radiative heat transfer analysis of an arbitrary-shaped modeled cloud subjected to solar and sky irradiation has been performed. The Radiation Element Method by Ray Emission Model (REM2) was used for numerical simulation. ...

Toru Nishikawa; Shigenao Maruyama; Seigo Sakai

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Neutronic Analysis of an Advanced Fuel Design Concept for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents the neutronic analysis of an advanced fuel design concept for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that could significantly extend the current fuel cycle length under the existing design and safety criteria. A key advantage of the fuel design herein proposed is that it would not require structural changes to the present HFIR core, in other words, maintaining the same rated power and fuel geometry (i.e., fuel plate thickness and coolant channel dimensions). Of particular practical importance, as well, is the fact that the proposed change could be justified within the bounds of the existing nuclear safety basis. The simulations herein reported employed transport theory-based and exposure-dependent eigenvalue characterization to help improve the prediction of key fuel cycle parameters. These parameters were estimated by coupling a benchmarked three-dimensional MCNP5 model of the HFIR core to the depletion code ORIGEN via the MONTEBURNS interface. The design of an advanced HFIR core with an improved fuel loading is an idea that evolved from early studies by R. D. Cheverton, formerly of ORNL. This study contrasts a modified and increased core loading of 12 kg of 235U against the current core loading of 9.4 kg. The simulations performed predict a cycle length of 39 days for the proposed fuel design, which represents a 50% increase in the cycle length in response to a 25% increase in fissile loading, with an average fuel burnup increase of {approx}23%. The results suggest that the excess reactivity can be controlled with the present design and arrangement of control elements throughout the core's life. Also, the new power distribution is comparable or even improved relative to the current power distribution, displaying lower peak to average fission rate densities across the inner fuel element's centerline and bottom cells. In fact, the fission rate density in the outer fuel element also decreased at these key locations for the proposed design. Overall, it is estimated that the advanced core design could increase the availability of the HFIR facility by {approx}50% and generate {approx}33% more neutrons annually, which is expected to yield sizeable savings during the remaining life of HFIR, currently expected to operate through 2014. This study emphasizes the neutronics evaluation of a new fuel design. Although a number of other performance parameters of the proposed design check favorably against the current design, and most of the core design features remain identical to the reference, it is acknowledged that additional evaluations would be required to fully justify the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanical performance of a new fuel design, including checks for cladding corrosion performance as well as for industrial and economic feasibility.

Xoubi, Ned [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Maldonado, G. Ivan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Quantitative Analysis of Connexin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Authors: B. Parvin, Q. Yang, R. L. Henshall-Powell and M.H. Barcellos Hoff We are studying the effects of ionizing radiation on the signaling between human mammary epithelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. To do so we use an assay based on the ability of the cells to organize into three-dimensional acini when embedded into an extracellular matrix. Although tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells are nearly indistinguishable when cultured as monolayers, their biological character readily diverge when tissue-specific morphogenesis is analyzed. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane organize into acinar-like structures with

132

Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Radiation Detection Scenario Analysis Toolbox (RADSAT) Test Case Implementation Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Final report for the project. This project was designed to demonstrate the use of the Radiation Detection Scenario Analysis Toolbox (RADSAT) radiation detection transport modeling package (developed in a previous NA-22 project) for specific radiation detection scenarios important to proliferation detection.

Shaver, Mark W.

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

134

Combined analysis of solar neutrino and solar irradiance data: further evidence for variability of the solar neutrino flux and its implications concerning the solar core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A search for any particular feature in any single solar neutrino dataset is unlikely to establish variability of the solar neutrino flux since the count rates are very low. It helps to combine datasets, and in this article we examine data from both the Homestake and GALLEX experiments. These show evidence of modulation with a frequency of 11.85 yr-1, which could be indicative of rotational modulation originating in the solar core. We find that precisely the same frequency is prominent in power spectrum analyses of the ACRIM irradiance data for both the Homestake and GALLEX time intervals. These results suggest that the solar core is inhomogeneous and rotates with sidereal frequency 12.85 yr-1. We find, by Monte Carlo calculations, that the probability that the neutrino data would by chance match the irradiance data in this way is only 2 parts in 10,000. This rotation rate is significantly lower than that of the inner radiative zone (13.97 yr-1) as recently inferred from analysis of Super-Kamiokande data, sugg...

Sturrock, P A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Efficient Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems, II: Quantum-Classical Comparison, Flux Network, and Robustness Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following the calculation of optimal energy transfer in thermal environment in our first paper (Wu et al., New J. Phys., 2010, 12, 105012), full quantum dynamics and leading-order `classical' hopping kinetics are compared in the seven-site Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex. The difference between these two dynamic descriptions is due to higher-order quantum corrections. Two thermal bath models, classical white noise (the Haken-Strobl-Reineker model) and quantum Debye model, are considered. In the seven-site FMO model, we observe that higher-order corrections lead to negligible changes in the trapping time or in energy transfer efficiency around the optimal and physiological conditions (2% in the HSR model and 0.1% in the quantum Debye model for the initial site at BChl 1). However, using the concept of integrated flux, we can identify significant differences in branching probabilities of the energy transfer network between hopping kinetics and quantum dynamics (26% in the HSR model and 32% in the quantum Debye model for the initial site at BChl 1). This observation indicates that the quantum coherence can significantly change the distribution of energy transfer pathways in the flux network with the efficiency nearly the same. The quantum-classical comparison of the average trapping time with the removal of the bottleneck site, BChl 4, demonstrates the robustness of the efficient energy transfer by the mechanism of multi-site quantum coherence. To reconcile with the latest eight-site FMO model, the quantum-classical comparison with the flux network analysis is summarized in the appendix. The eight-site FMO model yields similar trapping time and network structure as the seven-site FMO model but leads to a more disperse distribution of energy transfer pathways.

Jianlan Wu; Fan Liu; Jian Ma; Robert J. Silbey; Jianshu Cao

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

136

A DATA-CENTERED COLLABORATION PORTAL TO SUPPORT GLOBAL CARBON-FLUX ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-climate, like other environmental sciences, has been changing. Large-scalesynthesis studies are becoming more common. These synthesis studies are often conducted by science teams that are geographically distributed and on datasets that are global in scale. A broad array of collaboration and data analytics tools are now available that could support these science teams. However, building tools that scientists actually use is hard. Also, moving scientists from an informal collaboration structure to one mediated by technology often exposes inconsistencies in the understanding of the rules of engagement between collaborators. We have developed a scientific collaboration portal, called fluxdata.org, which serves the community of scientists providing and analyzing the global FLUXNET carbon-flux synthesis dataset. Key things we learned or re-learned during our portal development include: minimize the barrier to entry, provide features on a just-in-time basis, development of requirements is an on-going process, provide incentives to change leaders and leverage the opportunity they represent, automate as much as possible, and you can only learn how to make it better if people depend on it enough to give you feedback. In addition, we also learned that splitting the portal roles between scientists and computer scientists improved user adoption and trust. The fluxdata.org portal has now been in operation for ~;;1.5 years and has become central to the FLUXNET synthesis efforts.

Agarwal, Deborah A.; Humphrey, Marty; Beekwilder, Norm; Jackson, Keith; Goode, Monte; van Ingen, Catharine

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

Detection of coincident radiations in a single transducer by pulse shape analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pulse shape analysis determines if two radiations are in coincidence. A transducer is provided that, when it absorbs the first radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a shorter time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed first radiation and, when it absorbs the second radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a longer time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed second radiation. When radiation is absorbed, the output pulse is detected and two integrals are formed, the first over a time period representative of the first time constant and the second over a time period representative of the second time constant. The values of the two integrals are examined to determine whether the first radiation, the second radiation, or both were absorbed in the transducer, the latter condition defining a coincident event.

Warburton, William K. (Menlo Park, CA); Tan, Hui (Newark, CA); Hennig, Wolfgang (Fremont, CA)

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

138

Virtual radiation fields -- A virtual environment tool for radiological analysis and simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A virtual reality system was developed for computational and graphical modeling and simulation of radiation environments. This system, called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF), demonstrates the usefulness of radiological analysis in simulation-based design for predicting radiation doses for robotic equipment and personnel working in a radiation environment. The system was developed for use in determining the radiation doses for robotic equipment to be used in tank-waste retrieval operations at the Hanford National Laboratory. As a reference case, specific application is made to simulate cleanup operations for Hanford tank C-106. A three-dimensional model representation of the tank and its predicted radiation levels are presented and analyzed. Tank cleanup operations were simulated to understand how radiation levels change during the cleanup phase and to predict cumulative radiation doses to robotic equipment to aid in the development of maintenance and replacement schedules.

Knight, T.W.; Dalton, G.R.; Tulenko, J.S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Sciences

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Physics of String Flux Compactifications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a qualitative review of flux compactifications of string theory, focusing on broad physical implications and statistical methods of analysis.

Frederik Denef; Michael R. Douglas; Shamit Kachru

2007-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

140

Drift-flux analysis of two-phase flow in microgravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As NASA programs such as the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle, the Space Nuclear Power Initiative, and other future spacecraft become more demanding, two-phase (gas-liquid) systems for advanced life support and thermal management are highly advantageous over single-phase systems. Two-phase fluid loops provide significant thermal transport advantages over their single-phase counterparts and are able to carry more energy per unit mass than single-phase systems. They are also able to transport more energy per unit pumping power than single-phase systems. These two advantages alone offer great reductions in both mass and volume, which are two primary design parameters for space-based systems. Unfortunately, the ability to predict two-phase phenomena such as flow regime transitions and void fraction at microgravity conditions is greatly limited and its development is still in its infancy. A Texas A&M University two-phase flow loop was tested aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft to collect two-phase microgravity data for dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12). A wide variety of flow rates were tested and many different flow regimes were observed. Data produced by the two-phase microgravity experiment were analyzed in accordance with the drift-flux model to calculate the distribution parameter, C?, and the drift-velocity, V[gj], of the two-phase mixture. The C?and V[gj] found for each flow regime were compared with other microgravity and a one-g upflow data. The C? for the slug flow regime was greater than that of the transition and annular flow regimes respectively for the microgravity data and correlated well with other R-12 microgravity data for the slug flow regime. The V[gj] for slug flow was found to be negative, which was unexpected, but the drift velocities for the transition and annular flow regimes provided expected results. The V[gj] for the annular flow regime in microgravity was less than that of the one-g upflow system due to the lower superficial velocities required in microgravity. Similarly, the C? for the R-12 microgravity data was higher than for a one-g upflow system due to its lower void fraction. A common C? and V[gj] can be used to predict void fraction for the transition and annular flow regimes for R-12 for the same pipe diameter and operating conditions.

Braisted, Jonathan David

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which is attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes-large differences in cloud radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/day difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoe, Julien; Deng, Min

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

142

Efficient energy transfer in light-harvesting systems: Quantum-classical comparison, flux network, and robustness analysis  

SciTech Connect

Following the calculation of optimal energy transfer in thermal environment in our first paper [J. L. Wu, F. Liu, Y. Shen, J. S. Cao, and R. J. Silbey, New J. Phys. 12, 105012 (2010)], full quantum dynamics and leading-order 'classical' hopping kinetics are compared in the seven-site Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex. The difference between these two dynamic descriptions is due to higher-order quantum corrections. Two thermal bath models, classical white noise (the Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model) and quantum Debye model, are considered. In the seven-site FMO model, we observe that higher-order corrections lead to negligible changes in the trapping time or in energy transfer efficiency around the optimal and physiological conditions (2% in the HSR model and 0.1% in the quantum Debye model for the initial site at BChl 1). However, using the concept of integrated flux, we can identify significant differences in branching probabilities of the energy transfer network between hopping kinetics and quantum dynamics (26% in the HSR model and 32% in the quantum Debye model for the initial site at BChl 1). This observation indicates that the quantum coherence can significantly change the distribution of energy transfer pathways in the flux network with the efficiency nearly the same. The quantum-classical comparison of the average trapping time with the removal of the bottleneck site, BChl 4, demonstrates the robustness of the efficient energy transfer by the mechanism of multi-site quantum coherence. To reconcile with the latest eight-site FMO model which is also investigated in the third paper [J. Moix, J. L. Wu, P. F. Huo, D. F. Coker, and J. S. Cao, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 3045 (2011)], the quantum-classical comparison with the flux network analysis is summarized in Appendix C. The eight-site FMO model yields similar trapping time and network structure as the seven-site FMO model but leads to a more disperse distribution of energy transfer pathways.

Wu Jianlan [Physics Department, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Liu Fan; Silbey, Robert J.; Cao Jianshu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ma Jian [Physics Department, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

143

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Summary of Prometheus Radiation Shielding Nuclear Design Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report transmits a summary of radiation shielding nuclear design studies performed to support the Prometheus project. Together, the enclosures and references associated with this document describe NRPCT (KAPL & Bettis) shielding nuclear design analyses done for the project.

J. Stephens

2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

145

Analysis of low dose radiation induced epigenetic modifications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

levels ofbiological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses (<0.1Gy) of irradiation.Recent work in determining the exact effects of low dose radiation have shown that...

146

Estimating Clear-Sky Regional Surface Fluxes in the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site with Ground Measurements and Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors compared methods for estimating surface fluxes under clear-sky conditions over a large heterogeneous area from a limited number of ground measurements and from satellite observations using data obtained from the southern Great Plains ...

W. Gao; R. L. Coulter; B. M. Lesht; J. Qiu; M. L. Wesely

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Analysis and Design of a High Power Density Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Machine Used for Stirling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

a high power density axial flux permanent magnet linear synchronous machine and the stirling system will be introduced. This machine is a tubular axial flux permanent magnet machine. It comprises two parts: stator and mover. With the 2D finite-element ... Keywords: permanent magnet, stirling engine, linear motor

Ping Zheng; Xuhui Gan; Lin Li

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Analysis of Urban-Rural Solar Radiation Data from St. Louis, Missouri  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of an analysis of simultaneous measurements of incident solar radiation from six locations in metropolitan St. Louis, Missouri are described. The measurements were taken continuously from September 1975 through March 1977 with ...

James T. Peterson; Thomas L. Stoffel

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Analysis of a direct radiation solar dehumidification system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SERI researchers investigated a desiccant dehumidifier that is regenerated by direct absorption of solar radiation using a simplified numerical model (DESSIM) of the adsorption and desorption processes. This paper presents estimates of the performance of a solar-fired air conditioning system (ventilation cycle) containing the dehumidifier/collector. The researchers also considered the effects of dehumidifier NTUs, heat exchanger performance, and insolation levels. The direct radiation system can operate effectively at low insolation levels and thus may have some advantages in some geographic areas.

Schultz, K.; Barlow, R.; Pesaran, A.; Kreith, F.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Detecting Radiation-Induced Injury Using Rapid 3D Variogram Analysis of CT Images of Rat Lungs  

SciTech Connect

A new heterogeneity analysis approach to discern radiation-induced lung damage was tested on CT images of irradiated rats. The method, combining octree decomposition with variogram analysis, demonstrated a significant correlation with radiation exposure levels, whereas conventional measurements and pulmonary function tests did not. The results suggest the new approach may be highly sensitive for assessing even subtle radiation-induced changes

Jacob, Rick E.; Murphy, Mark K.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Carson, James P.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Multimodel Analysis of Energy and Water Fluxes: Intercomparisons between Operational Analyses, a Land Surface Model, and Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using data from seven global model operational analyses (OA), one land surface model, and various remote sensing retrievals, the energy and water fluxes over global land areas are intercompared for 2003/04. Remote sensing estimates of ...

Raghuveer K. Vinukollu; Justin Sheffield; Eric F. Wood; Michael G. Bosilovich; David Mocko

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Factors Controlling ERBE Longwave Clear Sky and Cloud Forcing Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The factors controlling the Earth Radiation Budget satellite (ERBS) longwave clear sky and cloud-forcing fluxes are investigated using statistical analyses of the ERBS fluxes with International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud ...

Bryan C. Weare

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC; Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /INFN, Rome; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

154

Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Synchrotron Radiation Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Radiation Effects in the IR Solenoid Flux Excluder Peter Tenenbaum LCC-Note-0007 Draft 23-September-1998 Abstract We examine the emittance dilution due to synchrotron...

156

Incoming Solar and Infrared Radiation Derived from METEOSAT: Impact on the Modeled Land Water and Energy Budget over France  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) project radiation fluxes, derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite, were used in the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) ...

D. Carrer; S. Lafont; J.-L. Roujean; J.-C. Calvet; C. Meurey; P. Le Moigne; I. F. Trigo

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

FE Magnetic Field Analysis Simulation Models based Design, Development, Control and Testing of An Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Linear Oscillating Motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- Development, finite element(FE) analysis of magnetic field distribution, performance, control and testing of a new axial flux permanent magnet linear oscillating motor (PMLOM) along with a suitable speed and thrust control technique is described in this paper. The PMLOM can perform precision oscillation task without exceeding the given limit on allowable average power dissipation. The use of new powerful permanent magnet materials such as Neodymium-Iron-Boron alloys can greatly improve the performance of electrical machines. Also its performance parameters, such as the force, current etc. are experimentally assessed. The objective of this paper is to determine the forces for aluminium mover embedded with rare earth permanent magnet experimentally and analytically through FEMM software and develop a microcontroller based IGBT Inverter for its control. Index Terms- Axial flux machine, finite element analysis, microcontroller based IGBT inverter, permanent magnet linear oscillating motor, rare earth permanent magnet. I.

Govindaraj T; Prof Dr; Ashoke K. Ganguli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Radiative component and combined heat transfer in the thermal calculation of finned tube banks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For more exact calculation of combined heat transfer in the case of finned tube banks (e.g., in the convective section of a furnace), the radiative heat transfer cannot be neglected. A new method for relatively simple calculation of total heat flux (convection + radiation + conduction in fins) is fully compatible with that for bare tube banks/bundles developed earlier. It is based on the method of radiative coefficients. However, the resulting value of heat flux must be corrected due to fin thickness and especially due to the fin radiative influence. For this purpose the so-called multiplicator of heat flux was introduced. The applicability of this methods has been demonstrated on a tubular fired heater convective section. A developed computer program based on the method has also been used for an analysis of the influence of selected parameters to show the share of radiation on the total heat flux.

Stehlik, P. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Flux lattices reformulated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically explore the optical flux lattices produced for ultra-cold atoms subject to laser fields where both the atom-light coupling and the effective detuning are spatially periodic. We analyze the geometric vector potential and the magnetic flux it generates, as well as the accompanying geometric scalar potential. We show how to understand the gauge-dependent Aharonov-Bohm singularities in the vector potential, and calculate the continuous magnetic flux through the elementary cell in terms of these singularities. The analysis is illustrated with a square optical flux lattice. We conclude with an explicit laser configuration yielding such a lattice using a set of five properly chosen beams with two counterpropagating pairs (one along the x axes and the other y axes), together with a single beam along the z axis. We show that this lattice is not phase-stable, and identify the one phase-difference that affects the magnetic flux. Thus armed with realistic laser setup, we directly compute the Chern number...

Juzeli?nas, G

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Quasi-Steady Analysis of a PBL Model with an Eddy-Diffusivity Profile and Nonlocal Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytic solutions to a planetary boundary layer (PBL) model with an eddy-diffusivity profile (i.e., a K profile) and nonlocal fluxes are presented for the quasi-steady regime. The solutions demonstrate how different processes contribute to the ...

Bjorn Stevens

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Thermal-Electromagnetic Analysis of a Fault-Tolerant Dual Star Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Motor for Critical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a fault-tolerant dual star Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet (FSPM) motor. The analytical results in terms permanent magnet motors have attracted increasing attentions in safety critical applications such as Hybrid, the phases of the motors are magnetically and physically separated. Thus, the phase failures (short

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Performance Evaluation of Undulator Radiation at CEBAF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of undulator radiation (UR) at CEBAF with a 3.5 m helical undulator is evaluated and compared with APS undulator-A radiation in terms of brilliance, peak brilliance, spectral flux, flux density and intensity distribution.

Chuyu Liu, Geoffrey Krafft, Guimei Wang

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of estimating these frequencies for future work. Modeling of nuisance source populations is only useful if it helps in understanding detector system performance in real operational environments. Examples of previous studies in which nuisance source models played a key role are briefly discussed. These include screening of in-bound urban traffic and monitoring of shipping containers in transit to U.S. ports.

Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

164

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Surface Energy Fluxes of the South Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluxes of sensible, latent and radiational energy and momentum across the surface of the South Atlantic Ocean have been calculated by substituting ship meteorological observations into bulk aerodynamic and empirical radiation equations. Upper-air ...

Andrew F. Bunker

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Complexity analysis of the UV radiation dose time series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used the Lempel-Ziv and sample entropy measures to assess the complexity in the UV radiation activity in the Vojvodina region (Serbia) for the period 1990-2007. In particular, we have examined the reconstructed daily sum (dose) of the UV-B time series from seven representative places in this region and calculated the Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Sample Entropy (SE) values for each time series. The results indicate that the LZC values in some places are close to each other while in others they differ. We have devided the period 1990-2007 into two subintervals: (a) 1990-1998 and (b) 1999-2007 and calculated LZC and SE values for the various time series in these subintervals. It is found that during the period 1999-2007, there is a decrease in their complexities, and corresponding changes in the SE, in comparison to the period 1990-1998. This complexity loss may be attributed to increased (i) human intervention in the post civil war period (land and crop use and urbanization) and military activities i...

Mihailovic, Dragutin T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Solar energy conversion systems engineering and economic analysis radiative energy input/thermal electric output computation. Volume III  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct energy flux analytical model, an analysis of the results, and a brief description of a non-steady state model of a thermal solar energy conversion system implemented on a code, SIRR2, as well as the coupling of CIRR2 which computes global solar flux on a collector and SIRR2 are presented. It is shown how the CIRR2 and, mainly, the SIRR2 codes may be used for a proper design of a solar collector system. (LEW)

Russo, G.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Non-destructive metallurgical analysis of astrolabes utilizing synchrotron radiation.  

SciTech Connect

From the experiments performed it is possible to determine a wide range of information about the metallurgy of the astrolabes studied. It was found that different brass alloys were used for components that were cast and those that were mechanically deformed. Chemical composition, forming history, and thickness measurements are all determined non-destructively, illustrating that this technique could be useful for many applications with metal artifact analysis where non-intrusive methods are required.

Newbury, B.; Stephenson, B.; Almer, J. D.; Notis, M.; Haeffner, D. R.; Slade Cargill, G., III

2002-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

169

Thermal stress analysis of eccentric tube receiver using concentrated solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

In the parabolic trough concentrator with tube receiver system, the heat transfer fluid flowing through the tube receiver can induce high thermal stress and deflection. In this study, the eccentric tube receiver is introduced with the aim to reduce the thermal stresses of tube receiver. The ray-thermal-structural sequential coupled numerical analyses are adopted to obtain the concentrated heat flux distributions, temperature distributions and thermal stress fields of both the eccentric and concentric tube receivers. During the sequential coupled numerical analyses, the concentrated heat flux distribution on the bottom half periphery of tube receiver is obtained by Monte-Carlo ray tracing method, and the fitting function method is introduced for the calculated heat flux distribution transformation from the Monte-Carlo ray tracing model to the CFD analysis model. The temperature distributions and thermal stress fields are obtained by the CFD and FEA analyses, respectively. The effects of eccentricity and oriented angle variation on the thermal stresses of eccentric tube receiver are also investigated. It is recommended to adopt the eccentric tube receiver with optimum eccentricity and 90 oriented angle as tube receiver for the parabolic trough concentrator system to reduce the thermal stresses. (author)

Wang, Fuqiang; Shuai, Yong; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Guo; Tan, Heping [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Cycles of the magnetic activity of the Sun and solar-type stars and simulation of their fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of the Wavelet analysis and Fourier analysis to the dataset of variations of radiation fluxes of solar-like stars and the Sun is examined. In case of the Sun the wavelet-analysis helped us to see a set of values of periods of cycles besides "11-year" cycle: the long-duration cycles of 22-year, 40-50 year and 100-120 year and short-duration cycles of 2-3,5 years and 1,3-year. We present a method of the chromospheric flux simulation using the 13 late-type stars, which have well-determined cyclic flux variations similar to the 11-year solar activity cycle. Our flux prediction is based on the chromospheric calcium emission time series measurements from the Mount Wilson Observatory and comparable solar dataset. We show that solar three - component modeling well explains the stellar chromospheric observations.

Bruevich, E A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Analysis of {sup 32}P-labeled solutions using integrated Bremsstrahlung radiation  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorous-32 is a beta-emitting radionuclide (half-life = 14.3 d) with beta energies ranging from 0 to 1710 keV and an average value of 690 keV. The analysis of {sup 32}P in solutions can be effectively accomplished by liquid-scintillation counting [LSC] An alternate and simpler technique utilizes the direct method of counting the aqueous solution by Cerenkov radiation. Although not as efficient as LSC, the advantage of Cerenkov radiation counting, in addition to its direct applicability, is the absence of the organic cocktail and the problems associated with its disposal. A third but esoteric technique is the direct counting of monoisotopically-labeled energetic beta-emitting radionuclide solutions, which utilizes the integration of bremsstrahlung radiation. This technique, although of limited application, can also be done directly without the use of organic cocktail, and can utilize a detector system designed for gammaray-emitting radionuclides.

Lasen, I.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Fast flux locked loop  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

173

Measuring the CO2 flux at the air/water interface in lakes using flow injection analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, close to the sampling points, in order to allow in situ analysis. O´ leo Lake, a waterflood basin

Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

174

Posters Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data in Near Real-Time  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Posters Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data in Near Real-Time M. Splitt University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Recent work in this area by Charles Wade (1987) lays out the groundwork for monitoring data quality for projects with large networks of instruments such as the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Wade generated objectively analyzed fields of meteorological variables (temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind) and then compared the objectively analyzed value at the sensor location with the value produced by the sensor. Wade used a Barne's objective analysis scheme to produce objective data values for a given meteorological variable (q) in two- dimensional space. The objectively analyzed value should

175

Deriving the Surface Soil Heat Flux from Observed Soil Temperature and Soil Heat Flux Profiles Using a Variational Data Assimilation Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel approach to infer surface soil heat fluxes from measured profiles of soil temperature, soil heat flux, and observations of the vegetation canopy temperature and the incoming shortwave radiation is evaluated for the Cabauw measurement ...

R. J. Ronda; F. C. Bosveld

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the hourly mean solar radiation and standard deviation as inputs to simulate the solar radiation over a year. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique is applied and MATLAB program is developed for reliability analysis of small isolated power system using solar photovoltaic (SPV). This paper is distributed in two parts. Firstly various solar radiation prediction methods along with hourly mean solar radiation (HMSR) method are compared. The comparison is carried on the basis of predicted electrical power generation with actual power generated by SPV system. Estimation of solar photovoltaic power using HMSR method is close to the actual power generated by SPV system. The deviation in monsoon months is due to the cloud cover. In later part of the paper various reliability indices are obtained by HMSR method using MCS technique. Load model used is IEEE-RTS. Reliability indices, additional load hours (ALH) and additional power (AP) reduces exponentially with increase in load indicates that a SPV source will offset maximum fuel when all of its generated energy is utilized. Fuel saving calculation is also investigated. Case studies are presented for Sagardeep Island in West Bengal state of India. (author)

Moharil, Ravindra M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India); Kulkarni, Prakash S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440011, Maharashtra (India)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately accounting for radiative energy balance between the incoming solar and the outgoing infrared radiative fluxes is very important in modeling the Earth's climate. Water vapor absorption plays a critical role in the radiative heating rate ...

D. D. Turner; E. J. Mlawer

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Radiation Budgets in the Western Tropical Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The usefulness of the radiances measured by operational satellites in deriving radiation budgets is demonstrated by comparing the model calculations with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) fluxes. The radiation budgets in the atmosphere ...

Mino-Dah Chou

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Posters Diagnostic Analysis of Cloud Radiative Properties R.C.J. Somerville and S. F. Iacobellis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Posters Diagnostic Analysis of Cloud Radiative Properties R.C.J. Somerville and S. F. Iacobellis Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California Introduction A current dilemma of climate modeling is that general circulation model (GCM) results are extremely sensitive to parameterizations of certain poorly understood physical processes, most notably cloud-radiation interactions. As a result, models with different plausible parameterizations give very different results. Yet, we have no firm basis for knowing which parameterization is more nearly "correct." It is true that parameterizations are not the only shortcoming of GCMs. Our current ability to create models that will adequately simulate today's climate and predict its evolution

180

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO, South Pole and Pyhäsalmi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes for the neutrino experiments proposed at INO, South Pole and Pyh\\"asalmi. Neutrino fluxes have been obtained using ATMNC, a simulation code for cosmic ray in the atmosphere. Even using the same primary flux model and the interaction model, the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes are different for the different sites due to the geomagnetic field. The prediction of these fluxes in the present paper would be quite useful in the experimental analysis.

M. Sajjad Athar; M. Honda; T. Kajita; K. Kasahara; S. Midorikawa

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

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181

Solar Glare and Flux Mapping  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SGFMT Home SGFMT Home Register Glare Analysis Solar Glare Hazard Analysis SGHAT 1.0 (old) Empirical Glare Analysis Analytical Glare Analysis PHLUX Mapping Reflectivity Calculator References Contact Us Solar Glare and Flux Mapping Tools Measurement of reflected solar irradiance is receiving significant attention by industry, military, and government agencies to assess potential impacts of glint and glare from growing numbers of solar power installations around the world. In addition, characterization of the incident solar flux distribution on central receivers for concentrating solar power applications is important to monitor and maintain system performance. This website contains tools to evaluate solar glare and receiver irradiance. Register to access the tools Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool

182

Heuristic Derivation of Blackbody Radiation Laws using Principles of Dimensional Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A generalized form of Wien's displacement law and the blackbody radiation laws of (a) Rayleigh and Jeans, (b) Rayleigh, (c) Wien and Paschen, (d) Thiesen and (e) Planck are derived using principles of dimensional analysis. This kind of scaling is expressed in a strictly mathematical manner employing dimensional pi-invariants analysis sometimes called Buckingham's pi-theorem. It is shown that in the case of the classical radiation law of Rayleigh and Jeans only one pi number occurs that has to be considered as a non-dimensional universal constant. This pi number may be determined theoretically or/and empirically. It is also shown that dimensional pi-invariants analysis yields a generalized form of Wien's displacement law. In this instance two pi numbers generally occur. Consequently, a universal function is established that is indispensable to avoid the so-called Rayleigh-Jeans catastrophe in the ultraviolet. Unfortunately, such a universal function cannot be inferred from dimensional arguments. It has to be derived theoretically or/and empirically, too. It is shown that such a similarity function can be deduced on the basis of heuristic principles, when criteria like the maximum condition regarding the generalized form of Wien's displacement law, the requirement of the power law of Stefan and Boltzmann, and Ehrenfest's arguments regarding the red and the violet requirements are adopted.

Gerhard Kramm; Fritz Herbert

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Radiation Stress Estimators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation stresses Sij associated with the propagation of wind-generated waves are principal driving forces for several important surf-zone processes. The accurate estimation of the onshore flux of longshore-directed mean momentum Syx, using ...

S. S. Pawka; D. L. Inman; R. T. Guza

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fast Two-Stream Method for Computing Diurnal-Mean Actinic Flux in Vertically Inhomogeneous Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on a derivation of the two-stream daytime-mean equations of radiative flux transfer, a method for computing the daytime-mean actinic fluxes in the absorbing and scattering vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere is suggested. The method applies ...

V. V. Filyushkin; S. Madronich; G. P. Brasseur; I. V. Petropavlovskikh

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

On solar neutrino fluxes in radiochemical experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze fluctuations of the solar neutrino flux using data from the Homestake, GALLEX, GNO, SAGE and Super Kamiokande experiments. Spectral analysis and direct quantitative estimations show that the most stable variation of the solar neutrino flux is a quasi-five-year periodicity. The revised values of the mean solar neutrino flux are presented in Table 4. They were used to estimate the observed pp-flux of the solar electron neutrinos near the Earth. We consider two alternative explanations for the origin of a variable component of the solar neutrino deficit.

R. N. Ikhsanov; Yu. N. Gnedin; E. V. Miletsky

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

186

Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

188

Top-of-Atmosphere Radiance-to-Flux Conversion in the SW Domain for the ScaRaB-3 Instrument on Megha-Tropiques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The earth radiation budget (ERB) is the difference between the solar absorbed flux and the terrestrial emitted flux. These fluxes are calculated from satellite measurements of outgoing shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiances using empirical or ...

Michel Viollier; Carsten Standfuss; Olivier Chomette; Arnaud Quesney

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Geometrical vector flux sinks and ideal flux concentrators  

SciTech Connect

The description of ideal flux concentrators as shapes that do not disturb the geometrical vector flux field is extended to all the known types of ideal flux concentrators. This is accomplished, in part, by the introduction of vector flux sinks.

Greenman, P.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

191

High-Flux Stress Testing of Encapsulants for Medium-Concentration CPV Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study involved developing methods to expose transparent encapsulant materials to high (40 to 45 UV suns) optical fluxes of UV radiation to enable rapid evaluation of materials.

Kempe, M. D.; Kilkenny, M.; Moricone, T. J.; Zhang, J. Z.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Device for regulating radiant flux in solar installations  

SciTech Connect

Devices for regulating luminous flux in solar installations that concentrate solar radiation are considered. Shutter-type luminous-flux regulators located on heliostats are considered, as well as devices that permit automatic variation in orientation of each concentrator facet in accordance with the prescribed program. The advantages and drawbacks of the devices described are cited.

Khakimov, R.A.; Zakhidov, R.A.; Sizov, Yu.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Radiation Shielding Analysis for Direct Use of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel in CANDU Reactors (DUPIC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a part of the compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors, the radiation physics calculations have been performed for the CANDU primary shielding system, which was originally designed for natural uranium core. At first, the conventional CANDU primary shield analysis method was validated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B in order to assess the current analysis code system and the cross-section data. The computational benchmark calculation was performed for the CANDU end shield system, which has shown that the conventional method produces results consistent with the reference calculations as far as the total dose rate and total heat deposition rate are concerned. Second, the primary shield system analysis was performed for the DUPIC fuel core based on the power distribution obtained from the time-average core model, and the results have shown that the dose rates and heat deposition rates through the primary shield of the DUPIC fuel core are not much different from those of the natural uranium core because the power levels on the core periphery are similar for both cores. This study has shown that the current primary shield system is adaptable for the DUPIC fuel CANDU core without design modification.

Roh, Gyuhong; Choi, Hangbok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Radiation Oncology Program and Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Laperriere, Norm [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: Gelareh.Zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Improved Survival With Radiation Therapy in High-Grade Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities: A SEER Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The benefit of radiation therapy in extremity soft tissue sarcomas remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of radiation therapy on overall survival among patients with primary soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity who underwent limb-sparing surgery. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database that included data from January 1, 1988, to December 31, 2005. A total of 6,960 patients constituted the study population. Overall survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meir method and for patients with low- and high-grade tumors. Hazard ratios were calculated based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Of the cohort, 47% received radiation therapy. There was no significant difference in overall survival among patients with low-grade tumors by radiation therapy. In high-grade tumors, the 3-year overall survival was 73% in patients who received radiation therapy vs. 63% for those who did not receive radiation therapy (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumors who received radiation therapy had an improved overall survival (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.57-0.79). In patients receiving radiation therapy, 13.5% received it in a neoadjuvant setting. The incidence of patients receiving neoadjuvant radiation did not change significantly between 1988 and 2005. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest population-based study reported in patients undergoing limb-sparing surgery for soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. It reports that radiation was associated with improved survival in patients with high-grade tumors.

Koshy, Matthew, E-mail: mkoshy@umm.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rich, Shayna E. [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mohiuddin, Majid M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Design and analysis of a radiatively-cooled, inertially-driven nuclear generator system for space-based applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The RING (Radiatively-Cooled, Inertially-Driven Nuclear Generator) radiator is proposed as a novel heat rejection system for advanced space reactor power applications in the 1 to 25 MW(t) range. The RING radiator system employs four counter-rotating, hollow, cylindrical, ring-shaped tubes filled with liquid lithium. The rings pass through a cavity heat exchanger, absorb heat, and then re-radiate that absorbed heat to space. Each ring is made of thin-walled, corrugated Nb-1%Zr tubing with external fins, segmented to minimize the consequence of coolant loss. To examine both the system transient and steady-state thermal hydraulic response, a set of detailed, analytical computer codes was developed (RINGSYS-System Thermal Hydraulics and Power Rating/RINGDYN-System Dynamics/RINGRAD-Radiation Damage and Void Gas Formation/RINGDATG-Data Handling). An additional code (TEMPEST) was obtained to examine the impact of augmented, internal ring convective heat transfer on overall system performance. Performance results and a cumulative uncertainty analysis including analytical, computational, property, and environmental condition errors are presented. The optimized radiator configuration at a cavity temperature of 1500 K results in a 3.3 MW(t) heat removal capacity at a minimum radiator weight ratio of 2.1 kg/kW(t); or a radiator weight ratio of 4.0 kg/kW(t) at a maximum achievable capacity of 5.6 MW(t). Despite a higher kg/kW(t) ratio than reported for other comparable temperature radiator designs, the concept is an attractive option for use with high-temperature reactors in high or geosynchronous earth orbit, specifically where the essential design criteria emphasize reliability, safety, and repairability. This dissertation also describes the confirmatory research, especially related to the material and thermal characteristics of key components, necessary to ensure successful RING radiator system deployment.

Apley, W.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Development of a New Analysis Tool for Evaluating and Correcting for Weather Conditions that Constrain Radiation Portal Monitor Performance  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) for the continuous measurement of environmental radionuclide decay. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of combining a variety of data streams into an array of real-time plots. Once acquired, data streams are analyzed to store static images and extract data based on previously defined thresholds. AMRAP is currently used at ORNL to combine data streams from an Ortec Detective high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a TSA Systems radiation portal monitor (RPM), and an Orion weather station. The combined data are used to study the rain-induced increase in RPM background radiation levels. RPMs experience an increase in background radiation during precipitation due to the deposition of atmospheric radionuclides on the ground. Using AMRAP results in a real-time analysis workstation specifically dedicated to the study of RPM background radiation levels. By means of an editable library of common inputs, AMRAP is adaptable to remote monitoring applications that would benefit from the real-time visualization and analysis of radiation measurements. To study rain-induced increases in background radiation levels observed in radiation portal monitors (RPMs), researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a software package that allows data with different formats to be analyzed and plotted in near real time. The Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) was developed to operate in the background and capture plots of important data based on previously defined thresholds. After executing AMRAP, segments of a data stream can be captured without additional post-processing. AMRAP can also display previously recorded data to facilitate a detailed offline analysis. Without access to these capabilities in a single software package, analyzing multiple continuously recorded data streams with different formats is impractical. Commercially available acquisition software packages record and analyze radiation measurements but are not designed to perform real-time analysis in conjunction with data from other vendors. The lack of collaboration between vendors is problematic when research requires different data streams to be correlated in time and immediately analyzed. AMRAP was specifically developed to provide a solution to this problem. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of plotting and analyzing data from different vendors in near real time.

Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Role of radiation damping in the impedance function approach to soil-structure interaction analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared at the request of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to provide background information for analyzing soil-structure interaction by the frequency-independent impedance function approach. LLL is conducting such analyses as part of its seismic review of selected operating plants under the Systematic Evaluation Program for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The analytical background and basic assumptionsof the impedance function theory are briefly reviewed, and the role of radiation damping in soil-structure interaction analysis is discussed. The validity of modeling soil-structure interaction by using frequency-independent functions is evaluated based on data from several field tests. Finally, the recommended procedures for performing soil-structure interaction analyses are discussed with emphasis on the modal superposition method.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

An Air–Soil Layer Coupled Scheme for Computing Surface Heat Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An air–soil layer coupled scheme is developed to compute surface fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat from data collected at the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement–Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM–CART) stations. This new scheme ...

Qin Xu; Binbin Zhou; Stephen D. Burk; Edward H. Barker

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

An Error Analysis of the Thornthwaite-Holzman Equations for Estimating Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes over Crop and Forest Canopies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computations of sensible and latent heat fluxes over forest and crop canopies using the Thornthwaite-Holzman equations require an a priori knowledge of roughness and data displacement heights. If the values of these parameters are not ...

O. E. Thompson; R. T. Pinker

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Oceanic Heat Flux Calculation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors review the procedure for the direct calculation of oceanic heat flux from hydrographic measurements and set out the full “recipe” that is required.

Sheldon Bacon; Nick Fofonoff

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis of Satellite-Observed Outgoing Longwave Radiation During Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the characteristic features of the Asiatic summer monsoon were investigated using outgoing longwave radiation data obtained from NOAA polar orbiting satellites during the summer mouths in 1974–77. Monthly mean outgoing longwave radiation ...

Takio Murakami

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Radiation properties of cavity Cerenkov radiation  

SciTech Connect

Cerenkov radiation from cavities has been analyzed by quantum electrodynamic theory. Analytical expressions of basic radiation properties such as the Einstein's A and B coefficients are derived and shown to be directly modified by the cavities. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the coherent radiation from the Cerenkov radiation devices is due to super radiance of spontaneous emission instead of stimulated emission. Coherent and incoherent radiations are analyzed in the THz radiation range.

Gao Ju; Shen Fang [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Time Variations of the Solar Neutrino Flux Data from Sage and Gallex-Gno Detectors Obtained by Rayleigh Power Spectrum Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used Rayleigh power spectrum analysis of the monthly solar neutrino flux data from (1) SAGE detector during the period from 1st January 1990 to 31st December 2000; (2) SAGE detector during the period from April 1998 to December 2001; (3) GALLEX detector during the period from May 1991 to January 1997; (4) GNO detector during the period from May 1998 to December 2001; (5) GALLEX-GNO detector (combined data) from May 1991 to December 2001 and (6) average of the data from GNO and SAGE detectors during the period from May 1998 to December 2001. (1) exhibits periodicity around 1.3, 4.3, 5.5, 6.3, 7.9, 8.7, 15.9, 18.7, 23.9, 32.9 and 48.7 months. (2) shows periodicity around 1.5, 2.9, 4.5, 10.1 months. For (3) we observe periodicity around 1.7, 18.7 and 26.9 months. For (4) periodicity is seen around 3.5, 5.5, 7.7 and 10.5 months. (5) gives periodicity around 1.7, 18.5, 28.5 and 42.1 months while (6) shows periodicity around 4.3, 6.9, 10.3 and 18.1 months. We have found almost similar periods in the solar flares, sunspot data, solar proton data which indicates that the solar activity cycle may be due to the variable character of nuclear energy generation inside the sun.

Koushik Ghosh; Probhas Raychaudhuri

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

205

Concentration with uniform flux  

SciTech Connect

A modification of a parabolic cylinder concentrator is developed to procedure uniform flux. The controlling surface equation is given. A three-dimensional ray-trace technique is used to obtain the shape of the image at the focal plane of a thin slice of the mirror. Also, the concentration distribution for uniform flux is given. 1 references, 7 figures.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Radiative Effects of Cloud-Type Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative flux changes induced by the occurrence of different cloud types are investigated using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud data and a refined radiative transfer model from National Aeronautics and Space ...

Ting Chen; William B. Rossow; Yuanchong Zhang

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Radiation Budget of the Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the relationship between precipitation and radiative heating on intraseasonal time scales in the Tropics using collocated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative flux measurements from special field program data [...

Jia-Lin Lin; Brian E. Mapes

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

An Integrated Surface Radiation Measurement System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated surface radiation measurement system has been developed to measure the surface radiation exchange flux. The system employs upward- and downward-looking Eppley pyrgeometers and pyranometers to separately measure four components: ...

A. C. Delany; S. R. Semmer

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Surface Radiation in the Tropical Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly surface radiative fluxes in the tropical Pacific between January 1970 and February 1978 have been calculated using a radiative transfer package which includes detailed treatments of the molecular and droplet absorptions and of the surface ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.

Jerry Y. Harrington

2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

211

Hawking radiation via Landauer transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, Nation et al confirmed that fluxes of Hawking radiation energy and entropy from a black hole can be regarded as a one-dimensional (1D) Landauer transport process. Their work can be extended to background spacetimes with gauge potential. The result shows that the energy flux, which is indicated to be equal to the energy-momentum tensor flux, contains not only the contribution of thermal flux but also that of particle flux. We find that the charge can also be regarded as transporting via a 1D quantum channel and the charge flux is equal to the gauge flux.

Xiao-Xiong Zeng; Wen-Biao Liu

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

212

Spatially averaged heat flux and convergence measurements at the ARM regional flux experiment  

SciTech Connect

Cloud formation and its relation to climate change is the greatest weakness in current numerical climate models. Surface heat flux in some cases causes clouds to form and in other to dissipate and the differences between these cases are subtle enough to make parameterization difficult in a numerical model. One of the goals of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is to make long term measurements at representative sites to improve radiation and cloud formation parameterization. This paper compares spatially averaged optical measurements of heat flux and convergence with a goal of determining how point measurements of heat fluxes scale up to the larger scale used for climate modeling. It was found that the various optical techniques used in this paper compared well with each other and with independent measurements. These results add confidence that spatially averaging optical techniques can be applied to transform point measurements to the larger scales needed for mesoscale and climate modeling. 10 refs., 6 figs. (MHB)

Porch, W.; Barnes, F.; Buchwald, M.; Clements, W.; Cooper, D.; Hoard, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Doran, C.; Hubbe, J.; Shaw, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Coulter, R.; Martin, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kunkel, K. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Development and Testing of Instrumentation for UAV-Based Flux Measurements within Terrestrial and Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instrumentation packages have been developed for small (18–28 kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to measure momentum fluxes as well as latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the topography below. ...

Benjamin D. Reineman; Luc Lenain; Nicholas M. Statom; W. Kendall Melville

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Performance Analysis of Potassium Heat Pipes Radiator for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System  

SciTech Connect

A detailed design and performance results of C-C finned, and armored potassium heat pipes radiator for a 110 kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The radiator consists of two sections; each serves an equal number of STMCs and has 162 longitudinal potassium heat pipes with 0.508 mm thick C-C fins. The width of the C-C fins at the minor diameter of the radiator is almost zero, but increases with distance along the radiator to reach 3.7 cm at the radiator's major diameter. The radiator's heat pipes (OD = 2.42 cm in front and 3.03 cm in rear) have thin titanium (0.0762 mm thick) liners and wicks (0.20 mm thick with an effective pore radius of 12-16 {mu}m) and a 1.016 mm thick C-C wall. The wick is separated from the titanium liner by a 0.4 mm annulus filled with liquid potassium to increase the capillary limit. The outer surfaces of the heat pipes in the front and rear sections of the radiator are protected with a C-C armor that is 2.17 mm and 1.70 mm thick, respectively. The inside surface of the heat pipes in the front radiator is thermally insulated while the C-C finned condensers of the rear heat pipes are exposed, radiating into space through the rear opening of the radiator cavity. The heat pipes in both the front and the rear radiators have a 1.5 m long evaporator section and each dissipates 4.47 kW while operating at 43.6% of the prevailing sonic limit. The front and rear radiator sections are 5.29 m and 2.61 m long with outer surface area and mass of 47.1 m2 and 314.3 kg, and 39.9 m2 and 243.2 kg, respectively. The total radiator is 7.63 m long and has minor and major diameters of 1.48 m and 5.57 m, respectively, and a total surface area of 87 m2; however, the effective radiator area, after accounting for heat rejection through the rear of the radiator cavity, is 98.8 m2. The radiator's total mass including the C-C armor is 557.5 kg and the specific area and specific mass are 6.41 kg/m2 and 5.07 kg/kWe, respectively.

El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States)

2004-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

215

TURAC—A New Instrument Package for Radiation Budget Measurements and Cloud Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric radiation flux measurements and the resulting surface radiation budget are important quantities for greenhouse effect and climate change investigations. Accurate net shortwave and longwave fluxes, in conjunction with numerical ...

C. Ruckstuhl; R. Philipona

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for Delivery of Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To improve the quality and safety of our practice of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), we analyzed the process following the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) method. Methods: The FMEA was performed by a multidisciplinary team. For each step in the SBRT delivery process, a potential failure occurrence was derived and three factors were assessed: the probability of each occurrence, the severity if the event occurs, and the probability of detection by the treatment team. A rank of 1 to 10 was assigned to each factor, and then the multiplied ranks yielded the relative risks (risk priority numbers). The failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers were then considered to implement process improvement measures. Results: A total of 28 occurrences were derived, of which nine events scored with significantly high risk priority numbers. The risk priority numbers of the highest ranked events ranged from 20 to 80. These included transcription errors of the stereotactic coordinates and machine failures. Conclusion: Several areas of our SBRT delivery were reconsidered in terms of process improvement, and safety measures, including treatment checklists and a surgical time-out, were added for our practice of gantry-based image-guided SBRT. This study serves as a guide for other users of SBRT to perform FMEA of their own practice.

Perks, Julian R., E-mail: julian.perks@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stanic, Sinisa; Stern, Robin L.; Henk, Barbara; Nelson, Marsha S.; Harse, Rick D.; Mathai, Mathew; Purdy, James A.; Valicenti, Richard K.; Siefkin, Allan D.; Chen, Allen M. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Role of Low-Level Moisture Convergence and Ocean Latent Heat Fluxes in the Madden and Julian Oscillation: An Observational Analysis Using ISCCP Data and ECMWF Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines whether or not low-level moisture convergence and surface latent heat flux act as forcing mechanisms of the Madden and Julian oscillation (MJO), as it is proposed by the theories of wave-CISK (conditional instability of the ...

Charles Jones; Bryan C. Weare

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Environmental Controls on the Surface Energy Budget over a Large Southern Inland Water in the United States: An Analysis of One-Year Eddy Covariance Flux Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors analyzed the surface energy fluxes that were measured by an eddy covariance system over the Ross Barnett Reservoir in Mississippi for a 1-yr period in 2008. On a monthly basis over the course of the year, positive vertical temperature ...

Heping Liu; Qianyu Zhang; Gordon Dowler

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understanding of the correlation of uncertainties is required for $\\theta_{13}$ experiments. Precise determination of reactor neutrino flux will also improve the sensitivity of the non-proliferation monitoring and future reactor experiments. We will discuss the flux calculation and recent progresses.

Cao, Jun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understanding of the correlation of uncertainties is required for $\\theta_{13}$ experiments. Precise determination of reactor neutrino flux will also improve the sensitivity of the non-proliferation monitoring and future reactor experiments. We will discuss the flux calculation and recent progresses.

Jun Cao

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ~24°C, indicating that heat conduction was small. T h i sday, indicating large heat conduction a n d storage. Control2.1.3 showed that conduction heat flux through the roof was

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Airborne measurements of mass, momentum, and energy fluxes for the boardman-arm regional flux experiment-1991. Preliminary data release. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

During 2 - 19 June 1991 the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division of NOAA measured flux densities of mass, momentum, and energy from an airplane in support of DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Over 507 horizontal flux transects were completed, along with 24 vertical atmospheric profiles, during the 93 flight hours. Flux transects passed over both irrigated farmland and steppe. The report describes the variation in wind, radiation, and surface temperature, along with exchange of mass (CO2, H2O, and O3), momentum, and energy as observed along the transects. Airborne measurements are compared with those from flux towers in wheat, corn, and steppe. In general, the measurements correspond well. The largest difference occurs at the steppe tower, with stronger heat fluxes reported by the tower. This discrepancy increases as heat flux increases. The cause may be a significant vertical flux divergence or an inconsistant specification of the mean state.

Crawford, T.L.; Dobosy, R.J.; Birdwell, K.R.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Proceedings of the workshop on applications of synchrotron radiation to trace impurity analysis for advanced silicon processing  

SciTech Connect

Wafer surface trace impurity analysis is essential for development of competitive Si circuit technologies. Today's grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence techniques with rotating anodes fall short of requirements for the future. Hewlett Packard/Toshiba experiments indicate that with second generation synchrotron sources such as SSRL, the techniques can be extended sufficiently to meet important needs of the leading edge Si circuit industry through nearly all of the 1990's. This workshop was held to identify people interested in use of synchrotron radiation-based methods and to document needs and concerns for further development. Viewgraphs are included for the following presentations: microcontamination needs in silicon technology (M. Liehr), analytical methods for wafer surface contamination (A. Schimazaki), trace impurity analysis of liquid drops using synchrotron radiation (D. Wherry), TRXRF using synchrotron sources (S. Laderman), potential role of synchrotron radiation TRXRF in Si process R D (M. Scott), potenital development of synchrotron radiation facilities (S. Brennan), and identification of goals, needs and concerns (M. Garner).

Laderman, S. (Integrated Circuits Business Div., Hewlett Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Pianetta, P. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Earth Radiation Budget: Results of Outgoing Longwave Radiation from Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, and ERBS Satellites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eighteen months of wide field-of-view (WFOV) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft have been deconvolved to produce resolution-enhanced flux maps at the top ...

T. Dale Bess; G. Louis Smith

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg) Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Gas Flux Sampling Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Jennifer L. Lewicki, Curtis M. Oldenburg (Unknown) Near-Surface Co2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Gas_Flux_Sampling_(Lewicki_%26_Oldenburg)&oldid=508144" Categories: Exploration Activities DOE Funded Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

226

Radiation Hydrodynamics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish hydrogen atoms from helium atoms, for instance. There are all just components of a mixed fluid in this case. So why do we have a special subject called ''radiation hydrodynamics'', when photons are just one of the many kinds of particles that comprise our fluid? The reason is that photons couple rather weakly to the atoms, ions and electrons, much more weakly than those particles couple with each other. Nor is the matter-radiation coupling negligible in many problems, since the star or nebula may be millions of mean free paths in extent. Radiation hydrodynamics exists as a discipline to treat those problems for which the energy and momentum coupling terms between matter and radiation are important, and for which, since the photon mean free path is neither extremely large nor extremely small compared with the size of the system, the radiation field is not very easy to calculate. In the theoretical development of this subject, many of the relations are presented in a form that is described as approximate, and perhaps accurate only to order of {nu}/c. This makes the discussion cumbersome. Why are we required to do this? It is because we are using Newtonian mechanics to treat our fluid, yet its photon component is intrinsically relativistic; the particles travel at the speed of light. There is a perfectly consistent relativistic kinetic theory, and a corresponding relativistic theory of fluid mechanics, which is perfectly suited to describing the photon gas. But it is cumbersome to use this for the fluid in general, and we prefer to avoid it for cases in which the flow velocity satisfies {nu} << c. The price we pay is to spend extra effort making sure that the source-sink terms relating to our relativistic gas component are included in the equations of motion in a form that preserves overall conservation of energy and momentum, something that would be automatic if the relativistic equations were used throughout.

Castor, J I

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

227

Hypofractionation vs Conventional Radiation Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Matched-Cohort Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Despite conventional radiation therapy, 54 Gy in single doses of 1.8 Gy (54/1.8 Gy) over 6 weeks, most children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the role of hypofractionation radiation therapy given over 3 to 4 weeks. A 1:1 matched-cohort analysis with conventional radiation therapy was performed to assess response and survival. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven children, aged 3 to 14, were treated according to 1 of 2 hypofractionation regimens over 3 to 4 weeks (39/3 Gy, n=16 or 44.8/2.8 Gy, n=11). All patients had symptoms for {<=}3 months, {>=}2 signs of the neurologic triad (cranial nerve deficit, ataxia, long tract signs), and characteristic features of DIPG on magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-seven patients fulfilling the same diagnostic criteria and receiving at least 50/1.8 to 2.0 Gy were eligible for the matched-cohort analysis. Results: With hypofractionation radiation therapy, the overall survival at 6, 9, and 12 months was 74%, 44%, and 22%, respectively. Progression-free survival at 3, 6, and 9 months was 77%, 43%, and 12%, respectively. Temporary discontinuation of steroids was observed in 21 of 27 (78%) patients. No significant difference in median overall survival (9.0 vs 9.4 months; P=.84) and time to progression (5.0 vs 7.6 months; P=.24) was observed between hypofractionation vs conventional radiation therapy, respectively. Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed DIPG, a hypofractionation regimen, given over 3 to 4 weeks, offers equal overall survival with less treatment burden compared with a conventional regimen of 6 weeks.

Janssens, Geert O., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Jansen, Marc H. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lauwers, Selmer J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nowak, Peter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bouffet, Eric [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Saran, Frank [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schieving, Jolanda H. [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Kaspers, Gertjan J. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hargrave, Darren [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth–atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous ...

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Seiji Kato; Walter F. Miller; Shashi K. Gupta; Patrick Minnis; Bruce A. Wielicki

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Multiresolution Analysis of Radiative Transfer through Inhomogeneous Media. Part II: Validation and New Insights  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multiresolution radiative transfer equations of Part I of this paper are solved numerically for the case of inhomogeneous model clouds using Meyer’s basis functions. After analyzing the properties of Meyer’s connection coefficients and ...

Nicolas Ferlay; Harumi Isaka; Philip Gabriel; Albert Benassi

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Plenary lecture I: electromagnetic low frequency radiation from natural phenomena - data analysis and modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Can severe weather conditions, volcanic eruptions or even earthquakes be predicted from monitoring and analyzing electromagnetic radiation especially in very and ultra low frequency ranges? What signatures in this frequency range leave solar wind, solar ...

Ernst D. Schmitter

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Analysis of the probability distribution of photocount number of the onemode stochastic radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Mandel probability distribution of one-mode stochastic radiation photocounts is analized. Approximations of n-photon registration probabilities with guaranteed accuracy are obtained in the case when the registration time is sufficiently small.

Yu. P. Virchenko; N. N. Vitokhina

2004-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

232

An Analysis of the Klemp and Durran Radiation Boundary Condition as Applied to Dissipative Internal Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of the oceanic (atmospheric) boundary layer are complicated by the need to specify appropriate “outflow” or “radiation” boundary conditions at the artificial lower (upper) boundary of the computational domain. If the ...

Gregory P. Chini; Sidney Leibovich

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Optical heat flux gauge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figs.

Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

1989-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

234

Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

CRAD, Radiological Controls - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High High Flux Isotope Reactor CRAD, Radiological Controls - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor February 2007 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Radiological Controls - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor More Documents & Publications CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

236

Mapping Heat Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An infrared camera technique designed for remote sensing of air–water heat flux has been developed. The technique uses the differential absorption of water between 3.817 and 4.514 microns. This difference causes each channel’s radiance to ...

Walt McKeown; Richard Leighton

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Correcting eddy-covariance flux underestimates over a grassland.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Independent measurements of the major energy balance flux components are not often consistent with the principle of conservation of energy. This is referred to as a lack of closure of the surface energy balance. Most results in the literature have shown the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes measured by eddy covariance to be less than the difference between net radiation and soil heat fluxes. This under-measurement of sensible and latent heat fluxes by eddy-covariance instruments has occurred in numerous field experiments and among many different manufacturers of instruments. Four eddy-covariance systems consisting of the same models of instruments were set up side-by-side during the Southern Great Plains 1997 Hydrology Experiment and all systems under-measured fluxes by similar amounts. One of these eddy-covariance systems was collocated with three other types of eddy-covariance systems at different sites; all of these systems under-measured the sensible and latent-heat fluxes. The net radiometers and soil heat flux plates used in conjunction with the eddy-covariance systems were calibrated independently and measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux showed little scatter for various sites. The 10% absolute uncertainty in available energy measurements was considerably smaller than the systematic closure problem in the surface energy budget, which varied from 10 to 30%. When available-energy measurement errors are known and modest, eddy-covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes should be adjusted for closure. Although the preferred method of energy balance closure is to maintain the Bowen-ratio, the method for obtaining closure appears to be less important than assuring that eddy-covariance measurements are consistent with conservation of energy. Based on numerous measurements over a sorghum canopy, carbon dioxide fluxes, which are measured by eddy covariance, are underestimated by the same factor as eddy covariance evaporation measurements when energy balance closure is not achieved.

Twine, T. E.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Cook, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Meyers, T. P.; Prueger, J. H.; Starks, P. J.; Wesely, M. L.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; DOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationoratory

2000-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

238

Comparison of Radiation Budget at the TOA and Surface in the Antarctic from ERBE and Ground Surface Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface were compared at two Antarctic stations, Syowa and the South Pole, using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data and surface observations. Fluxes at both sites were plotted ...

Takashi Yamanouchi; Thomas P. Charlock

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Updated Mortality Analysis of Radiation Workers at Rocketdyne (Atomics International), 1948-2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Updated analyses of mortality data are presented on 46,970 workers employed 1948-1999 at Rocketdyne (Atomics International). Overall, 5,801 workers were involved in radiation activities, including 2,232 who were monitored for intakes of radionuclides, and 41,169 workers were engaged in rocket testing or other non-radiation activities. The worker population is unique in that lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought, updated and incorporated into the analyses. Further, radiation doses from intakes of 14 different radionuclides were calculated for 16 organs or tissues using biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). Because only negligible exposures were received by the 247 workers monitored for radiation activities after 1999, the mean dose from external radiation remained essentially the same at 13.5 mSv (maximum 1 Sv) as reported previously, as did the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined at 19.0 mSv (maximum 3.6 Sv). An additional 9 years of follow-up, from December 31,1999 through 2008, increased the person-years of observation for the radiation workers by 21.7% to 196,674 (mean 33.9 years) and the number of cancer deaths by 50% to 684. Analyses included external comparisons with the general population and the computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and internal comparisons using proportional hazards models and the computation of relative risks (RRs). A low SMR for all causes of death (SMR 0.82; 95% CI 0.78-0.85) continued to indicate that the Rocketdyne radiation workers were healthier than the general population and were less likely to die. The SMRs for all cancers taken together (SMR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.95), lung cancer (SMR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76-1.00) and leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (SMR 1.04; 95% 0.67-1.53) were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant dose-response trends for any cancer. For all cancers excluding leukemia, the RR at 100 mSv was estimated as 0.98 (95% CI 0.82-1.17), and for all leukemia other than CLL it was 1.06 (95% CI 0.50-2.23). Uranium was the primary radionuclide contributing to internal exposures, but no significant increases in lung and kidney disease were seen. The extended follow-up reinforces the findings in the previous study in failing to observe a detectable increase in cancer deaths associated with radiation, but strong conclusions still cannot be drawn because of small numbers and relatively low career doses. Larger combined studies of early workers in the United States using similar methodologies are warranted to refine and clarify radiation risks after protracted exposures.

Boice Jr JD, Colen SS, Mumma MT, Ellis ED, Eckerman DF, Leggett RW, Boecker BB, Brill B, Henderson BE

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Analysis of Broadband Solar Radiation and Albedo over the Ocean Surface at COVE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled atmosphere–ocean radiative transfer model has been applied to analyze a full year of broadband solar irradiances (up and down) measured over an ocean site 25 km east of the coast of Virginia in the Atlantic. The coupled model treats ...

Zhonghai Jin; Thomas P. Charlock; Ken Rutledge

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

Russell, J.T.

1964-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

242

ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, David

243

ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, David

1993-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

RELAP5/MOD2. 5 analysis of the HFBR (High Flux Beam Reactor) for a loss of power and coolant accident  

SciTech Connect

A set of postulated accidents were evaluated for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A loss of power accident (LOPA) and a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) were analyzed. This work was performed in response to a DOE review that wanted to update the understanding of the thermal hydraulic behavior of the HFBR during these transients. These calculations were used to determine the margins to fuel damage at the 60 MW power level. The LOPA assumes all the backup power systems fail (although this event is highly unlikely). The reactor scrams, the depressurization valve opens, and the pumps coast down. The HFBR has down flow through the core during normal operation. To avoid fuel damage, the core normally goes through an extended period of forced down flow after a scram before natural circulation is allowed. During a LOPA, the core will go into flow reversal once the buoyancy forces are larger than the friction forces produced during the pump coast down. The flow will stagnate, reverse direction, and establish a buoyancy driven (natural circulation) flow around the core. Fuel damage would probably occur if the critical heat flux (CHF) limit is reached during the flow reversal event. The RELAP5/MOD2.5 code, with an option for heavy water, was used to model the HFBR and perform the LOPA calculation. The code was used to predict the time when the buoyancy forces overcome the friction forces and produce upward directed flow in the core. The Monde CHF correlation and experimental data taken for the HFBR during the design verification phase in 1963 were used to determine the fuel damage margin. 20 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

Slovik, G.C.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Jo, Jae.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

MULTI-POINT SHOCK AND FLUX ROPE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AROUND 2010 AUGUST 1 IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120 Degree-Sign in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index ( Almost-Equal-To - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

Moestl, C.; Liu, Y.; Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Farrugia, C. J. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Kilpua, E. K. J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland); Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Eastwood, J. P.; Forsyth, R. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); Webb, D. F. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Newton, MA (United States); Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A. M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Odstrcil, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nitta, N. [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Mulligan, T. [Space Science Applications Laboratory, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Jensen, E. A. [ACS Consulting, Houston, TX (United States); Lavraud, B. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), F-31400 Toulouse (France); De Koning, C. A., E-mail: christian.moestl@uni-graz.at [NOAA/SWPC, Boulder, Colorado (United States); and others

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

A Fast, Accurate Method of Computing Near-Surface Longwave Fluxes and Cooling Rates in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As radiation plays a key role in the determination of the near-surface thermal environment, great accuracy is required in the computation of radiative fluxes, especially because a small error in the fluxes can lead to large errors in estimated ...

Saji Varghese; A. S. Vasudeva Murthy; Roddam Narasimha

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Analysis of a flexible polymeric film with imbedded micro heat pipes for spacecraft radiators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In response to the pursuit of interplanetary travel and a continuous human presence in space, there is increasing focus within the space industry on spacecraft designs that change configuration within the space environment. Flexible thermal radiators are being developed to accommodate deployment mechanisms. An analytical model suggests that a lightweight polymeric material with imbedded micro heat pipe arrays can meet heat dissipation requirements while contributing less mass than competing flexible materials. The heat pipe capillary limit is evaluated as a function of temperature using two candidate working fluids. Using water, maximum heat transport is 18 mW per channel at 140° to 160° C. Maximum heat transport using methanol is 2.2 mW at 120° C: an order-of-magnitude difference. A thermal circuit model translates heat transport per channel into total radiator capacity as a function of heat source temperature and environmental sink temperature. Using water as the working fluid, radiator capacity varies from 6.0 kW to 12.2 kW for source temperatures from 20° to 50° C. For source temperatures 40° C and higher, capacity meets or exceeds the dissipation requirements of a reference spacecraft design. Methanol is not recommended as a working fluid because it produces radiator capacities two to three times lower than when water is used. Although thermal control system specifications constrain the micro heat pipe operating range, design changes directed at alleviating capillary limitations should increase radiator capacity. Technical issues for further investigation include effects of film billowing; performance limitations related to vapor viscosity; working fluid diffusion; and chemical reactivity between the case and working fluid. Compared to a competing graphite fiber weave, the polymeric material has an effective conductivity over ten times higher. Its area power density (kW/m²) is 18% to 60% lower than the graphite weave, but its mass power density (kW/kg) is several times higher. Greater flexibility and lower mass make it more amenable to structural integration than the graphite material. Recently developed space-stable polymers offer resistance to harsh temperature and radiation environments, helping to clear the path toward a more extensive use of polymers within the space industry.

McDaniels, Deborah Marie

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Measuring Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration...

249

Analytic Perturbation Theory and Renormalization Analysis of Matter Coupled to Quantized Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a large class of quantum mechanical models of matter and radiation we develop an analytic perturbation theory for non-degenerate ground states. This theory is applicable, for example, to models of matter with static nuclei and non-relativistic electrons that are coupled to the UV-cutoff quantized radiation field in the dipole approximation. If the lowest point of the energy spectrum is a non-degenerate eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian, we show that this eigenvalue is an analytic function of the nuclear coordinates and of $\\alpha^{3/2}$, $\\alpha$ being the fine structure constant. A suitably chosen ground state vector depends analytically on $\\alpha^{3/2}$ and it is twice continuously differentiable with respect to the nuclear coordinates.

Marcel Griesemer; David Hasler

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

250

A New Natural Gamma Radiation Measurement System for Marine Sediment and Rock Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are ...

Vasiliev, M A; Chubarian, G; Olsen, R; Bennight, C; Cobine, T; Fackler, D; Hastedt, M; Houpt, D; Mateo, Z; Vasilieva, Y B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

ABSOLUTE BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE ALS BY INCOHERENTSYNCHROTRON RADIATION FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analysing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations ofthe radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of thespectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatialdistribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested asimple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolutemeasurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and theexperimental results are presented.

Sannibale, Fernando; Zolotorev, Max S.; Filippetto, Daniele; Stupakov, Gennady V.

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

252

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

Filippetto, D.; /Frascati; Sannibale, F.; Zolotorev, Max Samuil; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

253

Impact of Changes to the Radiation Transfer Parameterizations Plus Cloud Optical. Properties in the ECMWF Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new radiation package, shown to correct most of the systematic errors of the operational ECMWF radiation scheme, has been extensively tested in the ECMWF forecast model. Improvements in the clear-sky fluxes and radiative heating/cooling rate ...

Jean-Jacques Morcrette

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Entrainment into a Stratocumulus Layer with Distributed Radiative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the radiative cooling of a cloud layer strongly influences the turbulent flux profiles and the entrainment rate, and that the radiative cooling should be modeled as acting inside the turbulent layer. Numerical experiments ...

David A. Randall

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Analysis of the frequency response of a TeO{sub 2} slow shear wave acousto-optic cell exposed to radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation testing of photonic components is not new, however component level testing to date has not completely addressed quantities which are important to system behavior. One characteristic that is of particular importance for optical processing systems is the frequency response. In this report, we present the analysis of data from an experiment designed to provide a preliminary understanding of the effects of radiation on the frequency response of acousto-optic devices. The goal of the analysis is to describe possible physical mechanisms responsible for the radiation effects and to discuss the effects on signal processing functionality. The experiment discussed in this report was designed by Sandia National Laboratories and performed by Sandia and Phillips Laboratory personnel at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). In the experiment, a TeO{sub 2} slow shear wave acousto-optic cell was exposed to radiation from the WSMR linear accelerator. The TeO{sub 2} cell was placed in an experimental configuration which allowed swept frequency diffracted power measurements to be taken during radiation exposure and recovery. A series of exposures was performed. Each exposure consisted of between 1 to 800, 1{mu}sec radiation pulses (yielding exposures of 2.25 kRad(Si) to 913 kRad(Si)), followed by recovery time. At low total and cumulative doses, the bandshape of the frequency response (i.e. diffracted power vs. frequency) remained almost identical during and after radiation. At the higher exposures, however, the amplitude and width of the frequency response changed as the radiation continued, but returned to the original shape slowly after the radiation stopped and recovery proceeded. It is interesting to note that the location of the Bragg degeneracy does not change significantly with radiation. In this report, we discuss these effects from the perspective of anisotropic Bragg diffraction and momentum mismatch, and we discuss the effect on the signal processing functionality.

Erteza, I.A.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Changes in Vegetation Condition and Surface Fluxes during NAME 2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vegetation in the core region of the North American monsoon (NAM) system changes dramatically after the onset of the summer rains so that large changes may be expected in the surface fluxes of radiation, heat, and moisture. Most of this ...

Christopher J. Watts; Russell L. Scott; Jaime Garatuza-Payan; Julio C. Rodriguez; John H. Prueger; William P. Kustas; Michael Douglas

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes  

SciTech Connect

Evaluations of transient surface temperatures resulting from the absorption of radiation are required in laser fusion reactor systems studies. A general method for the direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes on the boundaries of bounded media is developed by constructing fundamental solutions of the scalar Helmholtz equation and performing certain elementary integrations. (auth)

Axford, R.A.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

CREEP RUPTURE IN THE PRESENCE OF A FAST NEUTRON FLUX  

SciTech Connect

Possible mechanisms for creep rupture during irradiation are examined. Evidence that the rupture occurs by grain boundary sliding alone, or by vacancy condensation, is compared. It is observed that vacancy condensation is the more probable mechanism, and that this mechanism predicts a reduction in creep rupture life for metals exposed to a fast neutron flux (neglecting effects of radiation annealing). (T.F.H.)

Gregory, D.P.

1959-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

259

Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Accomplishments of the Instantaneous Radiative Flux (IRF) Working Group August 2006 AERI Observations at Southern Great Plains Improve Infrared Radiative Transfer Models Turner et al., JAS, 2004 * AERI observations used to evaluate clear sky IR radiative transfer models * Long-term comparisons have improved - Spectral line database parameters - Water vapor continuum absorption models * Reduced errors in computation of downwelling radiative IR flux by approx 4; current uncertainty is on the order of 1.5 W/m 2 AERI - (Pre-ARM Model) AERI - (Model in 2003) 1 RU = 1 mW / (m 2 sr cm -1 ) Excellent Agreement in Clear Sky Shortwave Radiative Transfer Between Obs and Calcs Shortwave Flux Bias (Solid) Shortwave Flux RMS (Hatched) W m -2 * Comparison of shortwave radiative flux at the surface

260

Electroslag remelting with used fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ukranian Scientific-Research Institute of Specialty Steel collaborated with plants engaged in the production of quality metals to introduce a low-waste electroslag remelting (ESR) technology employing used fluxes. It was established that the fluoride (type ANF-1) and fluoride-oxide (type ANF-6) fluxes which are widely used in ESR still have a high content of calcium fluoride and alumina and a low impurity content after 8-10 h of ESR. In the ESR of steels with used fluxes, the content of monitored components in the final slags changes negligibly, while the content of most impurities decreases. The used flux is also characterized by a low concentration of phosphorus and sulfur. It was found that flux can be used 3-5 times when it makes up 50% of the flux mixture in the charge. The savings realized from the use of spent flux in ESR amounts to 4-9 rubles/ton steel.

Yakovlev, N.F.; Sokha, Yu.S.; Oleinik, Yu.S.; Prokhorov, A.N.; Ol'shanskaya, T.V.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

International RADAGAST Experiment in Niamey, Niger: Changes and Drivers of Atmospheric Radiation Balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sahara desert is notorious as a source of massive dust storms. This dust dramatically influences the Earth-atmosphere energy budget through reflecting and absorbing the incoming sunlight. However, this budget is poorly understood, and in particular, we lack quantitative understanding of how the diurnal and seasonal variation of meteorological variables and aerosol properties influence the propagation of solar irradiance through the desert atmosphere. To improve our understanding of these influences, coincident and collocated observations of fluxes, measured from both space and the surface, are highly desirable. Recently, the unique capabilities of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Experiment, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument, and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) were combined effectively as part of a large international project: the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST), which took place in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. The RADAGAST objectives, instrumentation, and scientific background are presented in [1]. Initial results from RADAGAST documented the strong radiative impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the Earth’s radiation budget [2]. A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research will include a collection of papers with the more complete results from RADAGAST (e.g., [1,3], and references therein). In particular, a year-long time series from RADAGAST are used to investigate (i) the factors that control the radiative fluxes and the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere [3-5], (ii) seasonal changes in the surface energy balance and associated variations in atmospheric constituents (water vapor, clouds, aerosols) [6], and (iii) sensitivity of microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosols to their sources and the atmospheric conditions [7]. Here we show retrievals of the aerosol properties from spectrally resolved solar measurements, the simulated and observed radiative fluxes at the surface, and outline factors that control the magnitude and variability of aerosol and radiative properties [8].

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Turner, David D.; Miller, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Miller, R.

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

262

High flux reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

Lake, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heath, Russell L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Liebenthal, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R. (Summit, NJ); Leyse, Carl F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parsons, Kent (Idaho Falls, ID); Ryskamp, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wadkins, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fillmore, Gary N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Estimating Meridional Energy Transports by the Atmospheric and Oceanic General Circulations Using Boundary Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual-mean meridional energy transport in the atmosphere–ocean system (total transport) is estimated using 4-yr mean net radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) calculated from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology ...

Y-C. Zhang; W. B. Rossow

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Incoming Shortwave Fluxes at the Surface—A Comparison of GCM Results with Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented that the excess surface net radiation calculated in general circulation models at continental surfaces is mostly due to excess incoming shortwave fluxes. Based on long-term observations from 22 worldwide inland stations and ...

J. R. Garratt

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Efficient Calculation of Infrared Fluxes and Cooling Rates Using the Two-Stream Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calculation of infrared radiative fluxes and cooling rates using the two-stream equations is discussed. It is argued that at infrared wavelengths the two-stream equations are best viewed as an approximation to the differential radiance, the ...

J. M. Edwards

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Evaluation of Methods to Estimate the Surface Downwelling Longwave Flux during Arctic Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface longwave radiation fluxes dominate the energy budget of nighttime polar regions, yet little is known about the relative accuracy of existing satellite-based techniques to estimate this parameter. We compare eight methods to estimate the ...

Marc Chiacchio; Jennifer Francis; Paul Stackhouse Jr.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Analysis of the incidence angle of the beam radiation on CPC. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator  

SciTech Connect

Analytic expressions have been derived for the projected incidence angles {var theta}{sub 1} and {var theta}{sub 2} from a two-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator solar collector. For a CPC the fraction of the incident rays on the aperture at angle {var theta}, which reaches the absorber, depends only on the {var theta}{sub 1} angle. In this paper, a mathematical expression for {var theta}{sub 1} and {var theta}{sub t} has been calculated to determine the times at which acceptance of the sun's beam radiation begins and ceases for a CPC consisting of arbitrary orientation.

Pinazo, J.M.; Canada, J.; Arago, F. (Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Analysis of time-dependent radiation-induced conductivity in dielectrics and effect on cable SGEMP  

SciTech Connect

Analytic and numerical solutions are presented for a simple time-dependent solid-state band model of radiation-induced conductivity in polyethelene and Teflon. The analytic solution is found to provide insight to physical processes dominant in various intervals of time throughout the radiation pulse. The numerical solution provides a representation for the dose-dependent proportionality factor F(..gamma..), proposed by van Lint et al, used to calculate prompt conductivity from sigma/rho/ = F(..gamma..)..gamma... At high doses, F(..gamma..) is an order of magnitude smaller than at low doses. This decrease of F(..gamma..) is due to bimolecular recombination, an effect apparently not previously reported experimentally. The reduction in F(..gamma..) at high doses is shown to enhance the short circuit current for a cable SGEMP model of residual gaps by a factor of three. In addition, the dose-dependent behavior of F(..gamma..) can significantly alter the shape and time of occurrence of the peak of the waveform of this short circuit current compared to corresponding results for a dose-independent factor.

Shaeffer, D.L.; Siegel, J.M.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Perturbative Analysis of Two-Temperature Radiative Shocks with Multiple Cooling Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The structure of the hot downstream region below a radiative accretion shock, such as that of an accreting compact object, may oscillate due to a global thermal instability. The oscillatory behaviour depends on the functional forms of the cooling processes, the energy exchanges of electrons and ions in the shock-heated matter, and the boundary conditions. We analyse the stability of a shock with unequal electron and ion temperatures, where the cooling consists of thermal bremsstrahlung radiation which promotes instability, plus a competing process which tends to stabilize the shock. The effect of transverse perturbations is considered also. As an illustration, we study the special case in which the stabilizing cooling process is of order 3/20 in density and 5/2 in temperature, which is an approximation for the effects of cyclotron cooling in magnetic cataclysmic variables. We vary the efficiency of the second cooling process, the strength of the electron-ion exchange and the ratio of electron and ion pressure...

Saxton, C J; Saxton, Curtis J.; Wu, Kinwah

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Perturbative Analysis of Two-Temperature Radiative Shocks with Multiple Cooling Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The structure of the hot downstream region below a radiative accretion shock, such as that of an accreting compact object, may oscillate due to a global thermal instability. The oscillatory behaviour depends on the functional forms of the cooling processes, the energy exchanges of electrons and ions in the shock-heated matter, and the boundary conditions. We analyse the stability of a shock with unequal electron and ion temperatures, where the cooling consists of thermal bremsstrahlung radiation which promotes instability, plus a competing process which tends to stabilize the shock. The effect of transverse perturbations is considered also. As an illustration, we study the special case in which the stabilizing cooling process is of order 3/20 in density and 5/2 in temperature, which is an approximation for the effects of cyclotron cooling in magnetic cataclysmic variables. We vary the efficiency of the second cooling process, the strength of the electron-ion exchange and the ratio of electron and ion pressures at the shock, to examine particular effects on the stability properties and frequencies of oscillation modes.

Curtis J. Saxton; Kinwah Wu

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

In vitro effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation on blood: a quantitative and morphologic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of the Neodymium: yttrium -aluminum -garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to recanalize stenosed arteries may require delivery of the beam through blood. To assess the degree of hemolysis and debris formation, 54 samples of citrated whole blood were exposed to Nd:YAG laser radiation of varying powers (10, 20 and 30 watts) and duration (1, 2.5 and 5 seconds). Compared to control samples which were not subjected to laser light, there was no significant decrease in hematocrit (41 to 40.5 +/- 5%), hemoglobin concentration (13.8 to 13.8 +/- .06 g/1OO ml), or increase in free hemoglobin concentration. Debris weight (from .45 +/- .002 to .45 +/- .002 mg), as well as the white blood cell count, was also not significantly changed (from 5,400 to 5,200 +/- 240 WBC/cm). Light microscopy examination of debris from samples of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, and platelet-rich plasma subjected to the laser at 30 watts for five seconds failed to demonstrate the presence of membrane denaturation of blood elements, as compared with the morphologic changes observed in whole blood samples exposed to a hot tip rather than Nd:YAG laser radiation. Nd:YAG laser can be used intravascularly without fear of hemolysis or debris micro-embolization up to a power of 30 watts for five seconds.

Borrero, E.; Rosenthal, D.; Otis, J.B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Older Age Predicts Decreased Metastasis and Prostate Cancer-Specific Death for Men Treated With Radiation Therapy: Meta-Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The impact of age on prostate cancer (PCa) outcome has been controversial; therefore, we analyzed the effect of age on overall survival (OS), distant metastasis, prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and nonprostate cancer death (NPCD) on patients with locally advanced PCa. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III trials, 8531, 8610, 9202, and 9413, were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for OS analysis, and cumulative events analysis with Fine and Gray's regression was used for analyses of metastasis, PCSD, and NPCD. Results: Median follow-up of 4,128 patients with median age of 70 (range, 43-88 years) was 7.3 years. Most patients had high-risk disease: cT3 to cT4 (54%) and Gleason scores (GS) of 7 (45%) and 8 to 10 (27%). Older age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) predicted for decreased OS (10-year rate, 55% vs. 41%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and increased NPCD (10-year rate, 28% vs. 46%, respectively; p < 0.0001) but decreased metastasis (10-year rate, 27% vs. 20%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and PCSD (10-year rate, 18% vs. 14%, respectively; p < 0.0001). To account for competing risks, outcomes were analyzed in 2-year intervals, and age-dependent differences in metastasis and PCSD persisted, even in the earliest time periods. When adjusted for other covariates, an age of >70 years remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.70] p < 0.0001) but with decreased metastasis (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.83] p < 0.0001) and PCSD (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.92] p < 0.0001). Finally, the impact of the duration of androgen deprivation therapy as a function of age was evaluated. Conclusions: These data support less aggressive PCa in older men, independent of other clinical features. While the biological underpinning of this finding remains unknown, stratification by age in future trials appears to be warranted.

Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pilepich, Miljenko V. [UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hanks, Gerald E. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grignon, David J. [Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); McGowan, David G. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Roach, Mack [UCSF, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Lee, R. Jeffrey [Intermountain Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Comprehensive analysis of radiative properties of brass and Al arranged in nested cylindrical wire arrays.  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of nested cylindrical wire arrays (NCWA) consisting of brass (70% Cu and 30% Zn) wires on one array and Al (5056, 5% Mg) wires on the other array performed on the UNR Zebra generator at 1.0 MA current are compared and analyzed. Specifically, radiative properties of K-shell Al and Mg ions and L-shell Cu and Zn ions are compared as functions of the placements of the brass and Al wires on the inner and outer arrays. A full diagnostic set which included more than ten different beam-lines was implemented. Identical loads were fielded to allow the timing of time-gated pinhole and x-ray spectrometers to be shifted to get a more complete understanding of the evolution of plasma parameters over the x-ray pulse. The importance of the study of NCWAs with different wire materials is discussed.

Stafford, A. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Keim, S. F. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Osborne, Glenn C. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Esaulov, Andrey A. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Shrestha, I. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Shlyaptseva, V. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Williamson, K. M. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Ouart, Nicholas D. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Safronova, Alla S. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Weller, M. E. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

ARM - Measurement - CO2 flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

: CO2 flux The rate of flow for carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is...

276

Integrated Molecular Analysis Indicates Undetectable Change in DNA Damage in Mice after Continuous Irradiation at ~ 400-fold Natural Background Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: In the event of a nuclear accident, people are exposed to elevated levels of continuous low dose-rate radiation. Nevertheless, most of the literature describes the biological effects of acute radiation.

Olipitz, Werner

277

Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.

Evans, J.S. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA). School of Public Health)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over Global Oceans from Merged CERES and MODIS Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The direct radiative effect of aerosols (DREA) is defined as the difference between radiative fluxes in the absence and presence of aerosols. In this study, the direct radiative effect of aerosols is estimated for 46 months (March 2000–December ...

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

An Analysis of a Spreader Bar Crane Mounted Gamma-Ray Radiation Detection System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over 95% of imports entering the United States from outside North America arrive via cargo containers by sea at 329 ports of entry. The current layered approach for the detection only scans 5% of cargo bound for the United States. This is inadequate to protect our country. This research involved the building of a gamma-ray radiation detection system used for cargo scanning. The system was mounted on a spreader bar crane (SBC) at the Port of Tacoma (PoT) and the applicability and capabilities of the system were analyzed. The detection system provided continuous count rate and spectroscopic data among three detectors while operating in an extreme environment. In a separate set of experiments, 60Co and 137Cs sources were positioned inside a cargo container and data were recorded for several count times. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code was used to simulate a radioactive source inside an empty cargo container and the results were compared to experimentally recorded data. The detection system demonstrated the ability to detect 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, highly-enriched uranium (HEU), and weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) with minimum detectable activities (MDA) of 5.9 ± 0.4 microcuries (?Ci), 19.3 ± 1.1 ?Ci, 11.7 ± 0.6 ?Ci, 3.5 ± 0.3 kilograms (kg), and 30.6 ± 1.3 grams (g), respectively. This system proved strong gamma-ray detection capabilities, but was limited in the detection of fissile materials Additional details of this system are presented and advantages of this approach to cargo scanning over current approaches are discussed.

Grypp, Matthew D

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsLatent heat flux govMeasurementsLatent heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Latent heat flux The time rate of flow for the specific enthalpy difference between two phases of a substance at the same temperature, typically water. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Solar proton fluxes since 1956  

SciTech Connect

The fluxes of protons emitted during solar flares since 1956 were evaluated. The depth-versus-activity profiles of /sup 56/Co in several lunar rocks are consistent with the solar-proton fluxes detected by experiments on several satellites. Only about 20% of the solar-proton-induced activities of /sup 22/Na and /sup 55/Fe in lunar rocks from early Apollo missions were produced by protons emitted from the sun during solar cycle 20 (1965--1975). The depth-versus-activity data for these radionuclides in several lunar rocks were used to determine the fluxes of protons during solar cycle 19 (1954--1964). The average proton fluxes for cycle 19 are about five times those for both the last million years and for cycle 20. These solar-proton flux variations correlate with changes in sunspot activity.

Reedy, R.C.

1977-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

282

ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsSensible heat flux govMeasurementsSensible heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sensible heat flux The time rate of flow for the energy transferred from a warm or hot surface to whatever is touching it, typically air. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

283

The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

Thermal analysis of the Pioneer anomaly: A method to estimate radiative momentum transfer  

SciTech Connect

We present a methodology based on pointlike Lambertian sources that enables one to perform a reliable and comprehensive estimate of the overall thermally induced acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. We show, by developing a sensitivity analysis of the several parameters of the model, that one may achieve a valuable insight into the possible thermal origin of the so-called Pioneer anomaly.

Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Francisco, F.; Gil, P. J. S. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Heat flux solarimeter  

SciTech Connect

The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Echarri, R. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Samson, I. [INTEC (Instituto Tecnologico Santo Domingo), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from...

287

The Effect of Directional Radiation Models on the Interpretation of Earth Radiation Budget Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parameter estimation technique is presented to estimate the radiative flux density distribution over the earn from a set of radiometer measurements at satellite altitude. The technique analyzes measurements from a wide field of view, horizon to ...

Richard N. Green

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

The boardman regional flux experiment  

SciTech Connect

A field campaign was carried out near Boardman, Oregon, to study the effects of subgrid-scale variability of sensible- and latent-heat fluxes on surface boundary-layer properties. The experiment involved three U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, one National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration laboratory, and several universities. The experiment was conducted in a region of severe contrasts in adjacent surface types that accentuated the response of the atmosphere to variable surface forcing. Large values of sensible-heat flux and low values of latent-heat flux characterized a sagebrush steppe area; significantly smaller sensible-heat fluxes and much larger latent-heat fluxes were associated with extensive tracts of irrigated farmland to the north, east, and west of the steppe. Data were obtained from an array of surface flux stations, remote-sensing devices, an instrumented aircraft, and soil and vegetation measurements. The data will be used to address the problem of extrapolating from a limited number of local measurements to area-averaged values of fluxes suitable for use in global climate models. 16 refs., 13 figs.

Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.; Kirkham, R.R.; Shaw, W.J.; Whiteman, C.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Barnes, F.J.; Cooper, D.; Porch, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Coulter, R.L.; Cook, D.R.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Modeling early galaxies using radiation hydrodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This simulation uses a flux-limited diffusion solver to explore the radiation hydrodynamics of early galaxies, in particular, the ionizing radiation created by Population III stars. At the time of this rendering, the simulation has evolved to a redshift ... Keywords: astrophysics, modeling, visualization

Joseph A. Insley; Rick Wagner; Robert Harkness; Daniel R. Reynolds; Michael L. Norman; Mark Hereld; Eric C. Olson; Michael E. Papka; Venkatram Vishwanath

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

NREL's Concentrated Solar Radiation User Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Declared a national user facility in 1993, NREL's Concentrated Solar Radiation User Facility (CSR) allows industry, government, and university researchers to examine the effects and applications of as much as 50,000 suns of concentrated solar radiation using a High-Flux Solar Furnace and long-term exposure using an ultraviolet (UV) concentrator.

Lewandowski, A.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Radiative Heating Rates for Saharan Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined longwave and shortwave radiative transfer model was used to determine effects of Saharan dust on the radiative fluxes and heating/cooling rates in the atmosphere. Cases are treated for cloud-free and overcast conditions over the ocean ...

Toby N. Carlson; Stanley G. Benjamin

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Definition: Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Flux Sampling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Gas Flux Sampling Gas flux sampling measures the flow of volatile gas emissions from a specific location and compares...

293

Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower ...

L. Mahrt

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heat flux heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil heat flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dT/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the heat is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments

295

Estimation of Surface Heat Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors reconsider the problem of estimating the sensible heat transfer at the earth's surface from direct measurements of turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer. For simplicity, only horizontally homogeneous conditions are ...

Jielun Sun; Steven K. Esbensen; L. Mahrt

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture flux moisture flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dq/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the moisture is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems External Instruments ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

297

Flux Measurement with Conditional Sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is proposed to measure scalar fluxes using conditional sampling. Only the mean concentrations of updraft and downdraft samples, the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, and a coefficient of proportionality, b, need to be known. ...

Joost A. Businger; Steven P. Oncley

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

The Solar Wind Energy Flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar-wind energy flux measured near the ecliptic is known to be independent of the solar-wind speed. Using plasma data from Helios, Ulysses, and Wind covering a large range of latitudes and time, we show that the solar-wind energy flux is independent of the solar-wind speed and latitude within 10%, and that this quantity varies weakly over the solar cycle. In other words the energy flux appears as a global solar constant. We also show that the very high speed solar-wind (VSW > 700 km/s) has the same mean energy flux as the slower wind (VSW solar-wind speed and density, which formalizes the anti-correlation between these quantities.

Chat, G Le; Meyer-Vernet, N

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Grid-Averaged Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the inadequacies of formulations for surface fluxes for use in numerical models of atmospheric flow. The difficulty is that numerical models imply spatial averaging over each grid area. Existing formulations am based on the ...

L. Mahrt

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Assessment of Aerosol Radiative Impact over Oceanic Regions Adjacent to Indian Subcontinent using Multi-Satellite Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Using data from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, we have retrieved regional distribution of aerosol column single scattering albedo (parameter indicative of the relative dominance of aerosol absorption and scattering effects), a most important, but least understood aerosol property in assessing its climate impact. Consequently we provide improved assessment of short wave aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) (on both regional and seasonal scales) estimates over this region. Large gradients in north-south ARF were observed as a consequence of gradients in single scattering albedo as well as aerosol optical depth. The highest ARF (-37 W m-2 at the surface) was observed over the northern Arabian Sea during June to August period (JJA). In general, ARF was higher over northern Bay of Bengal (NBoB) during winter and pre-monsoon period, whereas the ARF was higher over northern Arabian Sea (NAS) during the monsoon and post- monsoon period. The largest forcing observed over NAS during JJA is the consequence of large amounts of desert dust transported from the west Asian dust sources. High as well as seasonally invariant aerosol single scattering albedos (~0.98) were observed over the southern Indian Ocean region far from continents. The ARF estimates based on direct measurements made at a remote island location, Minicoy (8.3°N, 73°E) in the southern Arabian Sea are in good agreement with the estimates made following multisatellite analysis.

Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Flux Sampling Gas Flux Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Gas Flux Sampling Details Activities (26) Areas (20) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Gas Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: High flux can be indicative of conduits for fluid flow. Hydrological: Thermal: Anomalous flux is associated with active hydrothermal activity. Dictionary.png Gas Flux Sampling: Gas flux sampling measures the flow of volatile gas emissions from a specific location and compares it to average background emissions. Anomalously high gas flux can be an indication of hydrothermal activity.

302

Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary determinant of target coverage and normal tissue doses.

Ohri, Nisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ballangrud, Ase [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ho, Alice Y., E-mail: HoA1234@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

304

Boosted Fast Flux Loop Alternative Cooling Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project was instituted to develop the means for conducting fast neutron irradiation tests in a domestic radiation facility. It made use of booster fuel to achieve the high neutron flux, a hafnium thermal neutron absorber to attain the high fast-to-thermal flux ratio, a mixed gas temperature control system for maintaining experiment temperatures, and a compressed gas cooling system to remove heat from the experiment capsules and the hafnium thermal neutron absorber. This GTL system was determined to provide a fast (E > 0.1 MeV) flux greater than 1.0E+15 n/cm2-s with a fast-to-thermal flux ratio in the vicinity of 40. However, the estimated system acquisition cost from earlier studies was deemed to be high. That cost was strongly influenced by the compressed gas cooling system for experiment heat removal. Designers were challenged to find a less expensive way to achieve the required cooling. This report documents the results of the investigation leading to an alternatively cooled configuration, referred to now as the Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL). This configuration relies on a composite material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) in an aluminum matrix to transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels while at the same time providing absorption of thermal neutrons. Investigations into the performance this configuration might achieve showed that it should perform at least as well as its gas-cooled predecessor. Physics calculations indicated that the fast neutron flux averaged over the central 40 cm (16 inches) relative to ATR core mid-plane in irradiation spaces would be about 1.04E+15 n/cm2-s. The fast-to-thermal flux ratio would be in excess of 40. Further, the particular configuration of cooling channels was relatively unimportant compared with the total amount of water in the apparatus in determining performance. Thermal analyses conducted on a candidate configuration showed the design of the water coolant and Al-Hf alloy heat sink system is capable of maintaining all system components below their maximum temperature limits. The maximum temperature of this conduction cooling system, 224.2°C (435.6 °F) occurs in a small, localized region in the heat sink structure near the core mid-plane. The total coolant flow rate requirement for this configuration is 207 L/min (54.7 gpm). The calculated Flow Instability Ratio and Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio for this configuration under nominal conditions are 6.5 and 8.0, respectively, which safely exceed the minimum values of 2.0. Materials and fabrication issues inspection revealed that the neutron absorber would probably best be made from powdered Al3Hf mixed with aluminum powder and extruded or hot isostatically pressed. Although Al3Hf has not been specifically studied extensively, its mechanical and chemical properties should be very much like Al3Zr, which has been studied. Its behavior under irradiation should be very satisfactory, and resistance to corrosion will be investigated to a limited extent in planned miniplate irradiation tests in ATR. Pressurized water systems needed to effect heat removal are already available in the ATR complex, and mixed gas temperature control systems needed to trim experiment temperatures have been engineered and need only be fabricated and installed. In sum, it appears the alternately cooled configuration arrived at can be very successful. The cost estimate for this configuration indicates to

Glen R. Longhurst; Donna Post Guillen; James R. Parry; Douglas L. Porter; Bruce W. Wallace

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions.

Ajemian, R.C. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Radiative Effects on Particle Acceleration in Electromagnetic Dominated Outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasma outflows from gamma-ray bursts (GRB), pulsar winds, relativistic jets, and ultra-intense laser targets radiate high energy photons. However, radiation damping is ignored in conventional PIC simulations. In this letter, we study the radiation damping effect on particle acceleration via Poynting fluxes in two-and-half-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation of electron-positron plasmas. Radiation damping force is self-consistently calculated for each particle and reduces the net acceleration force. The emitted radiation is peaked within a few degrees from the direction of Poynting flux and strongly linear-polarized.

Koichi Noguchi; Edison Liang; Kazumi Nishimura

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

307

A Comparison of Measured and Modeled Broadband Fluxes from Aircraft Data during the ICE '89 Field Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 1989 intensive field campaign of the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE) over the North Sea, broadband radiative fluxes were measured in, above, and below cirrus cloud by a number of European meteorological research aircraft. One ...

R. W. Saunders; G. Brogniez; J. C. Buriez; R. Meerkötter; P. Wendling

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Effect of Short-Term Solar Ultraviolet Flux Variability in a Coupled Model of Photochemistry and Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variability in the solar ultraviolet radiative flux is known to cause changes in the chemistry and dynamics of the middle and upper atmosphere. Specifically, the 27-day solar rotation signal in irradiance has been correlated with responses in ...

Xun Zhu; Jeng-Hwa Yee; Elsayed R. Talaat

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Surface Flux Observations on the Southeastern Tropical Pacific Ocean and Attribution of SST Errors in Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new dataset synthesizes in situ and remote sensing observations from research ships deployed to the southeastern tropical Pacific stratocumulus region for 7 years in boreal fall. Surface meteorology, turbulent and radiative fluxes, aerosols, ...

Simon P. de Szoeke; Christopher W. Fairall; Daniel E. Wolfe; Ludovic Bariteau; Paquita Zuidema

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

311

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation-resistant Microorganisms. ... Elucidated radiation protection by intracellular halides. ...

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Estimating the Influence of Evaporation and Moisture-Flux Convergence upon Seasonal Precipitation Rates. Part II: An Analysis for North America Based upon the NCEP–DOE Reanalysis II Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a diagnostic metric—termed the local-convergence ratio—is used to analyze the contribution of evaporation and atmospheric moisture-flux convergence to model-based estimates of climatological precipitation over the North American ...

Bruce T. Anderson; Alex C. Ruane; John O. Roads; Masao Kanamitsu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Recursive Partitioning Analysis Index Is Predictive for Overall Survival in Patients Undergoing Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Spinal Metastases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To generate a prognostic index using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) for patients undergoing spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (sSBRT) for spinal metastases (sMet). Methods and Materials: From an institutional review board-approved database, 174 patients were treated for sMet with sSBRT between February 2006 and August 2009. Median dose was 14 Gy (range, 8-24 Gy), typically in a single fraction (range, 1-5). Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to detect any correlation between survival and histology. Histologies were divided into favorable (breast and prostate), radioresistant (renal cell, melanoma and sarcoma), and other (all other histologies). RPA was performed to identify any association of the following variables with overall survival (OS) following sSBRT: histology, gender, age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), control of primary, extraosseous metastases, time from primary diagnosis (TPD), dose of sSBRT ({14 Gy), extent of spine disease (epidural only, bone and epidural, bone only), upfront or salvage treatment, presence of paraspinal extension, and previous surgery. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 months. Median OS time from sSBRT was 10.7 months. Median OS intervals for favorable histologies were 14 months, 11.2 months for radioresistant histologies, and 7.3 months for other histologies (p = 0.02). RPA analysis resulted in three classes (p 30 months and KPS of >70; Class 2 was TPD of >30 months and KPS of {=}70 years old. Median OS was 21.1 months for Class 1 (n = 59), 8.7 months for Class 2 (n = 104), and 2.4 months for Class 3 (n = 11). Conclusion: sSBRT patients treated for sMet have a wide variability in OS. We developed an RPA classification system that is predictive of OS. While many patients are treated for palliation of pain or to avoid symptomatic progression, this index may be used to predict which patients may benefit most from sSBRT.

Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Koyfman, Shlomo A.; Woody, Neil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Soeder, Sherry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Rybicki, Lisa A. [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Djemil, Toufik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

Abhijit Bandyopadhyay; Sandhya Choubey; Srubabati Goswami; S. T. Petcov

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

315

A Study of the Incoming Longwave Atmospheric Radiation from a Clear Sky  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A band model for atmospheric absorption is used to calculate the incoming longwave atmospheric radiative flux for some typical clear sky conditions. The sky radiation is also measured using a specially-designed calorimetric apparatus over a wide ...

J. W. Ramsey; H. D. Chiang; R. J. Goldstein

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using datasets from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) sites in the tropical western Pacific Ocean (TWP) region. The Nauru Island (Republic of Nauru) and ...

Sally A. McFarlane; Charles N. Long; Julia Flaherty

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Improved Simulation of Clear-Sky Shortwave Radiative Transfer in the CCC-GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposition of mean July clear-sky solar radiation in the Canadian Climate Centre second-generation general circulation model (CCC-GCMII) was analyzed by comparing top of the atmosphere (TOA) net fluxes with earth radiation budget experiment (...

Howard W. Barker; Zhanqing Li

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Clouds, Radiation, and the Diurnal Cycle of Sea Surface Temperature in the Tropical Western Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship among clouds, surface radiation flux, and the sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical western Pacific Ocean over the diurnal cycle is addressed in the context of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ...

Peter J. Webster; Carol Anne Clayson; Judith A. Curry

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A 22-Year Dataset of Surface Longwave Fluxes in the Arctic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22-Year Dataset of Surface Longwave Fluxes 22-Year Dataset of Surface Longwave Fluxes in the Arctic J. Francis and J. Secora Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey Abstract Downwelling longwave fluxes (DLFs) over the Arctic surface have been generated from 22.5 years of radiances and retrievals from the TIROS (television and infrared observation satellite) operational vertical sounder (TOVS). The flux retrieval algorithm has been validated and improved using surface- based radiation and cloud observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site in Barrow, Alaska, and from the Surface Heat Balance of the Arctic (SHEBA) field program (1997-98) in the Beaufort Sea. The DLF product is presented on a 100 x

320

Solar Radiative Fluxes for Broken Cloud Fields above Reflecting Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical bidirectional method for including the effects of underlying reflecting surfaces in Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric photon transport is presented. It is illustrated for the idealized Lambertian surface and a general ...

Howard W. Barker; John A. Davies

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heterogeneous ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds, Environ.interactions with mixed-phase and ice clouds can be comparedice nuclei for the indirect aerosol effect on stratiform mixed-phase

Lohmann, Ulrike

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the ?rst indirect aerosol effect, Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 5,Cloud susceptibility and the ?rst aerosol indirect forcing:to black carbon and aerosol concentrations, J. Geophys.

Lohmann, Ulrike

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Beta Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

324

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM).  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DREAM tool increases space weather DREAM tool increases space weather predictions April 13, 2012 Predicting space weather improved by new DREAM modeling tool Earth's radiation belts can now be studied with a new modeling tool called Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM). Researchers in LANL's Space Science and Applications (ISR-1) group are developing DREAM and described its current capabilities and applications in an article published in Space Weather, a journal of the American Geophysical Union. - 2 - Space environment and its hazards The space environment poses a number of radiation hazards to space systems and their occupants. Relativistic electrons, the dominant source of the radiation dose to spacecraft traveling in the outer radiation belts (3-7 Earth radii), have an electron flux

326

DISCONNECTING OPEN SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX  

SciTech Connect

Disconnection of open magnetic flux by reconnection is required to balance the injection of open flux by coronal mass ejections and other eruptive events. Making use of recent advances in heliospheric background subtraction, we have imaged many abrupt disconnection events. These events produce dense plasma clouds whose distinctive shape can now be traced from the corona across the inner solar system via heliospheric imaging. The morphology of each initial event is characteristic of magnetic reconnection across a current sheet, and the newly disconnected flux takes the form of a 'U-'shaped loop that moves outward, accreting coronal and solar wind material. We analyzed one such event on 2008 December 18 as it formed and accelerated at 20 m s{sup -2} to 320 km s{sup -1}, thereafter expanding self-similarly until it exited our field of view 1.2 AU from the Sun. From acceleration and photometric mass estimates we derive the coronal magnetic field strength to be 8 {mu}T, 6 R{sub Sun} above the photosphere, and the entrained flux to be 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} Wb (1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx). We model the feature's propagation by balancing inferred magnetic tension force against accretion drag. This model is consistent with the feature's behavior and accepted solar wind parameters. By counting events over a 36 day window, we estimate a global event rate of 1 day{sup -1} and a global solar minimum unsigned flux disconnection rate of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} Wb yr{sup -1} (6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} Mx yr{sup -1}) by this mechanism. That rate corresponds to {approx} - 0.2 nT yr{sup -1} change in the radial heliospheric field at 1 AU, indicating that the mechanism is important to the heliospheric flux balance.

DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

327

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O' Gallagher, J.J.

1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

328

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O' Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

329

Simplified model for determining local heat flux boundary conditions for slagging wall  

SciTech Connect

In this work, two models for calculating heat transfer through a cooled vertical wall covered with a running slag layer are investigated. The first one relies on a discretization of the velocity equation, and the second one relies on an analytical solution. The aim is to find a model that can be used for calculating local heat flux boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of such processes. Two different cases where molten deposits exist are investigated: the black liquor recovery boiler and the coal gasifier. The results show that a model relying on discretization of the velocity equation is more flexible in handling different temperature-viscosity relations. Nevertheless, a model relying on an analytical solution is the one fast enough for a potential use as a CFD submodel. Furthermore, the influence of simplifications to the heat balance in the model is investigated. It is found that simplification of the heat balance can be applied when the radiation heat flux is dominant in the balance. 9 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

Bingzhi Li; Anders Brink; Mikko Hupa [Aabo Akademi University, Turku (Finland). Process Chemistry Centre

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Solar radiation model validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several mathematical models have been developed within the past few years which estimate the solar radiation from other weather variables. Some of these models have been used to generate data bases which are extensively used in the design and analysis of solar system. Three of these solar radiation models have been used in developing the Augmented SOLMET Solar Data Tapes for the 26 SOLMET sites and the 222 ERSATZ Solar Data Tapes. One of the models, a theoretical one, predicts the solar noon radiation for clear sky conditions from the optical air mass, precipitable water vapor and turbidity variables. A second model, an empirical one, predicts the hourly total horizontal radiation from meteorological variables. And, a third model, also an empirical one, predicts the hourly direct normal radiation from the hourly total horizontal radiation. A study of the accuracy of these three solar radiation models is reported here. To assess the accuracy of these models, data were obtained from several US National Weather Service Stations and other sources, used the models to estimate the solar-radiation, and then compared the modeled radiation values with observed radiation values. The results of these comparisons and conclusions regarding the accuracy of the models are presented.

Hall, I.J.; Prairie, R.R.; Anderson, H.E.; Boes, E.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Do Intermediate Radiation Doses Contribute to Late Rectal Toxicity? An Analysis of Data From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 94-06  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether the volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses, from 30 to 50 Gy, contribute to the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer receiving radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 1009 patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 94-06 were analyzed using three approaches. First, the contribution of intermediate doses to a previously published fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model was determined. Next, the extent to which intermediate doses provide additional risk information, after taking the LKB model into account, was investigated. Third, the proportion of rectum receiving doses higher than a threshold, VDose, was computed for doses ranging from 5 to 85 Gy, and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine which of these parameters were significantly associated with time to Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Results: Doses <60 Gy had no detectable impact on the fit of the LKB model, as expected on the basis of the small estimate of the volume parameter (n = 0.077). Furthermore, there was no detectable difference in late rectal toxicity among cohorts with similar risk estimates from the LKB model but with different volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model selected V75 as the only value of VDose significantly associated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: There is no evidence from these data that intermediate doses influence the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Instead, the critical doses for this endpoint seem to be {>=}75 Gy. It is hypothesized that cases of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity occurring among patients with V75 less than approximately 12% may be due to a 'background' level of risk, likely due mainly to biological factors.

Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Winter, Kathryn [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Modification of flux profiles using a faceted concentrator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of a faceted solar concentrator allows for some flexibility in aiming strategy and in the intensity of the resulting flux profile at the target. This can be an advantage when considering applications that do not necessarily require maximum concentration, particularly emerging, new applications in solar processed advanced materials. This paper will describe both an analysis of predicted flux profiles for several different aiming strategies using the SOLFUR computer code and experiments to characterize the actual flux profiles realized with a selected aiming strategy. The SOLFUR code models each of the furnace components explicitly. Aim points for each facet can be specified. Thus many strategies for adjusting aim points can be easily explored. One strategy calls for creating as uniform a flux over as large an area as possible. We explored this strategy analytically and experimentally. The experimental data consist of flux maps generated by a video imaging system calibrated against absolute flux measurements taken with circular foil calorimeters. Results from the analytical study and a comparison with the experimental data indicate that uniform profiles can be produced over fairly large areas.

Lewandowski, A; Scholl, K; Bingham, C

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Trapped-flux superconducting memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A memory cell based on trapped flux in superconductors has been built and tested. The cell is constructed entirely by vacuum evaporation of thin films and can be selected by coincident current or by other techniques, with drive-current requirements less ...

J. W. Crowe

1957-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The Boardman Regional Flux Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field campaign was carried out near Boardman, Oregon, to study the effects of subgrid-scale variability of sensible-and latent-heat fluxes on surface boundary-layer properties. The experiment involved three U.S. Department of Energy ...

J. C. Doran; J. M. Hubbe; R. R. Kirkham; W. J. Shaw; C. D. Whiteman; F. J. Barnes; D. Cooper; W. Porch; R. L. Coutler; D. R. Cook; R. L. Hart; W. Gao; T. J. Martin; J. D. Shannon; T. L. Crawford; D. D. Baldocchi; R. J. Dobosy; T. P. Meyers; L. Balick; W. A. Dugas; R. Hicks; L. Fritschen; L. Hipps; E. Swiatek; K. E. Kunkel

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

The Antarctic Zone Flux Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In winter the eastern Weddell Sea in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean hosts some of the most dynamic air-ice-sea interactions found on earth. Sea ice in the region is kept relatively thin by heat flux from below, maintained by upper-...

M. G. McPhee; S. F. Ackley; P. Guest; T. P. Stanton; B. A. Huber; D. G. Martinson; J. H. Morison; R. D. Muench; L. Padman

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Superconducting flux flow digital circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

337

Superconducting flux flow digital circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)] [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan)] [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan)] [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Quantum Fusion of Domain Walls with Fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study how fluxes on the domain wall world volume modify quantum fusion of two distant parallel domain walls into a composite wall. The elementary wall fluxes can be separated into parallel and antiparallel components. The parallel component affects neither the binding energy nor the process of quantum merger. The antiparallel fluxes, instead, increase the binding energy and, against naive expectations, suppress quantum fusion. In the small flux limit we explicitly find the bounce solution and the fusion rate as a function of the flux. We argue that at large (antiparallel) fluxes there exists a critical value of the flux (versus the difference in the wall tensions), which switches off quantum fusion altogether. This phenomenon of flux-related wall stabilization is rather peculiar: it is unrelated to any conserved quantity. Our consideration of the flux-related all stabilization is based on substantiated arguments that fall short of complete proof.

S. Bolognesi; M. Shifman; M. B. Voloshin

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

340

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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341

Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Ionizing Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

342

Type II superconductivity and magnetic flux transport in neutrons stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transition to a type II proton superconductor which is believed to occur in a cooling neutron star is accompanied by changes in the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and by the formation of proton vortices with quantized magnetic flux. Analysis of the electron Boltzmann equation for this system and of the proton supercurrent distribution formed at the transition leads to the derivation of a simple expression for the transport velocity of magnetic flux in the liquid interior of a neutron star. This shows that flux moves easily as a consequence of the interaction between neutron and proton superfluid vortices during intervals of spin-down or spin-up in binary systems. The differences between the present analysis and those of previous workers are reviewed and an error in the paper of Jones (1991) is corrected.

P. B. Jones

2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

343

ICRCCM Phase 2: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models  

SciTech Connect

Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, our team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). SPECTRE will establish an absolute standard against which to compare models, and will aim to remove the hidden variables'' (unknown humidities, aerosols, etc.) which radiation modelers have invoked to excuse disagreements with observation. The data to be collected during SPECTRE will form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects.

Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Surface Energy and Radiation Balance Systems: General Description and Improvements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to ...

Leo J. Fritschen; James R. Simpson

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

True Along-Track Scan to Improve Radiation Budget Estimations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiangle approaches for radiance-to-flux conversion require accurate coregistration between the observations from nadir- and oblique-viewing directions. The along-track mode of Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) scanning instruments, such as the ...

Michel Capderou; Michel Viollier

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Radiation Properties and Emissivity Parameterization of High Level Thin Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To parameterize emissivity of clouds at 11 ?m, a study has been made in an effort to understand the radiation field of thin clouds. The contributions to the intensity and flux from different sources and through different physical processes are ...

Man-Li C. Wu

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Radiative Properties of Cirrus Clouds in the Infrared Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-scattering radiative transfer model is employed to evaluate the 11 ?m and the broad-band infrared (IR) fluxes, cooling rates and emittances in model cirrus clouds for a number of standard vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature ...

Graeme L. Stephens

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiative Cooling Effects within and above the Nocturnal Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For representative tropospheric profiles of water vapor, CO2 and temperature we have calculated in situ longwave radiative flux divergence for use in a simplified second-order closure model of nocturnal boundary-layer evolution. The time ...

J. R. Garratt; R. A. Brost

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Shortwave Shape Factor Inversion of Earth Radiation Budget Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape factor technique is routinely used to invert wide-angle radiometric measurements at satellite altitude to flux at the top of the atmosphere. The derivation of a shortwave shape factor requires assumptions on both the viewed radiation ...

Richard N. Green; G. Louis Smith

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Simulation of dynamics of radiation belt electrons during geomagnetic storms driven by high speed solar wind streams.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Satellite observations have shown that fluxes of relativistic electrons in the earth's radiation belts can vary by orders of magnitude during periods of high solar… (more)

Yu, Bin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation ...  

Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; Energy ... Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent Nanoparticles for ...

352

Measurement and analysis of the surface energy budget for ARM field experiments. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to conduct experiments to investigate the scaling properties of surface-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks as they relate to regional fluxes of heat and water vapor. This is part of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. To achieve this objective, two field campaigns were conducted in northeastern Oregon during June 1991 and June 1992. Analysis of the data collected during these campaigns revealed the following: (1) fluxes over a dry, semi-arid grass/brush area show only small spatial heterogeneity; (2) fluxes over an irrigated farm were dependent on crop type and stage of development. In particular, fluxes over row crops such as potatoes and corn were very similar to each other, but somewhat different than fluxes over wheat and alfalfa. In general, higher latent and lower sensible heat fluxes were experienced over wheat and alfalfa compared to corn and potatoes; (3) meteorological factors had a major influence on fluxes. In particular, significantly higher latent heat fluxes were experienced on days with moderate winds compared to days with light winds over the irrigated farm. This was presumably due to the advection of sensible heat from the surrounding dry rangeland.

Kunkel, K.E. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Automotive Underhood Thermal Management Analysis Using 3-D Coupled Thermal-Hydrodynamic Computer Models: Thermal Radiation Modeling  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of work in section F.

Pannala, S.; D'Azevedo, E.; Zacharia, T.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

354

Radiative Effects on Particle Acceleration via Relativistic Electromagnetic Expansion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the radiation effect on the diamagnetic relativistic pulse accelerator (DPRA) in two-and-half-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation with magnetized electron-positron plasmas. Radiation damping force is self-consistently calculated for each particle, which reduces the acceleration force and converts particle energy to radiation. The emitted radiation is strongly linearly polarized and peaked within few degrees from the direction of Poynting flux due to the relativistic acceleration by the DPRA.

Noguchi, K; Nishimura, K; Noguchi, Koichi; Liang, Edison; Nishimura, Kazumi

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Improved ARM-SGP TOA OLR Fluxes from GOES-8 IR Radiances Based on CERES Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM-SGP TOA OLR Fluxes from GOES-8 IR ARM-SGP TOA OLR Fluxes from GOES-8 IR Radiances Based on CERES Data D. R. Doelling and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction The radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is a quantity of fundamental importance to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Thus, it is necessary to measure the radiation budget components, broadband shortwave albedo and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), as accurately as possible. Measurement of OLR over the ARM surface sites has only been possible since the advent of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES; Wielicki et al. 1998) in 1998. Prior to

356

Validation of CERES/SARB Data Product Using ARM Surface Flux Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERES/SARB Data Product Using CERES/SARB Data Product Using ARM Surface Flux Observations D. A. Rutan Analytical Services and Materials Inc. Hampton, Virginia T. P. Charlock National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction This paper uses surface observed broadband fluxes from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP), ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and a number of other sites to validate model results from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Surface and Radiation Budget (SARB) Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data products during the months of January-December 2001. CERES instruments fly aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites measuring broadband radiation in three channels: total (0.3-∝ µm), shortwave (0.3-5.0 µm), and window

357

Posters Surface Flux Intercomparison Between the MM5 Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Posters Surface Flux Intercomparison Between the MM5 Model and Observations During the Storm-Scale Observations Regional Measurement Program-Fronts Experiment Systems Test 1992 J. Dudhia and S. P. Oncley Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division Atmospheric Technology Division National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Introduction Mesoscale model 5 (MM5) is being used as a data assimilation tool for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. There is a need to verify that the model physics is consistent with observations under a range of conditions. Surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum are a particular area of uncertainty in the model owing to their dependence on surface properties, some of which are time-dependent. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

358

Electron loss rates from the outer radiation belt caused by the filling of the outer plasmasphere: the calm before the storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements from 7 spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit are analyzed to determine the decay rate of the number density of the outer electron radiation belt prior to the onset of high-speed-stream-driven geomagnetic storms. Superposed-data analysis is used wan(?) a collection of 124 storms. When there is a calm before the storm, the electron number density decays exponentially before the storm with a 3.4-day e-folding time: beginning about 4 days before storm onset, the density decreases from {approx}4x10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} to {approx}1X 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3}. When there is not a calm before the storm, the number-density decay is very smalL The decay in the number density of radiation-belt electrons is believed to be caused by pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the atmospheric loss cone as the outer plasmasphere fills during the calms. While the radiation-belt electron density decreases, the temperature of the electron radiation belt holds approximately constant, indicating that the electron precipitation occurs equally at all energies. Along with the number density decay, the pressure of the outer electron radiation belt decays and the specific entropy increases. From the measured decay rates, the electron flux to the atmosphere is calculated and that flux is 3 orders of magnitude less than thermal fluxes in the magnetosphere, indicating that the radiation-belt pitch-angle scattering is 3 orders weaker than strong diffusion. Energy fluxes into the atmosphere are calculated and found to be insufficient to produce visible airglow.

Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Radiation Physics Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Portal. Radiation Physics Portal. ... more. >> see all Radiation Physics programs and projects ... ...

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

360

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Mean and Variability of the WHOI Daily Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes at In Situ Flux Measurement Sites in the Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily latent and sensible heat fluxes for the Atlantic Ocean from 1988 to 1999 with 1° × 1° resolution have been recently developed at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) by using a variational object analysis approach. The present study ...

Lisan Yu; Robert A. Weller; Bomin Sun

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Urban Cloud Condensation Nuclei Spectral Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectral flux and the condensation nuclei (CN) flux from an urban area are determined from in situ aircraft measurements at Denver, Colorado. The concentration differences between upwind and downwind cross ...

Paul R. Frisbie; James G. Hudson

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

When Are Eddy Tracer Fluxes Directed Downgradient?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms controlling the direction of eddy tracer fluxes are examined using eddy-resolving isopycnic experiments for a cyclic zonal channel. Eddy fluxes are directed downgradient on average when either (i) there is a Lagrangian increase in ...

Chris Wilson; Richard G. Williams

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

A density-temperature description of the outer electron radiation belt during geomagnetic storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron flux measurements from 7 satellites in geosynchronous orbit from 1990-2007 are fit with relativistic bi-Maxwellians, yielding a number density n and temperature T description of the outer electron radiation belt. For 54.5 spacecraft years of measurements the median value ofn is 3.7x10-4 cm-3 and the median value ofT is 142 keY. General statistical properties of n, T, and the 1.1-1.5 MeV flux J are investigated, including local-time and solar-cycle dependencies. Using superposed-epoch analysis triggered on storm onset, the evolution of the outer electron radiation belt through high-speed-steam-driven storms is investigated. The number density decay during the calm before the storm is seen, relativistic-electron dropouts and recoveries from dropout are investigated, and the heating of the outer electron radiation belt during storms is examined. Using four different triggers (SSCs, southward-IMF CME sheaths, southward-IMF magnetic clouds, and minimum Dst), CME-driven storms are analyzed with superposed-epoch techniques. For CME-driven storms an absence of a density decay prior to storm onset is found, the compression of the outer electron radiation belt at time of SSC is analyzed, the number-density increase and temperature decrease during storm main phase is seen, and the increase in density and temperature during storm recovery phase is observed. Differences are found between the density-temperature and the flux descriptions, with more information for analysis being available in the density-temperature description.

Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cayton, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Using decision analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of intermediate risk prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: The specific aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of a 70-year-old with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods: A Markov model was designed with the following states; posttreatment, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and death. Transition probabilities from one state to another were calculated from rates derived from the literature for IMRT and 3D-CRT. Utility values for each health state were obtained from preliminary studies of preferences conducted at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The analysis took a payer's perspective. Expected mean costs, cost-effectiveness scatterplots, and cost acceptability curves were calculated with commercially available software. Results: The expected mean cost of patients undergoing IMRT was $47,931 with a survival of 6.27 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The expected mean cost of patients having 3D-CRT was $21,865 with a survival of 5.62 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness comparing IMRT with CRT was $40,101/QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 55.1% probability of IMRT being cost-effective at a $50,000/QALY willingness to pay. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was found to be cost-effective, however, at the upper limits of acceptability. The results, however, are dependent on the assumptions of improved biochemical disease-free survival with fewer patients undergoing subsequent salvage therapy and improved quality of life after the treatment. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, decision analysis can help inform physicians and health policy experts on the cost-effectiveness of emerging technologies.

Konski, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: andre.konski@fccc.edu; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [Department of Population Sciences, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Feigenberg, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kulkarni, Sachin M.S. [Department of Population Sciences, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Beck, J. Robert [Department of Information and Science Technologies, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTSEDASSNDCLASS1 : Model Output Loc. Time Ser. (MOLTS): EDAS

367

High-flux solar photon processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

Lorents, D C; Narang, S; Huestis, D C; Mooney, J L; Mill, T; Song, H K; Ventura, S [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

CRTF Real-Time Aperture Flux system  

SciTech Connect

The Real-Time Aperture Flux system (TRAF) is a test measurement system designed to determine the input power/unit area (flux density) during solar experiments conducted at the Central Receiver Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The RTAF is capable of using both thermal sensors and photon sensors to determine the flux densities in the RTAF measuring plane. These data are manipulated in various ways to derive input power and flux density distribution to solar experiments.

Davis, D.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Entropy Budget of an Atmosphere in Radiative–Convective Equilibrium. Part I: Maximum Work and Frictional Dissipation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entropy budget of an atmosphere in radiative–convective equilibrium is analyzed here. The differential heating of the atmosphere, resulting from surface heat fluxes and tropospheric radiative cooling, corresponds to a net entropy sink. In ...

Olivier Pauluis; Isaac M. Held

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Radiation Budget of the West African Sahel and Its Controls: A Perspective from Observations and Global Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuous measurements of the shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cross-atmosphere radiation flux divergence over the West African Sahel were made during the year 2006 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and ...

Mark A. Miller; Virendra P. Ghate; Robert K. Zahn

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Maximizing Buoyancy Flux across Layered Geostrophic Sections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For layered analogues of the ocean stratification, the problem of maximizing buoyancy flux across a section with zero mass flux is considered. The two layer situation on an f-plane is particularly simple and it is shown that the buoyancy flux is ...

Nelson G. Hogg; Henry M. Stommel

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Imaging radiation detector with gain  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

1982-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

373

Imaging radiation detector with gain  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Deconvolution of Wide Field-of-View Radiometer Measurements of Earth-Emitted Radiation Part II: Analysis of First Year of Nimbus 6 ERB Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One year of longwave radiation data from July 1975 through June 1976 from the Nimbus 6 satellite Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment is analyzed by representing the longwave radiation field by a spherical harmonic expansion. The data are from ...

T. Dale Bess; Richard N. Green; G. Louis Smith

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Atmospheric Forcing of the Winter Air–Sea Heat Fluxes over the Northern Red Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the winter air–sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea is investigated during the period 1985–2011. The analysis based on daily heat flux values reveals that most of the net surface heat exchange ...

Vassilis P. Papadopoulos; Yasser Abualnaja; Simon A. Josey; Amy Bower; Dionysios E. Raitsos; Harilaos Kontoyiannis; Ibrahim Hoteit

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Using remotely sensed planetary boundary layer variables as estimates of areally averaged heat flux  

SciTech Connect

Homogeneity across the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is an issue of importance to all facets of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. The degree to which measurements at the central facility can be used to verify, improve, or develop relationships in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in Global Circulation Models (GCMs), for example, is tied directly to the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole. The relative variation of surface energy budget terms over a 350- km X 400km domain such as the SGP CART site can be extremely large. The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) develops as a result of energy inputs from widely varying surfaces. The lower atmosphere effectively integrates the local inputs; measurements of PBL structure can potentially be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. This project is focusing on two PBL quantities that are intimately tied to the surface heat flux: (1) the height of the mixed layer, z, that grows during daytime due to sensible heat flux input from the surface; and (2) the convective velocity scale, normally a scaling parameter defined by the product of the sensible heat flux and z, but in this case defined by coherent structures that connect the surface layer and the capping inversion that defines z.

Coulter, R.L.; Martin, T.J.; Holdridge, D.J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Analysis of radiation exposure for additional naval personnel at Operation CASTLE - supplemental report. Technical report, 24 Apr-20 Nov 89  

SciTech Connect

This report supplements DNA-TR-84-6 by analyzing the radiation exposure for typical crewmembers of eight additional ships at Operation CASTLE in 1954: RECLAIMER, SHEA, COCOPA, MENDER, MOLALA, TAWAKONI, PC-1546, and LST-1146. Utilizing the reconstructed radiation environments from deck contamination, water shine, proximate ship shine, and contaminated hulls and piping, equivalent film badge doses are calculated and compared with analyzed film badge dosimetry. Comparisons are hampered by a shortage of badge readings and by cohort badging that may have emphasized non-representative crew activities. Considering this, agreement is good (within a few hundred millirem) when doses were high but less when doses were low. In all cases, overall totals appear to be in excellent agreement.

Thomas, C.; Geotz, J.; Klemm, J.; Ortlieb, E.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

The Effect of Inaccuracies in Weather-Ship Data on Bulk-Derived Estimates of Flux, Stability and Sea-Surface Roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical error analysis (or sensitivity study) is performed for the momentum, heat, and humidity flux estimates made from weather-ship observations by using the bulk flux method. Bulk-derived stability and roughness errors are also examined. ...

Theodore V. Blanc

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WATER AND SOLUTE FLUXES USING A PASSIVE SURFACE WATER FLUX METER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WATER AND SOLUTE FLUXES USING A PASSIVE SURFACE WATER FLUX METER J Surface Water Flux Meter (PSFM). Current techniques for estimating contaminant mass inputs to impaired flux meter, MS Thesis, UF. This work was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture

Watson, Craig A.

380

Statistical issues in radiation dose-response analysis of employees of the nuclear industry in Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poisson regression methods are used to describe dose-response relations for cancer mortality for a subcohort of 28,347 white male radiation workers. Age specific baseline rates are described using both internal and external (US white male) rates. Regression analyses are based on an analytic data structure (ADS) that consists of a table of observed deaths, expected deaths, and person-years at risk for each combination of levels of seven risk factors. The factors are socioeconomic status, length of employment, birth cohort, age at risk, facility, internal exposure, and external exposure. Each observation in the ADS consists of the index value of each of the stratifying factors, the observed deaths, the expected deaths, the person-years, and the ten year lagged average cumulative dose. Regression diagnostics show that a linear exponential relative risk model is not appropriate for these data. Results are presented using a main effects model for factors other than external radiation, and an excess relative risk term for cumulative external radiation dose.

Frome, E.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Watkins, J.P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States). Center for Epidemiologic Research

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radiation Cataract  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation including patients undergoing diagnostic CT scans or radiotherapy, atomic bomb survivors, residents of radioactively contaminated buildings, victims of the...

382

Downstream Heat Flux Profile vs. Midplane T Profile in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between the midplane scrape-off-layer electron temperature profile and the parallel heat flux profile at the divertor in tokamaks is investigated. A model is applied which takes into account anisotropic thermal diffusion, in a rectilinear geometry with constant density. Eigenmode analysis is applied to the simplified problem with constant thermal diffusivities. A self-similar nonlinear solution is found for the more realistic problem with anisotropically temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities. Numerical solutions are developed for both cases, with spatially dependent heat flux emerging from the plasma. For both constant and temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities it is found that, below about one-half of its peak, the heat flux profile shape at the divertor, compared with the midplane temperature profile shape, is robustly described by the simplest two-point model. However the physical processes are not those assumed in the simplest two-point model, nor is the numerical coefficient relating q||div to Tmp ?||mp/L|| as predicted. For realistic parameters the peak in the heat flux, moreover, can be reduced by a factor of two or more from the two-point model scaling which fits the remaining profile. For temperature profiles in the SOL region above the x-point set by marginal stability, the heat flux profile to the divertor can be largely decoupled from the prediction of the two-point model. These results suggest caveats for data interpretation, and possibly favorable outcomes for divertor configurations with extended field lines.

Robert J. Goldston

2009-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

383

Chromo-Electric flux tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The profiles of the chromo-electric field generated by static quark-antiquark, $Q{\\bar Q}$ and three-quark, $QQQ$ sources are calculated in Coulomb gauge. Using a variational ansatz for the ground state, we show that a flux tube-like structure emerges and combines to the ``Y''-shape field profile for three static quarks. The properties of the chromo-electric field are, however, not expected to be the same as those of the full action density or the Wilson line and the differences are discussed.

Patrick O. Bowman; Adam P. Szczepaniak

2004-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

384

A Parameterization for Computing Grid-Averaged Solar Fluxes for Inhomogeneous Marine Boundary Layer Clouds. Part II: Validation Using Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Independent Pixel approximation (IPA) is one of the simplest methods of computing solar radiative fluxes for inhomogencous clouds. It claims that if p(?) is a normalized probability density function for cloud optical depth ? and Rpp(?) is ...

Howard W. Barker; Bruce A. Wiellicki; Lindsay Parker

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

A Parameterization for Computing Grid-Averaged Solar Fluxes for Inhomogeneous Marine Boundary Layer Clouds. Part I: Methodology and Homogeneous Biases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of computing grid-averaged solar radiative fluxes for horizontally inhomogeneous marine boundary layer cloud fields is presented. Its underlying assumptions are as follows: i) the independent pixel approximation (IPA) is applicable and ...

Howard W. Barker

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Spatially Distributed CO2, Sensible, and Latent Heat Fluxes Over the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spatially Distributed CO2, Sensible, and Latent Heat Fluxes Over the Spatially Distributed CO2, Sensible, and Latent Heat Fluxes Over the Southern Great Plains Berry, Joseph Carnegie Inst.of Washington Riley, William Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Biraud, Sebastien Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Torn, Margaret Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Fischer, Marc Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Category: Atmospheric State and Surface Vegetation strongly influences the spatial distribution of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and also impacts the ecosystem to atmosphere CO2 exchanges. We describe here a methodology to estimate surface energy fluxes and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2 continuously over the Southern Great Plains, using (1) data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program in Oklahoma and Kansas; (2) meteorological forcing data from

387

Analysis of residual spectra and the monopole spectrum for 3 K blackbody radiation by means of non-extensive thermostatistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze residual spectra of 3 K blackbody radiation (CMB) using non-extensive thermostatistics with a parameter q-1. The limits of |q-1|<1.2x10^{-5} and the temperature fluctuation |delta T|<(1.6-4.3)x10^{-5} are smaller than those by Tsallis et al. Moreover, analyzing the monopole spectrum by a formula including the chemical potential mu, we obtain the limits |q-1|<2.3x10^{-5} and |mu|<1.6x10^{-4}. |q-1| is comparable with the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect y.

Minoru Biyajima; Takuya Mizoguchi

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

388

Analysis of residual spectra and the monopole spectrum for 3 K blackbody radiation by means of non-extensive thermostatistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze residual spectra of 3 K blackbody radiation (CMB) using non-extensive thermostatistics with a parameter q-1. The limits of |q-1|<1.2x10^{-5} and the temperature fluctuation |delta T|<(1.6-4.3)x10^{-5} are smaller than those by Tsallis et al. Moreover, analyzing the monopole spectrum by a formula including the chemical potential mu, we obtain the limits |q-1|<2.3x10^{-5} and |mu|<1.6x10^{-4}. |q-1| is comparable with the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect y.

Biyajima, Minoru

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Latent Heat Flux and Canopy Conductance Based on Penman–Monteith, Priestley–Taylor Equation, and Bouchet’s Complementary Hypothesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel method is presented to analytically resolve the terrestrial latent heat flux (?E) and conductances (boundary layer gB and surface gS) using net radiation (RN), ground heat flux (G), air temperature (Ta), and relative humidity (RH). This ...

Kaniska Mallick; Andrew Jarvis; Joshua B. Fisher; Kevin P. Tu; Eva Boegh; Dev Niyogi

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Calculating thermal radiation fields from 3D flame reconstruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing fire safety into a building requires a designer to think through issues that include fire ignition, growth and spread. Radiative heat transfer from flames is the dominant method of spread. It is, therefore, necessary to determine the thermal ... Keywords: configuration factor, flame geometry, heat flux, radial basis function, thermal radiation field

Paul Mason; Chris Rogers

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

392

Interdecadal Variability of the Thermohaline Circulation in Box-Ocean Models Forced by Fixed Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intrinsic modes of decadal variability are analyzed using box-geometry ocean models forced by constant surface fluxes. An extensive parameter sensitivity analysis of the oscillatory behavior is carried out with respect to the spherical/Cartesian ...

Thierry Huck; Alain Colin de Verdière; Andrew J. Weaver

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Microstructure Estimates of Turbulent Salinity Flux and the Dissipation Spectrum of Salinity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct determination of the irreversible turbulent flux of salinity in the ocean has not been possible because of the complexity of measuring salinity on the smallest scales over which it mixes. Presented is an analysis of turbulent salinity ...

Jonathan D. Nash; James N. Moum

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Interannual Variability in Rainfall, Water Vapor Flux, and Vertical Motion over West Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines large-scale forcing mechanisms as they relate to initiation and maintenance of recent, long-term drought conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis uses 31-yr datasets of rainfall, moisture flux, and vertical motion. ...

Marybeth Long; Dara Entekhabi; Sharon E. Nicholson

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Sensible Heat Flux in Near-Neutral Conditions over the Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variation of the sea surface sensible heat flux is investigated using data from the Gulf of Tehuantepec Experiment (GOTEX) and from eight additional aircraft datasets representing a variety of surface conditions. This analysis focuses on near-...

L. Mahrt; Dean Vickers; Edgar L Andreas; Djamal Khelif

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

A Comparison of Sensible and Latent Heat Flux Calculations Using the Bowen Ratio and Aerodynamic Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis technique is outlined that calculates the sensible and latent heat fluxes by the Bowen ratio and aerodynamic methods, using profile measurements at any number of heights. Field measurements at two sites near Churchill, Manitoba, ...

David H. Halliwell; Wayne R. Rouse

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Transition Radiation of Ultrarelativistic Neutral Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform a quantum theoretical calculation of transition radiation by neutral particles with spin 1/2 equipped with magnetic moments and/or electric dipole moments. The limit of vanishing masses is treated exactly for arbitrary refraction index. Finally we apply our result to the solar neutrino flux.

W. Grimus; H. Neufeld

1994-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

398

FINAL REPORT: EDDY-COVARIANCE FLUX TOWER AND TRACER TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PROPOSAL: FROM TOWER TO PIXEL: INTEGRATION OF PATCH-SIZE NEE USING EXPERIMENTAL MODELING FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory has been funded since October of 2000 to provide assistance to the University of Georgia in conducting footprint analyses of individual towers based on meteorology and trace gas measurements. Brookhaven researchers conducted air flow measurements using perfluorocarbon tracers and meteorological instrumentation for three experimental campaigns at an AmeriFlux research site maintained by Dr. Monique Leclerc near Gainesville, FL. In addition, BNL provided assistance with remote data collection and distribution from remote field sites operated by Dr. John Hom of the US Forest Service in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and at FACE research sites in North Carolina and Wisconsin.

LEWIN,K.F.; NAGY, J.; WATSON, T.B.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Properties of diverted plasmas with magnetically expanded flux surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vertical elongated 1.3:1 elliptical plasmas in which the outermost flux surfaces are magnetically expanded and diverted by external coils into the lower half of the Doublet III vacuum vessel are described. Approximately 5 cm of the nominal 45 cm plasma minor radius is diverted to the lower chamber. The diverted flux is expanded by more than a factor of ten before reaching the vessel wall. Photographic measurements show diffused hydrogen recycling light in the lower half of the vessel, with greatly reduced recycling at the normal limiters, and no evidence of localized particle flow to the vessel wall. A significant amount (approx. 50%) of the ohmic power is radiated in the expanded boundary region. Comparison of similar low density plasmas (approx. 2 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/) with and without the expanded boundary shows that (1) the expanded boundary reduces the influx of nickel and oxygen impurities by an order of magnitude, (2) the boundary also reduces the influx of injected argon and helium by a similar factor, and (3) the concentration of argon in a non-diverted plasma is reduced by a factor of 10 when the expanded boundary is turned on. The central radiated power falls by an order of magnitude, to less than 0.01 W/cm/sup 3/. Similarly, Z/sub eff/(0) drops from 3.2 to 2.1.

Ali Mahdavi, M.; Ohyabu, N.; Baker, D.R.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bingham, C.E.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Radiation damage considerations  

SciTech Connect

The designs of nuclear fission and fusion power plants do not, in general, appear to make unusual demands on materials in terms of mechanical- property requirements. Radiation environments produce unique effects on the composition, microstructure, and defect population of these alloys, resulting in time-dependent and time-independent changes in mechanical properties. To illustrate these problems, the materials needs of the core of a Liquid-Metal Fast- Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) and of the first wall of a fusion reactor are discussed. In the case of the LMFBR core, the phenomenon of void swelling causes serious design problems, and a search is being made for a low-swelling alloy that has adequate mechanical properties. The fusion reactor poses different problems because the neutron energy is high (14 MeV) and is accompanied by a high flux of charged particles. The long-term choices for a wall material have been narrowed to vanadium and niobium alloys. In the search for low-swelling alloys, it has become clear that minor elements play an important role in determining the nature of the radiation effects. The segregation of minor elements to void surfaces and the dispersion and reformation of second-phase precipitates are two important radiation-induced phenomena that require additional study in view of their influence on void swelling and high-temperature properties. (auth)

Frost, B.R.T.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

403

First analysis of radiative properties of moderate-atomic-number planar wire arrays on Zebra at UNR at higher current of 1.7 MA.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analysis of implosions of Cu and Ag planar wire array (PWA) loads recently performed at the enhanced 1.7 MA Zebra generator at UNR is presented. Experiments were performed with a Load Current Multiplier with a 1cm anode-cathode gap (twice shorter than in a standard 1 MA mode). A full diagnostic set included more than ten different beam-lines with the major focus on time-gated and time-integrated x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. In particular, the experimental results for a double PWA load consisting of twelve 10 {micro}m Cu wires in each row (total mass M {approx} 175 {micro}g) and a much heavier single PWA load consisting of ten 30 {micro}m Ag wires (M {approx} 750 {micro}g) were analyzed using a set of theoretical codes. The effects of both a decreased a-c gap and an increased current on radiative properties of these loads are discussed.

Keim, S. F. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Chuvatin, Alexander S. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France); Osborne, Glenn C. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Esaulov, Andrey A. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Presura, R. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Shrestha, I. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Shlyaptseva, V. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Williamson, K. M. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Ouart, Nicholas D. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Astanovitsky, A. L. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Weller, M. E. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Safronova, Alla S. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); LeGalloudec, B. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards. I. NLTE spectral analysis of the DA-type white dwarf G 191-B2B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observation. We establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G 191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and ...

Rauch, T; Kruk, J W; Werner, K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Information << Timeline >> Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player July 31, 1942 The Army Corp of Engineers leases...

406

Predicting Low Flux High - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High flux can access high fluence, but such TTS data is under-predicted by current ... on Defect Migration and Void Formation using the Phase Field Method.

407

Vector Representation of Trade Cumulus Thermodynamic Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vector representation of the BOMEX thermodynamic budget data is presented which shows graphically the relationship of the fluxes and the mean layer structure.

Alan K. Betts

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

HFIR | High Flux Isotope Reactor | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HFIR Working with HFIR Neutron imaging offers new tools for exploring artifacts and ancient technology Home | User Facilities | HFIR HFIR | High Flux Isotope Reactor SHARE The High...

409

A Comparison of Latent Heat Fluxes over Global Oceans for Four Flux Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ocean surface latent heat flux (LHF) plays an essential role in global energy and water cycle variability. In this study, monthly LHF over global oceans during 1992–93 are compared among Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, ...

Shu-Hsien Chou; Eric Nelkin; Joe Ardizzone; Robert M. Atlas

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.  

SciTech Connect

Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Radiation-Dominated Disks Are Thermally Stable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the accretion rate is more than a small fraction of Eddington, the inner regions of accretion disks around black holes are expected to be radiation-dominated. However, in the alpha-model, these regions are also expected to be thermally unstable. In this paper, we report two 3-d radiation MHD simulations of a vertically-stratified shearing box in which the ratio of radiation to gas pressure is ~ 10, and yet no thermal runaway occurs over a timespan ~ 40 cooling times. Where the time-averaged dissipation rate is greater than the critical dissipation rate that creates hydrostatic equilibrium by diffusive radiation flux, the time-averaged radiation flux is held to the critical value, with the excess dissipated energy transported by radiative advection. Although the stress and total pressure are well-correlated as predicted by the alpha-model, we show that stress fluctuations precede pressure fluctuations, contrary to the usual supposition that the pressure controls the saturation level of the magnetic energy. This fact explains the thermal stability. Using a simple toy-model, we show that independently-generated magnetic fluctuations can drive radiation pressure fluctuations, creating a correlation between the two while maintaining thermal stability.

Shigenobu Hirose; Julian H. Krolik; Omer Blaes

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

413

Definition of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of...

414

How to Detect Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How...

415

A generalized flux function for three-dimensional magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

The definition and measurement of magnetic reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic fields with multiple reconnection sites is a challenging problem, particularly in fields lacking null points. We propose a generalization of the familiar two-dimensional concept of a magnetic flux function to the case of a three-dimensional field connecting two planar boundaries. In this initial analysis, we require the normal magnetic field to have the same distribution on both boundaries. Using hyperbolic fixed points of the field line mapping, and their global stable and unstable manifolds, we define a unique flux partition of the magnetic field. This partition is more complicated than the corresponding (well-known) construction in a two-dimensional field, owing to the possibility of heteroclinic points and chaotic magnetic regions. Nevertheless, we show how the partition reconnection rate is readily measured with the generalized flux function. We relate our partition reconnection rate to the common definition of three-dimensional reconnection in terms of integrated parallel electric field. An analytical example demonstrates the theory and shows how the flux partition responds to an isolated reconnection event.

Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G. [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Linear regression analysis of 2D projection image data of 6 degrees-of-freedom transformed 3D image sets for stereotactic radiation therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patient positioning is crucial to accurate dose delivery during radiation therapy to ensure the proper localization of dose to the target tumor volume. In patient positioning for stereotactic radiation therapy treatment, ...

Lin, Christie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

What is a flux tube? On the magnetic field topology of buoyant flux structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What is a flux tube? On the magnetic field topology of buoyant flux structures Fausto Cattaneo study the topology of field lines threading buoyant magnetic flux struc- tures. The magnetic structures ­ Sun: interior ­ Sun: magnetic fields ­ Stars: spots 1 Current address: Department of Mathematics

418

Application of 3-dimensional radiation transport codes to the analysis of the CRBR prototypic coolant pipe chaseway neutron streaming experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the calculational results from analyses of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) prototypic coolant pipe chaseway neutron streaming experiment Comparisons of calculated and measured results are presented, major emphasis being placed on results at bends in the chaseway. Calculations were performed with three three-dimensional radiation transport codes: the discrete ordinates code TORT and the Monte Carlo code MORSE, both developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the discrete ordinates code ENSEMBLE, developed by Japan. The calculated results from the three codes are compared (1) with previously-calculated DOT3.5 two-dimensional results, (2) among themselves, and (3) with measured results. Calculations with TORT used both the weighted-difference and nodal methods. Only the weighted-difference method was used in ENSEMBLE. When the calculated results were compared to measured results, it was found that calculation-to-experiment (C/E) ratios were good in the regions of the chaseway where two-dimensional modeling might be difficult and where there were no significant discrete ordinates ray effects. Excellent agreement was observed for responses dominated by thermal neutron contributions. MORSE-calculated results and comparisons are described also, and detailed results are presented in an appendix.

Chatani, K. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Development Corp., Experimental Reactor Div., Ibaraki (Japan))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

420

Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Skew Fluxes in Polarized Wave Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scalar flux due to small amplitude waves that exhibit a preferred sense of rotation or polarization is shown to consist of a component. FS, that is skewed, being everywhere orthogonal to the mean scalar gradient, Q. The skew flux is ...

John F. Middleton; John W. Loder

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

METHOD AND FLUX COMPOSITION FOR TREATING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

ABS>A flux composition is described fer use with molten uranium or uranium alloys. The flux consists of about 46 weight per cent calcium fiuoride, 46 weight per cent magnesium fluoride and about 8 weight per cent of uranium tetrafiuoride.

Foote, F.

1958-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

423

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Ocean Mixed Layer Radiant Heating and Solar Penetration: A Global Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid parameterization for the determination of in-water solar fluxes is developed and applied to compute the flux of solar radiation that penetrates beyond the upper-ocean mixed layer into permanent pycnocline waters on global space and ...

J. Carter Ohlmann; David A. Siegel; Catherine Gautier

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Seiz, J.B.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

RADIATION DETECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

428

NIST Radiation thermometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation thermometry. Summary: ... Description: Radiation thermometers are calibrated using a range of variable-temperature blackbodies. ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

429

NIST Optical Radiation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Group. Welcome. The Optical Radiation Group maintains, improves, and disseminates the national scales ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

430

PRELIMINARY HAZARDS SUMMARY REPORT ON THE BROOKHAVEN HIGH FLUX BEAM RESEARCH REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Beam Reactor, HFBR, is cooled, moderated, and reflected by heavy water and designed to produce 40 Mw with a total epithermal flux of ~1.6 X 10/sup 15/cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ and a flector thermal maximum flux of 7 X 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/, using a core formed by ETR plate-type fuel elements in a close-packed array. The hazards summary is given in terms of site description, reactor design, building design, plant operation, disposal of radioactive wastes and effluents, and safety analysis. (B.O.G.)

Hendrie, J.M.; Kouts, H.J.C.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

ON THE ERUPTION OF CORONAL FLUX ROPES  

SciTech Connect

We present three-dimensional MHD simulations of the evolution of the magnetic field in the corona where the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux tube is driven at the lower boundary into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. Through a sequence of simulations in which we vary the amount of twisted flux transported into the corona before the emergence is stopped, we investigate the conditions that lead to a dynamic eruption of the resulting coronal flux rope. It is found that the critical condition for the onset of eruption is for the center of the flux rope to reach a critical height at which the corresponding potential field declines with height at a sufficiently steep rate, consistent with the onset of the torus instability of the flux rope. In some cases, immediately after the emergence is stopped, the coronal flux rope first settles into a quasi-static rise with an underlying sigmoid-shaped current layer developing. Preferential heating of field lines going through this current layer may give rise to the observed quiescent X-ray sigmoid loops before eruption. Reconnections in the current layer during the initial quasi-static stage is found to add detached flux to the coronal flux rope, allowing it to rise quasi-statically to the critical height and dynamic eruption of the flux rope then ensues. By identifying field lines whose tops are in the most intense part of the current layer during the eruption, we deduce the evolution and morphology of the post-flare X-ray loops and the flare ribbons at their footpoints.

Fan, Y. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

432

FLUX EMERGENCE IN A MAGNETIZED CONVECTION ZONE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux ropes and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code (anelastic spherical harmonics) and analyzed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The global nature of this model can only very crudely and inaccurately represent the local dynamics of the buoyant rise of the implanted magnetic structure, but nonetheless allows us to study the influence of global effects, such as self-consistently generated differential rotation and meridional circulation, and of Coriolis forces. Although motivated by the solar context, this model cannot be thought of as a realistic model of the rise of magnetic structures and their emergence in the Sun, where the local dynamics are completely different. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and consequently are in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly strong as the flux ropes evolve. During the buoyant rise across the convection zone, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength scales as B{proportional_to}{rho}{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} {approx}current density is observed to precede flux emergence at all longitudes. The geometry, latitude, and relative orientation of the flux ropes with respect to the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flow amplitudes (which develop within the flux ropes), and the corresponding surface signatures. This influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing, and the Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence. The emerged magnetic flux influences the system's global polarity, leading in some cases to a polarity reversal while inhibiting the background dynamo from doing so in others. The emerged magnetic flux is slowly advected poleward while being diffused and assimilated by the background dynamo field.

Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S., E-mail: rui.pinto@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

Cook, DR

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Neoadjuvant Radiation Is Associated With Improved Survival in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: An Analysis of Data From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation has been investigated in several trials as a strategy for downstaging locally advanced disease to resectability. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) vs. other treatments on long-term survival for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer in a large population-based sample group. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry database (1994-2003) was queried for cases of surgically resected pancreatic cancer. Retrospective analysis was performed. The endpoint of the study was overall survival. Results: Using Kaplan-Meier analysis we found that the median overall survival of patients receiving neoadjuvant RT was 23 months vs. 12 months with no RT and 17 months with adjuvant RT. Using Cox regression and controlling for independent covariates (age, sex, stage, grade, and year of diagnosis), we found that neoadjuvant RT results in significantly higher rates of survival than other treatments (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.79; p = 0.001). Specifically comparing adjuvant with neoadjuvant RT, we found a significantly lower HR for death in patients receiving neoadjuvant RT rather than adjuvant RT (HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.90; p = 0.03). Conclusions: This analysis of SEER data showed a survival benefit for the use of neoadjuvant RT over surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant RT in treating pancreatic cancer. Therapeutic strategies that use neoadjuvant RT should be further explored for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer.

Stessin, Alexander M. [Tri-Institutional M.D.-Ph.D. Program, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Meyer, Joshua E. [New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Sherr, David L. [New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: dls9003@med.cornell.edu

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Topical Issue in Solar Physics: Flux-rope Structure of Coronal Mass Ejections Preface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This Topical Issue of Solar Physics, devoted to the study of flux-rope structure in coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is based on two Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops (CDAWs) held in 2010 (20 - 23 September in Dan Diego, California, USA) and 2011 (September 5-9 in Alcala, Spain). The primary purpose of the CDAWs was to address the question: Do all CMEs have flux rope structure? There are 18 papers om this topical issue, including this preface.

Gopalswamy, N; Hidalgo, M; Zhang, J; Riley, P; Gesztelyi, L van Driel-; Mandrini, C H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Intercomparison of Various Surface Latent Heat Flux Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Japanese Ocean Flux Data Sets with use of Remote Sensing Observations (J-OFURO) latent heat flux field is compared with the Hamburg Ocean–Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS), the Goddard Satellite-Based Surface ...

Masahisa Kubota; Atsuko Kano; Hidenori Muramatsu; Hiroyuki Tomita

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Gravity Wave 1-leat Fluxes: A Lagrangian Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of a vertically propagating, internal gravity wave on the vertical flux of potential temperature (heat) is considered by averaging the local heat flux vector over a potential temperature surface. This approach gives the wave heat flux ...

Lawrence Coy; David C. Fritts

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Numerical Simulations of Radiative Cooling beneath the Anvils of Supercell Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms that include parameterized radiative transfer and surface fluxes are performed using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) to investigate the effects of anvil shadows on the near-storm ...

Jeffrey Frame; Paul Markowski

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Parameterization of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer. Part I: Validity of Simple Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper outlines a radiation parameterization method for deriving broadband fluxes that is currently being implemented in a number of global and regional atmospheric models. The rationale for the use of the 2-stream method as a way of solving ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Philip M. Gabriel; Philip T. Partain

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Radiation Budget Parameters at the Top of the Earth's Atmosphere from METEOSAT Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to derive radiation budget parameters (albedo and emitted longwave flux) at the top of the atmosphere from the three-band METEOSAT images. Model calculations are used to correct for the anisotropic radiance ...

Marianne Gube

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A Comparison of Radiation Budgets in the Fram Strait Summer Marginal Ice Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of surface radiation fluxes and meteorological conditions collected in the Fram Strait during the summer 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) are presented and analyzed. These data were combined with calculations from a ...

Jennifer A. Francis; Thomas P. Ackerman; Kristina B. Katsaros; Richard J. Lind; Kenneth L. Davidson

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Numerical Investigations of the Roles of Radiative and Evaporative Feedbacks in Stratocumulus Entrainment and Breakup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When the surface buoyancy flux is small and the shear is weak, turbulence circulations within a stratus-topped boundary layer are driven by two buoyancy-generating processes at cloud top: radiative cooling and evaporative cooling. These two ...

Chin-Hoh Moeng; Don H. Lenschow; David A. Randall

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Impacts of a New Solar Radiation Parameterization on the CPTEC AGCM Climatological Features  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of improved atmospheric absorption on radiative fluxes, atmospheric circulation, and hydrological cycle for long-term GCM integrations are investigated. For these runs the operational version of the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e ...

H. M. J. Barbosa; T. A. Tarasova; I. F. A. Cavalcanti

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Spectral Distribution of Solar Radiation on Clear Days: A Comparison Between Measurements and Model Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectral distribution of the direct solar and scattered sky radiation are computed and presented as functions of solar height and as integrated daily values for selected days of the year. The monochromatic fluxes are integrated over the ...

V. Hansen

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Comparison of Radiation Variables Calculated in the UCLA General Circulation Model to Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons are made between the spatial patterns of solar and thermal fluxes of radiation calculated by the UCLA general circulation model and observations. The latter include estimates at the Pacific Ocean surface of the climatological averages ...

Bryan C. Weare

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

A Neural Network Approach for a Fast and Accurate Computation of a Longwave Radiative Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have investigated the possibility of elaborating a new generation of radiative transfer models for climate studies based on the neural network technique. The authors show that their neural network–based model, NeuroFlux, can be used ...

F. Chevallier; F. Chéruy; N. A. Scott; A. Chédin

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Toward Optimal Closure of the Earth's Top-of-Atmosphere Radiation Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite recent improvements in satellite instrument calibration and the algorithms used to determine reflected solar (SW) and emitted thermal (LW) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes, a sizeable imbalance persists in the average global net ...

Norman G. Loeb; Bruce A. Wielicki; David R. Doelling; G. Louis Smith; Dennis F. Keyes; Seiji Kato; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Takmeng Wong

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Seasonal Variation in Radiative and Turbulent Exchange at a Deciduous Forest in Central Massachusetts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperate deciduous forests exhibit dramatic seasonal changes in surface exchange properties following on the seasonal changes in leaf area index. Nearly continuous measurements of turbulent and radiative fluxes above and below the canopy of a ...

Kathleen E. Moore; David R. Fitzjarrald; Ricardo K. Sakai; Michael L. Goulden; J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes R. L. Coulter Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Surface layer estimates of surface sensible heat flux have been made at 10 - 14 locations within the Central Facility (CF) of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program site by using energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations located mostly in uncultivated areas. The advent of the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM) with approximately 50 stations within the boundaries of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that measure a variety of meteorological parameters leads to the possibility of using the OKM to provide additional estimates of surface energy budget to augment

450

Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Computing Surface Fluxes from Mesonet Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By using air–vegetation–soil layer coupled model equations as weak constraints, a variational method is developed to compute sensible and latent heat fluxes from conventional observations obtained at meteorological surface stations. This method ...

Binbin Zhou; Qin Xu

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A low cost high flux solar simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

Codd, Daniel S.

453

Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

McCray, S.B.

1989-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

454

Transmission Line Analogy for Relativistic Poynting-Flux Jets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radio emission, polarization, and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C 303 have shown that one knot of this jet carries a {\\it galactic}-scale electric current and that it is magnetically dominated. We develop the theory of magnetically dominated or Poynting-flux jets by making an analogy of a Poynting jet with a transmission line or waveguide carrying a net current and having a potential drop across it (from the jet's axis to its radius) and a definite impedance which we derive. Time-dependent but not necessarily small perturbations of a Poynting-flux jet are described by the "telegrapher's equations." These predict the propagation speed of disturbances and the effective wave impedance for forward and backward propagating wave components. A localized disturbance of a Poynting jet gives rise to localized dissipation in the jet which may explain the enhanced synchrotron radiation in the knots of the 3C 303 jet, and also in the apparently stationary knot HST-1 in the jet near the nucleus of t...

Lovelace, R V E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

A 20-year data set of surface longwave fluxes in the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Creation of 20-year data set of surface infrared fluxes from satellite measurements. A reliable estimate of the surface downwelling longwave radiation flux (DLF) is a glaring void in available forcing data sets for models of Arctic sea ice and ocean circulation. We have developed a new method to estimate the DLF from a combination of satellite sounder retrievals and brightness temperatures from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which has flown on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites continuously since late 1979. The overarching goal of this project was to generate a 20-year data set of surface downwelling longwave flux measurements from TOVS data over the Arctic Ocean. Daily gridded fields of DLF were produced with a spatial resolution of (100 km){sup 2} north of 60{sup o}N for 22.5 years rather than only 20. Surface measurements from the field station at Barrow, AK--part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program --and from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) were used to validate the satellite-derived fluxes and develop algorithm improvements for conditions that had resulted in systematic errors in early versions of the algorithm. The resulting data set has already been sent to two other investigators for incorporation into their research, and we will soon complete preparations to send the products to the National Snow and Ice Data Center and ARM data archive, where it can be disseminated to the scientific community.

Jennifer Francis

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

The multiple absorption coefficient zonal method (MACZM), an efficient computational approach for the analysis of radiative heat transfer in multidimensional inhomogeneous nongray media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Radiative Heat Transfer, the P-3 Approximation”, AIAAMedia”, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 109, No. 3 (1987),Media”, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B, Fundamentals, Vol.

Yuen, W W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States Title High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States Publication...

458

Gas Flux Sampling (Klein, 2007) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Flux Sampling (Klein, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling (Klein, 2007) Exploration Activity Details...

459

John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and...

460

Electric Flux Tube in Magnetic Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study a methodical problem related to the magnetic scenario recently suggested and initiated by the authors \\cite{Liao_ES_mono} to understand the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP): the electric flux tube in monopole plasma. A macroscopic approach, interpolating between Bose condensed (dual superconductor) and classical gas medium is developed first. Then we work out a microscopic approach based on detailed quantum mechanical calculation of the monopole scattering on electric flux tube, evaluating induced currents for all partial waves. As expected, the flux tube looses its stability when particles can penetrate it: we make this condition precise by calculating the critical value for the product of the flux tube size times the particle momentum, above which the flux tube dissolves. Lattice static potentials indicate that flux tubes seem to dissolve at $T>T_{dissolution} \\approx 1.3 T_c$. Using our criterion one gets an estimate of the magnetic density $n\\approx 4.4 \\sim 6.6 fm^{-3}$ a...

Liao Jin Feng

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiative flux analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Modeling high-energy cosmic ray induced terrestrial muon flux: A lookup table  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On geological timescales, the Earth is likely to be exposed to an increased flux of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) from astrophysical sources such as nearby supernovae, gamma ray bursts or by galactic shocks. Typical cosmic ray energies may be much higher than the ~ 1 GeV flux which normally dominates. These high-energy particles strike the Earth's atmosphere initiating an extensive air shower. As the air shower propagates deeper, it ionizes the atmosphere by producing charged secondary particles. Secondary particles such as muons and thermal neutrons produced as a result of nuclear interactions are able to reach the ground, enhancing the radiation dose. Muons contribute 85% to the radiation dose from cosmic rays. This enhanced dose could be potentially harmful to the biosphere. This mechanism has been discussed extensively in literature but has never been quantified. Here, we have developed a lookup table that can be used to quantify this effect by modeling terrestrial muon flux from any arbitrary cosmic ray spectra with 10 GeV - 1 PeV primaries. This will enable us to compute the radiation dose on terrestrial planetary surfaces from a number of astrophysical sources.

Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

462

The Use of Radiation Therapy Appears to Improve Outcome in Patients With Malignant Primary Tracheal Tumors: A SEER-Based Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To conduct a matched pair analysis assessing the impact of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with resectable and unresectable primary malignant tracheal tumors using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Patients and Methods: The SEER registry was used to identify every patient (or 'case') who received RT between 1988 and 2007 for primary malignant tracheal tumors, and to search for corresponding 'controls' (not treated with RT), with the same prognostic and treatment factors (surgery on the trachea, disease extension, histology, and gender). Overall survival (OS) was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier methods. Results of OS and cumulative incidence of death from tracheal cancer in the cases and controls, and in various subsets, were compared using log-rank and Gray's tests. Results: Two hundred fifty-eight patients who received RT were identified, and 78 of these had appropriate matched controls identified, forming the basis of this analysis. In the 78 (+RT) cases, the median follow-up was 60 months (range, 10-192) in the survivors vs. 55 months (range, 2-187) in the controls (no-RT group). Patients in RT group had significantly better OS, and a lower cumulative incidence of death from tracheal cancer than no-RT patients (p < 0.05). Treatment with radiation was associated with improved survival in patients with squamous cell histology [p < 0.0001], regional disease extension [p = 0.030], or those that did not undergo resection [p = 0.038]. There were four deaths in RT group and three in no-RT group attributed to cardiac and respiratory causes. Conclusion: Our data suggest a survival benefit for the use of RT broadly for all patients with tracheal cancer. Nevertheless, the retrospective nature of this observational study limits its interpretation.

Xie Liyi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fan Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Sheets, Nathan C.; Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Jiang, Guo-Liang, E-mail: jianggl@shca.org.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Marks, Lawrence B., E-mail: marks@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

DNA Double-Strand Break Analysis by {gamma}-H2AX Foci: A Useful Method for Determining the Overreactors to Radiation-Induced Acute Reactions Among Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Interindividual variability in normal tissue toxicity during radiation therapy is a limiting factor for successful treatment. Predicting the risk of developing acute reactions before initiation of radiation therapy may have the benefit of opting for altered radiation therapy regimens to achieve minimal adverse effects with improved tumor cure. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand break