National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radiation-induced adaptive responses

  1. Radiation-induced bystander effect and adaptive response in mammalian cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    responses at low doses of radiation and have the potential to impact the shape of the dose at low doses of radiation and have the potential to impact the shape of the dose­response relationship, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA b Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan

  2. Proteomic-based mechanistic investigation of low-dose radiation-induced cellular responses/effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xian

    2013-10-23

    The goal of our project is to apply our unique systems investigation strategy to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation induction and transmission of oxidative damage, adaptive response, and bystander effect at low-doses. Beginning with simple in vitro systems such as fibroblast or epithelial pure culture, our amino acid-coded mass tagging (AACT) comparative proteomic platform will be used to measure quantitatively proteomic changes at high- or low-dose level with respect to their endogenous damage levels respectively, in which a broad range of unique regulated proteins sensitive to low-dose IR will be distinguished. To zoom in how these regulated proteins interact with other in the form of networks in induction/transmission pathways, these regulated proteins will be selected as baits for making a series of fibroblast cell lines that stably express each of them. Using our newly developed method of ?dual-tagging? quantitative proteomics that integrate the capabilities of natural complex expression/formation, simple epitope affinity isolation (not through tandem affinity purification or TAP), and ?in-spectra? AACT quantitative measurements using mass spectrometry (MS), we will be able to distinguish systematically interacting proteins with each bait in real time. Further, in addition to both proteome-wide (global differentially expressed proteins) and pathway-scale (bait-specific) profiling information, we will perform a computational network analysis to elucidate a global pathway/mechanisms underlying cellular responses to real-time low-dose IR. Similarly, we will extend our scheme to investigate systematically those induction/transmission pathways occurring in a fibroblast-epithelial interacting model in which the bystander cell (fibroblast) monitor the IR damage to the target cell (epithelial cell). The results will provide the proteome base (molecular mechanisms/pathways for signaling) for the low dose radiation-induced essential tissue environment interactions, including cell-cell, extracellular matrix and extracellular paracrine interactions.

  3. Remote sensor response study in the regime of the microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)] [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-04

    A concurrent remote sensing and magneto-transport study of the microwave excited two dimensional electron system (2DES) at liquid helium temperatures has been carried out using a carbon detector to remotely sense the microwave activity of the 2D electron system in the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure during conventional magneto-transport measurements. Various correlations are observed and reported between the oscillatory magnetotransport and the remotely sensed reflection. In addition, the oscillatory remotely sensed signal is shown to exhibit a power law type variation in its amplitude, similar to the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations.

  4. The influence of TRP53 in the dose response of radiation-induced apoptosis, DNA repair and genomic stability in murine haematopoietic cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lemon, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Kristina; Verdecchia, Kyle; Phan, Nghi; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic and DNA damage endpoints are frequently used as surrogate markers of cancer risk, and have been well-studied in the Trp53+/- mouse model. We report the effect of differing Trp53 gene status on the dose response of ionizing radiation exposures (0.01-2 Gy), with the unique perspective of determining if effects of gene status remain at extended time points. Here we report no difference in the dose response for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow and genomic instability (MN-RET levels) in peripheral blood, between wild-type (Trp53+/+) and heterozygous (Trp53+/-) mice. The dose response for Trp53+/+ mice showed higher initial levelsmore »of radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis relative to Trp53+/- between 0 and 1 Gy. Although this trend was observed up to 12 hours post-irradiation, both genotypes ultimately reached the same level of apoptosis at 14 hours, suggesting the importance of late-onset p53-independent apoptotic responses in this mouse model. Expected radiation-induced G1 cell cycle delay was observed in Trp53+/+ but not Trp53+/-. Although p53 has an important role in cancer risk, we have shown its influence on radiation dose response can be temporally variable. This research highlights the importance of caution when using haematopoietic endpoints as surrogates to extrapolate radiation-induced cancer risk estimation.« less

  5. The influence of TRP53 in the dose response of radiation-induced apoptosis, DNA repair and genomic stability in murine haematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Kristina; Verdecchia, Kyle; Phan, Nghi; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic and DNA damage endpoints are frequently used as surrogate markers of cancer risk, and have been well-studied in the Trp53+/- mouse model. We report the effect of differing Trp53 gene status on the dose response of ionizing radiation exposures (0.01-2 Gy), with the unique perspective of determining if effects of gene status remain at extended time points. Here we report no difference in the dose response for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow and genomic instability (MN-RET levels) in peripheral blood, between wild-type (Trp53+/+) and heterozygous (Trp53+/-) mice. The dose response for Trp53+/+ mice showed higher initial levels of radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis relative to Trp53+/- between 0 and 1 Gy. Although this trend was observed up to 12 hours post-irradiation, both genotypes ultimately reached the same level of apoptosis at 14 hours, suggesting the importance of late-onset p53-independent apoptotic responses in this mouse model. Expected radiation-induced G1 cell cycle delay was observed in Trp53+/+ but not Trp53+/-. Although p53 has an important role in cancer risk, we have shown its influence on radiation dose response can be temporally variable. This research highlights the importance of caution when using haematopoietic endpoints as surrogates to extrapolate radiation-induced cancer risk estimation.

  6. Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Li

    2012-11-07

    A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

  7. Radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  8. Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber In a recent...

  9. Adaptive Demand Response: Online Learning of Restless and Controlled Bandits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingyan

    Adaptive Demand Response: Online Learning of Restless and Controlled Bandits Qingsi Wang, Mingyan realized curtailment, not the curtailment of each load. We develop an adaptive demand response learning like UCB1. I. INTRODUCTION Electric loads participating in demand response programs provide a variety

  10. Gene induction and adaptive responses in irradiated cells: Mechanisms and clinical implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehnert, S. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    A characteristic of living things, conserved throughout evolution, is their capacity to react to environmental insult. From bacteria to yeast to human cells, environmental inputs induce changes in the program of genes expressed. A subset of this response, of particular interest to the radiobiologists and radiation oncologists who gathered for this meeting, is the case of radiation-mediated gene induction. A large number of genes have been reported to be up/down-regulated by ionizing radiation; some of these have been identified, while others have so far preserved their anonymity as bands and blots on gels and membranes. It is safe to say that many more such genes will be discovered in the future as the scientific and clinical significance of these processes is better understood. Substantial evidence, extending back many years, suggests the existence of an adaptive response, apparent as cellular radioprotective mechanisms which can be up-regulated after a small dose of radiation. At the molecular level, the timing of the changes in expression of induced genes and of the changes in levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins which they encode is such as to support involvement of these elements in induced radioresistance. The adaptive response is one component of the battery of intrinsic factors which influence the response of tumors to radiation. Radiation-induced gene products encompass a spectrum of activities including cell cycle control, DNA repair, signal transduction, apoptosis and oncogenesis, all of which can influence tumor radioresponse and contribute to the multifactorial radioresistant phenotype. Growth factors and cytokines are encoded by several early and late-responding genes whose expression is up-regulated by radiation. These must be assumed to affect the toxicity of radiation toward early- and late-responding normal tissues profoundly by promoting repair or conversely by acting synergistically to enhance radiation damage.

  11. Mechanisms of radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.

    1996-10-01

    In the process of identifying genes differentially expressed in cells exposed ultraviolet radiation, we have identified a transcript having a 26-bp region that is highly conserved in a variety of species including Bacillus circulans, yeast, pumpkin, Drosophila, mouse, and man. When the 5` region (flanking region or UTR) of a gene, the sequence is predominantly in +/+ orientation with respect to the coding DNA strand; while in the coding region and the 3` region (UTR), the sequence is most frequently in the +/-orientation with respect to the coding DNA strand. In two genes, the element is split into two parts; however, in most cases, it is found only once but with a minimum of 11 consecutive nucleotides precisely depicting the original sequence. The element is found in a large number of different genes with diverse functions (from human ras p21 to B. circulans chitonase). Gel shift assays demonstrated the presence of a protein in HeLa cell extracts that binds to the sense and antisense single-stranded consensus oligomers, as well as to the double- stranded oligonucleotide. When double-stranded oligomer was used, the size shift demonstrated as additional protein-oligomer complex larger than the one bound to either sense or antisense single-stranded consensus oligomers alone. It is speculated either that this element binds to protein(s) important in maintaining DNA is a single-stranded orientation for transcription or, alternatively that this element is important in the transcription-coupled DNA repair process.

  12. Radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

  13. Mechanism of radiation-induced bystander effect: Role of the cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    and carcinogenesis. At doses above 50 millisievert, the radiation- induced cancer risk can be estimated based, these irradiated cells. There is evidence that very low doses of -particles induced clastogenic responses by a particle (3, 5, 9). In CHO cells irradiated with low doses of particles where 1% of the nuclei were

  14. Beyond Adapting to Climate Change: Embedding Adaptation in Responses to Multiple Threats and Stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Kates, Dr. Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change impacts are already being experienced in every region of the United States and every part of the world most severely in Arctic regions and adaptation is needed now. Although climate change adaptation research is still in its infancy, significant adaptation planning in the United States has already begun in a number of localities. This article seeks to broaden the adaptation effort by integrating it with broader frameworks of hazards research, sustainability science, and community and regional resilience. To extend the range of experience, we draw from ongoing case studies in the Southeastern United States and the environmental history of New Orleans to consider the multiple threats and stresses that all communities and regions experience. Embedding climate adaptation in responses to multiple threats and stresses helps us to understand climate change impacts, themselves often products of multiple stresses, to achieve community acceptance of needed adaptations as co-benefits of addressing multiple threats, and to mainstream the process of climate adaptation through the larger envelope of social relationships, communication channels, and broad-based awareness of needs for risk management that accompany community resilience.

  15. Computer-aided detection of radiation-induced cerebral microbleeds on susceptibility-weighted MR images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    ynicl Computer-aided detection of radiation-induced cerebraladvantageous for the detection of radiation-induced CMBs,radiation-induced CMBs with low contrast is a further factor that complicates their detection.

  16. Distributed Demand Response and User Adaptation in Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Zhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed framework for demand response and user adaptation in smart grid networks. In particular, we borrow the concept of congestion pricing in Internet traffic control and show that pricing information is very useful to regulate user demand and hence balance network load. User preference is modeled as a willingness to pay parameter which can be seen as an indicator of differential quality of service. Both analysis and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the dynamics and convergence behavior of the algorithm.

  17. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagadec, Chann; Vlashi, Erina; Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for ?-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a ?-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, ?-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  18. 17 August 2000 FEL 2000 1 Radiation Induced by Relativistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    17 August 2000 FEL 2000 1 Radiation Induced by Relativistic Beams Passing Over a Diffraction 2000 FEL 2000 2 Outline · Spontaneous Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) can be intense. · Data from the ATF. #12;17 August 2000 FEL 2000 3 Smith-Purcell radiation q v b Dispersion relation: l n c vl cos 1 cosn

  19. Modeling radiation-induced mixing at interfaces between low solubility metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies radiation-induced mixing at interfaces between low solubility metals using molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. It provides original contributions on the fundamental mechanisms of radiation-induced ...

  20. Adaptive Evolution of a Stress Response Protein Tom J. Little1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obbard, Darren

    Stress responses classically involve heat shock proteins or molecular chaperones that maintain proteinAdaptive Evolution of a Stress Response Protein Tom J. Little1 *, Lenny Nelson2 , Ted Hupp2 1 of the mammalian stress response gene SEP53, a member of the epidermal differentiation complex fused-gene family

  1. Radiation-induced decomposition of explosives under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Liermann, Peter

    2008-11-03

    We present high-pressure and high temperature studies of the synchrotron radiation-induced decomposition of powder secondary high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using white beam synchrotron radiation at the 16 BM-B and 16 BM-D sectors of the HP-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The radiation-induced decomposition rate TATB showed dramatic slowing with pressure up to 26.6 GPa (the highest pressure studied), implying a positive activation volume of the activated complex. The decomposition rate of PETN varied little with pressure up to 15.7 GPa (the highest pressure studied). Diffraction line intensities were measured as a function of time using energy-dispersive methods. By measuring the decomposition rate as a function of pressure and temperature, kinetic and other constants associated with the decomposition reactions were extracted.

  2. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E.

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  3. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Eric F.; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur

    2010-10-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

  4. Between adaptation and resistance : labor responses to globalization in France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ancelovici, Marcos, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation aims at accounting for labor responses to globalization in France. It addresses this issue through a comparative study of two labor organizations-the French Democratic Labor Confederation (CFDT) and the ...

  5. Nature of Radiation-Induced Defects in Quartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bu Wang; Yingtian Yu; Isabella Pignatelli; Gaurav N. Sant; Mathieu Bauchy

    2015-04-10

    Although quartz ($\\rm \\alpha$-form) is a mineral used in numerous applications wherein radiation exposure is an issue, the nature of the atomistic defects formed during radiation-induced damage have not been fully clarified. Especially, the extent of oxygen vacancy formation is still debated, which is an issue of primary importance as optical techniques based on charged oxygen vacancies have been utilized to assess the level of radiation damage in quartz. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied to study the effects of ballistic impacts on the atomic network of quartz. We show that the defects that are formed mainly consist of over-coordinated Si and O, as well as Si--O connectivity defects, e.g., small Si--O rings and edge-sharing Si tetrahedra. Oxygen vacancies, on the contrary, are found in relatively low abundance, suggesting that characterizations based on $E^{\\prime}$ centers do not adequately capture radiation-induced structural damage in quartz. Finally, we evaluate the dependence on the incident energy, of the amount of each type of the point defects formed, and quantify unambiguously the threshold displacement energies for both O and Si atoms. These results provide a comprehensive basis to assess the nature and extent of radiation damage in quartz.

  6. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore »that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  7. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  8. Systematic identification of genes and transduction pathways involved in radio-adaptive response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Honglu

    2015-05-22

    Low doses of radiation have been shown to protect against the biological effects of later exposure to toxic levels of radiation. In this study, we propose to identify the molecular mechanisms of this adaptive response by systematically identifying the genes that play a role in radio-protection. In the original proposal, a human cell line that is well-documented to exhibit the radio-adaptive effect was to be used. In this revised study plan, we will use a mouse model, C57BL/6, which has also been well investigated for radio-adaptation. The goal of the proposed study is to enhance our understanding of cellular responses to low doses of radiation exposure at the molecular level.

  9. Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses adaptive response induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses; adaptive response; zebrafish embryos Journal of Radiation Research, 2014, 55, i115 Supplement doi: 10 prepared medium with the chemical at different time points after the application of the priming dose. Our

  10. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, William R.

    In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents di Genetica e Biofisica--ABT, Napoli, Italy ASH sensory neurons are required in Caenorhabditis and nose touch. The ASH neurons are therefore hypothesized to be polymodal nociceptive neurons

  11. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) regulates sepsis but not the adaptive immune response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliensiek, Birgit; Weigand, Markus A.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Nicklas, Werner; Kasper, Michael; Hofer, Stefan; Plachky, Jens; Grö ne, Herman-Josef; Kurschus, Florian C.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Yan, Shirley ShiDu; Martin, Eike; Schleicher, Erwin; Stern, David M.; Hä mmerling, Gü nter J.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Arnold, Bernd

    2004-06-01

    of the immunoglobulin superfamily, leads to perpetuated cell activation. Using novel animal models with defective or tissue-specific RAGE expression, we show that in these animal models RAGE does not play a role in the adaptive immune response. However, deletion of RAGE...

  12. Simulating and Detecting Radiation-Induced Errors for Onboard Machine Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulating and Detecting Radiation-Induced Errors for Onboard Machine Learning Robert Granat, Kiri-based fault tolerance (ABFT) methods into onboard data analysis algorithms to detect radiation-induced errors for detecting and recovering from such errors. A common hardware technique for achieving radiation protection

  13. Radiation-induced refraction artifacts in the optical CT readout of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to demonstrate imaging artifacts that can occur during the optical computed tomography (CT) scanning of polymer gel dosimeters due to radiation-induced refractive index (RI) changes in polyacrylamide gels. Methods: A 1 L cylindrical polyacrylamide gel dosimeter was irradiated with 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} square beams of 6 MV photons. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner was used to image the dosimeter. Investigative optical CT scans were performed to examine two types of rayline bending: (i) bending within the plane of the fan-beam and (ii) bending out the plane of the fan-beam. To address structured errors, an iterative Savitzky–Golay (ISG) filtering routine was designed to filter 2D projections in sinogram space. For comparison, 2D projections were alternatively filtered using an adaptive-mean (AM) filter. Results: In-plane rayline bending was most notably observed in optical CT projections where rays of the fan-beam confronted a sustained dose gradient that was perpendicular to their trajectory but within the fan-beam plane. These errors caused distinct streaking artifacts in image reconstructions due to the refraction of higher intensity rays toward more opaque regions of the dosimeter. Out-of-plane rayline bending was observed in slices of the dosimeter that featured dose gradients perpendicular to the plane of the fan-beam. These errors caused widespread, severe overestimations of dose in image reconstructions due to the higher-than-actual opacity that is perceived by the scanner when light is bent off of the detector array. The ISG filtering routine outperformed AM filtering for both in-plane and out-of-plane rayline errors caused by radiation-induced RI changes. For in-plane rayline errors, streaks in an irradiated region (>7 Gy) were as high as 49% for unfiltered data, 14% for AM, and 6% for ISG. For out-of-plane rayline errors, overestimations of dose in a low-dose region (?50 cGy) were as high as 13 Gy for unfiltered data, 10 Gy for AM, and 3.1 Gy for ISG. The ISG routine also addressed unrelated artifacts that previously needed to be manually removed in sinogram space. However, the ISG routine blurred reconstructions, causing losses in spatial resolution of ?5 mm in the plane of the fan-beam and ?8 mm perpendicular to the fan-beam. Conclusions: This paper reveals a new category of imaging artifacts that can affect the optical CT readout of polyacrylamide gel dosimeters. Investigative scans show that radiation-induced RI changes can cause significant rayline errors when rays confront a prolonged dose gradient that runs perpendicular to their trajectory. In fan-beam optical CT, these errors manifested in two ways: (1) distinct streaking artifacts caused by in-plane rayline bending and (2) severe overestimations of opacity caused by rays bending out of the fan-beam plane and missing the detector array. Although the ISG filtering routine mitigated these errors better than an adaptive-mean filtering routine, it caused unacceptable losses in spatial resolution.

  14. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  15. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, William R.

    Erratum In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical (arbitrary units) Intensity 10 mM copper 3 s 2 s 1 s 0 s -1 s 1.6 2.1 m)µ( YFP CFP Dendrite Soma ASH Time (s following panels. Scale bar, 200 mm. (B) Diagram of the animal's head with one of the two symmetrical ASH

  16. Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-induced Gastric Bleeding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pan, Charlie C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amarnath, Sudha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William D. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we described dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. The parameters of a Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for the occurrence of {>=}grade 3 gastric bleed, adjusted for cirrhosis, were fitted to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for NTCP models. Results: Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds at a median time of 4.0 months (mean, 6.5 months; range, 2.1-28.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range, 46-86 Gy), respectively, after biocorrection of each part of the 3D dose distributions to equivalent 2-Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis predicted gastric bleed. Best-fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n=0.10 and m=0.21 and with TD{sub 50} (normal) = 56 Gy and TD{sub 50} (cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD{sub 50} value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation.

  17. Irradiated Esophageal Cells are Protected from Radiation-Induced Recombination by MnSOD Gene Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Yunyun

    Radiation-induced DNA damage is a precursor to mutagenesis and cytotoxicity. During radiotherapy, exposure of healthy tissues can lead to severe side effects. We explored the potential of mitochondrial SOD (MnSOD) gene ...

  18. Pressure-sensitive blackbody point radiation induced by infrared diode laser irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Pressure-sensitive blackbody point radiation induced by infrared diode laser irradiation Feng Qin,1, by irradiation of well-matched infrared (IR) lasers upon the Yb3þ ions, ultrabroadband luminescence can

  19. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  1. Cyclic 3',5'-AMP Relay i n Dictyostelium discoideum V. Adaptation of the CAMP Signaling Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devreotes, Peter

    Cyclic 3',5'-AMP Relay i n Dictyostelium discoideum V. Adaptation of the CAMP Signaling Response, and then immediately given test stimuli of 10-8 M to 2.5 X 10-7 M cAMP. The response to a given test stimulus to the concentration of the test stimulus . The responses to test stimuli of 10-8, 5 X 10-8, 10-7, or 2.5 X 10-7 M c

  2. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  3. Mini-review Radiation-induced bystander effect: Early process and rapid assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose researches have been carried out on victims of atomic bomb explosions, occupational and accidental radiationMini-review Radiation-induced bystander effect: Early process and rapid assessment Hongzhi Wang

  4. EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Paper EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES David J are increased at low doses ( 10 mGy). Discussed here are the issues related to extrapolating radiation risks from low radiation doses to very low doses (

  5. Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Roles of nitric oxide in adaptive response induced in zebrafish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Roles of nitric oxide in adaptive response Radiat Res 2013;54:736­47. Journal of Radiation Research, 2014, 55, i114 Supplement doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrt161 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research

  6. Flavin-Induced Oligomerization in Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AidB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamill, Michael J.; Jost, Marco; Wong, Cintyu; Elliott, Sean J.; Drennan, Catherine L. (MIT); (BU)

    2011-11-21

    The process known as 'adaptive response' allows Escherichia coli to respond to small doses of DNA-methylating agents by upregulating the expression of four proteins. While the role of three of these proteins in mitigating DNA damage is well understood, the function of AidB is less clear. Although AidB is a flavoprotein, no catalytic role has been established for the bound cofactor. Here we investigate the possibility that flavin plays a structural role in the assembly of the AidB tetramer. We report the generation and biophysical characterization of deflavinated AidB and of an AidB mutant that has greatly reduced affinity for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Using fluorescence quenching and analytical ultracentrifugation, we find that apo AidB has a high affinity for FAD, as indicated by an apparent dissociation constant of 402.1 {+-} 35.1 nM, and that binding of substoichiometric amounts of FAD triggers a transition in the AidB oligomeric state. In particular, deflavinated AidB is dimeric, whereas the addition of FAD yields a tetramer. We further investigate the dimerization and tetramerization interfaces of AidB by determining a 2.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure in space group P3{sub 2} that contains three intact tetramers in the asymmetric unit. Taken together, our findings provide strong evidence that FAD plays a structural role in the formation of tetrameric AidB.

  7. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simone, Brittany A.; Ly, David; Savage, Jason E.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Dan, Tu D.; Ylaya, Kris; Shankavaram, Uma; Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin; Camphausen, Kevin; Mitchell, James B.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation.

  8. The versatile E. coli adaptive response protein AlkB mitigates toxicity and mutagenicity of etheno-, ethano-, and methyl-modified bases in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frick, Lauren Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein is an exceptionally versatile DNA repair enzyme. Its expression is induced upon exposure to alkylating agents as part of the Ada-mediated adaptive response. This member of the ac-ketoglu ...

  9. A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balmain, Allan; Song, Ihn Young

    2013-05-15

    The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a Â?Â?Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

  10. Stress-related phenomena in transient radiation-induced absorption in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.; Kelly, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of materials can be modified by exposure to radiation and research to investigate these radiation-induced phenomena has intensified over the last several decades. The advent of optical fiber technology and the many applications of optical fiber for information transmission have sharply increased the interest in these investigations. Optical fibers present a long optical transmission path and that path may traverse different adverse environments, including radiation areas. The long tranmission path provides increased potential for interactions between the optical information signal and the optical medium. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Radiation-induced complications in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azuddin, A. Yusof; Rahman, I. Abdul; Mohamed, F.; Siah, N. J.; Saadc, M.; Ismail, F.

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complications with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters for prostate cancer patients that underwent the conformal radiotherapy treatment. 17 prostate cancer patients that have been treated with conformal radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. The dosimetric data was retrieved in the form of dose-volume histogram (DVH) from Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System. The DVH was utilised to derived Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) in radiobiological data. Follow-up data from medical records were used to grade the occurrence of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring system. The chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complication with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters. 8 (47%) and 7 (41%) patients were having acute GI and GU complications respectively. The acute GI complication can be associated with V60{sub rectum}, rectal mean dose and NTCP{sub rectum} with p-value of 0.016, 0.038 and 0.049 respectively. There are no significant relationships of acute GU complication with dosimetric and radiobiological variables. Further study can be done by increase the sample size and follow up duration for deeper understanding of the factors that effecting the GU and GI complication in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

  12. Sorafenib Enhances Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting STAT3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chen-Si [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tai, Wei-Tien; Hsieh, Chi-Ying [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Chung-Wai [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuen-Feng, E-mail: kfchen1970@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal human malignancies. Lack of efficient therapy for advanced HCC is a pressing problem worldwide. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of combined sorafenib and radiation therapy treatment for HCC. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Huh-7, Sk-Hep1, and Hep3B) were treated with sorafenib, radiation, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: All 4 HCC cell lines showed resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis; however, this resistance could be reversed in the presence of sorafenib. Inhibition of phospho-STAT3 was found in cells treated with sorafenib or sorafenib plus radiation and subsequently reduced the expression levels of STAT3-related proteins, Mcl-1, cyclin D1, and survivin. Silencing STAT3 by RNA interference overcame apoptotic resistance to radiation in HCC cells, and the ectopic expression of STAT3 in HCC cells abolished the radiosensitizing effect of sorafenib. Moreover, sorafenib plus radiation significantly suppressed PLC5 xenograft tumor growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that sorafenib sensitizes resistant HCC cells to radiation-induced apoptosis via downregulating phosphorylation of STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Zhou, and J. D. Keasling. 2006. Salt stress in Desulfovibrioregulation of acid, heat, and salt tolerance in EscherichiaMR-1 in response to elevated salt conditions. J. Bacteriol.

  14. Risk Analysis and Adaptive Response Planning for Water Distribution Systems Contamination Emergency Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasekh, Amin

    2012-10-19

    of terrorism, several aspects of emergency management for WDSs remain at an undeveloped stage. A set of methods is developed to analyze the risk and consequences of WDS contamination events and develop emergency response support tools. Monte Carlo...

  15. Radiation-Induced Decomposition of PETN and TATB under Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael

    2008-11-03

    We conducted a series of experiments investigating decomposition of secondary explosives PETN and TATB at varying static pressures and temperatures using synchrotron radiation. As seen in our earlier work, the decomposition rate of TATB at ambient temperature slows systematically with increasing pressure up to at least 26 GPa but varies little with pressure in PETN at ambient temperature up to 15.7 GPa, yielding important information pertaining to the activation complex volume in both cases. We also investigated the radiation-induced decomposition rate as a function of temperature at ambient pressure and 26 GPa for TATB up to 403 K, observing that the decomposition rate increases with increasing temperature as expected. The activation energy for the TATB reaction at ambient temperature was experimentally determined to be 16 {+-} 3 kJ/mol.

  16. Radiation induced leakage current and stress induced leakage current in ultra-thin gate oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceschia, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Cester, A.; Scarpa, A.; Ghidini, G.

    1998-12-01

    Low-field leakage current has been measured in thin oxides after exposure to ionizing radiation. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) can be described as an inelastic tunneling process mediated by neutral traps in the oxide, with an energy loss of about 1 eV. The neutral trap distribution is influenced by the oxide field applied during irradiation, thus indicating that the precursors of the neutral defects are charged, likely being defects associated to trapped holes. The maximum leakage current is found under zero-field condition during irradiation, and it rapidly decreases as the field is enhanced, due to a displacement of the defect distribution across the oxide towards the cathodic interface. The RILC kinetics are linear with the cumulative dose, in contrast with the power law found on electrically stressed devices.

  17. Ionizing radiation induced leakage current on ultra-thin gate oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Montera, F.; Ghibaudo, G.; Pananakakis, G.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1997-12-01

    MOS capacitors with a 4.4 nm thick gate oxide have been exposed to {gamma} radiation from a Co{sup 60} source. As a result, the authors have measured a stable leakage current at fields lower than those required for Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) is similar to the usual Stress Induced Leakage Currents (SILC) observed after electrical stresses of MOS devices. They have verified that these two currents share the same dependence on the oxide field, and the RILC contribution can be normalized to an equivalent injected charge for Constant Current Stresses. They have also considered the dependence of the RILC from the cumulative radiation dose, and from the applied bias during irradiation, suggesting a correlation between RILC and the distribution of trapped holes and neutral levels in the oxide layer.

  18. Prompt radiation-induced conductivity in polyurethane foam and glass microballoons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2014-06-01

    We performed measurements and analyses of the prompt radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of polyurethane foam and glass microballoon foam at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. The RIC coefficient was non-linear with dose rate for polyurethane foam; however, typical values at 1E11 rad(si)/s dose rate was measured as 0.8E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 5 lb./cu ft. foam and 0.3E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 10 lb./cu ft. density polyurethane foam. For encapsulated glass microballoons (GMB) the RIC coefficient was approximately 1E-15 mho/m/rad/s and was not a strong function of dose rate.

  19. Endogenous retrovirus and radiation-induced leukemia in the RMF mouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennant, R.W.; Boone, L.R.; Lalley, P.; Yang, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of myeloid leukemia in irradiated RFM/Un mice has been associated with retrovirus infection. However, two characteristics of this strain complicate efforts to define the role of the virus. This strain possesses only one inducible host range class of endogenous virus and a unique gene, in addition to the Fv-1/sup n/ locus, which specifically restricts exogenous infection by endogenous viruses. These characteristics possibly account for absence of recombinant viruses in this strain, even though virus is amply expressed during most of the animal's life span. We have examined further the distribution of retrovirus sequences and the chromosomal locus of the inducible virus in this strain. This report describes evidence for additional viral sequences in cells of a radiation-induced myeloid leukemia line and discusses the possible origin of these added copies.

  20. Radiation-Induced Segregation and Phase Stability in Candidate Alloys for the Advanced Burner Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary S. Was; Brian D. Wirth

    2011-05-29

    Major accomplishments of this project were the following: 1) Radiation induced depletion of Cr occurs in alloy D9, in agreement with that observed in austenitic alloys. 2) In F-M alloys, Cr enriches at PAG grain boundaries at low dose (<7 dpa) and at intermediate temperature (400°C) and the magnitude of the enrichment decreases with temperature. 3) Cr enrichment decreases with dose, remaining enriched in alloy T91 up to 10 dpa, but changing to depletion above 3 dpa in HT9 and HCM12A. 4) Cr has a higher diffusivity than Fe by a vacancy mechanism and the corresponding atomic flux of Cr is larger than Fe in the opposite direction to the vacancy flux. 5) Cr concentration at grain boundaries decreases as a result of vacancy transport during electron or proton irradiation, consistent with Inverse Kirkendall models. 6) Inclusion of other point defect sinks into the KLMC simulation of vacancy-mediated diffusion only influences the results in the low temperature, recombination dominated regime, but does not change the conclusion that Cr depletes as a result of vacancy transport to the sink. 7) Cr segregation behavior is independent of Frenkel pair versus cascade production, as simulated for electron versus proton irradiation conditions, for the temperatures investigated. 8) The amount of Cr depletion at a simulated planar boundary with vacancy-mediated diffusion reaches an apparent saturation value by about 1 dpa, with the precise saturation concentration dependent on the ratio of Cr to Fe diffusivity. 9) Cr diffuses faster than Fe by an interstitial transport mechanism, and the corresponding atomic flux of Cr is much larger than Fe in the same direction as the interstitial flux. 10) Observed experimental and computational results show that the radiation induced segregation behavior of Cr is consistent with an Inverse Kirkendall mechanism.

  1. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costes, Sylvain V; Chiolo, Irene; Pluth, Janice M.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Jakob, Burkhard

    2009-09-15

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DSB within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatio-temporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution as a function of radiation quality and nuclear densities. Discussion is limited to RIF formed by three interrelated proteins ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated), 53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) and ?H2AX (phosphorylated variant histone H2AX). Early post-IR, we propose that RIF mark chromatin reorganization, leading to a local nuclear scaffold rigid enough to keep broken DNA from diffusing away, but open enough to allow the repair machinery. We review data indicating clear kinetic and physical differences between RIF emerging from dense and uncondensed regions of the nucleus. At later time post-IR, we propose that persistent RIF observed days following exposure to ionizing radiation are nuclear ?scars? marking permanent disruption of the chromatin architecture. When DNA damage is resolved, such chromatin modifications should not necessarily lead to growth arrest and it has been shown that persistent RIF can replicate during mitosis. Thus, heritable persistent RIF spanning over tens of Mbp may affect the transcriptome of a large progeny of cells. This opens the door for a non DNA mutation-based mechanism of radiation-induced phenotypes.

  2. The Role of Platelet Factor 4 in Radiation-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Michele P.; Xiao Liqing; Nguyen, Yvonne; Kowalska, M. Anna; Poncz, Mortimer

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Factors affecting the severity of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia (RIT) are not well described. We address whether platelet factor 4 (PF4; a negative paracrine for megakaryopoiesis) affects platelet recovery postradiation. Methods and Materials: Using conditioned media from irradiated bone marrow (BM) cells from transgenic mice overexpressing human (h) PF4 (hPF4+), megakaryocyte colony formation was assessed in the presence of this conditioned media and PF4 blocking agents. In a model of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia, irradiated mice with varying PF4 expression levels were treated with anti-hPF4 and/or thrombopoietin (TPO), and platelet count recovery and survival were examined. Results: Conditioned media from irradiated BM from hPF4+ mice inhibited megakaryocyte colony formation, suggesting that PF4 is a negative paracrine released in RIT. Blocking with an anti-hPF4 antibody restored colony formation of BM grown in the presence of hPF4+ irradiated media, as did antibodies that block the megakaryocyte receptor for PF4, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Irradiated PF4 knockout mice had higher nadir platelet counts than irradiated hPF4+/knockout litter mates (651 vs. 328 x 106/mcL, p = 0.02) and recovered earlier (15 days vs. 22 days, respectively, p <0.02). When irradiated hPF4+ mice were treated with anti-hPF4 antibody and/or TPO, they showed less severe thrombocytopenia than untreated mice, with improved survival and time to platelet recovery, but no additive effect was seen. Conclusions: Our studies show that in RIT, damaged megakaryocytes release PF4 locally, inhibiting platelet recovery. Blocking PF4 enhances recovery while released PF4 from megakaryocytes limits TPO efficacy, potentially because of increased release of PF4 stimulated by TPO. The clinical value of blocking this negative paracrine pathway post-RIT remains to be determined.

  3. Mitigation and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Thoracic Injury With a Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor, Celecoxib

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Nancy R.; Valdecanas, David [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Milas, Luka [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thames, Howard D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mason, Kathy A., E-mail: kmason@mdanderson.org [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To test whether a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) could reduce mortality resulting from radiation-induced pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: Celecoxib was given to mice twice daily for 40 consecutive days starting on the day of local thoracic irradiation (LTI) or 40 or 80 days later. C3Hf/KamLaw mice were observed for morbidity, and time to death was determined. Results were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Timing of celecoxib relative to LTI determined efficacy. A significant reduction in time to death was achieved only when celecoxib was started 80 days after LTI, corresponding to the time when pneumonitis is expressed. For these mice the reduction in mortality was quantified as a hazard ratio for mortality of treated vs untreated of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.53), thus significantly less than 1.0. Correspondingly, the median lethal dose for treated mice (12.9 Gy; 95% CI 12.55-13.25 Gy) was significantly (P=.026) higher than for untreated mice (12.4 Gy; 95% CI 12.2-12.65 Gy). Conclusions: Celecoxib significantly reduced lung toxicity when administered months after LTI when the deleterious effects of radiation were expressed. The schedule-dependent reduction in fatal pneumonitis suggests that celecoxib could be clinically useful by reintroduction of treatment months after completion of radiation therapy. These findings may be important for designing clinical trials using cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to treat radiation-induced lung toxicity as a complement to concurrent radiation therapy of lung cancers.

  4. Influence of inorganic and organic nutrients on aerobic biodegradation and on the adaptation response of subsurface microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindoll, C.M.; Aelion, C.M.; Pfaender, F.K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of inorganic and organic amendments on the mineralization of ethylene dibromide, rho-nitrophenol, phenol, and toluene was examined in subsurface soil samples from a pristine aquifer near Lula, Oklahoma. The responses indicate that the metabolic abilities and nutrient requirements of ground water microorganisms vary substantially within an aquifer. In some samples, additions of inorganic nutrients resulted in a more rapid adaptation to the test substrate and a higher rate of metabolism, indicating that metabolism may have been limited by these nutrients. In other samples from the same aquifer layer, inorganic amendments had little or no influence on mineralization. In general, the addition of multiple inorganic nutrients resulted in a greater enhancement of degradation than did the addition of single substances. Additions of alternate carbon sources, such as glucose or amino acids, inhibited the mineralization of the xenobiotic substrates. This inhibition appears to be the result of the preferential utilization of the more easily degradable carbon amendments.

  5. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ; Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A; Brolo, AG

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF{sub 2} = 0.57 and MCF7, SF{sub 2} = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF{sub 2} = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments.

  6. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan; Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi; Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal tissue complication probability models showed a parallel architecture for the thyroid. The mean dose model can be used as the best model to describe the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism complication.

  7. High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-03-18

    It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome – the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

  8. Removal of N-Alkyl Modifications from N[superscript 2]-Alkylguanine and N[superscript 4]-Alkylcytosine in DNA by the Adaptive Response Protein AlkB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Deyu

    The AlkB enzyme is an Fe(II)- and ?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that repairs DNA alkyl lesions by a direct reversal of damage mechanism as part of the adaptive response in E. coli. The reported substrate scope of ...

  9. Neurodegeneration and adaptation in response to low-dose photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limoli, Charles L.

    2014-10-27

    Neural stem and precursor cells (i.e. multipotent neural cells) are concentrated in the neurogenic regions of the brain (hippocampal dentate gyrus, subventricular zones), and considerable evidence suggests that these cells are important in mediating the stress response of the CNS after damage from ionizing radiation. The capability of these cells to proliferate, migrate and differentiate (i.e. to undergo neurogenesis) suggests they can participate in the repair and maintenance of CNS functions by replacing brain cells damaged or depleted due to irradiation. Importantly, we have shown that multipotent neural cells are markedly sensitive to irradiation and oxidative stress, insults that compromise neurogenesis and hasten the onset and progression of degenerative processes that are likely to have an adverse impact on cognition. Our past and current work has demonstrated that relatively low doses of radiation cause a persistent (weeks-months) oxidative stress in multipotent neural cells that can elicit a range of degenerative sequelae in the CNS. Therefore, our project is focused on determining the extent that endogenous and redox sensitive multipotent neural cells represent important radioresponsive targets for low dose radiation effects. We hypothesize that the activation of redox sensitive signaling can trigger radioadaptive changes in these cells that can be either harmful or beneficial to overall cognitive health.

  10. Roles of Sensory Nerves in the Regulation of Radiation-Induced Structural and Functional Changes in the Heart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Moros, Eduardo G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Zheng, Junying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgical Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Boerma, Marjan, E-mail: mboerma@uams.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a chronic severe side effect of radiation therapy of intrathoracic and chest wall tumors. The heart contains a dense network of sensory neurons that not only are involved in monitoring of cardiac events such as ischemia and reperfusion but also play a role in cardiac tissue homeostasis, preconditioning, and repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sensory nerves in RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered capsaicin to permanently ablate sensory nerves, 2 weeks before local image-guided heart x-ray irradiation with a single dose of 21 Gy. During the 6 months of follow-up, heart function was assessed with high-resolution echocardiography. At 6 months after irradiation, cardiac structural and molecular changes were examined with histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Results: Capsaicin pretreatment blunted the effects of radiation on myocardial fibrosis and mast cell infiltration and activity. By contrast, capsaicin pretreatment caused a small but significant reduction in cardiac output 6 months after irradiation. Capsaicin did not alter the effects of radiation on cardiac macrophage number or indicators of autophagy and apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that sensory nerves, although they play a predominantly protective role in radiation-induced cardiac function changes, may eventually enhance radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and mast cell activity.

  11. Radiatively Induced Type II seesaw and Vector-like 5/3 Charge Quarks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Franceschini; R. N. Mohapatra

    2013-06-26

    Understanding small neutrino masses in type II seesaw models with TeV scale SM triplet Higgs bosons requires that its coupling with the standard model Higgs doublet H be dialed down to be order eV to KeV, which is a fine-tuning by a factor of $10^{-11}-10^{-8}$ with respect to the weak scale. We present a SUSY extension of the type II seesaw model where this dimensionful small coupling is radiatively induced, thus making its smallness natural. This model has an exotic vector-like quark doublet which contains a quark X with electric charge 5/3 and a top partner t'. We discuss in details the phenomenology of the model paying special attention to the consequences of the interactions of the the exotic heavy quarks and the scalars of the model. Implications for neutrinoless double beta decay and for the LHC experiments are discussed in detail. Remarkably, in this model both the seesaw triplet and the heavy quarks can manifest at colliders in a host of different signatures, including some that significantly differ from those of the minimal models. Depending on the choice of the hierarchy of couplings, the decay of the heavy quarks and of the seesaw triplet may be subject to bounds that can be tighter or looser than the bounds from standard LHC searches. Furthermore we point out a new short-distance contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay mediated by the simultaneous propagation of the type II triplet and exotic fermions. Remarkably this contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay is parametrically quite independent from the scale of the generated neutrino mass.

  12. Adaptation and adaptability : expectant design for resilience in coastal urbanity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruskeepää, Laura A. Delaney (Laura Ashley Delaney)

    2011-01-01

    What is the nature of and possibility for urban resiliency through adaptation? Adaptation implies responsiveness to phenomena that are disruptive to a system's functioning; it is a willful evolution in response to changed ...

  13. Detection and Repair of Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Double Strand Breaks: New Developments in Nonhomologous End Joining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chen [Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Oncology, and Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)] [Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Oncology, and Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada); Lees-Miller, Susan P., E-mail: leesmill@ucalgary.ca [Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Oncology, and Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    DNA damage can occur as a result of endogenous metabolic reactions and replication stress or from exogenous sources such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. DNA double strand breaks are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage, and defects in their repair can result in genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. The major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs in human cells is nonhomologous end joining. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism of nonhomologous end joining, as well as new findings on its component proteins and regulation.

  14. Formation mechanisms of precursors of radiation-induced color centers during fabrication of silica optical fiber preform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomashuk, A. L.; Zabezhailov, M. O.

    2011-04-15

    Samples in the form of transverse slices of rods and optical fiber preforms made from the high-hydroxyl KU-1 and low-hydroxyl KS-4V silica by the plasma outside deposition (POD) method are {gamma}-irradiated to a dose of {approx}1 MGy (SiO{sub 2}). Next, the radial dependences of the radiation-induced nonbridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) and E'-center (three-coordinated silicon) in the samples are constructed by measuring the amplitudes of their 4.8 and 5.8 eV absorption bands, respectively. Based on the analysis of these radial dependences and considering the temperature and duration of the preirradiation heat treatment of the rods and preforms at the POD-installation, we determine the ratio of the oscillator strengths of the above bands and the microscopic thermoinduced processes occurring during preform fabrication and producing precursors of the radiation-induced NBOHC and E'-center. These processes are found to be associated with the escape of either H{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O from neighboring hydroxyl groups, and, therefore, can occur in high-hydroxyl silica only. It is concluded that enhancement of the radiation resistance of high-hydroxyl silica optical fibers requires decreasing the temperature and duration of the preform fabrication process, in particular, changing from the POD-technology to the low-temperature plasmachemical vapor deposition (PCVD) or surface PCVD (SPCVD)-technology.

  15. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

    2012-03-03

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  16. Adaptive sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  17. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakimura, N.; Nebashi, R.; Sugibayashi, T.; Natsui, M.; Hanyu, T.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400?-?A peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14?MeV cm{sup 2}/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10{sup ?12} per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (I{sub C0}) became less than 30??A.

  18. A physical model of the photo- and radiation-induced degradation of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mady, Franck Duchez, Jean-Bernard Mebrouk, Yasmine Benabdesselam, Mourad

    2014-10-21

    We propose a model to describe the photo- or/and the radiation-induced darkening of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers. This model accounts for the well-established experimental features of photo-darkening. Degradation behaviors predicted for fibers pumped in harsh environments are also fully confirmed by experimental data reported in the work by Duchez et al. (this proceeding), which gives a detailed characterization of the interplay between the effects of the pump and those of a superimposed ionizing irradiation (actual operation conditions in space-based applications for instance). In particular, dependences of the darkening build-up on the pump power, the total ionizing dose and the dose rate are all correctly reproduced. The presented model is a ‘sufficient’ one, including the minimal physical ingredients required to reproduce experimental features. Refinements could be proposed to improve, e.g., quantitative kinetics.

  19. Reproductive Status at First Diagnosis Influences Risk of Radiation-Induced Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer in the WECARE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Jennifer D.; Boice, John D.; Stovall, Marilyn; Reiner, Anne S.; Bernstein, Leslie; John, Esther M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Knight, Julia A.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Haile, Robert W.; Smith, Susan A.; Capanu, Marinela; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Shore, Roy E.; Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Our study examined whether reproductive and hormonal factors before, at the time of, or after radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multicenter, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC. Results: Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to {>=}1 Gy to the contralateral breast had a greater risk for CBC than did matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk for CBC (RR = 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-28.4) than unexposed women (4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk for CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also seem to be at an increased risk for radiation-induced CBC.

  20. Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis: Mechanistically Based Differences between Gamma-Rays and Neutrons, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    . For radiation doses which are sufficiently low to avoid substantial cell killing, sparsely ionizing radiation dose/dose rate. Sparsely ionizing radiation (e.g. c-rays) generally produces linear or upwardly curving dose responses at low doses, and the risk decreases when the dose rate is reduced (direct dose rate

  1. The Balance Between Initiation and Promotion in Radiation-Induced Murine Carcinogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    becomes important at older ages. g 2010 by Radiation Research Society INTRODUCTION Most mathematical of the shape and magnitude of the initial dose response over the long period after radiation exposure before). Some of the model parameters were obtained from fitting radiogenic risks at compar- atively low doses

  2. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

  3. Displacive radiation-induced structural contraction in nanocrystalline ZrN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Fengyuan; Sun Hongtao; Lian Jie [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytech Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Huang, Mengbing; Yaqoob, Faisal [Ion Beam Laboratory, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C. [Departments of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Materials Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1005 (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 (United States); Trautmann, Christina [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-23

    Nanocrystalline ZrN thin films with 5 nm grain size, prepared by ion beam assisted deposition, maintained their isometric structure upon intensive displacive and ionizing irradiations, indicating an extremely high stability similar to bulk ZrN. However, a unique structural contraction up to 1.42% in lattice parameter occurred only in nano-sized ZrN upon displacive irradiations. A significant nitrogen loss occurred with reduced N:Zr atomic ratio to 0.88, probably due to the production of displaced nitrogen atoms and fast diffusion along grain boundaries in nanocrystalline ZrN matrix. The accumulation of nitrogen vacancies and related strain relaxation may be responsible for the structural contraction.

  4. Adapting the U.S. Domestic Radiological Emergency Response Process to an Overseas Incident: FRMAC Without the F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, Daniel J. [USDOE NA Office of Emergency Response; Bowman, David R. [USDOE NA Office of Emergency Response; Remick, Alan [USDOE NA Office of Emergency Response

    2012-05-01

    The earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan led to a radiological release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plan, which in turn resulted in the rapid activation and deployment by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) emergency response teams. These teams and those from other federal agencies are typically coordinated through the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) when responding to radiological incidents in the U.S. FRMAC is the body through which the collection, analysis, and assessment of environmental radiological data are coordinated and products released to decision makers. This article discusses DOE/NNSA’s role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident as it implemented its components of FRMAC in a foreign country, coordinated its assets, integrated with its federal partners, and collaborated with the Government of Japan. The technical details of the various data collections and analyses are covered in other articles of this issue.

  5. Radiation-induced risk of resettling Bikini atoll. Final report, November 7, 1981-May 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, H.I.; Dreyer, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has concluded that the Bikini atoll is unsafe for resettlement. In response to the Bikinians' request for an independent review, we have examined the following DOE findings: (a) radionuclide contamination of Eneu and Bikini Islands, (b) radiation dosage to those who might resettle the islands, and (c) risks to the health of such settlers. We are in practical agreement with the DOE estimates. Resettlement of either island in 1983 would lead to a range of annual or 30-year cumulative doses that exceed the Federal Radiation Council (FRC) guides for the general population, but not those for occupation exposure. By 2013 resettlement of Eneu probably would be permissible. The principal source of radiation dose is local food, especially coconut, owing to contamination of the soil by cesium-137. A precise estimate of dose is impossible. The availability of imported foods would lessen local food consumption, but not sufficiently to meet the FRC guides for the general population. The 30-year cumulative index dose is 61 (25-122) rem for Bikini, and about 8 (3-16) rem for Eneu.

  6. Ab Initio and Kinetic Rate Theory Modeling of 316SS with Oversized Solute Additions on Radiation-Induced Segregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, Micah J.; Was, Gary S.

    2008-07-01

    Deleterious effects of radiation in nuclear reactor systems cause material degradation and the potential for component failure. Radiation damage is fundamentally due to freely migrating point defects produced in collision cascades. A reduction in the freely migrating point defect population should, then, reduce radiation damage and increase component lifetime. The addition of oversized solute atoms such as Zr or Hf to 316SS, a common structural material in reactors, is expected to reduce point defect population through a trapping mechanism that enhances recombination. The mechanism, however, requires a strong binding energy between the oversized solute atom and vacancies in order for the mechanism to significantly reduce the defect population. Experimental measurements of this binding energy are unavailable, but can be determined with atomistic calculations. Ab initio methods are used here to determine binding energies and atomic volumes of either Hf or Zr oversized solutes with vacancies in a face-centered cubic Fe matrix. The binding energies are then used to parameterize a kinetic rate-theory model, which is used here to calculate radiation-induced segregation (RIS). The calculated values of RIS are then compared to experimental measurements to benchmark the calculations and offer insight into the proposed point defect trapping mechanism. (author)

  7. Radiation-Induced Liver Fibrosis Is Mitigated by Gene Therapy Inhibiting Transforming Growth Factor-{beta} Signaling in the Rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Shisuo; Qiang Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhou Jian [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Tan Yunshan [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: We determined whether anti-transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) intervention could halt the progression of established radiation-induced liver fibrosis (RILF). Methods and Materials: A replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing the extracellular portion of human T{beta}RII and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G fusion protein (AdT{beta}RIIFc) was produced. The entire rat liver was exposed to 30 Gy irradiation to generate a RILF model (RILFM). Then, RILFM animals were treated with AdT{beta}RIIFc (1 x 10{sup 11} plaque-forming units [PFU] of T{beta}RII), control virus (1 x 10{sup 11} PFU of AdGFP), or saline. Delayed radiation liver injury was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Chronic oxidative stress damage, hepatic stellate cell activation, and hepatocyte regeneration were also analyzed. Results: In rats infected with AdT{beta}RIIFc, fibrosis was significantly improved compared with rats treated with AdGFP or saline, as assessed by histology, hydroxyproline content, and serum level of hyaluronic acid. Compared with AdGFP rats, AdT{beta}RIIFc-treated rats exhibited decreased oxidative stress damage and hepatic stellate cell activation and preserved liver function. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in the progression of liver fibrosis and suggest that anti-TGF-{beta} intervention is feasible and ameliorates established liver fibrosis. In addition, chronic oxidative stress may be involved in the progression of RILF.

  8. MicroRNA Regulation of Ionizing Radiation-Induced Premature Senescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Yong; Scheiber, Melissa N.; Neumann, Carola; Calin, George A.; Zhou Daohong

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of many cellular pathways. Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure causes DNA damage and induces premature senescence. However, the role of miRNAs in IR-induced senescence has not been well defined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify and characterize senescence-associated miRNAs (SA-miRNAs) and to investigate the role of SA-miRNAs in IR-induced senescence. Methods and Materials: In human lung (WI-38) fibroblasts, premature senescence was induced either by IR or busulfan (BU) treatment, and replicative senescence was accomplished by serial passaging. MiRNA microarray were used to identify SA-miRNAs, and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR validated the expression profiles of SA-miRNAs in various senescent cells. The role of SA-miRNAs in IR-induced senescence was characterized by knockdown of miRNA expression, using anti-miRNA oligonucleotides or by miRNA overexpression through the transfection of pre-miRNA mimics. Results: We identified eight SA-miRNAs, four of which were up-regulated (miR-152, -410, -431, and -493) and four which were down-regulated (miR-155, -20a, -25, and -15a), that are differentially expressed in both prematurely senescent (induced by IR or BU) and replicatively senescent WI-38 cells. Validation of the expression of these SA-miRNAs indicated that down-regulation of miR-155, -20a, -25, and -15a is a characteristic miRNA expression signature of cellular senescence. Functional analyses revealed that knockdown of miR-155 or miR-20a, but not miR-25 or miR-15a, markedly enhanced IR-induced senescence, whereas ectopic overexpression of miR-155 or miR-20a significantly inhibited senescence induction. Furthermore, our studies indicate that miR-155 modulates IR-induced senescence by acting downstream of the p53 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and in part via regulating tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) expression. Conclusion: Our results suggest that SA-miRNAs are involved in the regulation of IR-induced senescence, so targeting these miRNAs may be a novel approach for modulating cellular response to radiation exposure.

  9. Radioadaptive Response Induced by Alpha-Particle-Induced Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    of radioadaptive response (RAR) by com- munication of radiation-induced bystander signals. RAR is a kind of low-dose in the unirradiated embryos. Introduction Recent research have demonstrated the communication of radiation radiation effect, which occurs when a small preceding priming dose decreases the biological effectiveness

  10. Response

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Response SEAB Recommendations Related to the Evaluation of New Funding Constructs for Energy R&D in the Department of Energy Introduction Over the past seven years, the Department...

  11. Effects of Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of the Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene in Experimental Radiation-Induced Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Shunying; Chen Yundai; Li Libing; Chen Jinlong; Wu Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Zhi Guang; Li Qingfang; Wang Rongliang; Duan Haifeng; Guo Zikuan; Yang Yuefeng; Xiao Fengjun; Wang Hua; Wang Lisheng

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Irradiation to the heart may lead to late cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adenovirus-mediated delivery of the human hepatocyte growth factor gene could reduce post-irradiation damage of the rat heart and improve heart function. Methods and Materials: Twenty rats received single-dose irradiation of 20 Gy gamma ray locally to the heart and were randomized into two groups. Two weeks after irradiation, these two groups of rats received Ad-HGF or mock adenovirus vector intramyocardial injection, respectively. Another 10 rats served as sham-irradiated controls. At post-irradiation Day 120, myocardial perfusion was tested by myocardial contrast echocardiography with contrast agent injected intravenously. At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was assessed using the Langendorff technique with an isolated working heart model, after which heart samples were collected for histological evaluation. Results: Myocardial blood flow was significantly improved in HGF-treated animals as measured by myocardial contrast echocardiography at post-irradiation Day 120 . At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was significantly improved in the HGF group compared with mock vector group, as measured by left ventricular peak systolic pressure (58.80 +- 9.01 vs. 41.94 +- 6.65 mm Hg, p < 0.05), the maximum dP/dt (5634 +- 1303 vs. 1667 +- 304 mm Hg/s, p < 0.01), and the minimum dP/dt (3477 +- 1084 vs. 1566 +- 499 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05). Picrosirius red staining analysis also revealed a significant reduction of fibrosis in the HGF group. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer can attenuate radiation-induced cardiac injury and can preserve cardiac function.

  12. Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale PowerNatural GasBreakoutResponse SEAB Recommendations

  13. Responsibility

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale PowerNaturalEnergy Response

  14. A tale of two houses: the human dimension of demand response enabling technology from a case study of an adaptive wireless thermostat.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peffer, Therese; Arens, Edward A; Chen, Xue; Jang, Jaehwi; Auslander, David M.

    2008-01-01

    technology to enable residential Demand Response (DR) is aalternative model for a residential demand response enablinguse it. Existing Residential Demand Response (DR) Programs

  15. Radiation-Induced Rib Fractures After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Risk Factors and Dose-Volume Relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asai, Kaori [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohnishi, Kayoko [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirata, Hideki [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence, the clinical risk factors, and the dose-volume relationship of radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen patients treated with SBRT for primary or metastatic lung cancer at our institution, with at least 6 months of follow-up and no previous overlapping radiation exposure, were included in this study. To determine the clinical risk factors associated with RIRF, correlations between the incidence of RIRF and the variables, including age, sex, diagnosis, gross tumor volume diameter, rib-tumor distance, and use of steroid administration, were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was also conducted. Regarding the maximum dose, V10, V20, V30, and V40 of the rib, and the incidences of RIRF were compared between the two groups divided by the cutoff value determined by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: One hundred sixteen patients and 374 ribs met the inclusion criteria. Among the 116 patients, 28 patients (46 ribs) experienced RIRF. The estimated incidence of rib fracture was 37.7% at 3 years. Limited distance from the rib to the tumor (<2.0 cm) was the only significant risk factor for RIRF (p = 0.0001). Among the dosimetric parameters used for receiver operating characteristic analysis, the maximum dose showed the highest area under the curve. The 3-year estimated risk of RIRF and the determined cutoff value were 45.8% vs. 1.4% (maximum dose, {>=}42.4 Gy or less), 51.6% vs. 2.0% (V40, {>=}0.29 cm{sup 3} or less), 45.8% vs. 2.2% (V30, {>=}1.35 cm{sup 3} or less), 42.0% vs. 8.5% (V20, {>=}3.62 cm{sup 3} or less), or 25.9% vs. 10.5% (V10, {>=}5.03 cm{sup 3} or less). Conclusions: The incidence of RIRF after hypofractionated SBRT is relatively high. The maximum dose and high-dose volume are strongly correlated with RIRF.

  16. Repair of radiation-induced heat-labile sites is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 or PARP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenerlöw, Bo; Karlsson, Karin H.; Radulescu, Irina; Rydberg, Bjorn; Stenerlow, Bo

    2008-04-29

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of different DNA lesions: in addition to the most critical DNA damage, the DSB, numerous base alterations, SSBs and other modifications of the DNA double-helix are formed. When several non-DSB lesions are clustered within a short distance along DNA, or close to a DSB, they may interfere with the repair of DSBs and affect the measurement of DSB induction and repair. We have previously shown that a substantial fraction of DSBs measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are in fact due to heat-labile sites (HLS) within clustered lesions, thus reflecting an artifact of preparation of genomic DNA at elevated temperature. To further characterize the influence of HLS on DSB induction and repair, four human cell lines (GM5758, GM7166, M059K, U-1810) with apparently normal DSB rejoining were tested for bi-phasic rejoining after gamma irradiation. When heat-released DSBs were excluded from the measurements the fraction of fast rejoining decreased to less than 50% of the total. However, neither the half-times of the fast (t{sub 1/2} = 7-8 min) or slow (t{sub 1/2} = 2.5 h) DSB rejoining were changed significantly. At t=0 the heat-released DSBs accounted for almost 40% of the DSBs, corresponding to 10 extra DSB/cell/Gy in the initial DSB yield. These heat-released DSBs were repaired within 60-90 min in all tested cells, including M059K cells treated with wortmannin or DNA-PKcs defect M059J cells. Furthermore, cells lacking XRCC1 or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) rejoined both total DSBs and heat-released DSBs similar to normal cells. In summary, the presence of heat-labile sites have a substantial impact on DSB induction yields and DSB rejoining rates measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and HLS repair is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 and PARP.

  17. Solid-state polymerization of acrylamide and its derivatives complexed with some Lewis acids. II. Radiation-induced in-source polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurakowska-Orszagh, J.; Mirowski, K.; Chajewski, A.

    1982-07-01

    Radiation-induced solid-state polymerizations of complexes of N-tert-butylacrylamide, N-tert-amylacrylamide, and N-tert-hexylacrylamide with zinc chloride and zinc bromide have been studied. An accelerating effect of temperature and an inhibiting effect of oxygen on the polymerization process were observed. The activation energies have been established. The influence of monomer structure as well as the halide used on the polymerization rate have been discussed and some regularities have been pointed out. The polymers obtained show good solubilities in common solvents, which proves that they are not crosslinked.

  18. Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genome and Epigenome Instability Symposium and Epigenetic Mechanisms, DNA Repair, and Chromatin Symposium at the EMS 2008 Annual Meeting - October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; Kovalchuk, Olga; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Schär, Primo; Pogribny, Igor; Hendzel, Michael

    2010-02-19

    The Low Dose Radiation Symposium thoughtfully addressed ionizing radiation non-mutational but transmissable alterations in surviving cells. Deregulation of epigenetic processes has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis, and there is increasing realization that a significant fraction of non-targeted and adaptive mechanisms in response to ionizing radiation are likely to be epigenetic in nature. Much remains to be learned about how chromatin and epigenetic regulators affect responses to low doses of radiation, and how low dose radiation impacts other epigenetic processes. The Epigenetic Mechanisms Symposium focused on on epigenetic mechanisms and their interplay with DNA repair and chromatin changes. Addressing the fact that the most well understood mediators of epigenetic regulation are histone modifications and DNA methylation. Low levels of radiation can lead to changes in the methylation status of certain gene promoters and the expression of DNA methyltransferases, However, epigenetic regulation can also involve changes in higher order chromosome structure.

  19. On adaptive non-linearity for color discrimination and chromatic adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alleysson, David

    the physiology literature that the photoreceptors' response to light is non-linear and adaptive. However, we can corresponding color data. Adaptive non-linearity Photoreceptors are the light-sensitive elements of the humanOn adaptive non-linearity for color discrimination and chromatic adaptation David Alleysson

  20. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  1. Quantifying a bystander response following microbeam irradiation using single-cell RT-PCR analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    studies of radiation-induced bystander responses reported that exposure to very low doses of a for Radiological Research, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Objective. There is growing recognition that the effects of ionizing radiation may extend to more than those cells that directly suffer damage to DNA

  2. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Kastan, M. B. (1997). DNA damage induces phosphorylation ofby ATM in response to DNA damage. Science 281, Barber, R. ,Nussenzweig, A. (2002). DNA damage-induced G2-M checkpoint

  3. Adaptive Sensitivity 1 Adaptive Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Ran

    1 Adaptive Sensitivity 1 Adaptive Sensitivity Ran Ginosar Introduction Solid state (and other) sensors have a limited dynamic range Din: where both thresholds are measured in terms of the light intensity (Dout is specified as the ratio of the output signals). Light Intensity Output Signal Saturation

  4. Adaptive method with intercessory feedback control for an intelligent agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2004-06-22

    An adaptive architecture method with feedback control for an intelligent agent provides for adaptively integrating reflexive and deliberative responses to a stimulus according to a goal. An adaptive architecture method with feedback control for multiple intelligent agents provides for coordinating and adaptively integrating reflexive and deliberative responses to a stimulus according to a goal. Re-programming of the adaptive architecture is through a nexus which coordinates reflexive and deliberator components.

  5. Radiation-induced instability of MnS precipitates and its possible consequences on irradiation-induced stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Sanecki, J.E.; Garner, F.A.

    1996-12-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a significant materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry and may also pose a problem for fusion power reactors that will use water as coolant. A new metallurgical process is proposed that involves the radiation-induced release into solution of minor impurity elements not usually thought to participate in IASCC. MnS-type precipitates, which contain most of the sulfur in stainless steels, are thought to be unstable under irradiation. First, Mn transmutes strongly to Fe in thermalized neutron spectra. Second, cascade-induced disordering and the inverse Kirkendall effect operating at the incoherent interfaces of MnS precipitates are thought to act as a pump to export Mn from the precipitate into the alloy matrix. Both of these processes will most likely allow sulfur, which is known to exert a deleterious influence on intergranular cracking, to re-enter the matrix. To test this hypothesis, compositions of MnS-type precipitates contained in several unirradiated and irradiated heats of Type 304, 316, and 348 stainless steels (SSs) were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. Evidence is presented that shows a progressive compositional modification of MnS precipitates as exposure to neutrons increases in boiling water reactors. As the fluence increases, the Mn level in MnS decreases, whereas the Fe level increases. The S level also decreases relative to the combined level of Mn and Fe. MnS precipitates were also found to be a reservoir of other deleterious impurities such as F and O which could be also released due to radiation-induced instability of the precipitates.

  6. Adaptive sequential controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  7. 7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia University’s Kellogg Center in New York City on March 15–17, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (1–5). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and ‘‘non-targeted’’ responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

  8. Urban climate resilience : a global assessment of city adaptation plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katich, Kristina Noel

    2009-01-01

    As policy makers accept climate change as an irrefutable threat, adaptation planning has emerged as a necessary action for countries, states, and municipalities. This thesis explores adaptive responses to climate change ...

  9. Self-Adaptive Management of The Sleep Depths of Idle Nodes in Large Scale Systems to Balance Between Energy Consumption and Response Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Hong

    U.S. electricity consumption or the output of about 15 typical power plants [2]. In 2007, the electricity consumption of global cloud computing was 623 billion kWh which is larger than the 5th largest Between Energy Consumption and Response Times Yongpeng Liu(1) , Hong Zhu(2) , Kai Lu(1) , Xiaoping Wang(1

  10. A critical analysis of adaptation in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spelletich, Anne Clare

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize the phenomena associated with tropically adapted (TA) and temperately adapted (TE) sorghums (Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench) and their response patterns across diverse environments, Previous research indicate a... distinction between adaptation types in regard to their growth and development. Morphologic and agronomic characteristics associated with TA and TE sorghums were examined to determine specific adaptation responses. TA cultivars included in this study were...

  11. SNP in TXNRD2 Associated With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis: A Study of Genetic Variation in Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edvardsen, Hege; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo ; Landmark-Høyvik, Hege; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo ; Reinertsen, Kristin V.; Zhao, Xi; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo ; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe Irene; Nebdal, Daniel; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Rødningen, Olaug; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo ; Fosså, Sophie D.; National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo ; Kristensen, Vessela N.; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo; Department of Clinical Molecular Biology , Division of Medicine, Ahus University Hospital

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify noninvasive markers of treatment-induced side effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated after irradiation, and genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism might influence the level of radiation-induced adverse effects (AEs). Methods and Materials: 92 breast cancer (BC) survivors previously treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy were assessed for the AEs subcutaneous atrophy and fibrosis, costal fractures, lung fibrosis, pleural thickening, and telangiectasias (median follow-up time 17.1 years). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were analyzed for association to AE grade. SNPs associated with subcutaneous fibrosis were validated in an independent BC survivor material (n=283). The influence of the studied genetic variation on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of 18 genes previously associated with fibrosis was assessed in fibroblast cell lines from BC patients. Results: Subcutaneous fibrosis and atrophy had the highest correlation (r=0.76) of all assessed AEs. The nonsynonymous SNP rs1139793 in TXNRD2 was associated with grade of subcutaneous fibrosis, the reference T-allele being more prevalent in the group experiencing severe levels of fibrosis. This was confirmed in another sample cohort of 283 BC survivors, and rs1139793 was found significantly associated with mRNA expression level of TXNRD2 in blood. Genetic variation in 24 ROS-related genes, including EGFR, CENPE, APEX1, and GSTP1, was associated with mRNA expression of 14 genes previously linked to fibrosis (P?.005). Conclusion: Development of subcutaneous fibrosis can be associated with genetic variation in the mitochondrial enzyme TXNRD2, critically involved in removal of ROS, and maintenance of the intracellular redox balance.

  12. Silver Clear Nylon Dressing is Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Patients With Lower Gastrointestinal Cancer: Results From a Phase III Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niazi, Tamim M. [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Vuong, Te, E-mail: tvuong@jgh.mcgill.ca [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Azoulay, Laurant [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Marijnen, Corrie [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bujko, Kryzstof [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland)] [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland); Nasr, Elie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon); Lambert, Christine; Duclos, Marie; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Cummings, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: For patients with anal canal and advanced rectal cancer, chemoradiation therapy is a curative modality or an important adjunct to surgery. Nearly all patients treated with chemoradiation experience some degree of radiation-induced dermatitis (RID). Prevention and effective treatment of RID, therefore, is of considerable clinical relevance. The present phase III randomized trial compared the efficacy of silver clear nylon dressing (SCND) with that of standard skin care for these patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 42 rectal or anal canal cancer patients were randomized to either a SCND or standard skin care group. SCND was applied from Day 1 of radiation therapy (RT) until 2 weeks after treatment completion. In the control arm, sulfadiazine cream was applied at the time of skin dermatitis. Printed digital photographs taken 2 weeks prior to, on the last day, and two weeks after the treatment completion were scored by 10 blinded readers, who used the common toxicity scoring system for skin dermatitis. Results: The radiation dose ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy, and there were no differences between the 2 groups. On the last day of RT, when the most severe RID occurs, the mean dermatitis score was 2.53 (standard deviation [SD], 1.17) for the standard and 1.67 (SD, 1.2; P=.01) for the SCND arm. At 2 weeks after RT, the difference was 0.39 points in favor of SCND (P=.39). There was considerable intraclass correlation among the 10 observers. Conclusions: Silver clear nylon dressing is effective in reducing RID in patients with lower gastrointestinal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

  13. Synthesis and Application of an Environmentally Insensitive Cy3-Based Arsenical Fluorescent Probe to Identify Adaptive Microbial Responses Involving Proximal Dithiol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Na; Su, Dian; Cort, John R.; Chen, Baowei; Xiong, Yijia; Qian, Weijun; Konopka, Allan; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2013-03-06

    Reversible disulfide oxidation between proximal cysteines in proteins represents a common regulatory control mechanism to modulate flux through metabolic pathways in response to changing environmental conditions. To enable in vivo measurements of cellular redox changes linked to disulfide bond formation, we have synthesized a cell-permeable monosubstituted cyanine dye derivatized with arsenic (i.e., TRAP_Cy3) to trap and visualize dithiols in cytosolic proteins. Alkylation of reactive thiols prior to displacement of the bound TRAP-Cy3 by ethanedithiol permits facile protein capture and mass spectrometric identification of proximal reduced dithiols to the exclusion of individual cysteines. Applying TRAP_Cy3 to evaluate cellular responses to increases in oxygen and light levels in the photosynthetic microbe Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, we observe large decreases in the abundance of reduced dithiols in cellular proteins, which suggest redox-dependent mechanisms involving the oxidation of proximal disulfides. Under these same growth conditions that result in the oxidation of proximal thiols, there is a reduction in the abundance of post-translational oxidative modifications involving nitrotyrosine and methionine sulfoxide formation. These results suggest that the redox status of proximal cysteines respond to environmental conditions, acting to regulate metabolic flux and minimize the formation of reactive oxygen species to decrease oxidative protein damage.

  14. Skeletal adaptation to reduced mechanical loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eliman, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Bone adapts its mass and architecture in response to its mechanical environment. Yet control of this process by mechanical cues is poorly understood, particularly for unloading. Defining the fundamental mechanoregulation ...

  15. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilson, Verle A. (Livermore, CA); Schriever, Richard L. (Livermore, CA); Shearer, James W. (Livermore, CA)

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  16. Exact Expectation Analysis of the LMS Adaptive Filter \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Scott C.

    Exact Expectation Analysis of the LMS Adaptive Filter \\Lambda Scott C. Douglas y and Weimin Pan analyses of the least­mean­square (LMS) adaptive filter, it is assumed that the filter coefficients that can be used to predict the exact statistical behavior of a finite­impulse­response (FIR) LMS adaptive

  17. Fidelity of adaptive phototaxis Knut Drescher, Raymond E. Goldstein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    dis- plays an adaptive down-regulation in response to light, the colony needs to spin around itsFidelity of adaptive phototaxis Knut Drescher, Raymond E. Goldstein1 , and Idan Tuval Department by phototaxis assays in which colony rotation was slowed by increasing the fluid viscosity. adaptation

  18. Adaptation Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durnbaugh, A.

    2011-01-01

    Response Update the extreme weather operation plan, focusing on vulnerable populations. Add climate-sensitive disease surveillance. Roads Pilot & implement new road materials to manage stormwater, decrease urban heat island effect, & maintain... and dry summers Source: Hayhoe et al. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 2010. Summers % changes relative to a 1961-1990 average ESL-KT-11-11-16 6 What is CCAP? Our goals to reduce Chicago?s greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for climate change?s...

  19. Generalized Adaptive A* Xiaoxun Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeoh, William

    Generalized Adaptive A* Xiaoxun Sun USC Computer Science Los Angeles, California xiaoxuns spaces changes. Adaptive A* [7] is a Cite as: Generalized Adaptive A*, Xiaoxun Sun, Sven Koenig

  20. Augmentation of adaptation data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vipperla, Ravi Chander; Renals, Steve; Frankel, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Linear regression based speaker adaptation approaches can improve Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) accuracy significantly for a target speaker. However, when the available adaptation data is limited to a few seconds, the ...

  1. Nonlinear polarization response of a gaseous medium in the regime of atom stabilization in a strong radiation field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkova, E. A.; Popov, A. M. Tikhonova, O. V.

    2013-03-15

    The nonlinear polarization response of a quantum system modeling a silver atom in the field of high-intensity radiation in the IR and UV spectral ranges has been studied by direct numerical integration of a nonstationary Schroedinger equation. The domains of applicability of perturbation theory and polarization expansion in powers of the field intensity are determined. The contribution of excited atoms and electrons in a continuum to the atomic polarization response at the field frequency, which arises due to the radiation-induced excitation and photoionization processes, is analyzed. Features of the nonlinear response to an external field under conditions of atom stabilization are considered.

  2. Using Opponent Modeling to Adapt Team Play in American Football

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    Using Opponent Modeling to Adapt Team Play in American Football Kennard R. Laviersa , Gita generation and real-time team response in the Rush 2008 American football simulator. Simultaneously of data-driven models. Keywords: opponent modeling; American football; play recognition; adaptive players

  3. A Computational Model for Adaptive Emotion Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Model for Adaptive Emotion Regulation Tibor Bosse, Matthijs Pontier, and Jan Treur} Abstract. Emotion regulation describes how a subject can use certain strategies to affect emotion response levels. Usually, models for emotion regulation as- sume mechanisms based on feedback loops that indicate

  4. The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2012-12-01

    Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-?, IL-2, MIP-1?, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-?, MIP-1?, TNF ?, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1?, IL-8, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

  5. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolog, Peter

    Engineering Adaptive Web Applications Von Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informatik der Peter Dolog Engineering Adaptive Web Applications Dr. rer. nat. Dissertation 2006 #12;#12;Zusammenfassung: Nutzer von Web-Anwendungen stammen sich aus verschiedensten Nut- zergruppen, die sich in ihrem

  6. III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 Maio 2014 sucesso da primeira conferência Climate Adaptation Futures realizada em Queensland, Austrália, em 2010 e

  7. SU-E-J-190: Characterization of Radiation Induced CT Number Changes in Tumor and Normal Lung During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C; Liu, F; Tai, A; Gore, E; Johnstone, C; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure CT number (CTN) changes in tumor and normal lung as a function of radiation therapy (RT) dose during the course of RT delivery for lung cancer using daily IGRT CT images and single respiration phase CT images. Methods: 4D CT acquired during planning simulation and daily 3D CT acquired during daily IGRT for 10 lung cancer cases randomly selected in terms of age, caner type and stage, were analyzed using an in-house developed software tool. All patients were treated in 2 Gy fractions to primary tumors and involved nodal regions. Regions enclosed by a series of isodose surfaces in normal lung were delineated. The obtained contours along with target contours (GTVs) were populated to each singlephase planning CT and daily CT. CTN in term of Hounsfield Unit (HU) of each voxel in these delineated regions were collectively analyzed using histogram, mean, mode and linear correlation. Results: Respiration induced normal lung CTN change, as analyzed from single-phase planning CTs, ranged from 9 to 23 (±2) HU for the patients studied. Normal lung CTN change was as large as 50 (±12) HU over the entire treatment course, was dose and patient dependent and was measurable with dose changes as low as 1.5 Gy. For patients with obvious tumor volume regression, CTN within the GTV drops monotonically as much as 10 (±1) HU during the early fractions with a total dose of 20 Gy delivered. The GTV and CTN reductions are significantly correlated with correlation coefficient >0.95. Conclusion: Significant RT dose induced CTN changes in lung tissue and tumor region can be observed during even the early phase of RT delivery, and may potentially be used for early prediction of radiation response. Single respiration phase CT images have dramatically reduced statistical noise in ROIs, making daily dose response evaluation possible.

  8. Neuron, Vol. 26, 695702, June, 2000, Copyright 2000 by Cell Press Adaptive Rescaling Maximizes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, Naama

    Information Transmission Adaptation to mean light level ensures that our visual responses are matchedNeuron, Vol. 26, 695­702, June, 2000, Copyright ©2000 by Cell Press Adaptive Rescaling Maximizes are stationary over some re-Adaptation is a widespread phenomenon in nervous gions, with slowly modulated

  9. Cellular/Molecular Light Adaptation in Salamander L-Cone Photoreceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieke, Fred

    Cellular/Molecular Light Adaptation in Salamander L-Cone Photoreceptors Frederick S. Soo, Peter B,andanincreaseinguanylatecyclaseactivityduringthelightstepthatpersistsafterthelight is extinguished. Key words: photoreceptor; phototransduction; cone adaptation; retina adaptation; light; vision, Washington 98195 The responses of individual salamander L-cones to light steps of moderate intensity

  10. Optonanomechanical self-adaptive photonic devices based on light forces: A path to robust high-index-contrast nanophotonic circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Milos

    We describe a proposed new class of optonanomechanical integrated photonic devices that can have self-adaptive behavior and self-adaptive optical frequency response, through the use of optical forces to manipulate their ...

  11. Prospective Study Validating Inter- and Intraobserver Variability of Tissue Compliance Meter in Breast Tissue of Healthy Volunteers: Potential Implications for Patients With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis of the Breast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella, E-mail: gaw9008@med.cornell.ed [Stich Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Parashar, Bhupesh; Kulidzhanov, Fridon; Riley, Lillian [Stich Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Christos, Paul J. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Fischer, Andrew [Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K.S. Clifford [Stich Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate detection of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is crucial in management of breast cancer survivors. Tissue compliance meter (TCM) has been validated in musculature. We validate TCM in healthy breast tissue with respect to interobserver and intraobserver variability before applying it in RIF. Methods and Materials: Three medical professionals obtained three consecutive TCM measurements in each of the four quadrants of the right and left breasts of 40 women with no breast disease or surgical intervention. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed interobserver variability. The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were used to assess intraobserver variability within each rater. Results: The median age was 45 years (range, 24-68 years). The median bra size was 35C (range, 32A-40DD). Of the participants, 27 were white (67%), 4 black (10%), 5 Asian (13%), and 4 Hispanic (10%). ICCs indicated excellent interrater reliability (low interobserver variability) among the three raters, by breast and quadrant (all ICC {>=}0.99). The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient both indicated low intraobserver variability within each rater (right vs. left breast), stratified by quadrant (all r{>=} 0.94, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The interobserver and intraobserver variability is small using TCM in healthy mammary tissue. We are now embarking on a prospective study using TCM in women with breast cancer at risk of developing RIF that may guide early detection, timely therapeutic intervention, and assessment of success of therapy for RIF.

  12. Climate Change Adaptation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is adapting to climate change by applying a risk-based resiliency approach to identify and minimize climate-related vulnerabilities across all DOE policies, programs and activities.

  13. Rethinking adaptive reuse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benardete, Emma A., 1973-

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive reuse of manufacturing plants in post-industrial countries has become an increasing trend. In the United States, evidence of our industrial past is present in both urban and rural landscapes. The appearance of ...

  14. Postmodern film adaptation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brannon, Courtney Elizabeth

    2013-02-22

    Chapter one explores the reflexive nature of Stephen Daldry's The Hours (2002) as an adaptation from two previous novels: Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway and Michael Cunningham's The Hours. Through the motif of mirror images, the film consciously...

  15. Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This course provides an introduction to planning for climate change impacts, with examples of tribes that have been going through the adaptation planning process. The course is intended for tribal...

  16. Adaptive versus non-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watrous, John

    Adaptive versus non-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination Aram W. Harrow Avinatan-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination. In particular, we give a pair of entanglement- breaking channels that can be perfectly discriminated by means of an adaptive strategy that re- quires just two

  17. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  18. Simulation of radiation-induced defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltola, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Mainly due to their outstanding performance the position sensitive silicon detectors are widely used in the tracking systems of High Energy Physics experiments such as the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb at LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, Geneva. The foreseen upgrade of the LHC to its high luminosity (HL) phase (HL-LHC scheduled for 2023), will enable the use of maximal physics potential of the facility. After 10 years of operation the expected fluence will expose the tracking systems at HL-LHC to a radiation environment that is beyond the capacity of the present system design. Thus, for the required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers extensive measurements and simulation studies for silicon sensors of different designs and materials with sufficient radiation tolerance have been initiated within the RD50 Collaboration. Supplementing measurements, simulations are in vital role for e.g. device structure optimization or predicting the electric fields and trapping in the silicon...

  19. Simulation of radiation-induced defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timo Peltola

    2015-09-29

    Mainly due to their outstanding performance the position sensitive silicon detectors are widely used in the tracking systems of High Energy Physics experiments such as the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb at LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, Geneva. The foreseen upgrade of the LHC to its high luminosity (HL) phase (HL-LHC scheduled for 2023), will enable the use of maximal physics potential of the facility. After 10 years of operation the expected fluence will expose the tracking systems at HL-LHC to a radiation environment that is beyond the capacity of the present system design. Thus, for the required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers extensive measurements and simulation studies for silicon sensors of different designs and materials with sufficient radiation tolerance have been initiated within the RD50 Collaboration. Supplementing measurements, simulations are in vital role for e.g. device structure optimization or predicting the electric fields and trapping in the silicon sensors. The main objective of the device simulations in the RD50 Collaboration is to develop an approach to model and predict the performance of the irradiated silicon detectors using professional software. The first successfully developed quantitative models for radiation damage, based on two effective midgap levels, are able to reproduce the experimentally observed detector characteristics like leakage current, full depletion voltage and charge collection efficiency (CCE). Recent implementations of additional traps at the SiO$_2$/Si interface or close to it have expanded the scope of the experimentally agreeing simulations to such surface properties as the interstrip resistance and capacitance, and the position dependency of CCE for strip sensors irradiated up to $\\sim$$1.5\\times10^{15}$ n$_{\\textrm{eq}}\\textrm{cm}^{-2}$.

  20. Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse

    2010-01-14

    diameter up to approximately 100 nm in Cu irradiated Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5. Studies of di raction patterns of irradiated specimens showed nucleation of Cu10Zr7 phases in both specimens, as well as evidence of CuZr2 in Cu50Zr45Ti5 and both CuZr2 and NiZr2 in Zr55...

  1. CONTRIBUTED Adaptive Stochastic Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Warren B.

    sources, many forms of energy storage, and microgrid management (see Fig. 1). Computationally, controlling that are extremely close to optimal. We then address the problem of energy storage (e.g., in a large batteryCONTRIBUTED P A P E R Adaptive Stochastic Control for the Smart Grid The main theme of this paper

  2. Adaptive parallel computing with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernet, Clément

    was prototyped #12;Urbana / dec 2009 9 C++ Elision struct Fibonacci { void operator()( int n, a1::Shared_wint1, a1::Shared_rint> sr2 ) { result.write( sr1.read() + sr2.read() ); } } #12;Urbana / dec 2009 10 C;Urbana / dec 2009 3 ·To mutually adapt application and scheduling · Extension to target GPU & MPSoC Kaapi

  3. Adaptive versus non-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aram W. Harrow; Avinatan Hassidim; Debbie W. Leung; John Watrous

    2009-09-01

    We provide a simple example that illustrates the advantage of adaptive over non-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination. In particular, we give a pair of entanglement-breaking channels that can be perfectly discriminated by means of an adaptive strategy that requires just two channel evaluations, but for which no non-adaptive strategy can give a perfect discrimination using any finite number of channel evaluations.

  4. III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 May 2014 of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA), the Co and reports from the conference in newspapers 93 #12;4 1. INTRODUCTION Climate

  5. ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS MOODY T. CHU Abstract. The wavefront aberrations induced by atmospheric turbulence can severely degrade the performance of an optical imaging system. Adaptive optics refers to the process of removing unwanted wave front distortions

  6. ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS MOODY T. CHU \\Lambda Abstract. The wavefront aberrations induced by atmospheric turbulence can severely degrade the performance of an optical imaging system. Adaptive optics refers to the process of removing unwanted wave front distortions

  7. Energy dissipation in an adaptive molecular circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shou-Wen Wang; Yueheng Lan; Lei-Han Tang

    2015-05-28

    The ability to monitor nutrient and other environmental conditions with high sensitivity is crucial for cell growth and survival. Sensory adaptation allows a cell to recover its sensitivity after a transient response to a shift in the strength of extracellular stimulus. The working principles of adaptation have been established previously based on rate equations which do not consider fluctuations in a thermal environment. Recently, G. Lan et al. (Nature Phys., 8:422-8, 2012) performed a detailed analysis of a stochastic model for the E. coli sensory network. They showed that accurate adaptation is possible only when the system operates in a nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS). They further proposed an energy-speed-accuracy (ESA) trade-off relation. We present here analytic results on the NESS of the model through a mapping to a one-dimensional birth-death process. An exact expression for the entropy production rate is also derived. Based on these results, we are able to discuss the ESA relation in a more general setting. Our study suggests that the adaptation error can be reduced exponentially as the methylation range increases. Finally, we show that a nonequilibrium phase transition exists in the infinite methylation range limit, despite the fact that the model contains only two discrete variables.

  8. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development Daniel H. Cole*THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE . ADAPTATIONCONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE . IV. A.

  9. Transforming Growth Factor ?-1 (TGF-?1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boothe, Dustin L.; Coplowitz, Shana; Greenwood, Eleni; Barney, Christian L.; Christos, Paul J.; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor ? -1 (TGF-?1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-?1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-?1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-?1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 ± 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 ± 5016 pg/mL, P<.0001); and women with moderate to severe RIF (34,462 ± 4713 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Patients with moderate to severe RIF had significantly elevated TGF-?1 levels when compared with those with none to mild RIF before surgery (P=.0014) during IBAPBI (P?0001), and the elevation persisted at 6 months (P?.001), 12 months (P?.001), 18 months (P?.001), and 24 months (P=.12). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of TGF-?1 values predicting moderate to severe RIF was generated with an area under the curve (AUC){sub ROC} of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-?1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-?1 levels correlate with the development of moderate to severe RIF. The pre-IBAPBI mean TGF-?1 levels can serve as an early biomarker for the development of moderate to severe RIF after IBAPBI.

  10. Adaptive control for accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, Lawrie E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jachim, Stephen P. (Los Alamos, NM); Natter, Eckard F. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive feedforward control loop is provided to stabilize accelerator beam loading of the radio frequency field in an accelerator cavity during successive pulses of the beam into the cavity. A digital signal processor enables an adaptive algorithm to generate a feedforward error correcting signal functionally determined by the feedback error obtained by a beam pulse loading the cavity after the previous correcting signal was applied to the cavity. Each cavity feedforward correcting signal is successively stored in the digital processor and modified by the feedback error resulting from its application to generate the next feedforward error correcting signal. A feedforward error correcting signal is generated by the digital processor in advance of the beam pulse to enable a composite correcting signal and the beam pulse to arrive concurrently at the cavity.

  11. Semantic Responsibility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toribio, Josefa

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I attempt to develop a notion of responsibility (semantic responsibility) that is to the notion of belief what epistemic responsibility is to the notion of justification. 'Being semantically responsible' ...

  12. Friends or Foes? A Conceptual Analysis of Self-Adaptation and IT Change Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    -Adaptation and IT Change Management Cristina Gacek, Holger Giese and Ethan Hadar Abstract Self-Adaptation as a vision the current practice in ITIL Change Management as initial reference point. We define the required responsibilities and a generic conceptual object model and map them to the ITIL Change Management roles to evaluate

  13. Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier and Telecommunications Center Abstract ­ This paper describes an adaptive finite-impulse response (FIR) filteringB [1] sidelobe levels. Although others have used wavelets to achieve suppression [2]. To measure light

  14. TOWARDS SELF-ADAPTABLE MONITORING FRAMEWORK FOR SELF-HEALING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Javier

    TOWARDS SELF-ADAPTABLE MONITORING FRAMEWORK FOR SELF-HEALING Javier Alonso and Jordi Torres of ex- ternal metrics about the system such as performance, memory consumption or response time. However-Oriented Programming, Self-monitoring, Self-healing #12;2 1. Introduction The benefits of including effective

  15. Adaptive Energy Forecasting and Information Diffusion for Smart Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Kai

    1 Adaptive Energy Forecasting and Information Diffusion for Smart Power Grids Yogesh Simmhan. One of the characteristic applications of Smart Grids is demand response optimization (DR). The goal of DR is to use the power consumption time series data to reliable forecast the future consumption

  16. Making climate adaptation work : strategies for resource constrained South Asian mega-cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta-Koehler, Madhu Chhanda

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation compares the responses of Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kolkata, India to the serious challenges posed by climate change, particularly in the water sector. Drawing on the theories of "adaptation as development" ...

  17. Emerging patterns of adaptive re-use : the new American House Hotel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moody, Linda A

    1984-01-01

    This thesis aims to develop a design solution for the adaptive reuse of the American House Hotel that answers an architectural design challenge with technical responses. The process of actualization has been pushed a bit ...

  18. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  19. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  20. Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization over Networks Ali H. Sayed University of California at Los 2014 A. H. Sayed DOI: 10.1561/2200000051 Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization over Networks Ali H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.6 Notation and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Optimization by Single Agents

  1. Adaptive Signal Processing Course Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    of the theory to a variety of practical problems such as interference and echo cancellation, signal and system least squares adaptive algorithms 2 Properties of RLS 2 Applications: ADPCM speech encoding Non-Linear. Understanding of the theoretical foundations of adaptive signal processing theory will be achieved through

  2. Adaptive Optics in Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Brandner

    2003-09-29

    Over the past ten years, the concept of adaptive optics has evolved from early experimental stages to a standard observing tool now available at almost all major optical and near-infrared telescope facilities. Adaptive optics will also be essential in exploiting the full potential of the large optical/infrared interferometers currently under construction. Both observations with high-angular resolution and at high contrast, and with a high point source sensitivity are facilitated by adaptive optics. Among the areas which benefit most from the use of adaptive optics are studies of the circumstellar environment (envelopes, disks, outflows), substellar companions and multiple systems, and dense young stellar populations. This contribution highlights some of the recent advances in star formation studies facilitated by adaptive optics, and gives a brief tutorial on optimized observing and data reduction strategies.

  3. Adaptable architecture : a computational exploration into responsive design systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zulas, Alejandro, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Based on the fact that architecture is, among other things, the crystallization of a mediation among design intentions (function), meaning and contextual constraints (performance), we as designers are obligated to produce ...

  4. Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, David J.

    ), are also readily integrated into arrays that may find use in applications such as sensing, medical diagnostics and lab-on-a-chip technologies15­19 . In our system, we use the meniscus between water and oil centred over the ring. The microchannels are filled with water, and oil is placed on top of this structure

  5. the Adaptive Response, Genetic Haplo-Insufficiency and Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geard, Charles R.

    2014-12-12

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis is the driving force in the establishment of radiation protection standards. However, the scientific basis for linearity has been brought into question, particularly due to the concerns about induced radiation resistance as it pertains to oxidative stress. Specifically, we investigated the observation that tumor hypoxia is associated with malignant progression, increased metastases, chemo- and radioresistance and poor prognosis. Experiments were conducted with non-malignant 3T3/NIH cells and normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) that were subjected to ?-irradiation under the levels of oxygen resembling those in growing tumors, and related our data to the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), which is a better indicator of the amounts of residual oxygen inside the cells cultured in the hypoxic or anoxic atmosphere. We found that at DO levels about 0.5 mg/L cells subjected to both short-term (17 hours) and prolonged (48-72 hours) hypoxia continued to proliferate, and that apoptotic events were decreased at the early hours of hypoxic treatment. We showed that the short-term hypoxia up-regulated p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and resulted in facilitated 53BP1 nuclear foci formation and disappearance, thus indicating the higher efficiency of DNA double strand breaks repair processes. The latter was confirmed by the lower micronuclei incidence in irradiated hypoxic cells.

  6. Automated Grid Disruption Response System: Robust Adaptive Topology Control (RATC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The RATC research team is using topology control as a mechanism to improve system operations and manage disruptions within the electric grid. The grid is subject to interruption from cascading faults caused by extreme operating conditions, malicious external attacks, and intermittent electricity generation from renewable energy sources. The RATC system is capable of detecting, classifying, and responding to grid disturbances by reconfiguring the grid in order to maintain economically efficient operations while guaranteeing reliability. The RATC system would help prevent future power outages, which account for roughly $80 billion in losses for businesses and consumers each year. Minimizing the time it takes for the grid to respond to expensive interruptions will also make it easier to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources into the grid.

  7. A Dynamic Platform for Runtime Adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Hubert

    We present a middleware platform for assembling pervasive applications that demand fault-tolerance and adaptivity in distributed, dynamic environments. Unlike typical adaptive middleware approaches, in which sophisticated ...

  8. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff ?. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than ?. The resulting ?-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (?+SD-CI), which is based on a small ?-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build ?-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The ?-CI and ?+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the ?-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the ?-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  9. Automating component reuse and adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Perry; Morel, B.

    2004-09-01

    framework for automating specification-based component retrieval and adaptation that has been successfully applied to synthesis of software for embedded and digital signal processing systems. Using specifications to abstractly represent implementations...

  10. Standard Templates Adaptive Parallel Library 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arzu, Francisco Jose

    2000-01-01

    STAPL (Standard Templates Adaptive Parallel Library) is a parallel C++ library designed as a superset of the C++ Standard Template Library (STL), sequentially consistent for functions with the same name, and executed on uni- or multi- processor...

  11. Electricity Markets Meet the Home through Demand Response Lazaros Gkatzikis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Markets Meet the Home through Demand Response Lazaros Gkatzikis CERTH, University Hegde, Laurent Massouli´e Technicolor Paris Research Lab Paris, France Abstract-- Demand response (DR the alternative option of dynamic demand adaptation. In this direction, demand response (DR) programs provide

  12. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; et al

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased geneticmore »and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.« less

  13. Optimal Adaptive Waveform Selection for Target Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezaeian, Mohammad-Jafar

    seeking to detect submarine periscopes in the presence of sea clutter. The simplest scheme for adaptive

  14. Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation Specialist, Climate Action Secretariat, BC Ministry of Environment & Matthew Strand, Researcher, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local

  15. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  16. Spatial dynamics of adaptive sex ratios According to Fisherian sex allocation theory, parents that can adjust their offspring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Spatial dynamics of adaptive sex ratios Abstract According to Fisherian sex allocation theory, parents that can adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to skews in population sex ratio will maximize their fitness over parents lacking this ability. There is good evidence that adaptive sex ratio

  17. Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-lm wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    is the increased operating voltage. Potential applications include spatial light modulators and adaptive optics. VC modulators are useful for adaptive optics,1 spatial light modulators,2 and switchable displays.3 The response online 15 July 2011) A fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) light

  18. Training Adaptive Decision-Making.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James C.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptive Thinking has been defined here as the capacity to recognize when a course of action that may have previously been effective is no longer effective and there is need to adjust strategy. Research was undertaken with human test subjects to identify the factors that contribute to adaptive thinking. It was discovered that those most effective in settings that call for adaptive thinking tend to possess a superior capacity to quickly and effectively generate possible courses of action, as measured using the Category Generation test. Software developed for this research has been applied to develop capabilities enabling analysts to identify crucial factors that are predictive of outcomes in fore-on-force simulation exercises.

  19. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  20. The optimal thermo-optical properties and energy saving potential of adaptive glazing technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Favoino, Fabio; Overend, Mauro; Jin, Qian

    2015-06-17

    system can be self-powered. An evolution of PEC is represented by photo-volta-chromic (PVC), which differs from PEC in that the photovoltaic and electrochromic functions can be separated, thereby facilitating its integration with building management sys... of adaptive or Responsive Building Elements and systems, which passively or actively adjust their thermo-optical properties or operation in a reversible way in order to adapt to changing outdoor/indoor environmental conditions (i.e. solar radiation, air...

  1. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Ding (Henderson, NV)

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  2. diploma thesis Adaptive Building Intelligence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutishauser, Ueli

    diploma thesis Adaptive Building Intelligence A multi-Agent approach Ueli Rutishauser Alain Sch intelligent. A building is perceived as be- ing intelligent if it is able to learn from experience. We is connected to the sensors and effectors via a dedicated fieldbus network (LonWorks). Based on this data

  3. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedrick, Paul (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L. (Irwin, PA) [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M. (Mars, PA) [Mars, PA

    2009-04-28

    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

  4. Viewing Conditions and Chromatic Adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumder, Aditi

    Linear nonlinear #12;2 Viewing field Self-luminous displays CRT, LCD Reflective media Painting Viewing: Adapting stimulus Subscript E: Equal energy illumination #12;13 Fairchild's model (1991) Inter channel brightness #12;6 11 Definition of Color Appearance Model so much description of color such as: wavelength

  5. 2014 DOE Climate Change Adaptation Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2014 DOE Climate Change Adaptation Plan Document presents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2014 plan for adapting to climate change....

  6. Multi-model adaptive spatial hypertext 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco-Revilla, Luis

    2005-02-17

    Information delivery on the Web often relies on general purpose Web pages that require the reader to adapt to them. This limitation is addressed by approaches such as spatial hypermedia and adaptive hypermedia. Spatial hypermedia augments...

  7. CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR CALIFORNIA Legal Analysis of Barriers's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012019 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to that framework that would facilitate adaptation to climate change. Since such changes may be difficult

  8. Adaptive control of Unmanned Aerial Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dydek, Zachary Thompson

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive control is considered to be one of the key enabling technologies for future high-performance, safety-critical systems such as air-breathing hypersonic vehicles. Adaptive flight control systems offer improved ...

  9. Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Lori J.

    2011-01-01

    various qualities of low dose radiation in normal humanto various qualities of low dose radiation. INTRODUCTION AnCellular mechanisms for low-dose ionizing radiation-induced

  10. Evidence for formation of DNA repair centers and dose-response non-linearity in human cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Mutat Res 683(high doses to low doses of ionizing radiation. However, ourhypothesize that low doses of ionizing radiation induce a

  11. EXACT WAVEFRONT CORRECTION IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosier, Lionel - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    EXACT WAVEFRONT CORRECTION IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS. Pierre Le Gall Lionel Rosier Institut Elie Cartan an adaptive optical system in which a deformable mirror is controlled to compensate for random wavefront c 2005 IFAC Keywords: Adaptive optics, exact wavefront correction, membrane mirror. 1. INTRODUCTION

  12. Interferometry following adaptive optics Erez N. Ribak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Interferometry following adaptive optics Erez N. Ribak Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel ABSTRACT Adaptive optics systems on single big telescopes correct many modes, allowing imaging, adaptive optics, big telescopes, shearing interferometry. 1. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE WAVE FRONT Most big

  13. 1/18/2002 1 SelfSelf--Adaptive Discovery MechanismsAdaptive Discovery Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Kevin

    1/18/2002 1 SelfSelf--Adaptive Discovery MechanismsAdaptive Discovery Mechanisms for Improved, simulate, and evaluate self-adaptive algorithms to improve performance of discovery protocols regarding software Project ObjectiveProject Objective Research, design, evaluate, and implement self-adaptive

  14. Adaptation and Identity of Yolmo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokharel, Binod

    2005-01-01

    of tourist and establishment of hotels. To cope with the increasing firewood demand the people have planted trees on the edge of the agricultural land and LNP introduced solar energy to reduce the rate of firewood consumption. Timber is used basically... the adaptive mechanism of the households. He contends that the number of children in a households influence the diversification of the household economy. In this regards Fricke writes: 96 Occasional Papers The household labour force is largely determined...

  15. Adaptive Stabilization of Nonlinear Stochastic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florchinger, P. [URA CNRS No. 399, Departement de Mathematiques, UFR MIM, Universite de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, F 57045 Metz Cedex (France)

    1998-07-15

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of asymptotic stabilization in probability of nonlinear stochastic differential systems with unknown parameters. With this aim, we introduce the concept of an adaptive control Lyapunov function for stochastic systems and we use the stochastic version of Artstein's theorem to design an adaptive stabilizer. In this framework the problem of adaptive stabilization of a nonlinear stochastic system is reduced to the problem of asymptotic stabilization in probability of a modified system. The design of an adaptive control Lyapunov function is illustrated by the example of adaptively quadratically stabilizable in probability stochastic differential systems.

  16. Center for Adaptive Optics* Santa Cruz,CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Gregory

    Center for Adaptive Optics* Santa Cruz,CA The Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) will concentrate on astronomical and vision science applications of adaptive optics and will reach out to other adaptive optics communities to share technologies. It will develop new instruments optimized for adaptive optics. Adaptive

  17. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  18. Performance of a MEMS-base Adaptive Optics Optical Coherency Tomography System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J; Zadwadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Opkpodu, S; Werner, J S

    2008-01-16

    We have demonstrated that a microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror can be flattened to < 1 nm RMS within controllable spatial frequencies over a 9.2-mm aperture making it a viable option for high-contrast adaptive optics systems (also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics). The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Consistent flattening, required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. An error budget for MEMS closed loop performance will summarize MEMS characterization.

  19. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, David R; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Doerr, Ted B

    2009-01-01

    Public facility restoration planning traditionally focused on response to natural disasters and hazardous materials accidental releases. These plans now need to integrate response to terrorist actions. Therefore, plans must address a wide range of potential vulnerabilities. Similar types of broad remediation planning are needed for restoration of waste and hazardous material handling areas and facilities. There are strong similarities in damage results and remediation activities between unintentional and terrorist actions; however, the uncertainties associated with terrorist actions result in a re-evaluation of approaches to planning. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in confined industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. Therefore, they arguably involve a superset of drivers, concerns and public agencies compared to other restoration efforts. This superset of conditions increases complexity of interactions, reduces our knowledge of the initial conditions, and even condenses the timeline for restoration response. Therefore, evaluations of alternative restoration management approaches developed for responding to terrorist actions provide useful knowledge for large, complex waste management projects. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the 'adaptive management' paradigm provides a constructive parallel operations paradigm for restoration of facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, multiple/simUltaneous public agency actions, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a facility and surrounding area(s) after a disruptive event suggest numerous advantages over preset linearly-structured plans by incorporating the flexibility and overlap of processes inherent in effective facility restoration. We discuss three restoration case studies (e.g., the Hart Senate Office Building anthrax restoration, Rocky Flats actinide remediation, and hurricane destruction restoration), that implement aspects of adaptive management but not a formal approach. We propose that more formal adoption of adaptive management principles could be a basis for more flexible standards to improve site-specific remediation plans under conditions of high uncertainty.

  20. vol. 166, supplement the american naturalist october 2005 Testosterone in Females: Mediator of Adaptive Traits,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketterson, Ellen D.

    of Adaptive Traits, Constraint on Sexual Dimorphism, or Both? E. D. Ketterson,1,* V. Nolan Jr.,1, and M could constrain dimorphism. Results from birds, including the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), reveal of sexual dimorphism. Keywords: hormonal pleiotropy, correlated responses, sex differences, hormonal

  1. Climate Change Adaptation: New Perspectives for Natural Resource Management and Conservation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzotti, Frank

    WEC318 Climate Change Adaptation: New Perspectives for Natural Resource Management and Conservation/IFAS Extension. A Changing Climate for Conservation Climate change is creating new challenges for conservation their distributions in response to climate change, and changes in phenology are disrupting ecological relationships

  2. Self-Adaptive Power Management of Idle Nodes in Large Scale Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Hong

    Self-Adaptive Power Management of Idle Nodes in Large Scale Systems YONGPENG LIU(1) , HONG ZHU(2 with multiple level dynamic sleep mechanisms to reduce power consumption. However, awaking sleeping nodes takes to balance between the systems energy consumption and the response time is a key problem in the power

  3. The Snowball Effect: Detailing Performance Anomalies of 802.11 Rate Adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trappe, Wade

    to remedy such rate adaptation failures, there has not been a thorough analysis of the causes that lead of transmission failures, and consequently invoke improper responses that cascade to dramatic throughput application, and provide recommendations for the next generation of WiFi rate control schemes. I. INTRODUCTION

  4. Response Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

  5. AN ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-06-30

    Scattering theory in periodic structures, which is crucial in application .... is used to design the adaptive finite element algorithm to choose elements for refine-.

  6. Training for Climate Adaptation in Conservation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Wildlife Conservation Society and the Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science are hosting this two-day training for climate adaptation.

  7. Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed Jump to: navigation, search Name Assessing Climate Change Impacts,...

  8. Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning: A Guide for Practitioners Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Mainstreaming Climate Change...

  9. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential...

  10. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif; Matic, Ivan

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.

  11. A Geometric Characterization of the Power of Finite Adaptability in Multistage Stochastic and Adaptive Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsimas, Dimitris J.

    In this paper, we show a significant role that geometric properties of uncertainty sets, such as symmetry, play in determining the power of robust and finitely adaptable solutions in multistage stochastic and adaptive ...

  12. Development of a Standardized Method for Contouring the Lumbosacral Plexus: A Preliminary Dosimetric Analysis of this Organ at Risk Among 15 Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Lower Gastrointestinal Cancers and the Incidence of Radiation-Induced Lumbosacral Plexopathy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Sun K., E-mail: sun.yi@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Mak, Walter [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Yang, Claus C.; Liu Tianxiao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Cui Jing; Chen, Allen M.; Purdy, James A.; Monjazeb, Arta M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Do, Ly [Cancer Care Institute, San Jose, CA (United States)] [Cancer Care Institute, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To generate a reproducible step-wise guideline for the delineation of the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) on axial computed tomography (CT) planning images and to provide a preliminary dosimetric analysis on 15 representative patients with rectal or anal cancers treated with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: A standardized method for contouring the LSP on axial CT images was devised. The LSP was referenced to identifiable anatomic structures from the L4-5 interspace to the level of the sciatic nerve. It was then contoured retrospectively on 15 patients treated with IMRT for rectal or anal cancer. No dose limitations were placed on this organ at risk during initial treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were evaluated. The incidence of radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy (RILSP) was calculated. Results: Total prescribed dose to 95% of the planned target volume ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy (median 54 Gy). The mean ({+-}standard deviation [SD]) LSP volume for the 15 patients was 100 {+-} 22 cm{sup 3} (range, 71-138 cm{sup 3}). The mean maximal dose to the LSP was 52.6 {+-} 3.9 Gy (range, 44.5-58.6 Gy). The mean irradiated volumes of the LSP were V40Gy = 58% {+-} 19%, V50Gy = 22% {+-} 23%, and V55Gy = 0.5% {+-} 0.9%. One patient (7%) was found to have developed RILSP at 13 months after treatment. Conclusions: The true incidence of RILSP in the literature is likely underreported and is not a toxicity commonly assessed by radiation oncologists. In our analysis the LSP commonly received doses approaching the prescribed target dose, and 1 patient developed RILSP. Identification of the LSP during IMRT planning may reduce RILSP. We have provided a reproducible method for delineation of the LSP on CT images and a preliminary dosimetric analysis for potential future dose constraints.

  13. AdaptUbiFlow: Selection and Adaptation in Workflows for Ubiquitous Computing Frederico Lopes, Thiago Pereira,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo

    AdaptUbiFlow: Selection and Adaptation in Workflows for Ubiquitous Computing Frederico Lopes will be chosen. AdaptUbiFlow evaluation showed encouraging results Keywords--Ubiquitous computing, platform The current trend in ubiquitous computing is the emergence of complex context-aware applications in which

  14. Downhole tool adapted for telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

    2010-12-14

    A cycleable downhole tool such as a Jar, a hydraulic hammer, and a shock absorber adapted for telemetry. This invention applies to other tools where the active components of the tool are displaced when the tool is rotationally or translationally cycled. The invention consists of inductive or contact transmission rings that are connected by an extensible conductor. The extensible conductor permits the transmission of the signal before, after, and during the cycling of the tool. The signal may be continuous or intermittent during cycling. The invention also applies to downhole tools that do not cycle, but in operation are under such stress that an extensible conductor is beneficial. The extensible conductor may also consist of an extensible portion and a fixed portion. The extensible conductor also features clamps that maintain the conductor under stresses greater than that seen by the tool, and seals that are capable of protecting against downhole pressure and contamination.

  15. Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elby, Andy

    Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials Rachel E. Scherr and Andrew Elby 20742 USA Abstract. Instructors inevitably need to adapt even the best reform materials to suit instructors, and video clips of students working on the materials. Our materials thus facilitate their own

  16. Adaptive Communication Agent for Group Communication activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , limited energy resources), system execute adaptive mechanisms by monitoring the data flow. Also, the actor-wide collaborative environment, managing the adaptive communication is a challenging task. It implies the monitoring and executed without manual intervention. This research is applied to a Crisis Management System (CMS) within

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Adaptive Resistance in Bacteria Requires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cluzel, Philippe

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Adaptive Resistance in Bacteria Requires Epigenetic Inheritance, Genetic Noise Resistance in Bacteria Requires Epigenetic Inheritance, Genetic Noise, and Cost of Efflux Pumps. PLoS ONE 10, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America * max@fis.unam.mx Abstract Adaptive resistance emerges

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA water managers can adapt by changing water supply portfolios and operations. An engineering economic A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC

  19. ADAPTIVE GRIDS IN WEATHER AND CLIMATE MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    ADAPTIVE GRIDS IN WEATHER AND CLIMATE MODELING by Christiane Jablonowski A dissertation submitted adaptive grid library that he wrote for his Ph.D. thesis in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science as a postdoctoral researcher. In addition, thanks to Detlev Majewski from the German Weather Service DWD

  20. Adaptive User Profiles in Pervasive Advertising Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adaptive User Profiles in Pervasive Advertising Environments Florian Alt1 , Moritz Balz2 , Stefanie advertising environments try to provide more effi- cient ads by targeting costumers based on their interests. We implemented an advertising platform to simulate an advertising environment and present adaptive

  1. Adaptive Representation of Specular Light Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    Adaptive Representation of Specular Light Flux Normand Bri`ere Pierre Poulin D´epartement d in all but the simplest con- figurations. To capture their appearance, we present an adaptive approach based upon light beams. The coher- ence between light rays forming a light beam greatly re- duces

  2. A fuzzy-tuned adaptive Kalman filter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, John H.; Young Hwan Lho

    1993-12-01

    In this paper, fuzzy processing is applied to the adaptive Kalman filter. The filter gain coefficients are adapted over a 50 dB range of unknown signal/noise dynamics, using fuzzy membership functions. Specific simulation results are shown for a...

  3. Formulating and Implementing Profiling over Adaptive Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Tim

    be implemented for range-adaptive profiling. RAP can be used on various profiles, such as PCs, load values may easily be lost in a sea of data. We present range-adaptive profiling (RAP) as a new and general value locality. We propose two methods of implementation of RAP, one in software and the other

  4. DIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamishev, Alexander

    of defects, control of mold filling is needed. In this paper, direct adaptive control strategy is presented is a crucial stage in RTM. Defect-free parts cannot be obtained without successful consistent mold fillingDIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING B. Minaie1,* , W. Li, J. Gou1 , Y. Chen2 , A

  5. Adaptive Web Sites: Automatically Synthesizing Web Pages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etzioni, Oren

    Adaptive Web Sites: Automatically Synthesizing Web Pages Mike Perkowitz Oren Etzioni Department interfaces Abstract The creation of a complex web site is a thorny problem in user interface design. In IJCAI '97, we challenged the AI community to address this problem by creating adaptive web sites: sites

  6. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers. California Energy

  7. Rights-based evaluation of government responses to a given 'natural' disaster : Katrina as case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haeffner, Melissa (Melissa Ann)

    2010-01-01

    Disaster impacts human mobility and a rights-based approach to disaster response is needed to protect the human rights of those who seek migration as an adaptation strategy. This paper deals with returning to a place after ...

  8. AUTHOR'S PERMISSION GUIDELINES Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from the copyright holder to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Jill M.

    to a specific period of time. require payment of renewal fees. place restrictions on access to the material are responsible for securing permission to reproduce or adapt any material for which they do not hold

  9. Using the Heat-Shock Response To Discover Anticancer Compounds that Target Protein Homeostasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santagata, Sandro

    Unlike normal tissues, cancers experience profound alterations in protein homeostasis. Powerful innate adaptive mechanisms, especially the transcriptional response regulated by Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), are activated in ...

  10. Dscam gene expression in invertebrate immunity : alternative splicing in response to diverse pathogens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Paul Hugh

    2012-11-30

    Invertebrates show enhanced immunity and even specific primed immunity in response to repeat infections, analogous to vertebrate adaptive immunity. Little is known of the mechanism for this phenomenon, or which molecules ...

  11. Radiation induced effects on mechanical properties of nanoporous gold foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro, M., E-mail: magda@lanl.gov, E-mail: efu@pku.edu.cn; Fu, E. G., E-mail: magda@lanl.gov, E-mail: efu@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Y. Q.; Martinez, E.; Caro, A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mook, W. M.; Sheehan, C.; Baldwin, J. K. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-06-09

    It has recently been shown that due to a high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoporous materials display radiation tolerance. The abundance of surfaces, which are perfect sinks for defects, and the relation between ligament size, defect diffusion, and time combine to define a window of radiation resistance [Fu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191607 (2012)]. Outside this window, the dominant defect created by irradiation in Au nanofoams are stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT). Molecular dynamics computer simulations of nanopillars, taken as the elemental constituent of foams, predict that SFTs act as dislocation sources inducing softening, in contrast to the usual behavior in bulk materials, where defects are obstacles to dislocation motion, producing hardening. In this work we test that prediction and answer the question whether irradiation actually hardens or softens a nanofam. Ne ion irradiations of gold nanofoams were performed at room temperature for a total dose up to 4 dpa, and their mechanical behavior was measured by nanoindentation. We find that hardness increases after irradiation, a result that we analyze in terms of the role of SFTs on the deformation mode of foams.

  12. Radiation-induced decomposition of PETN and TATB under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Yang, Wenge

    2008-10-02

    We have investigated decomposition of PETN and TATB induced by white synchrotron X-ray radiation in a diamond anvil cell at ambient temperature and two pressures, nearly ambient and about 6 GPa. The decomposition rate of TATB decreases significantly when it is pressurized to 5.9 GPa. The measurements were highly reproducible and allowed us to obtain decomposition rates and the order parameters of the reactions.

  13. Radiation induced strand breakage analyzed by tunel technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Marissa Dawn

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to fully characterize the effectiveness and limits of using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique for analysis of radiation ...

  14. Modeling progression in radiation-induced lung adenocarcinomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fakir, Hatim; Hofmann, Werner; Sachs, Rainer K.

    2010-01-01

    carrying capacity. Indeed, Speer et al. (1984) showed thatdata for tumor growth (Speer et al. 1984). In our study,model. Math Biosci Speer JF, Petrosky VE, Retsky MW,

  15. Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect Pulse energy(Conference)Article) | SciTech Connect

  16. Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect Pulse energy(Conference)Article) | SciTech

  17. Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect Pulse energy(Conference)Article) | SciTechArticle) |

  18. Note: On-line weak signal detection via adaptive stochastic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo Kong, Fanrang

    2014-06-15

    We design an instrument with a novel embedded adaptive stochastic resonance (SR) algorithm that consists of a SR module and a digital zero crossing detection module for on-line weak signal detection in digital signal processing applications. The two modules are responsible for noise filtering and adaptive parameter configuration, respectively. The on-line weak signal detection can be stably achieved in seconds. The prototype instrument exhibits an advance of 20 dB averaged signal-to-noise ratio and 5 times averaged adjust R-square as compared to the input noisy signal, in considering different driving frequencies and noise levels.

  19. Supplementary Material Learning optimal adaptation strategies in unpredictable motor tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplementary Material Learning optimal adaptation strategies in unpredictable motor tasks D.A. Braun, A. Aertsen, D.M. Wolpert, C. Mehring Contents 1 Adaptive Optimal Control Methods 2 1-adaptive Optimal Control Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 Arm Model

  20. Unifying the Sensory and Motor Components of Sensorimotor Adaptation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haith, Adrian; Jackson, Carl; Miall, Chris; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2008-01-01

    Adaptation of visually guided reaching movements in novel visuomotor environments (e.g. wearing prism goggles) comprises not only motor adaptation but also substantial sensory adaptation, corresponding to shifts in ...

  1. Probing young massive clusters with laser guide star adaptive optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrady, Nate

    2009-01-01

    laser guide star adaptive optics Nate McCrady Received: 10laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS/AO) on the 10 m Keckof 4 Mpc. Our adaptive optics work is motivated by three

  2. 2014 DOE Climate Change Adaptation Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 DOE Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2014 DOE Climate Change Adaptation Plan Document presents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2014 plan for adapting to climate change....

  3. Adaptive Expertise and Contextualized Activities in Computer Aided Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Elif

    2015-05-04

    , to determine the “baseline” adaptive expertise among the sample population, an adaptive expertise survey (AES) instrument is administered to both the practicing engineers and the students. The instrument contains questions defining four dimensions of adaptive...

  4. Adaptive characterization of coherent states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markku P. V. Stenberg; Kevin Pack; Frank K. Wilhelm

    2015-08-18

    We present methods for efficient characterization of an optical coherent state $|\\alpha\\rangle$. We choose measurement settings adaptively and stochastically, based on data while it is collected. Our algorithm divides the estimation in two distinct steps: (i) Before the first detection of vacuum state, the probability of choosing a measurement setting is proportional to detecting vacuum with the setting, which makes using too similar measurement settings twice unlikely and (ii) after the first detection of vacuum, we focus measurements in the region where vacuum is most likely to be detected. In step (i) [(ii)] the detection of vacuum (a photon) has a significantly larger effect on the shape of the posterior probability distribution of $\\alpha$. Compared to nonadaptive schemes, our method makes the number of measurement shots required to achieve certain level of accuracy smaller approximately by a factor proportional to the area describing the initial uncertainty of $\\alpha$ in phase space. While this algorithm is not directly robust against readout errors, we make it such by introducing repeated measurements in the step (i).

  5. Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for Advanced Unmanned Undersea Vehicles Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for...

  6. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations...

  7. Adapting On-Site Electrical Generation Platforms for Producer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adapting On-Site Electrical Generation Platforms for Producer Gas - Fact Sheet, April 2014 Adapting On-Site Electrical Generation Platforms for Producer Gas - Fact Sheet, April...

  8. Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling A new approach, called...

  9. Kenya-Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya-Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change(StARCK) (Redirected from Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change in Kenya (StARCK)) Jump to:...

  10. India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities...

  11. Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual for Development Planning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Adaptation to Climate...

  12. An adaptive mesh refinement technique for dynamics of solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trivedi, Abhishek

    2007-01-01

    adaptations; right: cut-off grid with a solution contour.adaptations; right: cut-off grid with a solution contour.

  13. An adaptive sparse-grid-based iterative ensemble Kalman filter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An adaptive sparse-grid-based iterative ensemble Kalman filter approach for parameter field estimation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An adaptive sparse-grid-based...

  14. Financing Climate Adaptation and Mitigation in Rural Areas of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Financing Climate Adaptation and Mitigation in Rural Areas of Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Financing Climate Adaptation and...

  15. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  16. Robust adaptive control of switched systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Rifai, Khalid, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, robust adaptive controllers are developed for classes of switched nonlinear systems. Switched systems are those governed by differential equations, which undergo vector field switching due to sudden changes ...

  17. Adaptive control of a generic hypersonic vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiese, Daniel Philip

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a an adaptive augmented, gain-scheduled baseline LQR-PI controller applied to the Road Runner six-degree-of-freedom generic hypersonic vehicle model. Uncertainty in control effectiveness, longitudinal ...

  18. Adaptive FE Methods for Conservation Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Adaptive FE Methods for Conservation Equations Ralf Hartmann Abstract. We present an approach, University of Heidelberg. #12; 2 R. Hartmann by parts on each cell K results in X K2Th h (F (u); rv)K + (F (u

  19. Developmental Plasticity Links Local Adaptation and Evolutionary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badyaev, Alex

    Developmental Plasticity Links Local Adaptation and Evolutionary Diversification in Foraging, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona Developmental plasticity is thought to reconcile the constraining role morphology into adulthood, providing an opportunity to directly examine the links between plasticity of bone

  20. Convert! : the adaptive reuse of churches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiley, Christopher John, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines the phenomenon of vacated churches and analyzes the major issues underlying their adaptive reuse in order to help promulgate an awareness of the range of successful strategies and solutions that are ...

  1. Adaptive sampling in autonomous marine sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eickstedt, Donald Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, an innovative architecture for real-time adaptive and cooperative control of autonomous sensor platforms in a marine sensor network is described in the context of the autonomous oceanographic network scenario. ...

  2. PERSPECTIVE Climate change, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendry, Andrew

    PERSPECTIVE Climate change, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity: the problem and the evidence plasticity, natural selection Correspondence Juha Merila, Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department distinguish whether phenotypic changes are genetically based or the result of phenotypic plasticity. Second

  3. Collaborative Adaptive Science for Self Reliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tate, Kenneth

    (Koyukuk) · Clean water (Iguigig) · Salmon fishing (Nikolai) Shared Issues: · High cost of energy other #12;· Historically adaptive. · Confluence of increased gas and food prices, reduction in state ­ Potential improvements ­ Benefits of experience ­ Improve self reliance? ­ Future partnerships ­ Other

  4. ADAPTIVE DISCRETIZATION OF AN INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsson, Stig

    ADAPTIVE DISCRETIZATION OF AN INTEGRO­DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODELING QUASI­STATIC FRACTIONAL ORDER VISCOELASTICITY Klas Adolfsson # Mikael Enelund ## Stig Larsson ### # Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE--412 96 GË?oteborg, Sweden, mikael

  5. Adaptive Java Optimisation using machine learning techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Shun

    approach are implemented in a prototype Adaptive Optimisation Framework for Java (AOF-Java). The experimental results show that the heuristic random search algorithm can find, within a relatively small number of atttempts, good points in the large...

  6. Adaptive Grids for Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    the wind speed OMEGA model Courtesy of A. Sarma (SAIC, NC, USA) #12;Two Adaptive Shallow Water Models AMR the vertical resolutions adds another factor of 2 We need to increase our computational power by a factor

  7. Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global

  8. Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jinchao

    2014-12-01

    In this project, we investigated adaptive, parallel, and multilevel methods for numerical modeling of various real-world applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), complex fluids, Electromagnetism, Navier-Stokes equations, and reservoir simulation. First, we have designed improved mathematical models and numerical discretizaitons for viscoelastic fluids and MHD. Second, we have derived new a posteriori error estimators and extended the applicability of adaptivity to various problems. Third, we have developed multilevel solvers for solving scalar partial differential equations (PDEs) as well as coupled systems of PDEs, especially on unstructured grids. Moreover, we have integrated the study between adaptive method and multilevel methods, and made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multi-physics problems.

  9. Adaptive Basis Sampling for Smoothing Splines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Nan

    2015-08-03

    . However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large data sets has hindered their wide application. We develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Generally, a...

  10. Human adaptation of avian influenza viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Karunya

    2012-01-01

    Human adaptation of avian influenza viruses pose an enormous public health challenge as the human population is predominantly naive to avian influenza antigens. As such, constant surveillance is needed to monitor the ...

  11. The Durham ELT adaptive optics simulation platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alastair Basden; Timothy Butterley; Richard Myers; Richard Wilson

    2006-11-09

    Adaptive optics systems are essential on all large telescopes where image quality is important. These are complex systems with many design parameters requiring optimisation before good performance can be achieved. The simulation of adaptive optics systems is therefore necessary to categorise the expected performance. This paper describes an adaptive optics simulation platform, developed at Durham University, which can be used to simulate adaptive optics systems on the largest proposed future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) as well as current systems. This platform is modular, object oriented and has the benefit of hardware application acceleration which can be used to improve the simulation performance, essential for ensuring that the run time of a given simulation is acceptable. The simulation platform described here can be highly parallelised using parallelisation techniques suited for adaptive optics simulation, whilst still offering the user complete control while the simulation is running. Results from the simulation of a ground layer adaptive optics system are provided as an example to demonstrate the flexibility of this simulation platform.

  12. Adaptation to water scarcity in glacier-dependent towns of the Indian Himalayas : impacts, adaptive responses, barriers, and solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudhalkar, Amruta Anand

    2010-01-01

    Among the existing and projected impacts of climate change, impacts on water resources are expected to exacerbate the current and future threat of global water scarcity. Glacier-dependent societies are especially vulnerable ...

  13. Hepatocyte Responses to In Vitro Freezing and b-Adrenergic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    Hepatocyte Responses to In Vitro Freezing and b-Adrenergic Stimulation: Insights into the Extreme Freeze Tolerance of Subarctic Rana sylvatica M. CLARA F. DO AMARAL*, RICHARD E. LEE JR., AND JON P, is one of several amphibians known to tolerate corporal freezing as an adaptation to survive winter

  14. Chromatic Light Adaptation Measured using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wandell, Brian A.

    Chromatic Light Adaptation Measured using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Alex R. Wade- nisms within cone photoreceptor classes. Key words: fMRI; light adaptation; cones; simulation; V1; Naka regulation is part of a process called light adaptation. Light adaptation is an important computational step

  15. Data Modelling for Analysis of Adaptive Changes in Fly Photoreceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juusola, Mikko

    describe accurately the observed adaptation process at each new level of changing light inputs. GeneralizedData Modelling for Analysis of Adaptive Changes in Fly Photoreceptors Uwe Friederich1,2 , Daniel://www.shef.ac.uk/acse Abstract. Adaptation is a hallmark of sensory processing. We studied neural adaptation in intracellular

  16. Adaptively Secure Coin-Flipping, Revisited Shafi Goldwasser1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    in this setting. We then shed light on the connection between adaptive and strongly adaptive adversariesAdaptively Secure Coin-Flipping, Revisited Shafi Goldwasser1 , Yael Tauman Kalai2 , and Sunoo Park3' bits, can tolerate t(n) = O( n) even in the presence of adaptive corruptions, and they conjectured

  17. Skeletal Adaptations in Humans How are we anatomically different?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    posteriorly #12;Skeletal Adaptations in Humans · Vertebral Column ­ lumbar + cervical curvatures ­ more

  18. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to address the potential health impacts of climate change.

  19. Adaptive Plasticity and Plasticity as an Adaptation: A Selective Review of Plasticity in Animal Morphology and Life History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotthard, Karl

    Adaptive Plasticity and Plasticity as an Adaptation: A Selective Review of Plasticity in Animal wide-ranging. All key REVIEW references should be cited. A summary is required. Adaptive plasticity and plasticity as an adaptation: a selective review of plasticity in animal morphology and life history Karl

  20. Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Distribution Functions for DSA Melanie Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailler, Roger

    Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Distribution Functions for DSA Melanie Smith University of Tulsa 800 S. Tucker Drive Tulsa, OK 74104 melanie@utulsa.edu Sandip Sen University of Tulsa 800 S. Tucker Drive Tulsa, OK 74104 sandip-sen@utulsa.edu Roger Mailler University of Tulsa 800 S. Tucker Drive Tulsa, OK 74104

  1. EOLSS ADAPTATIONS TO LIFE IN MARINE CAVES PAGE 1 ADAPTATIONS TO LIFE IN MARINE CAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    EOLSS ­ ADAPTATIONS TO LIFE IN MARINE CAVES PAGE 1 ADAPTATIONS TO LIFE IN MARINE CAVES Thomas M. Iliffe, Department of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University at Galveston, USA Renée E. Bishop, Department of caves will result in their extinction. 1. Introduction 1.1 Definition of anchialine and marine caves

  2. Current Biology 18, 15761580, October 28, 2008 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2008.08.068 fMRI Adaptation Reveals Mirror Neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    .1016/j.cub.2008.08.068 Report fMRI Adaptation Reveals Mirror Neurons in Human Inferior Parietal CortexMRI adaptation to show that the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) responds indepen- dently to specific actions regardless of whether they are observed or executed. Specifically, responses in the right IPL were attenuated

  3. Natural Disasters and Adaptation to Climate Change Edited by Sarah Boulter, Jean Palutikof, David Karoly, and Daniela Guitart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batterbury, Simon

    wave: impacts, public health adaptation and response in France 189 Mathilde Pascal, Alain Le Tertre cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh 264 Bimal K. Paul and Munshi K. Rahman 18 Coffee, disasters, and social-ecological resilience in Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico 276 Hallie Eakin, Helda Morales, Edwin Castellanos, Gustavo Cruz

  4. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  5. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  6. Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Y. Chuang

    2006-08-31

    It has been long recognized that a significant fraction of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying enzymes may be even more prominent in the case of low-dose, low-LET irradiation, as the majority of genetic damage may be caused by secondary oxidative species. In this study we have attempted to decipher the roles of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes, which are responsible for detoxifying the superoxide anions. We used adenovirus vectors to deliver RNA interference (RNAi or siRNA) technology to down-regulate the expression levels of the SOD genes. We have also over-expressed the SOD genes by use of recombinant adenovirus vectors. Cells infected with the vectors were then subjected to low dose ?-irradiation. Total RNA were extracted from the exposed cells and the expression of 9000 genes were profiled by use of cDNA microarrays. The result showed that low dose radiation had clear effects on gene expression in HCT116 cells. Both over-expression and down-regulation of the SOD1 gene can change the expression profiles of sub-groups of genes. Close to 200 of the 9000 genes examined showed over two-fold difference in expression under various conditions. Genes with changed expression pattern belong to many categories that include: early growth response, DNA-repair, ion transport, apoptosis, and cytokine response.

  7. ADAPTIKs: Adaptive Information Keyholes for Public Libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deussen, Oliver

    public sphere. In particular in terms of demographic aspects, public libraries need to provide). ADAPTIKs is intended to serve two purposes: first, as an information service that extends the libraryADAPTIKs: Adaptive Information Keyholes for Public Libraries Jens M¨uller HCI Group University

  8. ADAPTIVE POWER CAPPING FOR SERVERS WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coskun, Ayse

    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... POWER CAPPING IN COMPUTER CLUSTERS ENABLES ENERGY BUDGETING, EFFICIENT POWER DELIVERY, AND MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND ADAPTING TO DYNAMIC-POWER CAPS. PACK AND CAP IMPROVES ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ACHIEVABLE RANGE as much as 400 percent in the past decade.1 Modern data-center energy consumption results in millions

  9. An Infrastructure for Adaptive Dynamic Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amarasinghe, Saman

    An Infrastructure for Adaptive Dynamic Optimization Derek Bruening, Timothy Garnett, and Saman,timothyg,saman}@lcs.mit.edu Abstract Dynamic optimization is emerging as a promising ap- proach to overcome many of the obstacles static optimizations, there are very few for developing dynamic optimizations. We present a framework

  10. Adaptive immunity in invertebrates: a straw house

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Tom

    Adaptive immunity in invertebrates: a straw house without a mechanistic foundation Chris Hauton1 by descriptions of the underlying mechanisms. We caution against a reliance on this approach as a means limitations and highlight the fundamental necessity for rigorous mechanistic data. Innate `priming' or `memory

  11. Phenotypic Plasticity: Molecular Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Phenotypic Plasticity: Molecular Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance Scott A. Kelly,*1,2 Tami M. Panhuis,2 and Andrew M. Stoehr3 ABSTRACT Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means

  12. Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deloach, Scott A.

    Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems Eric Matson Department of ComputerLoach Multi-agent and Cooperative Robotics Lab Department of Computing and Information Sciences, Kansas State of battle, a continual flow of information is necessary to achieve information superiority. The required

  13. ADAPTIKs: Adaptive Information Keyholes for Public Libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deussen, Oliver

    critical thresholds ([7], [4]). Addressing their impact on public awareness and social acceptance, Brignull the visitors' position and body movements can be used to generate an adaptive silhouette that acts as a keyhole libraries, however, represent physical and social places for encounter. In addition, as a comprehensive

  14. Designing Adaptive Trading Agents DAVID PARDOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Peter

    should make use of this experience. Within the context of a specific market scenario, the answer depends to the first three questions depend on the particular market scenario being considered, and our work spansDesigning Adaptive Trading Agents DAVID PARDOE Yahoo! Labs and PETER STONE The University of Texas

  15. Accurate Direct Illumination Using Iterative Adaptive Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bala, Kavita

    Accurate Direct Illumination Using Iterative Adaptive Sampling Michael Donikian, Bruce Walter with many lights and complex occlusion. Images are first divided into 8 Â 8 pixel blocks and for each point to be shaded within a block, a probability density function (PDF) is constructed over the lights and sampled

  16. Adaptive Background Estimation using Intensity Independent Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet

    Adaptive Background Estimation using Intensity Independent Features Håkan Ardö, Rikard Berthilsson to rapid changes in lighting conditions. Furthermore, the features can be computed very efficiently using reliable way, also in outdoor scenes where the lighting conditions is changing rapidly due to passing

  17. Simple Adaptive Strategies: From Regret Matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Sergiu

    Simple Adaptive Strategies: From Regret Matching to Uncoupled Dynamics Sergiu Hart Andreu Mas, computers--even genes. See the Hand- book of Game Theory (Aumann and Hart 1994, 2002, 2004; Young and Zamir, Israel. E-mail: hart@huji.ac.il; URL: http://www.ma.huji.ac.il/hart. Department of Economics

  18. Robot Behavior Adaptation for Formation Maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    1 Robot Behavior Adaptation for Formation Maintenance Maite López-Sánchez maite@maia.ub.es WAI): ­1 or 2 reference robots to follow ­keeping fixed angle (formation property) ­and fixed distance d (separation distance) · related to robot visibility range, speed or reaction capabilities Basic behaviors I

  19. Solving Nonlinear Equations by Adaptive Homotopy Continuation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    ,fornia 90089 and L. Tesfatsion+ Department of Economics and Department of Mathematics lowa State University to complex values and adaptively computing a continuation path in the complex plane that avoids points giving. Numerical examples are presented which indicate the effectiveness of the approach. *This work was partially

  20. Energy-Aware Adaptive Network Resource Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Energy-Aware Adaptive Network Resource Management M. Charalambides, D. Tuncer, L. Mamatas, G protocols, this can lead to periods of resource under- utilization and constant energy consumption solutions are still missing. Existing approaches in the literature that address energy efficiency in network

  1. Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hain, Thomas

    Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Kai Yu Hughes Hall College for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy #12;ii Summary In recent years, there has been a trend towards training is to train hidden Markov models (HMMs) on the whole data set as if all data comes from a single acoustic

  2. Adaptive Fuzzy Systems for Multichannel Signal Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    Adaptive Fuzzy Systems for Multichannel Signal Processing KONSTANTINOS N. PLATANIOTIS, MEMBER, IEEE Processing multichannel signals using digital signal process- ing techniques has received increased attention beginning in this area and 2) to provide a review for the reader who may be well versed in signal processing

  3. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concerns about rising energy demand and cost, diminishing oil reserves, and climate change, Central a critical analysis of this experience focusing on non-technical barriers to investment. Survey results America . Caribbean basin initiative . Trade and investment . Energy security Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob

  4. Reservation Price Estimation by Adaptive Conjoint Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    Reservation Price Estimation by Adaptive Conjoint Analysis Christoph Breidert1 , Michael Hahsler1 applied the eco- nomic definition of reservation price in combination with a conjoint study on product pricing. In this paper we present a novel approach to estimate the economic reser- vation price using

  5. Shape-Adaptive Ultra-Lightweight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a concentrating solar power system. Traditional solar concentrators have no corrective capabilities to compensateShape-Adaptive Ultra-Lightweight Solar Concentrators Solar concentrators are key components the aberrations due to external disturbances during installation and operation, preventing the solar power system

  6. Genetic Painting: A Salience Adaptive Relaxation Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collomosse, John

    Chapter 4 Genetic Painting: A Salience Adaptive Relaxation Technique for Painterly Rendering paintings1. We draw upon our previous ob- servations of artistic practice to define the degree of optimality for a painting to be measured by the correlation between the salience map of the original image and the level

  7. Adaptive cache decay Paolo Bennati, Roberto Giorgi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorgi, Roberto

    to save power. Our idea is to adaptively select mostly used cache lines. We found that this can MiBench suite for ARM based processor, show 13% improvement in leakage saving and 21% in EDP versus drowsy cache and 52% improvement in leakage saving and 65% in EDP versus cache decay (in average

  8. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    23 Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web Peter Dolog1 and Wolfgang Nejdl2 1 Department.de Abstract. Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation

  9. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  10. Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    1 Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads Dylan Lexie , Shan Lin, and Jie Wu.wu@temple.edu Abstract--Battery-powered wireless sensor devices need to be charged to provide the desired functionality after deployment. Task or even device failures can occur if the voltage of the battery is low

  11. Noise Filtering Strategies of Adaptive Signaling Networks: The Case of E. Coli Chemotaxis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Sartori; Yuhai Tu

    2011-04-20

    Two distinct mechanisms for filtering noise in an input signal are identi?ed in a class of adaptive sensory networks. We find that the high frequency noise is filtered by the output degradation process through time-averaging; while the low frequency noise is damped by adaptation through negative feedback. Both filtering processes themselves introduce intrinsic noises, which are found to be un?ltered and can thus amount to a significant internal noise floor even without signaling. These results are applied to E. coli chemotaxis. We show unambiguously that the molecular mechanism for the Berg-Purcell time-averaging scheme is the dephosphorylation of the response regulator CheY-P, not the receptor adaptation process as previously suggested. The high frequency noise due to the stochastic ligand binding-unbinding events and the random ligand molecule diffusion is averaged by the CheY-P dephosphorylation process to a negligible level in E.coli. We identify a previously unstudied noise source caused by the random motion of the cell in a ligand gradient. We show that this random walk induced signal noise has a divergent low frequency component, which is only rendered finite by the receptor adaptation process. For gradients within the E. coli sensing range, this dominant external noise can be comparable to the significant intrinsic noise in the system. The dependence of the response and its fluctuations on the key time scales of the system are studied systematically. We show that the chemotaxis pathway may have evolved to optimize gradient sensing, strong response, and noise control in di?erent time scales

  12. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANNEX Q HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EMERGENCY RESPONSE #12;ANNEX Q - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EMERGENCY RESPONSE 03/10/2014 v.2.0 Page Q-1 PROMULGATION STATEMENT Annex Q: Hazardous Materials Emergency Response, and contents within, is a guide to how the University conducts a response specific to a hazardous materials

  13. EMERGENCY RESPONSE EVACUATION PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND EVACUATION PLAN #12;Emergency Response and Evacuation Plan ­ June 2010 i EMERGENCY RESPONSE PHONE NUMBERS 2 PROCEDURES FOR REPORTING FIRE OR OTHER EMERGENCIES 3 RESPONSIBILITIES (EMPLOYEE/SUPERVISOR) 4 EMERGENCY EVACUATION PROCEDURES OVERVIEW 5 PROCEDURES FOR EVACUATING MOBILITY

  14. The Complexity of Adaptation to Climate Change. Exploring adaptation in Rio Grande, Ecuador 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argudo, Cristina

    2014-11-27

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging problems in terms of development, having adverse effects in populations that are already vulnerable to other stressors. At present, the importance of adaptation to climate change has been widely...

  15. Grid and basis adaptive polynomial chaos techniques for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkó, Zoltán Gilli, Luca Lathouwers, Danny Kloosterman, Jan Leen

    2014-03-01

    The demand for accurate and computationally affordable sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is constantly on the rise and has become especially pressing in the nuclear field with the shift to Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty methodologies in the licensing of nuclear installations. Besides traditional, already well developed methods – such as first order perturbation theory or Monte Carlo sampling – Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) has been given a growing emphasis in recent years due to its simple application and good performance. This paper presents new developments of the research done at TU Delft on such Polynomial Chaos (PC) techniques. Our work is focused on the Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (NISP) approach and adaptive methods for building the PCE of responses of interest. Recent efforts resulted in a new adaptive sparse grid algorithm designed for estimating the PC coefficients. The algorithm is based on Gerstner's procedure for calculating multi-dimensional integrals but proves to be computationally significantly cheaper, while at the same it retains a similar accuracy as the original method. More importantly the issue of basis adaptivity has been investigated and two techniques have been implemented for constructing the sparse PCE of quantities of interest. Not using the traditional full PC basis set leads to further reduction in computational time since the high order grids necessary for accurately estimating the near zero expansion coefficients of polynomial basis vectors not needed in the PCE can be excluded from the calculation. Moreover the sparse PC representation of the response is easier to handle when used for sensitivity analysis or uncertainty propagation due to the smaller number of basis vectors. The developed grid and basis adaptive methods have been implemented in Matlab as the Fully Adaptive Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (FANISP) algorithm and were tested on four analytical problems. These show consistent good performance both in terms of the accuracy of the resulting PC representation of quantities and the computational costs associated with constructing the sparse PCE. Basis adaptivity also seems to make the employment of PC techniques possible for problems with a higher number of input parameters (15–20), alleviating a well known limitation of the traditional approach. The prospect of larger scale applicability and the simplicity of implementation makes such adaptive PC algorithms particularly appealing for the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of complex systems and legacy codes.

  16. Virginia Tech Adaptive Sampling Simulator 1.0 Release Notes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Tech Adaptive Sampling Simulator provides the basic functionality to incorporate high fidelity netVirginia Tech Adaptive Sampling Simulator 1.0 Release Notes General Release 1.0 of the Virginia

  17. Funding for adaptation to climate change : the case of Surat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Toral

    2014-01-01

    The need for cities to adapt to climate change is widely acknowledged, yet the question of adaptation finance remains uncertain. Unable to access global climate funds, cities must seek out alternative sources to support ...

  18. Adaptive Integrated Manufacturing Enterprises: Information Technology for the Next Decade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng

    Adaptive Integrated Manufacturing Enterprises: Information Technology for the Next Decade Cheng Hsu for Manufacturing Productivity and Technology Transfer. #12;Abstract A new vision effecting adaptiveness Manufacturing Enterprises (AIME). It focuses on four major problems: (1) Management of multiple systems

  19. Adaptive Management in the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Webinar...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Adaptive Management in the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Webinar Adaptive Management in the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Webinar December 10, 2015 8:30AM to 10:00AM PST As...

  20. Adaptive array antenna design for wireless communication systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noordin, Nurul Hazlina

    2013-11-28

    Adaptive array antennas use has been limited to non-commercial applications due to their high cost and hardware complexity. The implementation cost of adaptive array antennas can be kept to a minimum by using cost effective ...

  1. Climate Change Adaptation: A Collective Action Perspective on Federalism Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Robert L.; Levy, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    adaptation to minimize the adverse effects of climate change. Climate change adaptation is designed to increase the resilience of natural and human ecosystems to the threats posed by a changing environment. Although an extensive literature concerning...

  2. Genomic islands predict functional adaptation in marine actinobacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penn, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Ecological adaptations among bacterial populations have been linked to genomic islands, strain-specific regions of DNA that house

  3. Communication adapter for use with a drilling component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Hall; Jr.; H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

    2007-04-03

    A communication adapter is disclosed that provides for removable attachment to a drilling component when the drilling component is not actively drilling and for communication with an integrated transmission system in the drilling component. The communication adapter comprises a data transmission coupler that facilitates communication between the drilling component and the adapter, a mechanical coupler that facilitates removable attachment of the adapter to the drilling component, and a data interface.

  4. BIA Request for Proposals for Climate Adaptation Grants for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download the Bureau of Indian Affairs Request for Proposals for Climate Adaptation Grants for Tribes, due November 29.

  5. Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation-conceptual...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: Adaptation, Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Energy Security, - Health Resource Type: Case studiesexamples, Lessons learnedbest practices, Publications...

  6. SILENCE: Distributed Adaptive Sampling for Sensor-based Autonomic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompili, Dario

    SILENCE: Distributed Adaptive Sampling for Sensor-based Autonomic Systems Eun Kyung Lee}@cac.rutgers.edu ABSTRACT Adaptive sampling and sleep scheduling can help realize the much needed resource efficiency phenomena. This paper presents a data-centric approach to distributed adaptive sampling aimed at minimizing

  7. www.carleton.ca/~kbstorey ADAPTATIONS TO COLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storey, Kenneth B.

    12/19/2012 1 www.carleton.ca/~kbstorey ADAPTATIONS TO COLD Below 0°C Freeze Avoidance Freeze Supercool ADAPTATIONS TO COLD Below 0°C Freeze Avoidance Freeze Tolerance Hibernation Invertebrates Some Migrating DOWN #12;12/19/2012 3 Fresh Water Salt water ADAPTATIONS TO COLD Below 0°C Freeze Avoidance Freeze

  8. Some Computational Problems Arising in Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plemmons, Robert J.

    Some Computational Problems Arising in Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems Robert J. Plemmons \\Lambda numerical linear algebra tech­ niques in adaptive optics imaging control computations. Real­time adaptive optics is a means for enhancing the resolution of ground based, optical telescopes beyond the limits

  9. Phenotypic plasticity facilitates recurrent rapid adaptation to introduced predators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfrender, Michael

    Phenotypic plasticity facilitates recurrent rapid adaptation to introduced predators Alison G) A central role for phenotypic plasticity in adaptive evolution is often posited yet lacks empirical support of preexisting developmental pathways, producing rapid adaptive change. We examined the role of plasticity

  10. Adaptive Optimizing Compilers for the 21st Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Devika

    Adaptive Optimizing Compilers for the 21st Century Los Alamos Computer Science Institute 2001 Houston, Texas, USA #12;Adaptive Optimizing Compilers 2 The Big Picture · For 45 years, compilers have Automatic Coding System (IBM, 1957) #12;Adaptive Optimizing Compilers 3 The Big Picture · RISC made

  11. Automated Web Page Synthesis in Adaptive Web Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghorbani, Ali

    Automated Web Page Synthesis in Adaptive Web Systems Hossein Sadat and Ali Ghorbani Intelligent, Canada {t15h7,ghorbani}@unb.ca Abstract. An adaptive Web system adapts the Web pages to its users, based of the system. In this paper, we formalize dynamic generation of Web pages and refer to it as Web page synthesis

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Situating adaptation: how governance challenges and perceptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Laurie

    Adaptation is situated within multiple, inter- acting social, political, and economic forces. Adaptation socio- political context. Pathways emphasize that current deci- sions are both informed by past actions and shape the landscape of future options. This research examines how adaptation actors in Grand County

  13. Adaptive Image Synthesis for Compressive Displays Felix Heide1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidrich, Wolfgang

    Wolfgang Heidrich1 1 University of British Columbia 2 MIT Media Lab Figure 1: Adaptive light field-resolution target light field of 85 × 21 views with 840 × 525 pixels each (center). Our adaptive reconstruction usesAdaptive Image Synthesis for Compressive Displays Felix Heide1 Gordon Wetzstein2 Ramesh Raskar2

  14. Tangible Context Modelling for Rapid Adaptive System Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    , the adaptive behavior can even change the context by itself (e. g. switching the lights on causes the effectTangible Context Modelling for Rapid Adaptive System Testing Frank Honold, Felix Schüssel, Michael.honold, felix.schuessel, michael.munding, michael.weber}@uni-ulm.de Abstract--With the rise of adaptive

  15. A Pedagogical Interface for Authoring Adaptive e-Learning Courses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, W. H. Nynson

    different approaches towards learning. In light of this, adaptive educational hypermedia systems (AEHSsA Pedagogical Interface for Authoring Adaptive e-Learning Courses Christopher Watson1 Frederick W to support adaptive e-learning course authoring for different types of students. They require teachers

  16. Bayesian Color Estimation for Adaptive Vision-based Robot Localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz, Dirk

    to variations in the lighting condition, a robot needs to adapt its color model to such changes. We propose that the robot can localize under different lighting conditions and adapt to changes in the lighting condition Gaussian color model which enables a robot to quickly adapt to different lighting conditions. The lower

  17. Adaptive Traffic Lights Using Car-to-Car Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iftode, Liviu

    Adaptive Traffic Lights Using Car-to-Car Communication Victor Gradinescu, Cristian Gorgorin, Raluca presents an adaptive traffic light system based on wireless communication between vehicles and fixed adaptive traffic light system. In section 4, we present the simulation framework we have developed

  18. Fitness Biasing Produce Adaptive Gaits for Hexapod Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Gary B.

    Fitness Biasing Produce Adaptive Gaits for Hexapod Robots Gary Parker Computer Science Connecticut in an earlier work an effective learning cycles a hexapod robot. learning system capable of adapting to changes produce gaits hexapod robots difficult problem. particularly challenging if wants programs altered adapt

  19. APPLYING CACHING TO TWO-LEVEL ADAPTIVE BRANCH PREDICTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vintan, Lucian N.

    - 1 - APPLYING CACHING TO TWO-LEVEL ADAPTIVE BRANCH PREDICTION EGAN, C., STEVEN, G. B., SHIM, W of the Camera-ready paper. #12;- 2 - APPLYING CACHING TO TWO-LEVEL ADAPTIVE BRANCH PREDICTION ABSTRACT During the 1990s Two-level Adaptive Branch Predictors were developed to meet the requirement for accurate branch

  20. FOCLASA 2009 Formalizing Adaptation On-the-Fly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Vink, Erik

    FOCLASA 2009 Formalizing Adaptation On-the-Fly S. Andovaa , L.P.J. Groenewegen1,b , J. Stafleub & E and new control in view of unforeseen adaptation. After addition McPal starts coordinating migration accordingly, adapting the system towards to-be collaboration. Once done, McPal removes obsolete control

  1. SU-E-J-153: MRI Based, Daily Adaptive Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Contour Adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleijnen, J; Burbach, M; Verbraeken, T; Weggers, R; Zoetelief, A; Reerink, O; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Asselen, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A major hurdle in adaptive radiotherapy is the adaptation of the planning MRI's delineations to the daily anatomy. We therefore investigate the accuracy and time needed for online clinical target volume (CTV) adaptation by radiation therapists (RTT), to be used in MRI-guided adaptive treatments on a MRI-Linac (MRL). Methods: Sixteen patients, diagnosed with early stage rectal cancer, underwent a T2-weighted MRI prior to each fraction of short-course radiotherapy, resulting in 4–5 scans per patient. On these scans, the CTV was delineated according to guidelines by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and considered to be the gold standard. For each patient, the first MRI was considered as the planning MRI and matched on bony anatomy to the 3–4 daily MRIs. The planning MRI's CTV delineation was rigidly propagated to the daily MRI scans as a proposal for adaptation. Three RTTs in training started the adaptation of the CTV conform guidelines, after a two hour training lecture and a two patient (n=7) training set. To assess the inter-therapist variation, all three RTTs altered delineations of 3 patients (n=12). One RTT altered the CTV delineations (n=53) of the remaining 11 patients. Time needed for adaptation of the CTV to guidelines was registered.As a measure of agreement, the conformity index (CI) was determined between the RTTs' delineations as a group. Dice similarity coefficients were determined between delineations of the RTT and the RO. Results: We found good agreement between RTTs' and RO's delineations (average Dice=0.91, SD=0.03). Furthermore, the inter-observer agreement between the RTTs was high (average CI=0.94, SD=0.02). Adaptation time reduced from 10:33 min (SD= 3:46) to 2:56 min (SD=1:06) between the first and last ten delineations, respectively. Conclusion: Daily CTV adaptation by RTTs, seems a feasible and safe way to introduce daily, online MRI-based plan adaptation for a MRL.

  2. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  3. QAM Adaptive Measurements Feedback Quantum Receiver Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian Chen; Ke Li; Yuan Zuo; Bing Zhu

    2015-04-11

    We theoretically study the quantum receivers with adaptive measurements feedback for discriminating quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) coherent states in terms of average symbol error rate. For rectangular 16-QAM signal set, with different stages of adaptive measurements, the effects of realistic imperfection parameters including the sub-unity quantum efficiency and the dark counts of on-off detectors, as well as the transmittance of beam splitters and the mode mismatch factor between the signal and local oscillating fields on the symbol error rate are separately investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. Using photon-number-resolving detectors (PNRD) instead of on-off detectors, all the effects on the symbol error rate due to the above four imperfections can be suppressed in a certain degree. The finite resolution and PNR capability of PNRDs are also considered. We find that for currently available technology, the receiver shows a reasonable gain from the standard quantum limit (SQL) with moderate stages.

  4. Adaptive method for electron bunch profile prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Gessner, Spencer

    2015-10-15

    We report on an experiment performed at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in which a new adaptive control algorithm, one with known, bounded update rates, despite operating on analytically unknown cost functions, was utilized in order to provide quasi-real-time bunch property estimates of the electron beam. Multiple parameters, such as arbitrary rf phase settings and other time-varying accelerator properties, were simultaneously tuned in order to match a simulated bunch energy spectrum with a measured energy spectrum. The simple adaptive scheme was digitally implemented using matlab and the experimental physics and industrial control system. Thus, the main result is a nonintrusive, nondestructive, real-time diagnostic scheme for prediction of bunch profiles, as well as other beam parameters, the precise control of which are important for the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments being explored at FACET.

  5. Adaptive synchronization of coupled chaotic oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhargava Ravoori; Adam B. Cohen; Anurag V. Setty; Francesco Sorrentino; Thomas E. Murphy; Edward Ott; Rajarshi Roy

    2009-10-05

    We experimentally demonstrate and numerically simulate a new adaptive method to maintain synchronization between coupled nonlinear chaotic oscillators, when the coupling between the systems is unknown and time-varying (e.g., due to environmental parameter drift). The technique is applied to optoelectronic feedback loops exhibiting high dimensional chaotic dynamics. In addition to keeping the two systems isochronally synchronized in the presence of a priori unknown time-varying coupling strength, the technique provides an estimate of the time-varying coupling.

  6. Adaptive complexity regularization for linear inverse problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loubes, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    We tackle the problem of building adaptive estimation procedures for ill-posed inverse problems. For general regularization methods depending on tuning parameters, we construct a penalized method that selects the optimal smoothing sequence without prior knowledge of the regularity of the function to be estimated. We provide for such estimators oracle inequalities and optimal rates of convergence. This penalized approach is applied to Tikhonov regularization and to regularization by projection.

  7. Adaptive Resource Management Schemes for Web Services 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Heung Ki

    2011-02-22

    MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR WEB SERVICES A Dissertation by HEUNG KI LEE Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulflllment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Computer...: Chair of Committee, Eun Jung Kim Committee Members, Riccardo Bettati Rabi N. Mahapatra Deepa Kundur Ki Hwan Yum Head of Department, Valerie E. Taylor December 2009 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Adaptive Resource Management Schemes for Web...

  8. Page 1: Atanas Radenski: Anomaly-Free Component Adaptation with Class Overriding Anomaly-Free Component Adaptation with Class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radenski, Atanas

    Page 1: Atanas Radenski: Anomaly-Free Component Adaptation with Class Overriding Anomaly-Free Component Adaptation with Class Overriding Atanas Radenski Chapman University Department of Computer Science://www.chapman.edu/~radenski/ Abstract Software components can be implemented and distributed as collections of classes, then adapted

  9. TECHNICAL STANDARDS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PurposeThis procedure describes the responsibilities of persons who are charged with implementing the DOE Technical Standards Program. 

  10. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  11. Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION This appendix provides more detail on some of the topics raised in Chapter 4, "Demand Response" of the body of the Plan. These topics include 1. The features, advantages and disadvantages of the main options for stimulating demand response (price mechanisms

  12. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, J.T.

    1998-04-28

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation are disclosed, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G{prime} = (I{minus}X(X{sup T} X){sup {minus}1}X{sup T})G(I{minus}A). 3 figs.

  13. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, Joseph Thaddeus (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G'=(I-X(X.sup.T X).sup.-1 X.sup.T)G(I-A)

  14. Adaptive Neural Networks for Automatic Negotiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakas, D. P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E. [University of Peloponnese, 22100 Tripoli (Greece)

    2007-12-26

    The use of fuzzy logic and fuzzy neural networks has been found effective for the modelling of the uncertain relations between the parameters of a negotiation procedure. The problem with these configurations is that they are static, that is, any new knowledge from theory or experiment lead to the construction of entirely new models. To overcome this difficulty, we apply in this work, an adaptive neural topology to model the negotiation process. Finally a simple simulation is carried in order to test the new method.

  15. Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2013-01-01

    We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  16. AfricaAdapt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendoMassachusetts: EnergyRenewablesAfricaAfricaAdapt Jump

  17. African Adaptation Programme | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendoMassachusetts: EnergyRenewablesAfricaAfricaAdapt

  18. AdaptiveARC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Pennsylvania:AdaptiveARC

  19. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Fully-Automated Demand Response Test in Large Facilities14in DR systems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercialof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”

  20. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve

  1. Demand Response Programs for Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Programs for Oregon Utilities Public Utility Commission May 2003 Public Utility ....................................................................................................................... 1 Types of Demand Response Programs............................................................................ 3 Demand Response Programs in Oregon

  2. Characterization of abdominal adiposity and its relationship to adipokines and the adaptive immune response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozias, Marlies

    2013-12-31

    risk for pregnancy- induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and cesarean delivery [3-5]. Additionally, after delivery there is a greater risk for postpartum infection, hemorrhage [5], and weight retention [6... complications such as preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome seven years after delivery compared to women who had healthy pregnancies [11]. As pregnancy introduces dramatic change to the female...

  3. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in Obligate Anaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.

    2009-01-01

    chemical environment by continuously monitoring the dynamicsMolecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in Obligate

  4. A systems approach to uncovering the adaptive response of cancer to targeted therapies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randall, Adrian Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have significant promise in the fight to develop agents that can target cancer in a tumor-specific manner. A number of drugs have been and are currently in development to inhibit specific kinases ...

  5. Response to Thomas and Baker: the structural adaptation of the brain to training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaser, Christian

    , Germany In their letter to TiCS, Thomas and Baker rightly raise the question of whether training has sections of ten postmortem brains in MNI space. TICS-1041; No. of Pages 2 1 #12;of the great challenges

  6. Adaptive Finite Elements and Colliding Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas N. Arnold; Arup Mukherjee; Luc Pouly

    1997-09-15

    According to the theory of general relativity, the relative acceleration of masses generates gravitational radiation. Although gravitational radiation has not yet been detected, it is believed that extremely violent cosmic events, such as the collision of black holes, should generate gravity waves of sufficient amplitude to detect on earth. The massive Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO, is now being constructed to detect gravity waves. Consequently there is great interest in the computer simulation of black hole collisions and similar events, based on the numerical solution of the Einstein field equations. In this note we introduce the scientific, mathematical, and computational problems and discuss the development of a computer code to solve the initial data problem for colliding black holes, a nonlinear elliptic boundary value problem posed in an unbounded three dimensional domain which is a key step in solving the full field equations. The code is based on finite elements, adaptive meshes, and a multigrid solution process. Here we will particularly emphasize the mathematical and algorithmic issues arising in the generation of adaptive tetrahedral meshes.

  7. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  8. Magnetically Responsive Photonic Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Yongxing

    2011-01-01

    Crystals Introduction Colloidal crystals, typically self-NIPAM gel built with a colloidal crystal template composed2.6 (A) Photographs of colloidal crystals formed in response

  9. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  10. ADAPTIVE AND ROBUST TECHNIQUES (ART) FOR THERMOACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yao

    ADAPTIVE AND ROBUST TECHNIQUES (ART) FOR THERMOACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY By YAO XIE A DISSERTATION.1 Thermoacoustic Tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Image Reconstruction Algorithms for TAT

  11. Adaptive finite element method for eddy current problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adaptive finite element method for eddy current problems. In this chapter we shall discuss Maxwell's equations at very low frequencies. We also refer to [bo98 ...

  12. Sandia Energy - Structural and Mechanical Adaptive Rotor Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Mechanical Adaptive Rotor Technology (SMART) Final Project Reports Published Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Structural and...

  13. Africa Adaptation Programme: Capacity Building Experiences-Improving...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Africa Adaptation Programme: Capacity Building Experiences-Improving Access, Understanding and Application of Climate...

  14. Quantitative Adaptation Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation Projects: Approaches...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation Projects: Approaches for the Agricultural Sector and Beyond Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Economic...

  16. An adaptive wavelet stochastic collocation method for irregular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    paper we present a novel multi-dimensional multi-resolution adaptive (MdMrA) sparse grid stochastic collocation method, that utilizes hierarchical multiscale piecewise Riesz...

  17. Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries: Policy Options for Innovations and Technology Diffusion Jump to: navigation, search Tool...

  18. Applying Climate Information for Adaptation Decision-Making:...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Applying Climate Information for Adaptation Decision-Making: A Guidance and Resource Document Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Applying Climate...

  19. Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

  20. CONTENT ADAPTIVE WATERMARKING BASED ON A STOCHASTIC MULTIRESOLUTION IMAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    CONTENT ADAPTIVE WATERMARKING BASED ON A STOCHASTIC MULTIRESOLUTION IMAGE MODELING Sviatoslav to provide wa­ termark invisibility. Thirdly, a new principle of water­ mark spatial allocation, based

  1. Adaptive Stack with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability, Reliability, and Durability under Automotive Load Cycle Adaptive Stack with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability, Reliability,...

  2. A method for online verification of adapted fields using an independent dose monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Jina; Norrlinger, Bernhard D.; Heaton, Robert K.; Jaffray, David A.; Cho, Young-Bin; Islam, Mohammad K.; Mahon, Robert

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Clinical implementation of online adaptive radiotherapy requires generation of modified fields and a method of dosimetric verification in a short time. We present a method of treatment field modification to account for patient setup error, and an online method of verification using an independent monitoring system.Methods: The fields are modified by translating each multileaf collimator (MLC) defined aperture in the direction of the patient setup error, and magnifying to account for distance variation to the marked isocentre. A modified version of a previously reported online beam monitoring system, the integral quality monitoring (IQM) system, was investigated for validation of adapted fields. The system consists of a large area ion-chamber with a spatial gradient in electrode separation to provide a spatially sensitive signal for each beam segment, mounted below the MLC, and a calculation algorithm to predict the signal. IMRT plans of ten prostate patients have been modified in response to six randomly chosen setup errors in three orthogonal directions.Results: A total of approximately 49 beams for the modified fields were verified by the IQM system, of which 97% of measured IQM signal agree with the predicted value to within 2%.Conclusions: The modified IQM system was found to be suitable for online verification of adapted treatment fields.

  3. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  4. Responsive classroom management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stough, Laura

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Responsive classroom management.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Responsive classroom management.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Automatic Detection and Response to Environmental Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    conditions. This is useful for adapting to different lighting conditions or different flooring conditions of adapting to changing lighting conditions. The robot used in this work was built by Sony and is pictured to adapt to current operating conditions and the actions of other agents. Adapt- ing to current operating

  6. Model-reference adaptive control applied to load-following of a space-nuclear power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.; Parlos, A.G.; New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM . Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies; Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power systems are presently being investigated as an alternative for both commercial and military space power systems because of their projected longevity of 7 to 10 years, their mass advantage over other space power sources at powers above approximately 25 kW{sub e}, and their ability to operate without direct illumination from the sun. These space-nuclear power systems are being designed to supply from tens of kilowatts to multimegawatts of power for continuous operation of seven years and more. Space-nuclear power systems designs that meet these requirements will not be available for refueling or maintenance during their lifetime. To ensure that the space-nuclear power system will operate safely and will respond in a predictable and desired manner, the design of the system's controller must account for changes in the system parameters over its lifetime. This paper applies model-reference adaptive control to an increase in the power demand by the load. A model-reference adaptive controller will force the actual space-nuclear power system to follow the predictable and desired response of a reference model, despite changes in the actual system's operating parameters. Included in this paper are the model-reference adaptive control algorithm, the description of the computer simulation of a space-nuclear power system and the reference model, and results that demonstrate the application of model-reference adaptive control to a change in the load power demand. The results demonstrate that model-reference adaptive control can ensure the transient response of the system despite differences between the design of the system and the as-built system as well as for variations in the systems parameters. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Adaptable radiation monitoring system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Daniel E. (Livermore, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA); Mauger, G. Joseph (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Mercer, Michael B. (Manteca, CA); Pletcher, David C. (Sacramento, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Schek, James L. (Tracy, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-06-20

    A portable radioactive-material detection system capable of detecting radioactive sources moving at high speeds. The system has at least one radiation detector capable of detecting gamma-radiation and coupled to an MCA capable of collecting spectral data in very small time bins of less than about 150 msec. A computer processor is connected to the MCA for determining from the spectral data if a triggering event has occurred. Spectral data is stored on a data storage device, and a power source supplies power to the detection system. Various configurations of the detection system may be adaptably arranged for various radiation detection scenarios. In a preferred embodiment, the computer processor operates as a server which receives spectral data from other networked detection systems, and communicates the collected data to a central data reporting system.

  8. Adaptive model training system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M; Lee, Vo

    2014-04-15

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  9. Adaptive model training system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M

    2014-11-18

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  10. Adaptive control for semilinear stochastic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Tyrone E.; Maslowski, Bozenna J.; Pasik-Duncan, B.

    2000-01-01

    (t) = u˜(X(t)), is also considered where u˜ ? ˜ U and ˜ U = {u˜ : H ? B R | u˜ is Borel measurable}.(2.3) The cost functionals J(x, ?, u) and ˜ J(x, u) are given as J(x, ?, u) = E x,u ? ? 0 e ??t (?(X(t)) + h(u(t)))dt(2.4) and ˜ J(x, u) = lim inf T?? E x... of the unknown parameter ? and to determine an adaptive control from the family of admissible controls such that the optimal ergodic cost, inf u?U ˜ J(x, u), is achieved. The following assumptions are selectively used in the paper. (A1) The linear operator Q = Q...

  11. Wavefront Control for Extreme Adaptive Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyneer, L A

    2003-07-16

    Current plans for Extreme Adaptive Optics systems place challenging requirements on wave-front control. This paper focuses on control system dynamics, wave-front sensing and wave-front correction device characteristics. It may be necessary to run an ExAO system after a slower, low-order AO system. Running two independent systems can result in very good temporal performance, provided specific design constraints are followed. The spatially-filtered wave-front sensor, which prevents aliasing and improves PSF sensitivity, is summarized. Different models of continuous and segmented deformable mirrors are studied. In a noise-free case, a piston-tip-tilt segmented MEMS device can achieve nearly equivalent performance to a continuous-sheet DM in compensating for a static phase aberration with use of spatial filtering.

  12. Forecasting changes in population genetic structure of alpine plants in response to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François, Olivier

    Forecasting changes in population genetic structure of alpine plants in response to global warming the European Alps, we applied this approach to 20 alpine plant species considering a global increase populations potentially adapted to warmer environments and other populations. While a global trend of movement

  13. Distributed Multi-Period Optimal Power Flow for Demand Response in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeoh, William

    Distributed Multi-Period Optimal Power Flow for Demand Response in Microgrids Paul Scott1 direction method of multipliers (ADMM), can be adapted to remain practical in this challenging microgrid discrete decisions. Our experiments on a suburb-sized microgrid show that the AC power flows and a simple

  14. On Using Complex Event Processing for Dynamic Demand Response Optimization in Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Kai

    On Using Complex Event Processing for Dynamic Demand Response Optimization in Microgrid Qunzhi Zhou Processing (CEP) patterns to model and detect dynamic situations in a campus microgrid to facilitate adaptive these patterns on realtime events in the USC Campus microgrid using our CEP framework. Index Terms

  15. Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed: High Contrast Measurements with a MEMS Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J W; Morzinski, K; Reza, L; Severson, S; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Dillon, D; Sommargren, G

    2005-08-16

    ''Extreme'' adaptive optics systems are optimized for ultra-high-contrast applications, such as ground-based extrasolar planet detection. The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. We use a simple optical design to minimize wavefront error and maximize the experimentally achievable contrast. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Previously, we have demonstrated RMS wavefront errors of <1.5 nm and a contrast of >10{sup 7} over a substantial region using a shaped pupil without a deformable mirror. Current work includes the installation and characterization of a 1024-actuator Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) deformable mirror, manufactured by Boston Micro-Machines for active wavefront control. Using the PSDI as the wavefront sensor we have flattened the deformable mirror to <1 nm within the controllable spatial frequencies and measured a contrast in the far field of >10{sup 6}. Consistent flattening required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. Ultimately this testbed will be used to test all aspects of the system architecture for an extrasolar planet-finding AO system.

  16. Lead User's theory adapted to services: Towards Service User's Toolkit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lead User's theory adapted to services: Towards Service User's Toolkit E. Stevens Prof under the perspective of networks and communities. Lead User's theory (LUT) focused mainly is to adapt lead user's theory and practice to the specific case of the intangible processes and services

  17. Fast Concurrent Dynamic Linking for an Adaptive Operating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walpole, Jonathan

    Fast Concurrent Dynamic Linking for an Adaptive Operating System Crispin Cowan, Tito Autrey operating system is one that can adapt to some particular circumstance to gain some functional or perfor due to the cost of inter-process protection barriers. Commercial operating systems that can e ciently

  18. CONTEXTUALLY ADAPTIVE SIGNAL REPRESENTATION USING CONDITIONAL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajashekar, Umesh

    is the construction of bases that are adapted to individual signal in- stances. Here we develop a new framework. Index Terms-- Adaptive basis, conditional PCA, self-similarities, image modeling, image representation traditional methods, primarily due to the cost of encoding the indices of selected basis elements

  19. The evolution of imitation and mirror neurons in adaptive agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    The evolution of imitation and mirror neurons in adaptive agents Action editor: Luc Berthouze evolutionary adaptive agents that demonstrate imitative learn- ing, facilitating a comprehensive study The past 20 years have seen a renewed interest in imitation in various fields of research (Prinz & 1389

  20. On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models Emil M. Constantinescu and Adrian res- olution system for modeling regional air pollution based on the chemical transport model STEM. Keywords: Air Pollution Modeling, Adaptive Mesh Refinement. 1 Introduction Inadequate grid resolution can

  1. Hardware Implementation of the LMS Adaptive Filter for a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    Hardware Implementation of the LMS Adaptive Filter for a Brain-Machine Interface March 13, 2002@cnel.ufl.edu Advisors: Dr. José C. Principe Dr. Karl Gugel #12;Outline · Introduction · BMI Project Overview · LMS Adaptive Filter · TI C33 DSP · C33 PCI Development Board · Mathematics in DSP · LMS in DSP · Results

  2. MEANSQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE MULTIPLEERROR AND BLOCK LMS ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Scott C.

    MEAN­SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE MULTIPLE­ERROR AND BLOCK LMS ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS S. C. Douglas filters share a common multiple­error LMS algorithm update, given by W k+1 = W k +¯X k (D k \\Gamma X T k W k ): (1) In this paper, we examine the mean­square per­ formance of the multiple­error LMS adaptive

  3. ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT FREQUENCY DOMAIN METHOD FOR EDDY CURRENT PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Weiying

    ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT FREQUENCY DOMAIN METHOD FOR EDDY CURRENT PROBLEMS WEIYING ZHENG-harmonic eddy current problems in the case of three-dimensional isotropic and linear materials. We adopt. Time-harmonic Maxwell's equations, eddy current, adaptive finite element method, multiply connected

  4. SERVICE OUTAGE BASED ADAPTIVE TRANSMISSION IN FADING CHANNELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, Roy

    SERVICE OUTAGE BASED ADAPTIVE TRANSMISSION IN FADING CHANNELS BY JIANGHONG LUO A dissertation OF THE DISSERTATION Service Outage Based Adaptive Transmission in Fading Channels by Jianghong Luo Dissertation Director: Prof. Roy Yates, Prof. Predrag Spasojevi´c The service outage based allocation problem explores

  5. WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST of Thesis: Wind Speed Variability and Adaptation Strategies in Coastal Areas of the Pacific Northwest/Approved: ___________________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present

  6. Optimizing Monitoring Requirements in Self-Adaptive , Alberto Griggio2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the system environment is a key functionality of a self- adaptive system. Monitoring requirements denoteOptimizing Monitoring Requirements in Self-Adaptive Systems Raian Ali1 , Alberto Griggio2 , Anders Kessler, Italy 3 Jasper Design Automation, Sweden 4 DISI, University of Trento, Italy Abstract. Monitoring

  7. 9 Towards Adaptive Management of Native Vegetation in Regional Landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgman, Mark

    in the approach to defining management objectives and specifying assumptions behind vegetation change models9 Towards Adaptive Management of Native Vegetation in Regional Landscapes David H Duncan1 of the `adaptive management' paradigm to natural resource man- agement, using regional management of native

  8. Power-Efficient Adaptable Wireless Sensor Networks , David Evans2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, David

    Power-Efficient Adaptable Wireless Sensor Networks John Lach1 , David Evans2 , Jon McCune3 , Jason the flexibility necessary for the adaptations required of wireless sensor networks without the penalties Engineering3 , Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract Wireless sensor networks represent a new data collection paradigm

  9. Rate Adaptation in MIMO Antenna Selection System with Imperfect CSIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhashyam, Srikrishna

    constant power and rate will lead to block errors during the poor channel conditions or under utilization that encompasses feedback delay, estimation errors and prediction. However, rate adaptation has not been consideredRate Adaptation in MIMO Antenna Selection System with Imperfect CSIT T. R. Ramya and Srikrishna

  10. Adaptive Grids for Weather and Climate Models C. Jablonowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Quentin F.

    Adaptive Grids for Weather and Climate Models C. Jablonowski National Center for Atmospheric have been discussed in the literature. Nested-grid approaches are widely used at National Weather.: ADAPTIVE GRIDS FOR WEATHER AND CLIMATE MODELS two grids coincide. Other variable-resolution models

  11. AN INVESTIGATION INTO SUBSPACE RAPID SPEAKER ADAPTATION FOR VERIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    verification. 1. INTRODUCTION The rapid adaptation of speaker models for the purposes of speaker verification topic, with current state of the art speaker verification sys- tems based on hidden Markov models (HMMsAN INVESTIGATION INTO SUBSPACE RAPID SPEAKER ADAPTATION FOR VERIFICATION Simon Lucey and Tsuhan

  12. 2003 Special issue Statistical efficiency of adaptive algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widrow, Bernard

    2003 Special issue Statistical efficiency of adaptive algorithms Bernard Widrow*, Max Kamenetsky Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA Abstract The statistical efficiency of a learning algorithm applied gradient descent adaptive algorithms are compared, the LMS algorithm and the LMS/Newton algorithm. LMS

  13. SPRING 2012 MATH 750-Stochastic Adaptive Control Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

    SPRING 2012 MATH 750-Stochastic Adaptive Control Theory CLASS HOURS: 1:00­ 2:15, WF, 564 Snow Hall adaptive control theory is concerned with recursive estimation of unknown parameters and control, manufacturing processes, and financial economics. Mathematical theory of identification, control and stochastic

  14. Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackledge, Todd

    LETTER Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Todd A. Blackledge1 *, Jonathan A-mail: tab42@cornell.edu Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs have been primarily considered to be foraging adaptations, neglecting

  15. Energy Efficient Routing with Adaptive Data Fusion in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yonghe

    Energy Efficient Routing with Adaptive Data Fusion in Sensor Networks Hong Luo College of Computer Adaptive Fusion Steiner Tree (AFST), for energy efficient data gathering in sensor networks that jointly, other networks may require complex operations for data fusion1 . Energy consumption of beamforming

  16. Appears in the SIGGRAPH 2001 Conference Proceedings. Adaptive Shadow Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bala, Kavita

    Appears in the SIGGRAPH 2001 Conference Proceedings. Adaptive Shadow Maps Randima Fernando introduce aliasing. This paper introduces the Adaptive Shadow Map (ASM) as a solution to this problem. An ASM removes aliasing by resolving pixel size mismatches between the eye view and the light source view

  17. Performance of Subaru adaptive optics system and the scientific results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iye, Masanori

    Performance of Subaru adaptive optics system and the scientific results Hideki Takami*a , Naruhisa Institute, Heidelberg ABSTRACT We present an overview of Subaru Cassegrain adaptive optics system and its light in Dec. 2000. The AO system has been in service for two instruments, IRCS; infrared camera

  18. Adaptive Optics at the Subaru Telescope: current capabilities and development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyon, Olivier

    Adaptive Optics at the Subaru Telescope: current capabilities and development Olivier Guyona Barbara, CA 93106, USA ABSTRACT Adaptive optics is a key component of Subaru Telescope's current-limited images in near-IR. In its LGS mode, laser light is transported from the solid state laser to the launch

  19. A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror C. Paterson, I. Munro and J. C. Dainty 2BZ, UK carlp@ic.ac.uk Abstract: A low cost adaptive optics system constructed almost en- tirely a diffractive wavefront generator based on a ferroelectric spatial light modulator. This is used to produce

  20. Adaptive Evolution of Eye Degeneration in the Mexican Blind Cavefish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteiro, Antónia

    Adaptive Evolution of Eye Degeneration in the Mexican Blind Cavefish W. R. JEFFERY Department degeneration in cave-adapted animals have not been resolved. Opposing hypotheses invoking neural mutation-dwelling forms (cavefish), which shed new light on this problem. The manner of eye development and degeneration

  1. Plane-wave fluorescence tomography with adaptive finite elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bangerth, Wolfgang

    Plane-wave fluorescence tomography with adaptive finite elements Amit Joshi Photon Migration reflectance imaging setup. The method employs planar illumination with modulated light and frequency domain fluo- rescence measurements made on the illumination plane. An adaptive finite-element algorithm

  2. Adaptive Probabilistic Visual Tracking with Incremental Subspace Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    Adaptive Probabilistic Visual Tracking with Incremental Subspace Update David Ross1 , Jongwoo Lim2 of the objects being tracked are invariant to internal appearance change or external variation such as lighting at the outset. In this paper, we present an adaptive probabilistic tracking algorithm that updates the models

  3. Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical Martin Aeschlimann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschlimann, Martin

    LETTERS Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields Martin Aeschlimann1 , Michael Bauer2 , Christian Spindler3 & Felix Steeb1 Adaptive shaping of the phase and amplitude of femtosecond laser pulses to approximately half the wavelength of the light field (that is, several hundred nanometres). Theory has indicated

  4. Color Halftoning with Stochastic Dithering and Adaptive Clustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    Color Halftoning with Stochastic Dithering and Adaptive Clustering Luiz Velho, Jonas Gomes IMPA.). In this paper we introduce a new halftoning technique for color reproduction. The algorithm adapts to a wide Color Separation and Halftoning Color printing is based on a reflective light process. The ink

  5. Adaptive Independence Samplers J. M. Keith a,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroese, Dirk P.

    Adaptive Independence Samplers J. M. Keith a,1,2 , D. P. Kroese b,1 , G. Yu. Sofronov b,1, a and mixing properties. One way to accelerate convergence and mixing is to adapt the proposal distribution in light of previously sampled points, thus increasing the prob- ability of acceptance. In this paper, we

  6. Towards a Repulsive and Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Simone

    proposes a Repulsive Adaptive PSO (RAPSO) variant that adaptively optimizes the velocity weights of ev- ery particle at every iteration. RAPSO optimizes the ve- locity weights during every outer PSO iteration, and opti- mizes the solution of the problem in an inner PSO iteration. We compare RAPSO to Global Best PSO

  7. View-Dependent Articulated-Body Simulation with Adaptive Forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    View-Dependent Articulated-Body Simulation with Adaptive Forward Dynamics Daseong Han KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology) #12;2 Outline Introduction Related Work Simulation Levels and Conquer Algorithm(DCA) For Forward Dynamics Adaptive Forward Dynamics(AFD) View-dependent Forward

  8. A Hybrid RNS Adaptive Filter for Channel Equalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Hybrid RNS Adaptive Filter for Channel Equalization G.L. Bernocchi, G.C. Cardarilli, A. Del Re, A-- In this work a hybrid Residue Number System (RNS) implementation of an adaptive FIR filter is presented or echo cancellation). In the literature, it has been shown that the RNS implementation of FIR filters

  9. Adaptive Optics in Astronomy Jay J. McCarthy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Adaptive Optics in Astronomy Jay J. McCarthy NW Computational Intelligence Laboratory Portland State University Abstract ­ The field of adaptive optics (AO) has developed as a means to correct for the phase disturbances of an optical signal by understanding the medium through which it passes. This paper

  10. DYNAMIC IMAGE SIMULATIONS FOR ADAPTIVE SENSOR PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    devices such as MEMS-based micromirrors can be modeled, but the desired overall sensor application oftenDYNAMIC IMAGE SIMULATIONS FOR ADAPTIVE SENSOR PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS Michael D. Presnara,b , John is necessary for predicting real-life performance of adaptive sensor models. Physics-based modeling

  11. AN ADAPTIVE SURFACE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD BASED ON VOLUME MESHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demlow, Alan

    studied in this paper. The paper of Dziuk [12] contains the first analysis of a finite element methodAN ADAPTIVE SURFACE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD BASED ON VOLUME MESHES ALAN DEMLOW AND MAXIM A. OLSHANSKII Abstract. In this paper we define an adaptive version of a recently introduced finite element

  12. Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program Dynamical Seasonal Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Eun-pa

    Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program El Nino Mean State · Easterlies westward surface current upwelling warmer & thermocline is deep eastward undercurrent El Nino ·+ve Bjerknes feedback Easterlies break down and Kelvin wavesEl Nino Equatorial Kelvin wave Off-equatorial Rossby wave #12;Pacific Adaptation Strategy

  13. ADAPTIVE OPTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR MICROWAVE-CARRIER BROADBAND SIGNALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    ADAPTIVE OPTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR MICROWAVE-CARRIER BROADBAND SIGNALS Paul Smith, Zoya Popovic antenna array in which adaptive processing of the received signals is performed by dynamic holographic to other signal-processing algorithms is also discussed. 1. INTRODUCTION A key challenge to present

  14. A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy y z and strength for the water­ mark embedding stage. We examine two such NVFs, based on either a non of the watermark estimation is equivalent to image denoising and derive content adaptive criteria. Re­ sults show

  15. A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiyyz function, that allows us to determine the optimal watermark locations and strength for the water- mark to image denoising and derive content adaptive criteria. Re- sults show that watermark visibility

  16. Validating the Evaluation of Adaptive Systems by User Profile Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bravo, Javier

    a simulation-based technique is proposed as an economic way for testing evaluation tools based on log analysisValidating the Evaluation of Adaptive Systems by User Profile Simulation Javier Bravo and Alvaro.ortigosa}@uam.es Abstract. Availability of automated tools and methods to evaluate adaptive systems is a fundamental

  17. ADAPTIVE MODELLING IN THE DESIGN OF INTERACTIVE DEVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prabhakar, Sattiraju

    are created by adapting old designs. The present work is motivated by two issues in building a computational in evolutionary design often are small, simple, local and routine. But evolutionary design in general includes of the device. But now consider the problem of adapting the design of a waterwheel to harness wind energy

  18. ADAPTIVE ONLINE ENERGY SAVING FOR HETEROGENEOUS SENSOR Meikang Qiu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sha, Edwin

    ADAPTIVE ONLINE ENERGY SAVING FOR HETEROGENEOUS SENSOR NETWORKS Meikang Qiu1 Jingtong Hu2 Edwin H-to-predict environments and have limited lifetime. We use a novel adaptive online energy saving (AOES) algorithm to save as a probabilistic random variable to save energy by se- lecting the best mode assignment for each node, which

  19. AN ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE WAVE ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-09-09

    Consider the acoustic wave scattering by an impenetrable obstacle in two dimensions. ... adaptive finite element algorithm is proposed for solving the acoustic ... element methods [19,20] and the boundary integral equation methods [11]. ...... rem 4.1, we use the PDE toolbox of MATLAB to implement the adaptive algorithm of.

  20. Modeling and Adaptive Control of Indoor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling and Adaptive Control of Indoor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Bernard Michini B;Modeling and Adaptive Control of Indoor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Bernard Michini Submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract The operation of unmanned aerial

  1. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  2. M. Flierl: Adaptive Spatial Wavelets for Motion-Compensated Orthogonal Video Transforms, IEEE ICIP, Cairo, Egypt, Nov. 2009. 1 ADAPTIVE SPATIAL WAVELETS FOR MOTION-COMPENSATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flierl, Markus

    , Cairo, Egypt, Nov. 2009. 1 ADAPTIVE SPATIAL WAVELETS FOR MOTION-COMPENSATED ORTHOGONAL VIDEO TRANSFORMS

  3. Adaptive and Non-Adaptive ISI Sparse Channel Estimation Based on SL0 and Its Application in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptive and Non-Adaptive ISI Sparse Channel Estimation Based on SL0 and Its Application in ML presented in [1] for estimation of sparse In- ter Symbol Interface (ISI) channels which will appear method based on SL0 sparse signal representation is proposed. ISI channel estimation will have a direct

  4. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADAPTIVE CONTROL AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Int. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process. 2008; 22:968986

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efe, Mehmet Önder

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADAPTIVE CONTROL AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Int. J. Adapt. Control Signal.ku Kasnako~glu Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, TOBB Economics and Technology University, S¨og¨ut¨oz¨u Cad. No. 43, TR-06560 S¨og¨ut¨oz¨u, Ankara, Turkey SUMMARY This paper presents a novel

  5. Adapt-Traf: An adaptive multiagent road traffic management system based on hybrid ant-hierarchical fuzzy model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

    of the energy consumption, and others. Road traffic management consists on improving the traffic fluency on roadAdapt-Traf: An adaptive multiagent road traffic management system based on hybrid ant systems Ant colony Hierarchical fuzzy system Traffic simulation a b s t r a c t Usually, road networks

  6. Design, Construction, and On-sky Performance of a MEMS-based uplink-Adaptive Optics System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    of Laser-Uplink Adaptive Optics for Astronomicalguidestar Adaptive Optics . . . . . . . . . 3.0.2 Producingand with (right) adaptive optics. The stars have a 0.3 arc

  7. Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

    2013-01-01

    Mirrors For Adaptive Optics, PhD Thesis, University ofFabrication Adaptive  optics  applications  in  astronomy  Max, Center for Adaptive Optics, University of California,

  8. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images in a family with the mitochondrial DNA T8993C mutation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inheritedAdaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Images in aof cone structure using adaptive optics scanning laser

  9. The Responsibilities of Engineers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Justin Douglas 1978-

    2012-12-06

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is key to answering ethical questions about the work of engineers, because the decisions made by engineers often have ethical dimensions and implications. Engineers develop and implement technologies...

  10. Response Resources Demonstration

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    be in New York City as opposed to Westchester for the fuel cell. New York City has higher electricity prices and higher demand response payments available. Also it wasn't clear if...

  11. Responsibility, Incompetence, and Psychopathy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brink, David O.

    2013-04-30

    that is significantly more demanding than a recognitional standard, especially if we focus on basic morality and the criminal law. The fair opportunity conception of responsibility seems to require only a recognitional capacity and perhaps a gradeability capacity... that is significantly more demanding than a recognitional standard, especially if we focus on basic morality and the criminal law. The fair opportunity conception of responsibility seems to require only a recognitional capacity and perhaps a gradeability capacity...

  12. Adaptive dynamic inversion of nonlinear systems subjected to control saturation constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tandale, Monish Deepak

    2007-09-17

    The adaptive dynamic inversion control methodology uses dynamic inversion to calculate the control, and adaptation to compensate for the errors in the inversion due to model uncertainties. Traditionally, adaptive control assumes full authority...

  13. Development and Use of Curricular Adaptations for Students Receiving Special Education Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Keegan, Lissa

    2012-11-30

    This study is a quasi-experimental descriptive design, with existing educator-made adaptations evaluated. The goals of this study were to (a) describe how educators develop adaptations and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of educator-made adaptations...

  14. Experimental Fluorescence Optical Tomography using Adaptive Finite Elements and Planar Illumination with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bangerth, Wolfgang

    Experimental Fluorescence Optical Tomography using Adaptive Finite Elements and Planar Illumination with Modulated Excitation Light Amit Joshia , Wolfgang Bangerthb , Alan B. Thompsona , and Eva M. Sevick adaptive discretization strategies. To date, the efficacy of adaptive mesh refinement techniques has yet

  15. Essays on Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change and Ethanol Market Integration in the U.S. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aisabokhae, Ruth 1980-

    2012-12-05

    Model (FASOM) shows adaptation to be highly beneficial to agriculture. On-farm varietal and other adaptations contributions outweigh a mix shift northwards significantly, implying progressive technical change and significant returns to adaptation...

  16. Adaptive protocols for mobile ad hoc networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Gavin Douglas

    2005-02-17

    to take advantage of the presence of multirate links. We then investigate the performance of iv TCP, showing how communication outages caused by link failures and routing delays can be very detrimental to its performance. In response, we present a solution.... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 62 15 Performance of RBAR when a simple heuristic is used by the sender to try and predict the best data rate for the conditions, in an e?ort to reduce the frequency of the necessity for reservation subheaders...

  17. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  18. GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clough, Katy; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2015-01-01

    Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into b...

  19. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several

  20. Final Report of project entitled "A metabolomics and mouse models approach to study inflammatory and immune responses to radiation"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornace, Albert J.; Li, Henghong

    2013-12-02

    The three-year project entitled ?A Metabolomics and Mouse Models Approach to Study Inflammatory and Immune Responses to Radiation? was initiated in September 2009. The overall objectives of this project were to investigate the acute and persistent effects of low dose radiation on T cell lymphocyte function and physiology, as well the contributions of these cells to radiation-induced inflammatory responses. Inflammation after ionizing radiation (IR), even at low doses, may impact a variety of disease processes, including infectious disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other potentially inflammatory disorders. There were three overall specific aims: 1. To investigate acute and persistent effects of low dose radiation on T cell subsets and function; 2. A genetic approach with mouse models to investigate p38 MAPK pathways that are involved in radiation-induced inflammatory signaling; 3. To investigate the effect of radiation quality on the inflammatory response. We have completed the work proposed in these aims. Below are our major accomplishments: ? Our data show that T cells from low dose irradiated animals have lower proliferation potency and cytokine production upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. This effect was observed as early as 4 hours after radiation, and lasted up to two weeks. ? Using our ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with highly sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF) metabolomics method, we demonstrated the global changes of metabolites in T cells upon TCR stimulation in a time-dependent pattern. ? We found that the TCR activation induced metabolome changes are remarkably altered in a dose-dependent manner after radiation. At a dose of 0.5 Gy and above, IR mitigated TCR activation induced metabolome changes while at the dose of as low as 0.1Gy IR had a mild stimulatory effect on some of the metabolome changes. ? We revealed the mechanism for how radiation affects T cell activation by showing that the energy supply pathways in activated T cells are greatly compromised after radiation. ? We demonstrated that low dose ionizing radiation has a variety of effects on different T cell subsets, and p38 plays an important role in these effects. ? The study with low dose proton radiation shows similar effects on T cell proliferation upon TCR activation. Our dose rate study with proton radiation indicates that at low dose rates, proton exposure has less detrimental effects on T cell activation. ? We have one published paper and several manuscripts submitted or in preparation. ? We presented our findings at multiple DOE low dose program workshops, RRS annual meetings and other conferences. Our project is the first to apply a cutting-edge metabolomics approach to study the effects of radiation on immune cell function. Our findings demonstrate that metabolomics is a powerful method, which not only has higher sensitivity than the classical immune cell biology endpoints, but also helps to reveal the underlying mechanisms providing evidence that T cell activation is a metabolically dynamic process. Our T cell subset study sheds light on the effects of radiation on different T cell subsets and relevant signaling pathways mediating these effects. We have proved that our metabolomics platform and the T cell subset differentiation methods are useful and informative approaches for investigation and assessment of immune cell function after radiation. Our mechanistic findings on metabolic pathways may help to identify potential targets for intervention.

  1. Advancing Adaptive Optics Technology: Laboratory Turbulence Simulation and Optimization of Laser Guide Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rampy, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domaincoherence tomography,” Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 10,of Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Simulated 10-Meter

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Climate Change Adaptation Policy Statement...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Climate Change Adaptation Policy Statement U.S. Department of Energy Climate Change Adaptation Policy Statement U.S. Department of Energy statement that commits the agency to...

  3. The effects of background adaptation and food availability on habitat preference of Corythoichthys flavofasciatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Neetha

    2012-01-01

    ADAPTATION AND FOOD AVAILABILITY ON HABITAT PREFERENCE OFchoice is related to the availability of food, presence ofbackground adaptation, food availability, or a combination

  4. Multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. David Brown; Lisa L. Lowe

    2005-03-22

    In this paper we describe in detail the computational algorithm used by our parallel multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement. Our code uses truncation error estimates to adaptively refine the grid as part of the solution process. The presentation includes a discussion of the orders of accuracy that we use for prolongation and restriction operators to ensure second order accurate results and to minimize computational work. Code tests are presented that confirm the overall second order accuracy and demonstrate the savings in computational resources provided by adaptive mesh refinement.

  5. TESTING THE APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPH ON THE LABORATORY FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS EXTREME ADAPTIVE OPTICS TESTBED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald [Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, University of California/Lick Observatories, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Soummer, Remi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Macintosh, Bruce [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, E-mail: sthomas@ucolick.org, E-mail: dillon@ucolick.org, E-mail: gavel@ucolick.org, E-mail: soummer@stsci.edu, E-mail: macintosh1@mail.llnl.gov, E-mail: anand@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We present testbed results of the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO). These results are part of the validation and tests of the coronagraph and of the Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The apodizer component is manufactured with a halftone technique using black chrome microdots on glass. Testing this APLC (like any other coronagraph) requires extremely good wavefront correction, which is obtained to the 1 nm rms level using the microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) technology, on the ExAO visible testbed of the LAO at the University of Santa Cruz. We used an APLC coronagraph without central obstruction, both with a reference super-polished flat mirror and with the MEMS to obtain one of the first images of a dark zone in a coronagraphic image with classical adaptive optics using a MEMS deformable mirror (without involving dark hole algorithms). This was done as a complementary test to the GPI coronagraph testbed at American Museum of Natural History, which studied the coronagraph itself without wavefront correction. Because we needed a full aperture, the coronagraph design is very different from the GPI design. We also tested a coronagraph with central obstruction similar to that of GPI. We investigated the performance of the APLC coronagraph and more particularly the effect of the apodizer profile accuracy on the contrast. Finally, we compared the resulting contrast to predictions made with a wavefront propagation model of the testbed to understand the effects of phase and amplitude errors on the final contrast.

  6. Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering Caltech Oct 2011 #12;Outline Caltech smart grid research Optimal demand response #12;Global trends 1

  7. Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komarek, Arnost

    Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response Often, support S of Y is S = (0, ). Logarithm is then one of transformations to consider when trying to obtain a correct (wrong. Model Building 1. Transformation of response #12;Logarithmic transformation of response When does

  8. A Dynamic Island Model for Adaptive Operator Selection Caner Candan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goëffon, Adrien

    A Dynamic Island Model for Adaptive Operator Selection Caner Candan LERIA - University of Angers Angers, France caner.candan@univ-angers.fr Adrien Goëffon LERIA - University of Angers Angers, France

  9. Building (as) performance : a material approach to adaptive architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitrov, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    One measure of performance in adaptive architecture is its ability the respond effectively to the environment and evolving program. As architects strive to create designs that respond to external change, more and more ...

  10. Improving Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and Adapting it...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and Adapting it to Improve Duty-cycle MPG - plus Increasing Propulsion and Reducing Cost Improving Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and...

  11. Parametric adaptive ltering and data validation in bar gw detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Parametric adaptive #12;ltering 2 1. Introduction Cryogenic and ultracryogenic gravitational waves (gw. For the AURIGA detector, it turns out convenient to freeze completely the parameters values during transients

  12. Adaptive High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Solution of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    Adaptive High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Solution of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Point Contact for the solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) point contact problems. These problems arise when modelling the thin lubricating film between contacts which are under sufficiently high pressure

  13. Autonomous & adaptive oceanographic feature tracking on board autonomous underwater vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petillo, Stephanie Marie

    2015-01-01

    The capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and their ability to perform tasks both autonomously and adaptively are rapidly improving, and the desire to quickly and efficiently sample the ocean environment ...

  14. The role of research scientists in adaptive management programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenard, Steven R. (Steven Robert), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effectiveness of the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) in improving and increasing the contributions of scientists to natural resource management decision-making. Natural resource ...

  15. Adaptive Nodal Transport Methods for Reactor Transient Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Downar; E. Lewis

    2005-08-31

    Develop methods for adaptively treating the angular, spatial, and time dependence of the neutron flux in reactor transient analysis. These methods were demonstrated in the DOE transport nodal code VARIANT and the US NRC spatial kinetics code, PARCS.

  16. Adaptive versus nonadaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrow, Aram W.

    We provide a simple example that illustrates the advantage of adaptive over nonadaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination. In particular, we give a pair of entanglement-breaking channels that can be perfectly ...

  17. Adaptive control of hypersonic vehicles in presence of actuation uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somanath, Amith

    2010-01-01

    The thesis develops a new class of adaptive controllers that guarantee global stability in presence of actuation uncertainties. Actuation uncertainties culminate to linear plants with a partially known input matrix B. ...

  18. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann1 and Paul Houston, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany Ralf.Hartmann@dlr.de 2 School of Mathematical Sciences University

  19. MULTITARGET ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY IN AERODYNAMIC FLOW SIMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    MULTI­TARGET ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY IN AERODYNAMIC FLOW SIMULATIONS RALF HARTMANN of Scientific Computing, TU Braunschweig, Germany (Ralf.Hartmann@dlr.de). 1 #12; 2 R. HARTMANN

  20. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann, Joachim Held), Lilien- thalplatz 7, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany, e-mail: Ralf.Hartmann@dlr.de 1 #12;2 Ralf Hartmann

  1. MULTITARGET ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY IN AERODYNAMIC FLOW SIMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    MULTITARGET ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY IN AERODYNAMIC FLOW SIMULATIONS RALF HARTMANN Abstract, Germany (Ralf.Hartmann@dlr.de). 1 #12;2 R. HARTMANN quantity under consideration. However, in many

  2. Finishing touches : adaptive graphic design that leverages human creativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norton, William Kelly

    2006-01-01

    This thesis proposes the investigation of a distributed architecture to facilitate automatic adaptation of graphical representation in digital documents to constraints imposed by the presentation device. The goal of the ...

  3. Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brokish, Kevin Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy penetration. Frequency-adaptive intelligent appliances are ...

  4. Multidisciplinary adaptive wireless communication systems: Reconfigurable MEMS integrated antennas &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    Multidisciplinary adaptive wireless communication systems: Reconfigurable MEMS integrated antennas of California, Irvine, USA Wireless communication systems with reconfigurability capabilities that can for the next generation communication scenarios. A communication system capable of changing its output

  5. Adapting a delay-based protocol to heterogeneous environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotla, Kiran

    2008-10-10

    We investigate the issues in making a delay-based protocol adaptive to heterogeneous environments. We assess and address the problems a delay-based protocol faces when competing with a loss-based protocol such as TCP. We ...

  6. Grid adaptation for functional outputs of compressible flow simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, David Anthony, 1973-

    2002-01-01

    An error correction and grid adaptive method is presented for improving the accuracy of functional outputs of compressible flow simulations. The procedure is based on an adjoint formulation in which the estimated error in ...

  7. A dual adaptive control theory inspired by Hebbian associative learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poon, Chi-Sang

    Hebbian associative learning is a common form of neuronal adaptation in the brain and is important for many physiological functions such as motor learning, classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Here we show that ...

  8. Adaptive tool selection strategies for drilling in flexible manufacturing systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chander, Karthik Balachandran

    2004-09-30

    ) layout. The system designed serves as back end intelligence to drilling machines (INTELLIDRILL) in a Flexible Manufacturing System for making dynamic and real time decisions. INTELLIDRILL uses mathematical and adaptive tool reliability models to simulate...

  9. Parameter Identification with Adaptive Sparse Grid-based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greg Buzzard

    2009-08-12

    ascertain if the hypotheses reflected in the model structure is consistent with the available ..... values can be roughly estimated by back-of-the-envelope calculations or ..... The adaptive sparse grid is designed map the cost function onto the ...

  10. Nonlinear adaptive control using radial basis function approximants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petersen, Jerry Lee

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present an adaptive control strategy using the radial basis function approximation method. Surface approximation methods using radial basis function approximants will first be discussed. ...

  11. Hyperparameter Tuning in Bandit-Based Adaptive Operator Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacula, Maciej

    We are using bandit-based adaptive operator selection while autotuning parallel computer programs. The autotuning, which uses evolutionary algorithm-based stochastic sampling, takes place over an extended duration and ...

  12. How to Integrate Climate Change Adaptation into National-Level...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How to Integrate Climate Change Adaptation into National-Level Policy and Planning in the Water Sector Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: How to Integrate...

  13. Adaptive Distributed Parameter and Input Estimation in Plasma Tokamak Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Keywords: Thermonuclear fusion, distributed parameter systems, input state and parameter estimation, adaptive infinite-dimensional estimation, Galerkin method 1. INTRODUCTION In a controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor, the plasma thermal diffusivity and heating energy play an important role

  14. POLICY PERSPECTIVE Adapting conservation easements to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rissman, Adena

    that protect against termination but compli- cate decisions about principled, conservation-oriented adaptation- vation toolbox. A CE is a voluntary, typically permanent, partial in- terest in property created through

  15. Unsteady adjoint analysis for output sensitivity and mesh adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakos, Joshua Ambre

    2012-01-01

    Adjoint analysis in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to design optimization and mesh adaptation, but due to the relative expense of unsteady analysis these applications have predominantly been for steady ...

  16. Adaptive Ray Tracing for Radiative Transfer around Point Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel; Benjamin D. Wandelt

    2001-11-01

    We describe a novel adaptive ray tracing scheme to solve the equation of radiative transfer around point sources in hydrodynamical simulations. The angular resolution adapts to the local hydrodynamical resolution and hence is of use for adaptive meshes as well as adaptive smooth particle hydrodynamical simulations. Recursive creation of rays ensures ease of implementation. The multiple radial integrations needed to solve the time dependent radiative transfer are sped up significantly using a quad-tree once the rays are cast. Simplifications advantageous for methods with one radiation source are briefly discussed. The suggested method is easily generalized to speed up Monte Carlo radiative transfer techniques. In summary a nearly optimal use of long characteristics is presented and aspects of its implementation and comparison to other methods are given.

  17. Adaptive Algorithms for the Rejection of Sinusoidal Disturbances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Scott C.

    Adaptive Algorithms for the Rejection of Sinusoidal Disturbances with Unknown Frequency Marc Bodson Abstract Two algorithms are presented for the rejection of sinusoidal disturbances with un­ known frequency presented in which frequency estimation and disturbance cancellation are performed simultaneously. Ap

  18. Hell and High Water: Practice-Relevant Adaptation Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Richard H.; Meehl, G.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Smith, J. B.; Arnold, J. R.; Arnott, J. C.; Behar, D.; Brasseur, Guy P.; Broomell, S. B.; Busalacchi, Antonio; Dessai, S.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Edmonds, James A.; Furlow, J.; Goddard, L.; Hartmann, Holly; Hurrell, Jim; Katzenberger, J. W.; Liverman, D. M.; Mote, Phil; Moser, S. C.; Kumar, A.; Pulwarty, Roger; Seyller, E. A.; Turner, B.L.; Washington, Warren M.; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2013-11-08

    Recent extreme weather such as Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 drought demonstrate the vulnerability of the United States to climate extremes in the present and point to the potential for increased future damages under a changing climate. They also provide lessons for reducing harm and realizing any potential benefits. Preparedness measures – also referred to as adaptation – can cost-effectively increase resilience today and in the future. The upfront costs will be more than offset by reductions in property damage, lives and livelihoods lost, and expensive post-disaster recovery processes. While others have addressed use of science for adaptation in specific sectors including biodiversity (Heller and Zavaleta, 2009) and freshwater ecosystem management (Wilby et al., 2010), or by simply taking a more pragmatic approach to adaptation under uncertainty (Hallegatte, 2009), here the authors make the case that a new, comprehensive approach is needed to create and use science to inform adaptations with applicable and sound knowledge (Kerr et al., 2011).

  19. Adaptive sliding mode control for a class of chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farid, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Zalam, B.

    2015-03-30

    Chaos control here means to design a controller that is able to mitigating or eliminating the chaos behavior of nonlinear systems that experiencing such phenomenon. In this paper, an Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller (ASMC) is presented based on Lyapunov stability theory. The well known Chua's circuit is chosen to be our case study in this paper. The study shows the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller.

  20. Sociological adaptation among bacterial populations in an activated sludge ecosystem 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Robert George

    1970-01-01

    SOCIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AMONG BACTERIAL POPULATIONS IN AN ACT1VATED SLUDGE ECOSYSTEM A Thesis by Robert George Forrest Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARK University in partial flilfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1970 Major Subject& Microbiology SOCIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AMONG BACTERIAL POPULkTIONS IN AN ACTIVATE) SLUDGE ECOSYSTEM A Thesis by Robert George Forrest Approved as to style and content by& (Co-Chairman of Committee) (Co...