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1

Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Merril Eisenbud, January 26, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Merril Eisenbud was interviewed on January 26, 1995 by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Eisenbud relates his remembrances as the AEC`s first industrial hygienist, the setting up of AEC`s Health and Safety Laboratory, monitoring radioactive fallout, and use or exposure of humans to radiation.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham`s involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as a researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D., January 16, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Cornelius A. Tobias was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). He was chosen for this interview because of his extensive biophysics and medical physics research activities while he was employed by the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco and at the Donner Laboratory. He discusses his involvement in wartime studies of effects of high altitude on aviators, carbon monoxide with radioactive tracers, blood studies with radioactive iron, human use committees, heavy-ion research with the Bevatron, boron isotope research, classified research involving human subjects, heavy-particle radiography, heavy- particle beams and medical research, and pituitary irradiation studies,.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 20, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report is a transcript of in interview of Dr. James S. Robertson by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Robertson was chosen for this interview because of his research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); his work at the United States Naval Defense Laboratory; and his work at the Atomic Energy Commission. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Robertson discusses research on human subjects at Berkeley, his contributions to the beginnings of Neutron Capture Therapy at Brookhaven, his participation with the Brookhaven Human Use Committee, his involvement in the study of the effects of Castle Bravo event on the Marshallese, and his work with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission`s biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940`s and 1950`s including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of radiologist Henry I. Kohn, M.D., Ph.D., conducted September 13, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Henry I. Kohn by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Kohn was selected for this interview because of the positions he held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California at San Francisco, and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Kohn discussed his remembrances of his experiences in blood chemistry of animals and patients exposed to radiation, and his remembrances of several radiobiologists.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Synchrotron radiation studies of the  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two questions thought to have a significant effect on SiC-MOS device characteristics are treated. The existence of carbon clusters or carbon containing by-products and the existence of sub-oxides at the SiO2/SiC interface. Results of photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation of the interface of the Si-terminated surface of n-type SiC(0001) crystals are presented. The results show that no carbon clusters or carbon containing by-product can be detected at the interface of in situ or ex situ grown samples with an oxide layer thickness larger than  Å. The presence of sub-oxides at the SiO2/SiC interface was predicted in a theoretical calculation and has been revealed in Si 2p core level data by several groups. These results were not unanimous; significant differences in the number of sub-oxide and shifts were reported. A study also including the Si 1s core level and Si KLL Auger transitions was therefore made. These data show the presence of only one sub-oxide at the interface, assigned to Si1+ oxidation states. The SiO2 chemical shift is shown to exhibit a dependence on oxide thickness, similar to but smaller in magnitude than the thickness dependence earlier revealed for SiO2/Si.

L I Johansson; C Virojanadara

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Computer-Savvy Son Remembered With Scholarships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computer-Savvy Son Remembered With Scholarships When they met while working at Cal State Fullerton to computer science students to date. Now they have established a $60,000 endowment to provide two scholarships annually to computer sci- ence students in the name of John Browning, Bobbe Browning's son, who

de Lijser, Peter

9

Remembering Fukushima: PNNL Monitors Radiation from Nuclear Disaster  

SciTech Connect

Senior Scientist Harry Miley describes how his work in ultra-trace, nuclear detection technology picked up the first reading of radiological materials over the U.S. following the nuclear power plant explosion in Japan.

Miley, Harry

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

10

Remembering Fukushima: PNNL Monitors Radiation from Nuclear Disaster  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Senior Scientist Harry Miley describes how his work in ultra-trace, nuclear detection technology picked up the first reading of radiological materials over the U.S. following the nuclear power plant explosion in Japan.

Miley, Harry

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

11

Experimental and Computational Studies of Electric Thruster Plasma Radiation Emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental and Computational Studies of Electric Thruster Plasma Radiation Emission Murat Celik Thruster Plasma Radiation Emission by Murat C¸elik B.S., Aerospace Engineering and Physics, University;Experimental and Computational Studies of Electric Thruster Plasma Radiation Emission by Murat C¸elik Submitted

12

ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Campaign Links CARES Website Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding 2010.05.26, Zaveri, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering 2010.05.26, Arnott, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES): SMPS & CCN counter deployment during CARES/Cal-NEx 2010.05.04, Wang, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Ground Based Instruments 2010.04.01, Cziczo, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

13

Remember the Batteries - and Maybe a Charger? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remember the Batteries - and Maybe a Charger? Remember the Batteries - and Maybe a Charger? Remember the Batteries - and Maybe a Charger? December 21, 2010 - 11:20am Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Happy holidays, everyone! No matter what holidays you observe in December, chances are you are getting gifts for someone. Yes, okay, that's a little crude-there's a whole lot more to any of the holidays than gifts-but chances are, you got something, or got something for someone. And some of those somethings probably need batteries. Back when I was much younger, batteries were one of the crucial elements of Christmas. We'd get a ton of toys, and then someone would have to have the foresight to buy a bunch of batteries. And while my family is blessed with someone who plans so thoroughly that we had a mighty stockpile of every

14

Never Again: Remembering the Holocaust, as Government and as Individuals |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Never Again: Remembering the Holocaust, as Government and as Never Again: Remembering the Holocaust, as Government and as Individuals Never Again: Remembering the Holocaust, as Government and as Individuals May 1, 2012 - 10:27am Addthis President Barack Obama and Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel light candles in the Hall of Remembrance during a tour of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., April 23, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza) President Barack Obama and Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel light candles in the Hall of Remembrance during a tour of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., April 23, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza) Last week, President Obama spoke at the United States Holocaust Memorial

15

Studies about Space Radiation Promote New Fields in Radiation Biology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the ISS will depend on economical conditions. OUR GOAL...Study in the effects of solar ultraviolet light (UV-B...billion years ago by solar ultraviolet light. At...layer. Therefore, the energy from solar UV was stronger than......

Takeo Ohnishi; Akihisa Takahashi; Ken Ohnishi

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Power line harmonic radiation: A systematic study using DEMETER spacecraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power line harmonic radiation: A systematic study using DEMETER spacecraft F. Nemec a,b,*, O of a systematic survey of Power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) observed by the DEMETER spacecraft. DEME- TER frequency spacing corresponds well to the power system frequency at anticipated source locations. Moreover

Santolik, Ondrej

17

Remembering Neil Armstrong ron.huston@uc.edu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remembering Neil Armstrong Ron Huston ron.huston@uc.edu 513-556-6133 As far as I know I am one of only a very few faculty members who knew Neil Armstrong while he was with us at UC. Others who knew him by many at the time was: Why would Neil Armstrong want to join us at UC when he could have gone virtually

Franco, John

18

Oral Histories: Radiation Biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 HUMAN RADIATION STUDIES: REMEMBERING THE EARLY YEARS Oral History of Radiation Biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D. Conducted December 22, 1994 United States Department of Energy Office of Human Radiation Experiments September 1995 CONTENTS Foreword Short Biography Educational Background and Early Involvement in Radiation Research Brookhaven Acquaintances and Early Hospital Research (Circa 1952) Vulnerable Populations and Acceptable Risks Research at the University of Rochester (1952-57) Relationship with Newell Stannard and Stafford Warren (1952-57) Participation in "Project Sunshine" and Move to the University of California, Davis (Mid '50s to '58) Participation in Beagle Studies at the University of California at Davis (1958 to '60s) Budget Concerns and Goldman's Other Radiation Research Projects (1965 to Late '60s)

19

Making the future memorable: The phenomenology of remembered episodic simulations Victoria C. Martin1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Making the future memorable: The phenomenology of remembered episodic simulations Victoria C event, as well as the phenomenology of the event itself, influence its memorability. Conclusion Imagined

Addis, Donna Rose

20

Radiation dose measurement in gastrointestinal studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Technology, PO Box 1908, Khartoum, Sudan 2 Medical Physics Department...has been limited up to now in Sudan. DRL for barium studies have...All the TLD chips had the same thermal history. The calibration cycle...quality control tests performed by Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. Investigation......

A. Sulieman; M. Elzaki; C. Kappas; K. Theodorou

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2012 Workforce Study: The Radiation Oncologists' and Residents' Perspectives  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) conducted the 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce Survey to obtain an up-to-date picture of the workforce, assess its needs and concerns, and identify quality and safety improvement opportunities. The results pertaining to radiation oncologists (ROs) and residents (RORs) are presented here. Methods: The ASTRO Workforce Subcommittee, in collaboration with allied radiation oncology professional societies, conducted a survey study in early 2012. An online survey questionnaire was sent to all segments of the radiation oncology workforce. Respondents who were actively working were included in the analysis. This manuscript describes the data for ROs and RORs. Results: A total of 3618 ROs and 568 RORs were surveyed. The response rate for both groups was 29%, with 1047 RO and 165 ROR responses. Among ROs, the 2 most common racial groups were white (80%) and Asian (15%), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.85 (74% male). The median age of ROs was 51. ROs averaged 253.4 new patient consults in a year and 22.9 on-treatment patients. More than 86% of ROs reported being satisfied or very satisfied overall with their career. Close to half of ROs reported having burnout feelings. There was a trend toward more frequent burnout feelings with increasing numbers of new patient consults. ROs' top concerns were related to documentation, reimbursement, and patients' health insurance coverage. Ninety-five percent of ROs felt confident when implementing new technology. Fifty-one percent of ROs thought that the supply of ROs was balanced with demand, and 33% perceived an oversupply. Conclusions: This study provides a current snapshot of the 2012 radiation oncology physician workforce. There was a predominance of whites and men. Job satisfaction level was high. However a substantial fraction of ROs reported burnout feelings. Perceptions about supply and demand balance were mixed. ROs top concerns reflect areas of attention for the healthcare sector as a whole.

Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@iuhealth.org [Indiana University Health East, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Miller, Robert [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Azawi, Samar [VA Veteran Hospital/University of California Irvine, Newport Beach, California (United States); Arnone, Anna; Patton, Caroline [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Technical Sessions A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Study of Longwave Radiation A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models R. G. Ellingson F. Baer Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Introduction the radiation sensitivity problem. We anticipate that the outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and a better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the equilibrium climate of the atmosphere. Nature of Longwave Problems Longwave radiation quantities-radiances, fluxes and heating rates-are usually calculated in GCM models as the cloud amount weighted average of the values for clear and homogeneous cloud conditions. For example, the downward flux at the surface, F, may be written as

23

Experimental studies of radiation damage of silicon detectors. Internal report  

SciTech Connect

New particle physics experiments are correlated with high luminosity and/or high energy. The new generation of colliding beam machines which will be constructed will make an extrapolation of a factor of 100 in the center of mass energy and of 1000 in luminosity beyond present accelerators. The scientific community hopes that very exciting physics results could be achieved this way, from the solution to the problem of electroweak symmetry breaking to the possible discovery of new, unpredicted phenomena. The particles which compose the radiation field are: electrons, pions, neutrons, protons and photons. It has become evident that the problem of the radiation resistance of detectors in this severe environment is a crucial one. This situation is complicated more by the fact that detectors must work all the run time of the machine, and better all the time of the experiment, without replacement (part or whole). So, studies related to the investigation of the radiation hardness of all detector parts, are developing. The studies are in part material and device characterization after irradiation, and in part technological developments, made in order to find harder, cheaper technologies, for larger surfaces. Semiconductor detectors have proven to be a good choice for vertex and calorimeter. Both fixed target machines and colliders had utilized in the past silicon junction detectors as the whole or part of the detection system. Precision beam hodoscopes and sophisticated trigger devices with silicon are equally used. The associated electronics in located near the detectors, and is subjected to the same radiation fields. Studies of material and device radiation hardness are developing in parallel. Here the authors present results on the radiation hardness of silicon, both as a bulk material and as detectors, to neutron irradiation at high fluences.

Angelescu, T.; Ghete, V.M.; Ghiordanescu, N.; Lazanu, I.; Mihul, A. [Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Golutvin, I.; Lazanu, S.; Savin, I.; Vasilescu, A. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Biggeri, U.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Li, Z.; Kraner, H.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A fourier spectrometer for studying the radiation from Josephson Junctions  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a Fourier spectrometer designed to study the radiation generated by a Josephson junction in the millimeter and FIR bands with a resolution of {approx}2 GHz in the two-pass mode and {approx}1 GHz in the multipass mode. A feature is that one Josephson junctions operates as both generator and detector at the same time.

Verevkin, A.A.; Il`in, V.A.; Lipatov, A.P. [V.I. Lenin Moscow Pedagogical State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Advances in Radiation Mutagenesis through Studies on Drosophila  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The approximately linear relation between radiation dose and induced lethals known for Drosophila spermatozoa, is now extended to spermatids. Data are included regarding oogonia. The linearity principle has been confined for minute structural changes in sperm as multi-hit events, on about the 1.5 power of the dose, long known for spermatozoa, is now extended to spermatids and late oocytes, for relatively short exposures. are found to allow union of broken chromosomes. Therefore, the frequencies are lower for more dispersed exposures of varies with lethals induced in late oocytes follow the same frequency pattern and there fore are multi-hit events. Yet han spermatozoan irradiation that two broken ends derived from nonreciprocal. The following is the order of decreasing radiation mutability of different stages found by ourselves and others: spermatids, spermatozoa in females, spermatozoa 0 to 1 day before ejaculation, earlier spermatozoa, late oocytes, gonia of either sex. Lethal frequencies for these stages range over approximately an order of magnitude, gross structural changes far more widely. Of potential usefulness is our extension of genesis by anoxia, known for spermatozoa in adult males, to those in pupal males and in females, to sperion is especially marked but the increase caused by substituting oxygen for air is less marked, perhaps because of enzymatic differences. In contrast, the induction of gross structural changes in oocytes, but not in spermatids, is markedly reduced by oxygen post-treatment; it is increased by dehydration. The efficacy of induction of structural changes by treatment of spermatozoa, whether with radiation or chemical mutagen, is correlated with the conditions of sperm utilization and egg production. Improving our perspective on radiation effects, some 800,000 offspring have been scored for spontaneous visible mutations of 13 specific loci. The average point-mutation rate was 0.5 to 1.0 per locus among 10/sup 5/ germ cells. Most mutation occurred in peri- fertilization stages. All loci studied mutated from one to nine times. Loci mutating oftener spontaneously also gave more radiation mutation, in other studies, Spectra of individual loci prove similar for spontaneous and induced mutation. Studies on back-mutation also showed similarity of spontaneous and radiation mutations. The doubling dose for back-mutations of forked induced in spermatozoa was several hundred roentgens, gonia at diverse loci. Recent analyses of human mutational load lead to mutation-rate estimated like those earlier based on extrapolations from Drosophila, thus supporting the significance for man of the present studies. (auth)

Muller, H. J.

1958-06-00T23:59:59.000Z

26

Solid low-level radioactive waste radiation stability studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties and condition; on the other, on the specific features of thermal and radiation influences on it (Spitsyn et al. 1983). For the average composition of the fission products going to wastes repositories, the mean energy of irradiation may vary from... to the container determines, in part, the life of the container. Cormsion studies of containers by solidified wastes has indicated no problem areas in limited measurements to date; however very long-term effects have not been evaluated. The useful life...

Williams, Arnold Andre?

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

28

A Study of Radiative Bottomonium Transitions using Converted Photons  

SciTech Connect

The authors use (111 {+-} 1) million {Upsilon}(3S) and (89 {+-} 1) million {Upsilon}(2S) events recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions betwen bottomonium states using photons that have been converted to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs by the detector material. They observe {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {gamma}{chi}{sub b0,2}(1P) decay, make precise measurements of the branching fractions for {chi}{sub b1,2}(1P, 2P) {yields} {gamma}{Upsilon}(1S) and {chi}{sub b1,2}(2P) {yields} {gamma}{Upsilon}(2S) decays, and search for radiative decay to the {eta}{sub b}(1S) and {eta}{sub b}(2S) states.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Parallelization of Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning(RTTP) : A Case Study \\Lambda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation to treat cancer­ ous tumors. This paper reports our, thereby concentrating radiation dose in the tumor. The maximum dose that can be delivered to the tumorParallelization of Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning(RTTP) : A Case Study \\Lambda V. Chaudhary

Xu, Cheng-Zhong

30

A review of "The Civil Wars After 1660: Public Remembering in Late Stuart England" by Matthew Neufield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reviews 57 Matthew Neufield. The Civil Wars After 1660: Public Remembering in Late Stuart England. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2013. xiv + 284 + 5 illus. $99.00. Review by ty m. reese, the university of north dakota. While it is clear... that the British Civil Wars have not been forgot- ten, the place of the conflict’s public memory within the settlement period and beyond has not been fully and directly studied. Neufield addresses this by producing an engaging work that convincingly argues...

Reese, Ty M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Epidemiological Studies of Leukemia in Persons Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to ionizing radiation, the author...the higher dose range regardless...low dose range, it is emphasized...possibility of radiation hazards existing at low doses should not...exposed to ionizing radiation...exposed to ionizing radiation, the author...the higher dose range regardless...

L. H. Hempelmann

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A parametric study of the source rate for outer radiation belt electrons using a Kalman filter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A parametric study of the source rate for outer radiation belt electrons using a Kalman filter Q), A parametric study of the source rate for outer radiation belt electrons using a Kalman filter, J. Geophys. Res increasingly popular to describe the outer radiation belt energetic electron environment. We use a Kalman

Li, Xinlin

33

Russian Health Studies Program - Relationship to Other Radiation...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

the Mayak workers had long-term exposures (10 to 30 years) to plutonium, gamma, and neutron radiation. This combination of radiation types over a working lifetime is more...

34

Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols, Natural Cirrus Clouds and Contrails: Broadband Optical Properties and Sensitivity Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation aims to study the broadband optical properties and radiative effects of dust aerosols and ice clouds. It covers three main topics: the uncertainty of dust optical properties and radiative effects from the dust particle shape...

Yi, Bingqi

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

35

Radiation worker health study: Scoping phase: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to develop a scope of work for an epidemiologic study of the health of workers at nuclear utilities. We propose a study of cancer mortality among electric utility personnel assigned to nuclear generating stations. The primary goal of the study is to provide information to assist in maintaining a healthy work environment in electric utilities; such information would also help to resolve some uncertainties about the effects of low-level ionizing radiation by providing direct observation of human beings exposed at low doses and dose rates. Workers at each nuclear generating station would be identified from company records, their dose histories would be collected, and their vital status would be ascertained as well as cause of death, if deceased. This study would be historical in that past records would be used and prospective in that employees would continue to be followed in future years. Our estimates indicate that a study population composed of employees and contractors at all commercial nuclear generating stations would total approximately 2,000,000 person-years of observation and would be adequate to detect (or exclude) a 50 percent increase in leukemia with reasonable statistical power. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Dreyer, N.A.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Loughlin, J.E.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Biological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy clinical trials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF . To estimate the possible risks, the doses receivedBiological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation technique a radiation dose enhancement specific to the tumor is obtained. The tumor is loaded with a high

Boyer, Edmond

37

Earth Day 2012: A Day to Remember the Past and Shape the Future |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Earth Day 2012: A Day to Remember the Past and Shape the Future Earth Day 2012: A Day to Remember the Past and Shape the Future Earth Day 2012: A Day to Remember the Past and Shape the Future April 26, 2012 - 10:10am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Last Sunday was Earth Day 2012. That day, many of us took a moment for contemplation, and stepped back to reexamine how we use the natural resources that our amazing planet offers us. Perhaps we took time to think about the some of the historical events led to the first Earth Day in 1970. A colleague of mine, for example, went to Rockville, Maryland, to visit the cemetery where Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring, is memorialized for generations to come. For those of you unfamiliar with Carson's work, she was one of the 20th century's most

38

Earth Day 2012: A Day to Remember the Past and Shape the Future |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Earth Day 2012: A Day to Remember the Past and Shape the Future Earth Day 2012: A Day to Remember the Past and Shape the Future Earth Day 2012: A Day to Remember the Past and Shape the Future April 26, 2012 - 10:10am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Last Sunday was Earth Day 2012. That day, many of us took a moment for contemplation, and stepped back to reexamine how we use the natural resources that our amazing planet offers us. Perhaps we took time to think about the some of the historical events led to the first Earth Day in 1970. A colleague of mine, for example, went to Rockville, Maryland, to visit the cemetery where Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring, is memorialized for generations to come. For those of you unfamiliar with Carson's work, she was one of the 20th century's most

39

Low-temperature catalyst activator: mechanism of dense carbon nanotube forest growth studied using synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanism of dense vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth achieved by a recently developed thermal chemical vapor deposition method was studied using synchrotron radiation spectroscopic techniques.

Takashima, A.

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

40

Radiation, Matter and Energy What is light?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation, Matter and Energy #12;What is light? #12;Light is an electromagnetic wave #12;Light the visible spectrum, blue light has higher energy than red light Within the electromagnetic spectrum, X-rays have the highest energy, followed by UV, visible light, IR, and radio Remember: Light is just one form

Shirley, Yancy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HUMAN POPULATIONS FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimation of the carcinogenic of low-dose, low-LET radiationradiation uoses, close rates, and LET to enable risk tions occur estimation at doses,radiation-induced cancer necessarily be based primarily on human dose-incidence data. in man must However, risk estimation

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Copyrighted Material People often remember the past with exaggerated fondness. Some  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyrighted Material ONE Paralysis People often remember the past with exaggerated fondness. Some, such as high- speed rail systems or a smart electric grid, consistently fail in Congress, and existing Americans live in the shadow of poorly maintained dams that could collapse 1 #12;2 Copyrighted Material

Landweber, Laura

43

Radiation Physics and Chemistry 71 (2004) 363368 A study of the alanine dosimeter irradiation temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Puhla , Anna L. McBainb , Glenn W. Calvertb a Ionizing Radiation Division, Physics Laboratory, National. Since the temperature coefficient is known to be dose dependent [Radiat. Phys. Chem. 57 (2000) 1], a series of dose response studies were conducted over a dose range of 0.5­100 kGy. The study revealed

44

Are synchroton radiation studies (including EXAFS) breakthroughs in structurals studies of metalloproteins?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrons travelling around storage rings in vacuum at close to the speed of light are being exploited to an increasing extent by bioinorganic chemists. These electrons emit intense radiation ranging from the infrared through X-ray regions. The radiation is continuous in energy, pulsed, polarized, and of intensity not otherwise obtainable for comparable time periods. The availability of the synchrotron radiation has elicited an increasing variety of absorption and scattering techniques. The absorption edge, the X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) have each been exploited as have scattering techniques. This discussion brings together from four countries (and four synchrotron sources) some of the major proponents and users of synchrotron radiation. The round table will entail short (20–25 minutes) formal presentations by each of the 5 participants in which they will seek not only to expose their own work but also to put it in the context of the full impact of synchrotron radiation studies. Short question periods will follow each talk and a final period will be left for discussion among the panelists, further questions from the audience and summing up. To start the session, Cramer will introduce the synchrotron sources and radiation characteristics, discuss absorption applications to nitrogenase, hemoglobin and cytochrome oxidase and describe some of the future novel ways of exploiting the characteristics of the radiation. Stuhrmann will continue this line by describing the hierarchy of information one gets from absorption and scattering experiments and he will review applications of scattering to such systems as ferritin, hemoglobin and t-RNA. Teo will emphasize the detailed information obtainable from EXAFS and will discuss its application to Fe systems in nitrogenase and 3Fe?3S cluster systems. Bianconi will focus on the information attainable from XANES as compared to EXAFS and will discuss applications of XANES to hemoglobin and calmodulin structure. Finally, Garner will discuss some of the EXAFS analysis protocols and their limits and will analyze recent data from superoxide dismutase and metallothionein Between them our distinguished panelists should cover many of the established and emerging synchrotron techniques as well as their application to systems containing Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ca, Mg, Cs, I and Tb. The panelists and convener are committed to pedagogical presentations, lacking in undefined jargon and abbreviations. We will endeavor to convey an appreciation for the powers and limits of the various techniques. If we do our job well, the answer to the question posed in the title of the Round Table should become obvious to the audience.

E.I. Stiefel

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Clear Skies A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and a better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the...

46

Radiation exposure assessment for portsmouth naval shipyard health studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of radiation worker cohorts employed...Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory...Canada (AECL) workers from the Chalk...squares) between 1950 and 1996. DISCUSSION...for 13,468 workers with PNS exposure...assignments before and after adjustments......

R. D. Daniels; T. D. Taulbee; P. Chen

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Center for Environmental Radiation Studies 1 Texas Tech University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and international nuclear safety. Critical Success Factors Critical measures of success shall include regarding nuclear research, nuclear safety, biological effects, and homeland security · Training of graduate students and post-doctorates in the areas of molecular genetic responses, radiation dosimetry

Chesser, Ronald Keith

48

Study on technology of electromagnetic radiation of sensitive index to forecast the coal and gas hazards  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hazard forecast of coal and gas outburst was an important step of comprehensive outburst-prevention measures. Aiming at the manifestation of disaster threatens such as the gas outburst to mine safety, this paper explained the forecasting principles of electromagnetic radiation to coal and gas outburst, by the electromagnetic radiation theory of coal rock damage; it studied the characteristics and rules of electromagnetic radiation during the deformation and fracture process of loaded coal rocks, and confirmed forecast sensitive indexes of electromagnetic radiation as well as its critical values by signals of electromagnetic radiation. By applying EMR monitoring technology in the field, outburst prediction and forecast tests to the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation during the driving process was taken, and figured out the hazard prediction values by using forecast methods of static and dynamic trend.

Yuliang Wu; Wen Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Study of effects of radiation on silicone prostheses. [/sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

Radiation effects on silicone gel and dose distribution of radiation through mammary prostheses were studied. Silicone gel behaves like tissue. Half value thickness for silicone gel and water are almost the same. Linear absorption coefficient for silicone gel and water are comparable.

Shedbalkar, A.R.; Devata, A.; Padanilam, T.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Study of Emission TurbulenceRadiation Interaction in Hypersonic Boundary Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of Emission Turbulence­Radiation Interaction in Hypersonic Boundary Layers L. Duan and M. P of emission turbulence­radiation interaction in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers, representative interaction between turbulence and emission at the hypersonic environment under investigation. An explanation

Martín, Pino

51

Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies  

SciTech Connect

Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

Niranjana, A. R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Mahesh, S. S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Divakara, S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Somashekar, R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

52

Those early days as we remember them (part I) - Met Lab and Argonne's Early  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

History >Those early days as we remember them (Part I) History >Those early days as we remember them (Part I) About Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us Nuclear Energy Why Nuclear Energy? Why are some people afraid of Nuclear Energy? How do nuclear reactors work? Cheaper & Safer Nuclear Energy Helping to Solve the Nuclear Waste Problem Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Reactors Early Exploration Training Reactors Basic and Applied Science Research LWR Technology Development BORAX-III lighting Arco, Idaho (Press Release) Heavy Water and Graphite Reactors Fast Reactor Technology Integral Fast Reactor Argonne Reactor Tree CP-1 70th Anniversary CP-1 70th Anniversary Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy

53

Those early days as we remember them (part II) - Met Lab and Argonne's  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

History> Those early days as we remember them (Part II) History> Those early days as we remember them (Part II) About Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us Nuclear Energy Why Nuclear Energy? Why are some people afraid of Nuclear Energy? How do nuclear reactors work? Cheaper & Safer Nuclear Energy Helping to Solve the Nuclear Waste Problem Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Reactors Early Exploration Training Reactors Basic and Applied Science Research LWR Technology Development BORAX-III lighting Arco, Idaho (Press Release) Heavy Water and Graphite Reactors Fast Reactor Technology Integral Fast Reactor Argonne Reactor Tree CP-1 70th Anniversary CP-1 70th Anniversary Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy

54

Those early days as we remember them (Part VII) - Met Lab & Early Argonne History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VII | Met Lab and Early Argonne History | Argonne National Laboratory VII | Met Lab and Early Argonne History | Argonne National Laboratory 1/7 Those early days as we remember them Part VlI Norman Hilberry, director of Argonne National Laboratory (seated) and Dean E. Dalquest (standing), superintendent of the laboratory's Graphic Arts division. They are examining an historic galvanometer recording of the fluctuation in a neutron density in Chicago Pile No.

55

Those early days as we remember them (Part V) - Met Lab & Early Argonne History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

V | Met Lab and Early Argonne History | Argonne National Laboratory V | Met Lab and Early Argonne History | Argonne National Laboratory 1/3 Those early days as we remember them Part V Farrington Daniels Professor Emeritus of Chemistry The University of Wisconsin Editor's note: Dr. Farrington Daniels was Director of the Metallurgical Laboratory when it became Argonne National Laboratory on July 1, 1946. At that time he returned to his chemistry professorship at the University of

56

Experimental and theoretical study of red-shifted solitonic resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers and generation of radiation seeded Raman solitons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The red shifted solitonic resonant radiation is a fascinating phase matching phenomenon that occurs when an optical pulse, launched in the normal dispersion regime of photonic crystal fiber, radiates across the zero dispersion wavelength. The formation of such phase-matched radiation is independent of the generation of any optical soliton and mainly governed by the leading edge of input pump which forms a shock front. The radiation is generated at the anomalous dispersion regime and found to be confined both in time and frequency domain. We experimentally investigate the formation of such radiations in photonic crystal fibers with detailed theoretical analysis. Our theoretical predictions corroborate well with experimental results. Further we extend our study for long length fiber and investigate the interplay between red-shifted solitonic resonant radiation and intrapulse Raman scattering (IPRS). It is observed that series of radiation-seeded Raman solitons are generated in anomalous dispersion regime.

Bose, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Rik; Pal, Mrinmay; Bhadra, Shyamal K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

Robert G. Ellingson

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

58

Study on impulsive noise radiation from of gasoline direct injector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine uses its own injectors for high pressure fuel supply to the combustion chamber. High frequency impact sound during the injection process is one of the main contributors to engine combustion noise. This impact noise is generated during opening and closing by an injector rod operated by a solenoid. For design of an injector with reduced noise generation it is necessary to analyze its sound radiation mechanism and propose consequent evaluation method. Spectral and modal characteristics of the injectors were measured through vibration induced by external hammer excitation. The injector modal characteristics were analyzed using a simple beam after analyzing its boundaries by complex transverse and rotational springs. To evaluate impulsive sounds more effectively Prony analysis of sounds was used for verifying influence of injector modal characteristics.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Preliminary Studies on the Variational Assimilation of Cloud-Radiation Observations Using ARM Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Studies on the Variational Assimilation Studies on the Variational Assimilation of Cloud-Radiation Observations Using ARM Observations M. Janisková, J.-F. Mahfouf, and J.-J. Morcrette European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Shinfield Park, Reading Berskshire, United Kingdom Abstract A linearized cloud scheme and a radiation scheme including cloud effects have been developed at European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to assimilate cloud properties in the framework of the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) assimilation system. To investigate the potential of those schemes to modify the model temperature, humidity and cloud profiles and produce a better match to the observed radiation fluxes, one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) assimilation experiments have been carried out using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

60

Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies G. M. McFarquhar and T. Nousiainen Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois M. S. Timlin, S. F. Iacobellis, and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Cloud radiative feedback is the most important effect determining climate response to human activity. Ice clouds reflect solar radiation and absorb thermal emission from the ground and the lower atmosphere and emit infrared radiation to space. The representation of these processes in models affects future climate predictions and there is much uncertainty in the representation of these processes. The size and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Those early days as we remember them (Part I) - Met Lab & Early Argonne History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Those early days as we remember them Austin M. Brues Biological and Medical Research Division I would like to start my story a few months before I joined the Metallurgical Laboratory in the fall of 1944. I was engaged in some wartime research on battlefield shock, and was involved in some therapy and research with P 32 ; in the course of which I was accustomed to carrying tubes of it between M.I.T. and my laboratory in a shirt pocket.

62

Those early days as we remember them (Part VI) - Met Lab & Early Argonne History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VI | Met Lab and Early Argonne History | Argonne National Laboratory VI | Met Lab and Early Argonne History | Argonne National Laboratory 1/2 Those early days as we remember them Part Vl Lester C. Furney (second from right), who formerly handled public relations at Argonne and is author of the article below, is pictured here in February 1956 with (l to r) Major General D. J. Keirn, Major General James McCormack, Jr. (Ret.), and Lt. General James H. Doolittle (Ret.) during a

63

Osmium Remembers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, BC, Canada, includes an introduction to geology. The Past and Future...the April-June 1998 issue of enVision. The University of Leed's Dynamic Earth Web site offers a presentation on mantle convection...

Richard W. Carlson

2002-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

64

IAEACN69/EXP2/12 Highly Radiative Plasmas for Local Transport Studies and Power and Particle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tool for local transport studies, because the distribution of power loss between radiation. The response of the electron and ion temperatures to greatly increased radiative losses from the electrons alpha heating power must be dispersed. [1] Heat removal by radiation from controlled injection

65

IAEA-CN-69/EXP2/12 Highly Radiative Plasmas for Local Transport Studies and Power and Particle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for local transport studies, because the distribution of power loss between radiation and conduction plus. The response of the electron and ion temperatures to greatly increased radiative losses from the electrons alpha heating power must be dispersed.Ã?[1] Heat removal by radiation from controlled injection

66

Radiation exposure assessment for portsmouth naval shipyard health studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......shipyards 226 0.49 Training 177 0.79 Industry...working near an operating submarine reactor...number of affected personnel and the low doses...worker safety and training programmes. Figure...individuals eligible for selection to nested case-control...P. Study of a selection of 10 historical......

R. D. Daniels; T. D. Taulbee; P. Chen

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

NAS study on radiation takes the middle road  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...giga-watt-year of nuclear generated electricity...These numbers make nuclear power seem attractive, but...the hazards posed by terrorism; that little is known...devel-oped a good fix on the risks ofa major nuclear plant leak. This study adopts...

E Marshall

1979-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

68

Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Karim, Julia Abdul [Reactor Physics Section, Nuclear Power Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

Experimental Studies on Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at an Emittance Exchange Beamline  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to experimentally investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line could limit the performance of the emittance exchanger at short bunch lengths. In this paper, we present experimental and simulation studies of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector. We report on time-resolved CSR studies using a skew-quadrupole technique. We also demonstrate the advantages of running the EEX with an energy chirped beam.

Thangaraj, J.C.T.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Ruan, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Santucci, J.; /Fermilab

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Deok-Jin Jang 1 , Mingquan Guo 1 , Julia S.F.Chu 2 , Kyle T. Kurpinski 2 , Bjorn Rydberg 1 , Song Li 2 , and Daojing Wang 1 1. Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 2. Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 We will present data obtained during the first year of our DOE/NASA Low Dose Radiation Research program. We utilized a comprehensive approach including transcriptomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and biochemistry to characterize human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to low dose ionizing radiation. We first determined the cell survival, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of

71

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect

The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

72

Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), g1-aircraft, sedlacek sp2  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in 2010 was to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their optical and hygroscopic properties in central California, with a focus on the Sacramento urban plume.

Sedlacek, Art

73

Theoretical study of gas heated in a porous material subjected to a concentrated solar radiation (*)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W solar furnace of Solar Energy Laboratory in Odeillo (France). Revue Phys. Appl. 15 (1980) 423-426 MARS423 Theoretical study of gas heated in a porous material subjected to a concentrated solar exposed to the solar radiation. These quantities may be expressed in any set consistent units. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 3 School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 4 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology

Robock, Alan

75

Experimental Study of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in the Emittance Exchange Line at the A0-Photoinjector  

SciTech Connect

Next generation accelerators will require a high current, low emittance beam with a low energy spread. Such accelerators will employ advanced beam conditioning systems such as emittance exchangers to manipulate high brightness beams. One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation could limit high current operation of the emittance exchanger. In this paper, we report on the preliminary experimental and simulation study of the coherent synchroton radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector.

Thangaraj, Jayakar C. T.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Edwards, H.; Ruan, J.; Santucci, J.; Sun, Y. E.; Church, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Labaratory, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Piot, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Labaratory, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Department of Physics, DeKalb, IL, 60115 (United States)

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

76

Computational study of atmospheric transfer radiation on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiative transfer models explain and predict interaction between solar radiation and the different elements present in the atmosphere, which are responsible for energy attenuation. In Colombia there have been neither measurements nor studies of atmospheric components such as gases and aerosols that can cause turbidity and pollution. Therefore satellite images cannot be corrected radiometrically in a proper way. When a suitable atmospheric correction is carried out, loss of information is avoided, which may be useful for discriminating image land cover. In this work a computational model was used to find radiative atmospheric attenuation (300 1000nm wavelength region) on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia) in order to conduct an adequate atmospheric correction.

Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Castaño, Gabriel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for future studies, as many changes in the healthcare field exert pressure on the workforce.

Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@netzero.net [Indiana University Health Cancer Center East, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

What was your motivation for a PhD? "As long as I can remember I have wanted to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What was your motivation for a PhD? "As long as I can remember I have wanted to do a PhD at a university with a historical tradition of genuine scientific research." What career rewards has your Ph." What was your worst experience? "Not taking more time to enjoy the historical/cultural sites within

79

A Population-Based Study of the Fractionation of Postlumpectomy Breast Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The optimal fractionation schedule of post lumpectomy radiation therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the fractionation of post-lumpectomy radiation therapy (RT) in Ontario, before and after the seminal Ontario Clinical Oncology Group (OCOG) trial, which showed the equivalence of 16- and 25-fraction schedules. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted by linking electronic treatment records to a population-based cancer registry. The study population included all patients who underwent lumpectomy for invasive breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between 1984 and 2008. Results: Over the study period, 41,747 breast cancer patients received post lumpectomy radiation therapy to the breast only. Both 16- and 25-fraction schedules were commonly used throughout the study period. In the early 1980s, shorter fractionation schedules were used in >80% of cases. Between 1985 and 1995, the proportion of patients treated with shorter fractionation decreased to 48%. After completion of the OCOG trial, shorter fractionation schemes were once again widely adopted across Ontario, and are currently used in about 71% of cases; however, large intercenter variations in fractionation persisted. Conclusions: The use of shorter schedules of post lumpectomy RT in Ontario increased after completion of the OCOG trial, but the trial had a less normative effect on practice than expected.

Ashworth, Allison [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada) [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kong, Weidong [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)] [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Whelan, Timothy [Juravinski Cancer Center, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)] [Juravinski Cancer Center, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Mackillop, William J., E-mail: william.mackillop@krcc.on.ca [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

Patterns of Care Study of radiation therapy for uterine cervix cancer in Japan: The influence of age on the process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background. To improve the quality of radiation oncology in Japan, a Patterns of Care Study (PCS) ... in the United States, was introduced to Japan. In this study, the process, including...

T. Teshima; Hiroshi Ikeda; Mitsuyuki Abe…

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Implications of Intercellular Signaling for Radiation Therapy: A Theoretical Dose-Planning Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Recent in vitro results have shown significant contributions to cell killing from signaling effects at doses that are typically used in radiation therapy. This study investigates whether these in vitro observations can be reconciled with in vivo knowledge and how signaling may have an impact on future developments in radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer treatment plans were generated for a series of 10 patients using 3-dimensional conformal therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. These plans were evaluated using mathematical models of survival following modulated radiation exposures that were developed from in vitro observations and incorporate the effects of intercellular signaling. The impact on dose–volume histograms and mean doses were evaluated by converting these survival levels into “signaling-adjusted doses” for comparison. Results: Inclusion of intercellular communication leads to significant differences between the signalling-adjusted and physical doses across a large volume. Organs in low-dose regions near target volumes see the largest increases, with mean signaling-adjusted bladder doses increasing from 23 to 33 Gy in IMRT plans. By contrast, in high-dose regions, there is a small decrease in signaling-adjusted dose due to reduced contributions from neighboring cells, with planning target volume mean doses falling from 74 to 71 Gy in IMRT. Overall, however, the dose distributions remain broadly similar, and comparisons between the treatment modalities are largely unchanged whether physical or signaling-adjusted dose is compared. Conclusions: Although incorporating cellular signaling significantly affects cell killing in low-dose regions and suggests a different interpretation for many phenomena, their effect in high-dose regions for typical planning techniques is comparatively small. This indicates that the significant signaling effects observed in vitro are not contradicted by comparison with clinical observations. Future investigations are needed to validate these effects in vivo and to quantify their ranges and potential impact on more advanced radiation therapy techniques.

McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O'Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Theoretical study of radiative electron attachment to CN, C2H, and C4H radicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first-principle theoretical approach to study the process of radiative electron attachment is developed and applied to the negative molecular ions CN$^-$, C$_4$H$^-$, and C$_2$H$^-$. Among these anions, the first two have already been observed in the interstellar space. Cross sections and rate coefficients for formation of these ions by radiative electron attachment to the corresponding neutral radicals are calculated. For completeness of the theoretical approach, two pathways for the process have been considered: (i) A direct pathway, in which the electron in collision with the molecule spontaneously emits a photon and forms a negative ion in one of the lowest vibrational levels, and (ii) an indirect, or two-step pathway, in which the electron is initially captured through non-Born-Oppenheimer coupling into a vibrationally resonant excited state of the anion, which then stabilizes by radiative decay. We develop a general model to describe the second pathway and show that its contribution to the formation o...

Douguet, Nicolas; Raoult, Maurice; Dulieu, Olivier; Orel, Ann E; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A study of radiation damage effects on the magnetic structure of bulk Iron  

SciTech Connect

Defects, defect interactions, and defect dynamics in solids created by fast neutrons are known to have significant impact on the performance and lifetime of structural materials. A fundamental understanding of the radiation damage effects in solids is therefore of great importance in assisting the development of improved materials - materials with ultrahigh strength, toughness, and radiation resistance. In this presentation, we show our recent theoretical investigation on the magnetic structure evolution of bulk iron in the region of the radiation defects. We applied a linear scaling ab-initio method based on density functional theory with local spin density approximation, namely the locally self-consistent multiple scattering method (LSMS), to the study of magnetic moment distributions in a cascade at the damage peak and for a series of time steps as the interstitials and vacancies recombined. Atomic positions correspond to those in a low energy cascade in a 10|000 atom sample, in which the primary damage state and the evolution of all defects produced were simulated using molecular dynamics with empirical, embedded-atom inter-atomic potentials. We will discuss how a region of affected moments expands and then recedes in response to a cascade evolution.

Wang Yang [Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Nicholson, D. M. C.; Stocks, G. M.; Rusanu, Aurelian; Eisenbach, Markus; Stoller, R. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Parallelization of Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning(RTTP) : A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation to treat cancer- ous tumors. This paper reports our experiences with the parallelization of a real-world 3-D radiation therapy treat- ment planning (RTTP) system on a wide range of plat at the tumor in a patient from different directions, thereby concentrating radiation dose in the tumor

Chaudhary, Vipin

86

A Comparative Study on the Type IIA Photosensitivity of a B-Ge Optical Fiber Using Ultraviolet, Femtosecond Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comparative study on the Type IIA photosensitivity of a B/Ge-codoped optical fibre is performed using 5ps, 500fs and 120fs, 248nm laser radiation. Index modulation curves and...

Violakis, Georgios; Georgiou, Savas; Konstantaki, Maria; Pissadakis, Stavros

87

A parametric study of shock jump chemistry, electron temperature, and radiative heat transfer models in hypersonic flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SHOCK JUMP CHEMISTRY, ELECTRON TEMPERATURE, AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT BRIAN GREENDYKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SHOCK JUMP CHEMISTRY, ELECTRON TEMPERATURE, AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT BRIAN...

Greendyke, Robert Brian

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

Rotationally resolved Fano effect of HI molecules: An experimental study using coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experiment studying the influence of molecular rotation in HI on photoelectron-spin polarization is presented. The experiment is highly wavelength selective since a laser-based vacuum-ultraviolet-radiation source with a bandwidth of 0.5×10-4 nm is applied to produce circularly polarized light. Although in the Fano effect the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is not analyzed, rotational structure is resolved via narrow-band excitation of autoionization resonances. The photoelectron-spin polarization is found to be strongly affected by the rotational substructure, leading to changes in both magnitude and sign for different rotational lines.

T. Huth-Fehre; A. Mank; M. Drescher; N. Böwering; U. Heinzmann

1990-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

89

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Real-time Study of Signal Transduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-time Study of Signal Transduction Pathways Involving in Real-time Study of Signal Transduction Pathways Involving in Bystander Effects Using Single Nanoparticle Optics and Single Living Cell Imaging Authors: Prakash D. Nallathamby, X. Nancy Xu, Mohan Natarajan Institutions: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia and Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas The mechanisms of bystander effects remain largely unknown. Bystander responses are thought to depend on activation of cellular communication processes. Recent studies have speculated that several crucial signal transduction pathways could play a major role in bystander effects. These crucial signal transduction pathways are controlled by a coordinated

90

Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)] [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan)] [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan)] [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Spreader-Bar Radiation Detection System Enhancements: A Modeling and Simulation Study  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the modeling and simulation results of the investigation of enhanced spreader bar radiation detection systems.

Ely, James H.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Baciak, James E.; Hensley, Walter K.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Schweppe, John E.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

92

Figure 5. Net radiation of the study area on June 21, 2003 ESTIMATION OF HEAT FLUXES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of incoming solar radiation and long-wave radiation emitted from the atmosphere to land surface and from chimneys etc. In addition anthropogenic sensible heat contributes to increased surface temperature. However this influence is sufficiently small compared to the solar radiation under clear skies during

Hall, Sharon J.

93

Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)  

SciTech Connect

Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and 'aged' urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of planned data analyses and focused modeling efforts that will facilitate the integration of new knowledge into improved representations of key aerosol processes in climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shaw, William J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D.; Baidar, Sunil; Banta, Robert M.; Barnard, James C.; Beranek, Josef; Berg, Larry K.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, John F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, Christopher D.; Chand, Duli; China, Swarup; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Easter, Richard C.; Erickson, Matthew H.; Fast, Jerome D.; Floerchinger, Cody; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, Edward; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Gilles, Mary K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, William I.; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Hair, John; Hardesty, Michael; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, Scott C.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, Bertram T.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, Chongai; Kubatova, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Mei, F.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Nelson, Danny A.; Obland, Michael; Oetjen, Hilke; Onasch, Timothy B.; Ortega, Ivan; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, Ray; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, Art; Senff, Christoph; Senum, Gunar; Setyan, Ari; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Song, Chen; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wallace, Hoyt A.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

94

A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker’s door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5?Sv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Japanese Structure Survey of Radiation Oncology in 2007 Based on Institutional Stratification of Patterns of Care Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the ongoing structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted from March to December 2008 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO). These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. Results: The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiation in 2007 were estimated at 181,000 and 218,000, respectively. There were 807 linear accelerator, 15 telecobalt, 46 Gamma Knife, 45 {sup 60}Co remote-controlled after-loading, and 123 {sup 192}Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems in actual use. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 539 units (66.8%), three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 555 (68.8%), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy in 235 (29.1%). There were 477 JASTRO-certified radiation oncologists, 826.3 full-time equivalent (FTE) radiation oncologists, 68.4 FTE medical physicists, and 1,634 FTE radiation therapists. The number of interstitial radiotherapy (RT) administrations for prostate, stereotactic body radiotherapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy increased significantly. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly identify the maturity of structures based on their academic nature and caseload. Geographically, the more JASTRO-certified physicians there were in a given area, the more RT tended to be used for cancer patients. Conclusions: The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 17 years in terms of equipment and its use, although a shortage of personnel and variations in maturity disclosed by Patterns of Care Study stratification were still problematic in 2007.

Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.j [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Dental and Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhito [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Thermal reactions of disilane on Si(100) studied by synchrotron-radiation photoemission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

H-terminated Si(100) surfaces were formed by saturation exposure of Si(100) to disilane at room temperature. Annealing these surfaces to progressively higher temperatures resulted in hydrogen desorption. This process, of basic importance to the growth of Si by atomic layer epitaxy using disilane, was studied by synchrotron-radiation photoemission. The Si 2p core-level line shape, the position of the Fermi level within the band gap, the work function, and the ionization potential were measured as a function of annealing temperature. These results revealed two steps in the thermal reaction preceding the recovery of the clean surface. The dihydride radicals on the surface are converted to monohydride radicals at 500–610 K, and the monohydride radicals decompose at 700–800 K.

D.-S. Lin; T. Miller; T.-C. Chiang; R. Tsu; J. E. Greene

1993-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Thermal reactions of disilane on Si(100) studied by synchrotron-radiation photoemission  

SciTech Connect

H-terminated Si(100) surfaces were formed by saturation exposure of Si(100) to disilane at room temperature. Annealing these surfaces to progressively higher temperatures resulted in hydrogen desorption. This process, of basic importance to the growth of Si by atomic layer epitaxy using disilane, was studied by synchrotron-radiation photoemission. The Si 2[ital p] core-level line shape, the position of the Fermi level within the band gap, the work function, and the ionization potential were measured as a function of annealing temperature. These results revealed two steps in the thermal reaction preceding the recovery of the clean surface. The dihydride radicals on the surface are converted to monohydride radicals at 500--610 K, and the monohydride radicals decompose at 700--800 K.

Lin, D.; Miller, T.; Chiang, T. (Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)); Tsu, R.; Greene, J.E. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Coordinated Science Laboratory, and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States))

1993-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Performance studies of the ATLAS transition radiation tracker barrel using SR1 cosmics data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to measure Nature at the energy scale often associated with electroweak symmetry breaking. When it comes online in 2008, the LHC and ATLAS will work to discover, among other things, the Higgs boson and any other signatures for physics beyond the Standard Model. As part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, the Transition Radiation Tracker will be an important part of ATLAS’s ability to make precise measurements of particle properties. This paper summarizes work done to study and categorize the performance of the TRT, using a combination of cosmic ray test data from the SR1 facility and Monte Carlo. In general, it was found that the TRT is working well, with module-level eciencies around 90 % and module-level noise just above 2 %. Reasonably good agreement was observed with Monte Carlo, though there are some apparently pathological dierences between the two that deserve further attention.

Wall, R

99

Study of the Exclusive Initial-State-Radiation Production of the DDbar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A search for charmonium and other new states is performed in a study of exclusive initial-state-radiation production of D Dbar events from electron-positron annihilations at a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb-1 and was recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II storage ring. The D Dbar mass spectrum shows clear evidence of the psi(3770) plus other structures near 3.9, 4.1, and 4.4 GeV/c^2. No evidence for Y(4260) -> D Dbar is observed, leading to an upper limit of B(Y(4260) -> D Dbar)/B(Y(4260) -> J/psi pi+ pi-) < 1.0 at 90 % confidence level.

The BABAR Collaboration; B. Aubert

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (?/? = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

Karlsson, Kristin, E-mail: kristin.karlsson@karolinska.se [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Drugge, Ninni [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gagliardi, Giovanna [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Persson, Jan-Olov [Statistical Research Group, Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutkowska, Eva [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral (United Kingdom); Tullgren, Owe [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Lax, Ingmar [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Contemporary X-ray electron-density studies using synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of synchrotron radiation for experimental electron-density determination during the last decade is reviewed. Possible future directions of this field are examined.

J?rgensen, M.R.V.

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

102

Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6–39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

Koichi Isobe; Yoshikazu Kagami; Keiko Higuchi; Takeshi Kodaira; Masatoshi Hasegawa; Naoto Shikama; Masanori Nakazawa; Ichiro Fukuda; Keiji Nihei; Kana Ito; Teruki Teshima; Yoshihiro Matsuno; Masahiko Oguchi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Chromosome translocations and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline pilot biomarker study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline...are exposed to cosmic ionizing radiation, an efficient inducer...bone marrow absorbed dose in cGy from personal...SD; 46.7 5.3, range 37-55 vs. 45.8...

Lee Yong; Alice Sigurdson; Elizabeth Ward; Martha Waters; Elizabeth Whelan; Martin Petersen; Elaine Ron; Marilyn Ramsey; Parveen Bhatti; and James Tucker

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

A study of low Q/sup 2/ radiative Bhabha scattering  

SciTech Connect

This thesis presents a study of electron-positron scattering, via nearly real photon exchange, where in the process one or more high energy photons are produced. The motivations behind the work are twofold. Firstly, the study is a sensitive test of the theory of electron-photon interactions, quantum electrodynamics. A deviation from the theory could indicate that the electron is a composite particle. Secondly, a thorough understanding of this process is necessary for experiments to be done in the near future at the Stanford Linear Collider and the LEP facility at CERN. Calculations for the process to third and fourth order in pertubation theory are described. Methods for simulating the process by a Monte Carlo event generator are given. Results from the calculations are compared to data from the Mark II experiment at the PEP storage ring. The ratio of measured to calculated cross sections are 0.993 /+-/ 0.017 /+-/ 0.015 and 0.99 /+-/ 0.16 /+-/ 0.08 for final states with one and two observed photons respectively, where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic. The excellent agreement verifies the calculations of the fourth order radiative correction. No evidence for electron substructure is observed.

Karlen, D.A.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

Moignier, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.moignier@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)] [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)] [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France)] [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France); Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)] [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mazeron, Jean-Jacques [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France)] [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Phase II study of radiation therapy combined with weekly nedaplatin in locally advanced uterine cervical carcinoma: Kitasato Gynecologic Radiation Oncology Group (KGROG 0501) - an initial analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Medicine, Chiba, Japan, The University of...induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and can be repaired...of the character and radiation survival ratio of cancer...Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan envelope vector (HVJ-E...clonogenic assay to evaluate radiation sensitivity. Furthermore...

Yuzuru Niibe; Shimpei Tsunoda; Toshiko Jobo; Yukihiro Hamada; and Kazushige Hayakawa

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

DOE Order Self Study Modules - 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10 CFR 835 10 CFR 835 OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION LEARNING AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT Change No: 1 10 CFR 835 Level: Familiar Date:11/1/08 1 10/1/08 10 CFR 835 OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION FAMILIAR LEVEL ___________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES Given the familiar level of this module and the resources, you will be able to perform the following: 1. State the scope of 10 CFR 835. 2. Define the following terms. annual limit on intake bioassay contamination area derived air concentration high contamination area radiation weighting factor 3. State the requirements of the general rule. 4. State the radiation protection program requirements. 5. State the requirements of the internal audit.

109

Solar Radiation and Pyranometry Studies for Solar Energy Applications: an Overview of IEA Task IX  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With increased activity in the field of solar energy research and application, there is a need for accurate solar radiation and meteorological data to aid in resource assessment, solar system design evaluation, a...

D. C. McKay

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Study of cloud properties from single-scattering, radiative forcing, and retrieval perspectives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation reports on three different yet related topics in light scattering computation, radiative transfer simulation, and remote sensing implementation, regarding the cloud properties and the retrieval of cloud properties from satellite...

Lee, Yong-Keun

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

111

Coupled forward-adjoint monte carlo simulations of radiative transport for the study of optical probe design in heterogeneous tissues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approximation to the radiative transport equation [3, 7, 15,form of the radiative transport equation (RTE) assumed to

Hayakawa, Carole K.; Spanier, Jerome; Venugopalan, Vasan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Japanese Structure Survey of Radiation Oncology in 2005 Based on Institutional Stratification of Patterns of Care Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted between March 2006 and February 2007 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. Results: The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiotherapy in 2005 were estimated at approximately 162,000 and 198,000, respectively. In actual use were 765 linear accelerators, 11 telecobalt machines, 48 GammaKnife machines, 64 {sup 60}Co remote-controlled after-loading systems, and 119 {sup 192}Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 498 systems (65%), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 462 (60%), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in 170 (22%). There were 426 Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 774 full-time equivalent radiation oncologists, 117 medical physicists, and 1,635 radiation therapists. Geographically, a significant variation was found in the use of radiotherapy, from 0.9 to 2.1 patients/1,000 population. The annual patient load/FTE radiation oncologist was 247, exceeding the Blue Book guidelines level. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly discriminate the maturity of structures according to their academic nature and caseload. Conclusions: The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 15 years in terms of equipment and its use, although the shortage of manpower and variations in maturity disclosed by this Patterns of Care Study stratification remain problematic. These constitute the targets for nationwide improvement in quality assurance and quality control.

Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Dental and Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Hisao [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Radiological Technology, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Masaki, Hidekazu [Department of Radiology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku University Hospital Cancer Center, Sendai (Japan)

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE G 441.1-1C Radiation Protection Programs Guide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41.1-1C 41.1-1C RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS GUIDE NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION LEARNING AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT Change No: 1 DOE G 441.1-1C Level: Familiar Date: 12/1/08 1 DOE G 441.1-1C, RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS GUIDE FAMILIAR LEVEL _________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES Given the familiar level of this module and the resources listed below, you will be able to 1. Match radiation protection-related terms to their definitions; 2. Discuss the elements that should be taken into consideration to determine the likelihood of an individual receiving a dose in excess of a regulatory monitoring threshold; 3. Give three examples of criteria that should trigger a formal as-low-as-is-

114

Multisection gas counters for spectral studies of weak pulse x-radiation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes two multisection gas counters for recording pulse x-radiation. The first design is a set of eight tandem cylindrical gas counters and the second design is a sixsection gas scintillation counter. These detectors measure the free path length of radiation in the gas filling them, form the measurement data using the maximum-liklihood method, and a computer satisfactorily reconstructs the x-ray spectra, when the total number of absorbed photons Np about 10/sup 2/ for one pulse with a duration of less than or equal to 1 usec.

Bogomolov, G.D.; Kravchenko, N.A.; Peskov, V.D.; Podolyak, E.R.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Estimation of organs doses and radiation-induced secondary cancer risk from scattered photons for conventional radiation therapy of nasopharynx: a Monte Carlo study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We used Monte Carlo modeling to calculate the organs doses due to out-of field photons during radiation therapy of the nasopharynx.

Asghar Mesbahi; Farshad Seyednejad; Amir Gasemi-Jangjoo

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION  

SciTech Connect

We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on the thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.

Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.vauclair@irap.omp.eu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP and CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Transport and Mixing Patterns over Central California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)  

SciTech Connect

We describe the synoptic and regional-scale meteorological conditions that affected the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols in the vicinity of Sacramento, California during June 2010 when the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was conducted. The meteorological measurements collected by various instruments deployed during the campaign and the performance of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) are both discussed. WRF-Chem was run daily during the campaign to forecast the spatial and temporal variation of carbon monoxide emitted from 20 anthropogenic source regions in California to guide aircraft sampling. The model is shown to reproduce the overall circulations and boundary-layer characteristics in the region, although errors in the upslope wind speed and boundary-layer depth contribute to differences in the observed and simulated carbon monoxide. Thermally-driven upslope flows that transported pollutants from Sacramento over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada occurred every afternoon, except during three periods when the passage of mid-tropospheric troughs disrupted the regional-scales flow patterns. The meteorological conditions after the passage of the third trough were the most favorable for photochemistry and likely formation of secondary organic aerosols. Meteorological measurements and model forecasts indicate that the Sacramento pollutant plume was likely transported over a downwind site that collected trace gas and aerosol measurements during 23 periods; however, direct transport occurred during only eight of these periods. The model also showed that emissions from the San Francisco Bay area transported by intrusions of marine air contributed a large fraction of the carbon monoxide in the vicinity of Sacramento, suggesting that this source likely affects local chemistry. Contributions from other sources of pollutants, such as those in the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, were relatively low. Aerosol layering in the free troposphere was observed during the morning by an airborne Lidar; WRF-Chem forecasts showed that mountain venting processes contributed to aged pollutants aloft in the valley atmosphere which then can be entrained into the growing boundary layer the subsequent day.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.; Shaw, William J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Barnard, James C.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Erickson, Matthew H.; Jobson, Tom; Flowers, Bradley; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Springston, Stephen R.; Pirce, Bradley R.; Dolislager, Leon; Pederson, J. R.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

119

Transport and mixing patterns over Central California during the carbonaceous aerosol and radiative effects study (CARES)  

SciTech Connect

We describe the synoptic and regional-scale meteorological conditions that affected the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols in the vicinity of Sacramento, California during June 2010 when the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was conducted. The meteorological measurements collected by various instruments deployed during the campaign and the performance of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) are both discussed. WRF-Chem was run daily during the campaign to forecast the spatial and temporal variation of carbon monoxide emitted from 20 anthropogenic source regions in California to guide aircraft sampling. The model is shown to reproduce the overall circulations and boundary-layer characteristics in the region, although errors in the upslope wind speed and boundary-layer depth contribute to differences in the observed and simulated carbon monoxide. Thermally-driven upslope flows that transported pollutants from Sacramento over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada occurred every afternoon, except during three periods when the passage of mid-tropospheric troughs disrupted the regional-scale flow patterns. The meteorological conditions after the passage of the third trough were the most favorable for photochemistry and likely formation of secondary organic aerosols. Meteorological measurements and model forecasts indicate that the Sacramento pollutant plume was likely transported over a downwind site that collected trace gas and aerosol measurements during 23 time periods; however, direct transport occurred during only eight of these periods. The model also showed that emissions from the San Francisco Bay area transported by intrusions of marine air contributed a large fraction of the carbon monoxide in the vicinity of Sacramento, suggesting that this source likely affects local chemistry. Contributions from other sources of pollutants, such as those in the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, were relatively low. Aerosol layering in the free troposphere was observed during the morning by an airborne Lidar. WRF-Chem forecasts showed that mountain venting processes contributed to aged pollutants aloft in the valley atmosphere that are then entrained into the growing boundary layer the subsequent day.

Fast J. D.; Springston S.; Gustafson Jr., W. I.; Berg, L. K.; Shaw, W. J.; Pekour, M.; Shrivastava, M.; Barnard, J. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. A.; Erickson, M.; Jobson, B. T.; Flowers, B.; Dubey, M. K.; Pierce, R. B.; Dolislager, L.; Pederson, J.; Zaveri, R. A.

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

120

Low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies (7 to 17.5 keV) with synchroton radiation  

SciTech Connect

Unique properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as its high intensity, brightness, polarization, and broad spectral distribution (extending from x-ray to infra-red wavelengths) make it an attractive light source for numerous experiments. As SR facilities are rapidly being built all over the world, they introduce the need for low-energy x-ray dosemeters because of the potential radiation exposure to experimenters. However, they also provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory are described. Lithium fluoride TLDs (TLD-100) of varying thicknesses (0.015 to 0.08 cm) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (7 to 17.5 keV). These exposures were monitored with ionization chambers. The response (nC/Gy) was found to increase with increasing TLD thickness and with increasing beam energy. A steeper increase in response with increasing energy was observed with the thicker TLDs. The responses at 7 and 17.5 keV were within a factor of 2.3 and 5.2 for the 0.015 and 0.08 cm-thick TLDs, respectively. The effects of narrow (beam size smaller than the dosemeter) and broad (beam size larger than the dosemeter) beams on the response of the TLDs are also reported.

Ipe, N.E.; Bellamy, H.; Flood, J.R. [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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121

Study of the spatial coherence of high order harmonic radiation generated from pre-formed plasma plumes  

SciTech Connect

A study of the spatial coherence of the high order harmonic radiation generated by the interaction of 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser beam with carbon (graphite) plasma plume has been carried out using Young's double slit interferometry. It is observed that the spatial coherence varies with harmonic order, laser focal spot size in plasma plume, and peaks at an optimal spot size. It is also observed that the spatial coherence is higher when the laser pulse is focused before the plasma plume than when focused after the plume, and it decreases with increase in the harmonic order. The optimum laser parameters and the focusing conditions to achieve good spatial coherence with high harmonic conversion have been identified, which is desirable for practical applications of the harmonic radiation.

Kumar, M.; Singhal, H.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A.; Khan, R. A.; Gupta, P. D. [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India)

2013-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

122

Preliminary studies and tests of semiconductors for their use as nuclear radiation detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the semiconductors which were used in the tests~ and from Hughes Ines of Culver City, California, who provided a set of diodes of a type that had been sucessfully used as a radiation detector. 1 1 See article by Salzberg and Siegal of Airborne Instru- ments... that each semiconductor junction has a different breakdown point and has a different thermal noise pulse versus temperature characteristic. Silicon diodes were selected for tests because of their low thermal noise char- acteristics. The experimenter...

Willis, Giles Whitehurst

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Numerical and simulation study of terahertz radiation generation by laser pulses propagating in the extraordinary mode in magnetized plasma  

SciTech Connect

A one-dimensional numerical model for studying terahertz radiation generation by intense laser pulses propagating, in the extraordinary mode, through magnetized plasma has been presented. The direction of the static external magnetic field is perpendicular to the polarization as well as propagation direction of the laser pulse. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the terahertz range is generated due to the presence of the magnetic field. Further, two-dimensional simulations using XOOPIC code show that the THz fields generated in plasma are transmitted into vacuum. The fields obtained via simulation study are found to be compatible with those obtained from the numerical model.

Jha, Pallavi; Kumar Verma, Nirmal [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Atomic and Molecular Photoelectron and Auger Electron SpectroscopyStudies Using Synchrotron Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Electron spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron radiation, was used to measure the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons from atoms and molecules as functions of photon energy. The branching ratios and partial cross sections were a 130 measured in certain cases. By comparison with theoretical calculations, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of the characteristic electronic structure and ionization dynamics of the atomic or molecular sample. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) spectra o f the ejected electrons. The ''a double-angle-TOF'' method for the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions is discussed. This technique offers the advantages of increased electron collect ion efficiency and the elimination of certain systematic errors. Several results were obtained for Xe using photon energies in the range hv {approx_equal} 60-190 eV, where excitation and ionization of the inner-subshell 4d electrons dominates. The 4d asymmetry parameter {beta} exhibits strong oscillations with energy, in agreement with several theoretical calculations. As predicted, the 5p asymmetry parameter was observed to deviate strongly from that calculated using the independent-electron model, due to intershell correlation with the 4d electrons.

Southworth, Stephen H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Experimental study of acoustic radiation from a boundary layer transition region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wall pressurefluctuations were measured on a rigid axisymmetric body in the CEPRA 19 low?noise anechoic wind tunnel using flush?mounted microphones placed from the laminar region to the fully turbulent boundary layer. Microphones placed in the laminar flow region are used to detect noise radiated from the transition region which occurs naturally without separation under a slightly positive pressure gradient. Cross?spectral analyses show upstream acoustic propagation in a very wide frequency band 4–30 kHz detected in the laminar region. A method of conditional analysis is then used to establish the sequence of events from the onset of near?harmonic instability wave packets to the generation about 10 ms later of turbulent spots leading to the acoustic emission. This intermittent acoustic radiation is detected in the nearfield for wind velocities ranging from 20–70 ms. Farfield detection was not achieved probably because of instrument limitations and propagation effects. [Work supported by DRET Direction des Recherches et Etudes Techniques.

J. C. Perraud; A. Julienne

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Study of Interfacial Interactions Using Thing Film Surface Modification: Radiation and Oxidation Effects in Materials  

SciTech Connect

Interfaces play a key role in dictating the long-term stability of materials under the influence of radiation and high temperatures. For example, grain boundaries affect corrosion by way of providing kinetically favorable paths for elemental diffusion, but they can also act as sinks for defects and helium generated during irradiation. Likewise, the retention of high-temperature strength in nanostructured, oxide-dispersion strengthened steels depends strongly on the stoichiometric and physical stability of the (Y, Ti)-oxide particles/matrix interface under radiation and high temperatures. An understanding of these interfacial effects at a fundamental level is important for the development of materials for extreme environments of nuclear reactors. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding stability of interfaces by depositing thin films of materials on substrates followed by ion irradiation of the film-substrate system at elevated temperatures followed by post-irradiation oxidation treatments. Specifically, the research will be performed by depositing thin films of yttrium and titanium (~500 nm) on Fe-12%Cr binary alloy substrate. Y and Ti have been selected as thin-film materials because they form highly stable protective oxides layers. The Fe-12%Cr binary alloy has been selected because it is representative of ferritic steels that are widely used in nuclear systems. The absence of other alloying elements in this binary alloy would allow for a clearer examination of structures and compositions that evolve during high-temperature irradiations and oxidation treatments. The research is divided into four specific tasks: (1) sputter deposition of 500 nm thick films of Y and Ti on Fe-12%Cr alloy substrates, (2) ion irradiation of the film-substrate system with 2MeV protons to a dose of 2 dpa at temperatures of 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C, (3) oxidation of as-deposited and ion-irradiated samples in a controlled oxygen environment at 500°C and 700°C, (4) multi-scale computational modeling involving first- principle molecular dynamics (FPMD) and coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) approaches to develop theories underlying the evolution and stability of structures and phases. Samples from Tasks 1 to 3 (above) will be rigorously characterized and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford back scatter spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Expected outcomes of the experimental work include a quantitative understanding film-substrate interface mixing, evolution of defects and other phases at the interface, interaction of interfaces with defects, and the ability of the Y and Ti films to mitigate irradiation-assisted oxidation. The aforementioned experimental work will be closely coupled with multi-scale molecular dynamics (MD) modeling to understand the reactions at the surface, the transport of oxidant through the thin film, and the stabilities of the deposited thin films under radiation and oxidation. Simulations of materials property changes under conditions of radiation and oxidation require multiple size domains and a different simulation scheme for each of these domains. This will be achieved by coupling the FPMD and coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). This will enable the comparison of the results of each simulation approach with the experimental results.

Sridharan, Kumar; Zhang, Jinsuo

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

127

Development and Validation of a Heart Atlas to Study Cardiac Exposure to Radiation Following Treatment for Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cardiac toxicity is an important sequela of breast radiotherapy. However, the relationship between dose to cardiac structures and subsequent toxicity has not been well defined, partially due to variations in substructure delineation, which can lead to inconsistent dose reporting and the failure to detect potential correlations. Here we have developed a heart atlas and evaluated its effect on contour accuracy and concordance. Methods and Materials: A detailed cardiac computed tomography scan atlas was developed jointly by cardiology, cardiac radiology, and radiation oncology. Seven radiation oncologists were recruited to delineate the whole heart, left main and left anterior descending interventricular branches, and right coronary arteries on four cases before and after studying the atlas. Contour accuracy was assessed by percent overlap with gold standard atlas volumes. The concordance index was also calculated. Standard radiation fields were applied. Doses to observer-contoured cardiac structures were calculated and compared with gold standard contour doses. Pre- and post-atlas values were analyzed using a paired t test. Results: The cardiac atlas significantly improved contour accuracy and concordance. Percent overlap and concordance index of observer-contoured cardiac and gold standard volumes were 2.3-fold improved for all structures (p < 0.002). After application of the atlas, reported mean doses to the whole heart, left main artery, left anterior descending interventricular branch, and right coronary artery were within 0.1, 0.9, 2.6, and 0.6 Gy, respectively, of gold standard doses. Conclusions: This validated University of Michigan cardiac atlas may serve as a useful tool in future studies assessing cardiac toxicity and in clinical trials which include dose volume constraints to the heart.

Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koelling, Todd [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Chughtai, Aamer [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Chan, June L.; Freedman, Laura; Hayman, James A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Jolly, Shruti; Larouere, Janice; Soriano, Julie; Marsh, Robin; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Radiation environment simulations at the Tevatron, studies of the beam profile and measurement of the Bc meson mass  

SciTech Connect

The description of a computer simulation of the CDF detector at Fermilab and the adjacent accelerator parts is detailed, with MARS calculations of the radiation background in various elements of the model due to the collision of beams and machine-related losses. Three components of beam halo formation are simulated for the determination of the principal source of radiation background in CDF due to beam losses. The effect of a collimator as a protection for the detector is studied. The simulation results are compared with data taken by a CDF group. Studies of a 150 GeV Tevatron proton beam are performed to investigate the transverse diffusion growth and distribution. A technique of collimator scan is used to scrape the beam under various experimental conditions, and computer programs are written for the beam reconstruction. An average beam halo growth speed is given and the potential of beam tail reconstruction using the collimator scan is evaluated. A particle physics analysis is conducted in order to detect the B{sub c} {yields} J/{psi}{pi} decay signal with the CDF Run II detector in 360 pb{sup -1} of data. The cut variables and an optimization method to determine their values are presented along with a criterion for the detection threshold of the signal. The mass of the B{sub c} meson is measured with an evaluation of the significance of the signal.

Nicolas, Ludovic Y.; /Glasgow U.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

130

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

131

Radiation therapy for esophageal cancer: results of the patterns of Care Study in Japan 1995–1997  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To report the characteristics and treatment process of esophageal cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) in Japan.

Masahiro Kenjo; Masahiko Oguchi; Kotaro Gomi; Takashi Yamashita; Takashi Uno…

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

133

HRTEM Study of Oxide Nanoparticles in K3-ODS Ferritic Steel Developed for Radiation Tolerance  

SciTech Connect

Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles and radiation damage in 16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and the matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (> 20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (< 10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles and multiple crystalline domains formed within a nanoparticle lead us to propose a three-stage mechanism to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels. Effects of nanoparticle size and density on cavity formation induced by (Fe{sup 8+} + He{sup +}) dual-beam irradiation are briefly addressed.

Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Tumey, S; Kuntz, J; El-Dasher, B; Wall, M; Choi, W; Kimura, A; Willaime, F; Serruys, Y

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

134

Estimation of tumour dose enhancement due to gold nanoparticles during typical radiation treatments: a preliminary Monte Carlo study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A recent mice study demonstrated that gold nanoparticles could be safely administered and used to enhance the tumour dose during radiation therapy. The use of gold nanoparticles seems more promising than earlier methods because of the high atomic number of gold and because nanoparticles can more easily penetrate the tumour vasculature. However, to date, possible dose enhancement due to the use of gold nanoparticles has not been well quantified, especially for common radiation treatment situations. Therefore, the current preliminary study estimated this dose enhancement by Monte Carlo calculations for several phantom test cases representing radiation treatments with the following modalities: 140 kVp x-rays, 4 and 6 MV photon beams, and 192Ir gamma rays. The current study considered three levels of gold concentration within the tumour, two of which are based on the aforementioned mice study, and assumed either no gold or a single gold concentration level outside the tumour. The dose enhancement over the tumour volume considered for the 140 kVp x-ray case can be at least a factor of 2 at an achievable gold concentration of 7 mg Au/g tumour assuming no gold outside the tumour. The tumour dose enhancement for the cases involving the 4 and 6 MV photon beams based on the same assumption ranged from about 1% to 7%, depending on the amount of gold within the tumour and photon beam qualities. For the 192Ir cases, the dose enhancement within the tumour region ranged from 5% to 31%, depending on radial distance and gold concentration level within the tumour. For the 7 mg Au/g tumour cases, the loading of gold into surrounding normal tissue at 2 mg Au/g resulted in an increase in the normal tissue dose, up to 30%, negligible, and about 2% for the 140 kVp x-rays, 6 MV photon beam, and 192Ir gamma rays, respectively, while the magnitude of dose enhancement within the tumour was essentially unchanged.

Sang Hyun Cho

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Twenty-channel bolometer array for studying impurity radiation and transport in the TCS field-reversed configuration  

SciTech Connect

A bolometer array diagnostic has been developed for the University of Washington Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment (TCS) field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment in order to measure radially resolved total radiated power per unit length of the FRC. This will provide radiation energy loss information, useful in power balance and impurity studies. The 20-element photodiode bolometer will be mounted at the midplane of the TCS cylindrical vacuum chamber to view the rotating magnetic field (RMF) generated FRC plasma. Key features of this new bolometer array are (1) extensive electrical shielding against the RMF, (2) robust electrical isolation, (3) trans-impedance amplifiers using a microcoax interface at the array and a fiber optic interface to the screen room, and (4) a custom glass-on-metal socket for the 20-element photodiode chip to ensure high vacuum compatibility. The bolometer array can be retracted behind a gate valve using a stepper motor to protect it during vacuum chamber bakeout. The slit assembly housing is interchangeable to provide flexibility for the viewing sightlines.

Kostora, M. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Wurden, G. A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Study of anticipated impact on DOE programs from proposed reductions to the external occupational radiation exposure limit  

SciTech Connect

A study of the impact of reducing the occupational radiation exposure limit from 5 rem/yr to 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 rem/yr, respectively produced the following conclusions: reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in total accumulated exposure to the current radiation worker population and could require an increase in the work force; important programs would have to be abandoned at a planned exposure limit of 0.5 rem/yr; some engineering technology is not sufficiently developed to design or operate at the 0.5 rem/yr limit; even a factor of 2 reduction (2.5 rem/yr) would significantly increase costs and would result in an increase in total exposure to the work force; in addition to a significant one-time initial capital cost resulting from a 0.5 rem/yr limit, there would be a significant increase in annual costs; the major emphasis in controlling occupational exposure should be on further reduction of total man-rem; and current standards are used only as a limit. For example, 97% of the employees receive less than 0.5 rem/yr.

None

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Studies on Pentoxifylline and Tocopherol Combination for Radiation-Induced Heart Disease in Rats  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether the application of pentoxifylline (PTX) and tocopherol l (Vit. E) could modify the development of radiation-induced heart disease and downregulate the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1mRNA in rats. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups: control group, irradiated group, experimental group 1, and experiment group 2. Supplementation was started 3 days before irradiation; in experimental group 1, injection of PTX (15 mg/kg/d) and Vit. E (5.5 mg/kg/d) continued till the 12th week postirradiation, whereas in experimental group 2 it was continued until the 24th week postirradiation. All rats were administrated a single dose of 20 Gy irradiation to the heart except the control group. Histopathologic evaluation was performed at various time points (Days 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 and 24th week) up to 24 weeks after irradiation. Changes of levels of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were also investigated at the same time points using competitive polymerase chain reaction. Results: Compared with the irradiated group, levels of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA of the rat hearts were relatively low in the two experimental groups on the 12th week postirradiation. In experimental group 1, there was a rebound expression of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA on the 24th week postirradiation, whereas that of the experimental group 2 remained low (p < 0.05). The proportions of collagen fibers of the two experimental groups were lower than that of irradiated group (p < 0.05). A rebound could be observed in the experimental group 1. Conclusion: PTX and Vit. E downregulated the expression of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA. The irradiated rat hearts showed a marked pathologic response to the drugs. The withdrawal of drugs in the 12th week postirradiation could cause rebound effects of the development of fibrosis.

Liu Hui [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xiong Mai [Department of Cardiac Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xia Yunfei; Cui Nianji; Lu Rubiao [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Deng Ling [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Lin Yuehao [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Clinical Laboratory, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Rong Tiehua [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: esophagus2003@yahoo.com.cn

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Studies of Particulates and Structural Transformations in Glass Using Synchrotron Radiation. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The initial study on nanoparticles of magnetite was carried out in an epoxy matrix. The formation of agglomerates of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied by mu-XRF, magnetic, TEM and SEM techniques. Because of the elevated viscosity of epoxy resin and its effect on particle agglomeration, this study was extended using less viscous polyvinyl alcohol and some sol gels as a matrix. Unlike the results found in epoxy resin, spherical agglomerates were found in a PVA matrix even at Fe3O4 concentration of up to 50%.

Thorpe, Arthur

2001-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

139

Decay channels of core-excited H2S studied by synchrotron-radiation-excited photoelectron spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 2p(3a1) to 6a1 and 3b2 photoexcitation resonance of H2S has been studied using synchrotron-radiation-excited photoelectron spectroscopy. The overall shape of the measured photoelectron spectrum of H2S is found to be in close resemblance with the normal Auger-electron spectrum of HCl. The spectrum is assumed to result mainly from the Auger decay in the excited HS molecule taking place after the molecular dissociation of the excited H2S molecule. The finding is compared with the results of multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculations [A.N. de Brito and H. Agren, following paper, Phys. Rev. A 45, 7953 (1992)].

H. Aksela; S. Aksela; A. Naves de Brito; G. M. Bancroft; K. H. Tan

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Study on Conducted Interference and Radiated Interference of Buck-Boost Converter in Electric Automobile  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Buck-boost converter is an important component of electric automobile, it is an important interference source in electric automobile, the study of the interference source is ... of buck-boost converter is simplif...

Jian Wang; Youqun Zhao; Liguo Zang; Wei Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Pancreatic Cancer in Japan: Results of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) Survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To determine the patterns of radiotherapy practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials A questionnaire-based national survey of radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer treated between 2000 and 2006 was conducted by the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG). Detailed information on 870 patients from 34 radiation oncology institutions was accumulated. Results The median age of all patients was 64 years (range, 36–88), and 80.2% of the patients had good performance status. More than 85% of patients had clinical Stage T3-T4 disease, and 68.9% of patients had unresectable disease at diagnosis. Concerning radiotherapy (RT), 49.8% of patients were treated with radical external beam RT (EBRT) (median dose, 50.4 Gy), 44.4% of patients were treated with intraoperative RT (median dose, 25 Gy) with or without EBRT (median dose, 45 Gy), and 5.9% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 50 Gy). The treatment field consisted of the primary tumor (bed) only in 55.6% of the patients. Computed tomography-based treatment planning and conformal RT was used in 93.1% and 83.1% of the patients treated with EBRT, respectively. Chemotherapy was used for 691 patients (79.4%; before RT for 66 patients; during RT for 531; and after RT for 364). Gemcitabine was the most frequently used drug, followed by 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion This study describes the general patterns of RT practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Most patients had advanced unresectable disease, and radical EBRT, as well as intraoperative RT with or without EBRT, was frequently used. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine was commonly used in conjunction with RT during the survey period.

Kazuhiko Ogawa; Yoshinori Ito; Katsuyuki Karasawa; Yoshihiro Ogawa; Hiroshi Onishi; Tomoko Kazumoto; Keiko Shibuya; Hitoshi Shibuya; Yoshishige Okuno; Shigeo Nishino; Etsuyo Ogo; Nobue Uchida; Kumiko Karasawa; Kenji Nemoto; Yasumasa Nishimura

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Pancreatic Cancer in Japan: Results of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) Survey  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the patterns of radiotherapy practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national survey of radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer treated between 2000 and 2006 was conducted by the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG). Detailed information on 870 patients from 34 radiation oncology institutions was accumulated. Results: The median age of all patients was 64 years (range, 36-88), and 80.2% of the patients had good performance status. More than 85% of patients had clinical Stage T3-T4 disease, and 68.9% of patients had unresectable disease at diagnosis. Concerning radiotherapy (RT), 49.8% of patients were treated with radical external beam RT (EBRT) (median dose, 50.4 Gy), 44.4% of patients were treated with intraoperative RT (median dose, 25 Gy) with or without EBRT (median dose, 45 Gy), and 5.9% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 50 Gy). The treatment field consisted of the primary tumor (bed) only in 55.6% of the patients. Computed tomography-based treatment planning and conformal RT was used in 93.1% and 83.1% of the patients treated with EBRT, respectively. Chemotherapy was used for 691 patients (79.4%; before RT for 66 patients; during RT for 531; and after RT for 364). Gemcitabine was the most frequently used drug, followed by 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: This study describes the general patterns of RT practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Most patients had advanced unresectable disease, and radical EBRT, as well as intraoperative RT with or without EBRT, was frequently used. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine was commonly used in conjunction with RT during the survey period.

Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Okuno, Yoshishige [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Nishino, Shigeo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sapporo Kosei General Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Ogo, Etsuyo [Department of Radiology, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Uchida, Nobue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shimane Medical University, Shimane (Japan); Karasawa, Kumiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University, Tokyo (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Nishimura, Yasumasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Study of the Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL and PIN , W. Fernandoa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Components (AOC), Optowell, and ULM Photonics with various bandwidths [4]. For the AOC, we irradiated three/s. For the Optowell, we irradiated 2.5 Gb/s devices. Based on the multi- year study, we identified the AOC devices. The original plan was to irradiate twenty 10 Gb/s AOC arrays in 2009. Unfortunately a pr

Gan, K. K.

144

Genetic studies at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission–Radiation Effects Research Foundation: 1946–1997  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...inevitable, and studies to anticipate worker’s health hazards were undertaken. At that...data obtained by W. L. Russell at Oak Ridge (21, 22), yielding one of the lower estimates...in the course of the experiment at Oak Ridge occurred in the offspring of both...

James V. Neel

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study  

SciTech Connect

This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

146

Whole-body radiation dosimetry of 2-[F-18]fluoro-A-85380 in human PET imaging studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R, Budinger T, Watson E. MIRD Primer for Absorbed DoseInternal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system [28]. To perform thesimplifications inherent in the MIRD phantom model, several

Obrzut, S L; Koren, A O; Mandelkern, M A; Brody, A L; Hoh, C K; London, E D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Patterns of care study of radiation therapy for esophageal cancer in Japan: influence of age on parameters of treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background. In Japan, the elderly population is growing rapidly, ... good candidates for aggressive surgery or chemotherapy. Radiation therapy offers excellent potential for the treatment...

T. Teshima; H. Ikeda; M. Abe; G. E. Hanks…

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

SBIR Dates to Remember  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

*Click to learn more about webinars, to register for upcoming webinars or to view archived webinars.

149

Cognitive Function Before and After Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy (RT) on neurocognitive function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with NPC treated with intensity-modulated RT were included. Dose-volume histograms of the temporal lobes were obtained in every patient. Neurocognitive tests were administered individually to each patient 1 day before initiation of RT and at least 12 months after completion of RT. Cognitive functioning status was evaluated as change in scores over time. Results: Among the total of 30 patients, 23 patients (76.7%) had significantly lower post-RT cognitive functioning scores compared with their pre-RT scores (p = 0.033). The cognitive functioning scores had significantly declined in the domains of short-term memory, language abilities, and list-generating fluency (p = 0.020, 0.023, and 0.001, respectively). Compared with patients with a mean dose to the temporal lobes of 36 Gy or less, patients with a mean dose of greater than 36 Gy had a significantly greater reduction in cognitive functioning scores (p = 0.017). Patients in whom V60 of the temporal lobes (i.e., the percentage of the temporal lobe volume that had received >60 Gy) was greater than 10% also had a greater reduction in cognitive functioning scores than those in whom V60 was 10% or less (p = 0.039). Conclusions: The results of our study indicated that RT could have deleterious effects on cognitive function in patients with NPC. Efforts should be made to reduce the radiation dose and irradiated volume of temporal lobes without compromising the coverage of target volume.

Hsiao, Kuan-Yin [Department of Radiation Oncology, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Shyh-An, E-mail: yehsa@hotmail.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chiung-Chih [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Study of the radiative decay J/psi. -->. gamma. eta. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/  

SciTech Connect

The Mark III collaboration has performed a high statistics study of the reaction J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/, with two different final states of the eta, eta ..-->.. ..gamma gamma.. and eta ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/. Both modes have a broad structure from 1.2 to 1.9 GeV/c/sup 2/ and two structures, which decay via delta/sup + -/..pi../sup - +/, delta/sup + -/ ..-->.. eta..pi../sup + -/, are identified at 1.28 and 1.39 GeV/c/sup 2/. No signal is observed in the iota(1440) signal region.

Becker, J.J.; Blaylock, G.T.; Bolton, T.; Brown, J.S.; Bunnell, K.O.; Burnett, T.H.; Cassell, R.E.; Coffman, D.; Cook, V.; Coward, D.H.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

152

Studies on Induced Variation in the Rhizobia: II. Radiation Sensitivity and Induction of Antibiotic-resistance Markers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...0.I 0 1 2 DOSE (ergs/mm2...quantitative estimations, as in the...DISCUSSION Radiation dose-survival...an ionizing radiation, i.e...more accurate estimation of mutation...ergs/mm2XIO3 DOSE FIG. 3. Effect...

E. A. Schwinghamer; R. L. Dalmas

1961-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x 2012) Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-induced carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces modification during EUV exposure. XPS analysis showed that total carbon contamination (C 1s peak

Harilal, S. S.

154

Study of radiative blast waves generated on the Z-beamlet laser.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the original goals of the project to study the Vishniac Overstability on blast waves produced using the Z-Beamlet laser facility as well as the actual results. The proposed work was to build on earlier work on the facility and result in the best characterized set of data for such phenomena in the laboratory. To accomplish the goals it was necessary to modify the existing probe laser at the facility so that it could take multiple images over the course of 1-2 microseconds. Troubles with modifying the probe laser are detailed as well as the work that went into said modifications. The probe laser modification ended up taking the entire length of the project and were the major accomplishment of the research.

Edens, Aaron D.; Schwarz, Jens

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. COPS was endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading.

156

A novel approach in electron beam radiation therapy of lips carcinoma: A Monte Carlo study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is commonly treated by electron beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by a boost via brachytherapy. Considering the limitations associated with brachytherapy, in this study, a novel boosting technique in EBRT of lip carcinoma using an internal shield as an internal dose enhancer tool (IDET) was evaluated. An IDET is referred to a partially covered internal shield located behind the lip. It was intended to show that while the backscattered electrons are absorbed in the portion covered with a low atomic number material, they will enhance the target dose in the uncovered area. Methods: Monte-Carlo models of 6 and 8 MeV electron beams were developed using BEAMnrc code and were validated against experimental measurements. Using the developed models, dose distributions in a lip phantom were calculated and the effect of an IDET on target dose enhancement was evaluated. Typical lip thicknesses of 1.5 and 2.0 cm were considered. A 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} of lead covered by 0.5 cm of polystyrene was used as an internal shield, while a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 cm{sup 2} uncovered area of the shield was used as the dose enhancer. Results: Using the IDET, the maximum dose enhancement as a percentage of dose at d{sub max} of the unshielded field was 157.6% and 136.1% for 6 and 8 MeV beams, respectively. The best outcome was achieved for lip thickness of 1.5 cm and target thickness of less than 0.8 cm. For lateral dose coverage of planning target volume, the 80% isodose curve at the lip-IDET interface showed a 1.2 cm expansion, compared to the unshielded field. Conclusions: This study showed that a boost concomitant EBRT of lip is possible by modifying an internal shield into an IDET. This boosting method is especially applicable to cases in which brachytherapy faces limitations, such as small thicknesses of lips and targets located at the buccal surface of the lip.

Shokrani, Parvaneh [Medical Physics and Medical Engineering Department, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad [Medical Physics and Medical Engineering Department, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran and Medical Radiation Engineering Department, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, Isfahan University, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zadeh, Maryam Khorami [Medical Physics Department, School of Medicine, Ahwaz Jundishapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz 15794-61357 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study  

SciTech Connect

In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia.

Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Zuurmond, T.; Louw, G.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Study of the Exclusive Initial-State Radiation Production of the $D \\bar D$ System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of exclusive production of the $D \\bar D$ system through initial-state r adiation is performed in a search for charmonium states, where $D=D^0$ or $D^+$. The $D^0$ mesons are reconstructed in the $D^0 \\to K^- \\pi^+$, $D^0 \\to K^- \\pi^+ \\pi^0$, and $D^0 \\to K^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decay modes. The $D^+$ is reconstructed through the $D^+ \\to K^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+$ decay mode. The analysis makes use of an integrated luminosity of 288.5 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the BaBar experiment. The $D \\bar D$ mass spectrum shows a clear $\\psi(3770)$ signal. Further structures appear in the 3.9 and 4.1 GeV/$c^2$ regions. No evidence is found for Y(4260) decays to $D \\bar D$, implying an up per limit $\\frac{\\BR(Y(4260)\\to D \\bar D)}{\\BR(Y(4260)\\to J/\\psi \\pi^+ \\pi^-)} < 7.6$ (95 % confidence level).

The BABAR Collaboration; B. Aubert

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

159

Radiating gravastars  

SciTech Connect

Considering a Vaidya exterior spacetime, we study dynamical models of prototype gravastars, made of an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = ?, enclosing an interior de Sitter spacetime. We show explicitly that the final output can be a black hole, an unstable gravastar, a stable gravastar or a 'bounded excursion' gravastar, depending on how the mass of the shell evolves in time, the cosmological constant and the initial position of the dynamical shell. This work presents, for the first time in the literature, a gravastar that emits radiation.

Chan, R. [Coordenação de Astronomia e Astrofísica, Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino, 77, São Cristóvão 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.F.A. da [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Jaime F. Villas da [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur 458, Urca, CEP 22290-240, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wang, Anzhong, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: jfvroch@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China  

SciTech Connect

Black carbon in snow (BCS) simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is evaluated against measurements over Northern China and the Arctic, and its sensitivity to atmospheric deposition and two parameters that affect post-depositional enrichment is explored. The BCS concentration is overestimated (underestimated) by a factor of two in Northern China (Arctic) in the default model, but agreement with observations is good over both regions in the simulation with improvements in BC transport and deposition. Sensitivity studies indicate that uncertainty in the melt-water scavenging efficiency (MSE) parameter substantially affects BCS and its radiative forcing (by a factor of 2-7) in the Arctic through post-depositional enrichment. The MSE parameter has a relatively small effect on the magnitude of BCS seasonal cycle but can alter its phase in Northern China. The impact of the snow aging scaling factor (SAF) on BCS, partly through the post-depositional enrichment effect, shows more complex latitudinal and seasonal dependence. Similar to MSE, SAF affects more significantly the magnitude (phase) of BCS season cycle over the Arctic (Northern China). While uncertainty associated with the representation of BC transport and deposition processes in CAM5 is more important than that associated with the two snow model parameters in Northern China, the two uncertainties have comparable effect in the Arctic.

Qian, Yun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, Philip J.

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

162

Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment Target Material Radiation Damage Studies Using Energetic Protons of the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Production (BLIP) Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the future multi-MW accelerators is the LBNE Experiment where Fermilab aims to produce a beam of neutrinos with a 2.3 MW proton beam as part of a suite of experiments associated with Project X. Specifically, the LBNE Neutrino Beam Facility aims for a 2+ MW, 60 -120 GeV pulsed, high intensity proton beam produced in the Project X accelerator intercepted by a low Z solid target to facilitate the production of low energy neutrinos. The multi-MW level LBNE proton beam will be characterized by intensities of the order of 1.6 e+14 p/pulse, {\\sigma} radius of 1.5 -3.5 mm and a 9.8 microsecond pulse length. These parameters are expected to push many target materials to their limit thus making the target design very challenging. To address a host of critical design issues revealed by recent high intensity beam on target experience a series of experimental studies on radiation damage and thermal shock response conducted at BNL focusing on low-Z materials have been undertaken with the latest one focusing on LBNE.

Simos, N; Hurh, P; Mokhov, N; Kotsina, Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. IV. On the scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice particles: Numerical radiative transfer studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Owing to their wavelengths dependent absorption and scattering properties, clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. Especially, the potential greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. We study the radiative effects of CO2 ice particles obtained by different numerical treatments to solve the radiative transfer equation. The comparison between the results of a high-order discrete ordinate method and simpler two-stream approaches reveals large deviations in terms of a potential scattering efficiency of the greenhouse effect. The two-stream methods overestimate the transmitted and reflected radiation, thereby yielding a higher scattering greenhouse effect. For the particular case of a cool M-type dwarf the CO2 ice particles show no strong effective scattering greenhouse eff...

Kitzmann, D; Rauer, H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Fast-neutron radiation effects in a silica-core optical fiber studied by a CCD-camera spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple CCD-camera spectrometer was deployed at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility to characterize fast-neutron irradiation effects in several silica-based optical...

Griscom, D L; Gingerich, M E; Friebele, E J; Putnam, M; Unruh, W

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Feasibility of intraoperative radiation therapy for early breast cancer in Japan: a single-center pilot study and literature review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is under evaluation in breast-conserving surgery because the feasibility of the IORT procedure including transportation of the patient under general anesthesia is not we...

Masataka Sawaki; Naoto Kondo; Akiyo Horio; Aya Ushio; Naomi Gondo…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Experimental study of the effect of electromagnetic microwave radiation on parts made of high-energy polymer materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of experimental measurements of Young’s modulus, burning rate, and specific heat of condensed high-energy polymer compositions (solid propellants) subjected to microwave radiation are reported. Experim...

L. L. Khimenko; A. P. Rybakov; N. A. Rybakov…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

168

Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

Kron, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Kron@petermac.org [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Willis, David; Link, Emma [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lehman, Margot [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Campbell, Gillian [Auckland City Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland (New Zealand); O'Brien, Peter [Newcastle Calvary Mater Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Chua, Boon [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

58.1 58.1 RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PUBLIC AND THE ENVIRONMENT DOE O 458.1 Familiar Level August 2011 1 DOE O 458.1 RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PUBLIC AND THE ENVIRONMENT FAMILIAR LEVEL OBJECTIVES Given the familiar level of this module and the resources listed below, you will be able to answer the following questions: 1. What are the objectives of DOE O 458.1? 2. What are the definitions for the following terms?  Residual radioactive material  Public dose  ALARA  Soil column ( in the context of radiation protection of the environment) 3. What are three basic considerations that should be observed in an ALARA process for DOE radioactive activities? 4. What are four elements that must be included in dose evaluations to demonstrate

170

Radiation safety design for the J-PARC project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2001). Radiation safety design for the J-PARC...present status of the radiation safety design study for J-PARC...instrumentation Protons Radiation Dosage Radiation Monitoring...methods Risk Factors Software Software Validation......

H. Nakashima; Y. Nakane; F. Masukawa; N. Matsuda; T. Oguri; H. Nakano; N. Sasamoto; T. Shibata; T. Suzuki; T. Miura; M. Numajiri; N. Nakao; H. Hirayama; S. Sasaki

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

171

Radiation Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

172

Contribution of synchrotron radiation to small-angle X-ray scattering studies in hard condensed matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation, by virtue of its special beam characteristics, has revived interest in small-angle X-ray scattering for hard condensed matter and materials science. New techniques have been developed and new scientific themes tackled, ranging from metallurgy to nanotechnology.

Simon, J.-P.

2007-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Biophysics and synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

This book, contains contributions to the conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation held in July 1986 at Frascati. It is devoted to advances in the resolution of biological molecule structure obtainable through synchroton radiation studies. The use of synchroton radiation has firmly established x-ray spectroscopy of biological molecules. More detailed knowledge on the local structure of active sites of metalloproteins, as well as a number of studies on the interaction of metal ions with other important biological macromolecular systems are presented. This new method for protein structure analysis is a major improvement for the rapidly expanding field of protein engineering.

Bianconi, A.; Castellano, C.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means ({mu}), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic ({Sigma}) and random errors ({sigma}) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [{mu}{sub CBCT}= (-1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, {Sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, {sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [{mu}{sub kV}= (-2.9, -0.4, 0.5) mm, {Sigma}{sub kV}= (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, {sigma}{sub kV}= (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [{mu}{sub US}= (-3.6, -1.4, 0.0) mm, {Sigma}{sub US}= (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, {sigma}{sub US}= (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior-posterior (A/P), superior-inferior (S/I), and the left-right (L/R) directions, respectively. In the treatment protocol, adjustment of couch was guided by US images. Residual setup errors as assessed by kV images were found to be: {mu}{sub residual}= (-0.4, 0.2, 0.2) mm, {Sigma}{sub residual}= (1.0, 1.0,0.7) mm, and {sigma}{sub residual}= (2.5, 2.3, 1.8) mm. Intrafraction prostate motion, evaluated using electromagnetic transponders, was: {mu}{sub intrafxn}= (0.0, 0.0, 0.0) mm, {Sigma}{sub intrafxn}= (1.3, 1.5, 0.6) mm, and {sigma}{sub intrafxn}= (2.6, 2.4, 1.4) mm. Shifts between pre- and post-treatment kV images were: {mu}{sub kV(post-pre)}= (-0.3, 0.8, -0.2), {Sigma}{sub kV(post-pre)}= (2.4, 2.7, 2.1) mm, and {sigma}{sub kV(post-pre)}= (2.7, 3.2, 3.1) mm. Relative to skin tattoos, planning margins for setup error were within 10-11 mm for all image-based modalities. The use of image guidance was shown to reduce these margins to less than 5 mm. Margins to compensate for both residual setup (interfraction) errors as well as intrafraction motion were 6.6, 6.8, and 3.9 mm in the A/P, S/I, and L/R directions, respectively. Conclusions: Analysis of interfraction setup errors, performed with US, CBCT, planar kV images, and electromagnetic transponders, from a large dataset revealed intermodality shifts were comparable (within 3-4 mm). Interfraction planning margins, relative to setup based on skin marks, were generally within the 10 mm prostate-to-planning target volume margin used in our clinic. With image guidance, interfraction residual planning margins were reduced to approximately less than 4 mm. These findings are potentially important for dose escalation studies using smaller margins to better protect normal tissues.

Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Lu Mei [Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States); Stricker, Hans [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Quantitative evaluation of light scattering intensities of the crystalline lens for radiation related minimal change in interventional radiologists: a cross-sectional pilot study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Medical Physics and Radiation Safety, Boston University...evaluate low-dose X-ray radiation effects on the eye by...hours and scattered radiation exposure during working...performed using commercial software (JMP 7.01J). Statistical......

Toshi Abe; Shigeru Furui; Hiroshi Sasaki; Yasuo Sakamoto; Shigeru Suzuki; Tatsuya Ishitake; Kinuyo Terasaki; Hiroshi Kohtake; Alexander M. Norbash; Richard H. Behrman; Naofumi Hayabuchi

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time \\{ROs\\} were crosschecked with data for part-time \\{ROs\\} by using their identification data. Data of 954 \\{ROs\\} were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. \\{ROs\\} working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

Hodaka Numasaki; Hitoshi Shibuya; Masamichi Nishio; Hiroshi Ikeda; Kenji Sekiguchi; Norihiko Kamikonya; Masahiko Koizumi; Masao Tago; Yutaka Ando; Nobuhiro Tsukamoto; Atsuro Terahara; Katsumasa Nakamura; Michihide Mitsumori; Tetsuo Nishimura; Masato Hareyama; Teruki Teshima

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A 2-Stage Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Development of Erectile Dysfunction Following Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with development of erectile dysfunction (ED) among prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A 2-stage genome-wide association study was performed. Patients were split randomly into a stage I discovery cohort (132 cases, 103 controls) and a stage II replication cohort (128 cases, 102 controls). The discovery cohort was genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 genome-wide arrays. The 940 top ranking SNPs selected from the discovery cohort were genotyped in the replication cohort using Illumina iSelect custom SNP arrays. Results: Twelve SNPs identified in the discovery cohort and validated in the replication cohort were associated with development of ED following radiation therapy (Fisher combined P values 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} to 6.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}). Notably, these 12 SNPs lie in or near genes involved in erectile function or other normal cellular functions (adhesion and signaling) rather than DNA damage repair. In a multivariable model including nongenetic risk factors, the odds ratios for these SNPs ranged from 1.6 to 5.6 in the pooled cohort. There was a striking relationship between the cumulative number of SNP risk alleles an individual possessed and ED status (Sommers' D P value = 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -29}). A 1-allele increase in cumulative SNP score increased the odds for developing ED by a factor of 2.2 (P value = 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -19}). The cumulative SNP score model had a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 75% for prediction of developing ED at the radiation therapy planning stage. Conclusions: This genome-wide association study identified a set of SNPs that are associated with development of ED following radiation therapy. These candidate genetic predictors warrant more definitive validation in an independent cohort.

Kerns, Sarah L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Departments of Pathology and Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Stock, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Buckstein, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Shao, Yongzhao [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)] [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Campbell, Christopher [Departments of Pathology and Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Departments of Pathology and Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Rath, Lynda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); De Ruysscher, Dirk; Lammering, Guido [Department of Radiation Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hixson, Rosetta; Cesaretti, Jamie; Terk, Mitchell [Florida Radiation Oncology Group, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)] [Florida Radiation Oncology Group, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Ostrer, Harry [Departments of Pathology and Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Departments of Pathology and Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Rosenstein, Barry S., E-mail: barry.rosenstein@mssm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Departments of Dermatology and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

New emission line at ~3.5 keV - observational status, connection with radiatively decaying dark matter and directions for future studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent works of [1402.2301,1402.4119], claiming the detection of extra emission line with energy ~3.5 keV in X-ray spectra of certain clusters of galaxies and nearby Andromeda galaxy, have raised considerable interest in astrophysics and particle physics communities. A number of new observational studies claim detection or non-detection of the extra line in X-ray spectra of various cosmic objects. In this review I summarize existing results of these studies, overview possible interpretations of the extra line, including intriguing connection with radiatively decaying dark matter, and show future directions achievable with existing and planned X-ray cosmic missions.

Iakubovskyi, Dmytro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

First Study of the Radiation-Amplitude Zero in W? Production and Limits on Anomalous WW? Couplings at s=1.96??TeV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present results from a study of pp¯?W?+X events utilizing data corresponding to 0.7??fb-1 of integrated luminosity at s=1.96??TeV collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We set limits on anomalous WW? couplings at the 95% C.L. The one-dimensional 95% C.L. limits are 0.49study of the charge-signed rapidity difference between the lepton and the photon and find it to be indicative of the standard model radiation-amplitude zero in the W? system.

V. M. Abazov et al. (D0 Collaboration)

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

180

Plasma Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... JUST over ten years ago the first book on plasma physics as a subject in its own right appeared; in a gradually swelling stream ... been surprisingly few monographs. One topic which has had scant coverage in any form is plasma radiation (except for spectral-line radiation which has been dealt with very fully in ...

T. J. M. BOYD

1967-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Radiation from accelerated branes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiation emitted by accelerated fundamental strings and D-branes is studied within the linear approximation to the supergravity limit of string theory. We show that scalar, gauge field and gravitational radiation is generically emitted by such branes. In the case where an external scalar field accelerates the branes, we derive a Larmor-type formula for the emitted scalar radiation and study the angular distribution of the outgoing energy flux. The classical radii of the branes are calculated by means of the corresponding Thompson scattering cross sections. Within the linear approximation, the interaction of the external scalar field with the velocity fields of the branes gives a contribution to the observed gauge field and gravitational radiation.

Mohab Abou-Zeid and Miguel S. Costa

2000-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

182

Quantitative cone-beam CT imaging in radiation therapy using planning CT as a prior: First patient studies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Quantitative cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging is on increasing demand for high-performance image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). However, the current CBCT has poor image qualities mainly due to scatter contamination. Its current clinical application is therefore limited to patient setup based on only bony structures. To improve CBCT imaging for quantitative use, we recently proposed a correction method using planning CT (pCT) as the prior knowledge. Promising phantom results have been obtained on a tabletop CBCT system, using a correction scheme with rigid registration and without iterations. More challenges arise in clinical implementations of our method, especially because patients have large organ deformation in different scans. In this paper, we propose an improved framework to extend our method from bench to bedside by including several new components. Methods: The basic principle of our correction algorithm is to estimate the primary signals of CBCT projections via forward projection on the pCT image, and then to obtain the low-frequency errors in CBCT raw projections by subtracting the estimated primary signals and low-pass filtering. We improve the algorithm by using deformable registration to minimize the geometry difference between the pCT and the CBCT images. Since the registration performance relies on the accuracy of the CBCT image, we design an optional iterative scheme to update the CBCT image used in the registration. Large correction errors result from the mismatched objects in the pCT and the CBCT scans. Another optional step of gas pocket and couch matching is added into the framework to reduce these effects. Results: The proposed method is evaluated on four prostate patients, of which two cases are presented in detail to investigate the method performance for a large variety of patient geometry in clinical practice. The first patient has small anatomical changes from the planning to the treatment room. Our algorithm works well even without the optional iterations and the gas pocket and couch matching. The image correction on the second patient is more challenging due to the effects of gas pockets and attenuating couch. The improved framework with all new components is used to fully evaluate the correction performance. The enhanced image quality has been evaluated using mean CT number and spatial nonuniformity (SNU) error as well as contrast improvement factor. If the pCT image is considered as the ground truth, on the four patients, the overall mean CT number error is reduced from over 300 HU to below 16 HU in the selected regions of interest (ROIs), and the SNU error is suppressed from over 18% to below 2%. The average soft-tissue contrast is improved by an average factor of 2.6. Conclusions: We further improve our pCT-based CBCT correction algorithm for clinical use. Superior correction performance has been demonstrated on four patient studies. By providing quantitative CBCT images, our approach significantly increases the accuracy of advanced CBCT-based clinical applications for IGRT.

Niu Tianye; Al-Basheer, Ahmad; Zhu Lei [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Georgia Radiation Therapy Center, Department of Radiology, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, Georgia 30912 (United States); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Monte Carlo Studies of the Radiation Fields in the Linac Coherent Light Source Undulators and of the Corresponding Signals in the Cerenkov Beam Loss Monitors  

SciTech Connect

In 2009 the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Center started free electron laser (FEL) operation. In order to continue to produce the bright and short-pulsed x-ray laser demanded by FEL scientists, this pioneer hard x-ray FEL requires a perfectly tailored magnetic field at the undulators, so that the photons generated at the electron wiggling path interact at the right phase with the electron beam. In such a precise system, small (>0.01%) radiation-induced alterations of the magnetic field in the permanent magnets could affect FEL performance. This paper describes the simulation studies of radiation fields in permanent magnets and the expected signal in the detectors. The transport of particles from the radiation sources (i.e. diagnostic insert) to the undulator magnets and to the beam loss monitors (BLM) was simulated with the intra nuclear cascade codes FLUKA and MARS15. In order to accurately reproduce the optics of LCLS, lattice capabilities and magnetic fields were enabled in FLUKA and betatron oscillations were validated against reference data. All electron events entering the BLMs were printed in data files. The paper also introduces the Radioactive Ion Beam Optimizer (RIBO) Monte Carlo 3-D code, which was used to read from the event files, to compute Cerenkov production and then to simulate the optical coupling of the BLM detectors, accounting for the transmission of light through the quartz.

Santana Leitner, Mario

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

184

National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials: In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results: The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences in the average practice index for patients by ROs working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: ROs working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Effect of radiation on the response of dental pulp to operative and endodontic procedures: an experimental study  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six 56-day-old male Sprague-Dawley albino rats served as two groups of experimental animals. Group 1 was irradiated with 400 rads delivered as total-body radiation from a cesium source. Group 2 served as the control group and was not irradiated. Three weeks later, the dental microscope was used to facilitate various dental procedures in both groups of animals (cavity preparation filled with zinc oxide-eugenol, pulp exposure capped with zinc oxide-eugenol, and pulp exposure left open). Two animals for each procedure from Groups 1 and 2 were killed at time intervals of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The results showed that (1) radiation at this dose resulted in a depression of the normal response of the dental pulp to the trauma and infection induced by pulpal exposure, (2) there were no pathologic changes in the untreated molars of the irradiated animals, and (3) the use of the dental microscope greatly facilitated cavity preparation in the molars of rats.

Fawzi, M.I.; Shklar, G.; Krakow, A.A.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

189

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

190

A new two-dimensional X-ray drift chamber for diffraction studies with pulsed synchroton radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-dimensional position-sensitive detector (drift-chamber) for X-ray difraction experiments with pulsed synchrotron radiation is described. For the measurements of drift direction (x), the small drift chamber uses a reference signal generated by the electron bunches circulating in the storage ring. A flat geometry delay-line, inductively connected to the anode, detects the position of avalanche electrons on the anode wire (y-direction). The main features are: spatial resolution in drift direction (x), 100 ?m for 5 keV photons; spatial resolution in y direction, 400 ?m; maximum counting-rate 5×105 cps; quantum efficiency ar 5 keV, 52%. The systems has been succesfully tested at the ADONE storage ring at Frascati by measuring the small-angle diffraction spectrum of a dry tendon collagen.

Mario Iannuzzi; Andrea La Monaca

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

L-Boronophenylalanine-Mediated Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Glioma Progressing After External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Phase I Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine-mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of malignant gliomas that progress after surgery and conventional external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Adult patients who had histologically confirmed malignant glioma that had progressed after surgery and external beam radiotherapy were eligible for this Phase I study, provided that >6 months had elapsed from the last date of radiation therapy. The first 10 patients received a fixed dose, 290 mg/kg, of L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (L-BPA-F) as a 2-hour infusion before neutron irradiation, and the remaining patients were treated with escalating doses of L-BPA-F, either 350 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, or 450 mg/kg, using 3 patients on each dose level. Adverse effects were assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0. Results: Twenty-two patients entered the study. Twenty subjects had glioblastoma, and 2 patients had anaplastic astrocytoma, and the median cumulative dose of prior external beam radiotherapy was 59.4 Gy. The maximally tolerated L-BPA-F dose was reached at the 450 mg/kg level, where 4 of 6 patients treated had a grade 3 adverse event. Patients who were given >290 mg/kg of L-BPA-F received a higher estimated average planning target volume dose than those who received 290 mg/kg (median, 36 vs. 31 Gy [W, i.e., a weighted dose]; p = 0.018). The median survival time following BNCT was 7 months. Conclusions: BNCT administered with an L-BPA-F dose of up to 400 mg/kg as a 2-hour infusion is feasible in the treatment of malignant gliomas that recur after conventional radiation therapy.

Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Vaelimaeki, Petteri [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Beule, Annette [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Collan, Juhani [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kortesniemi, Mika [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Uusi-Simola, Jouni [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kotiluoto, Petri; Auterinen, Iiro; Seren, Tom [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Paetau, Anders [Department of Pathology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.joensuu@hus.f [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Studies of magnetism and exchange scattering in solids using synchroton radiation and spin-polarized photoemission. Progress report, June 1, 1982-May 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Some of the experiments necessary for proving the existence of Spin Polarized EXAFS (SPEXAFS) and for establishing it as a useful techncique for studying magnetism in solids have been carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Transmission EXAFS, which does not depend on electron spin, has been measured in several manganese compounds. The 3s photopeaks of Mn/sup 2 +/ in MnF/sub 2/ have been shown to display EXAFS-like oscillations. The pin dependence of these oscillations will next be studied. Observations of the 3p photopeaks of iron metal on a palladium substrate have shown anomalous intensity variations with varying photon energy. This phenomenon will also be studied further. The existence of Cooper minima in the iron 3s and 3p photoabsorption cross sections has been sought, and this investigation will continue.

Rothberg, G.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of proton radiation damage. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relative cataractogenic effects of different proton en- ergies, (2) to determine the relative cataractogenic effects of different radiation doses and (3) to determine... Laboratory in 1945 and 1946. Ten victims were exposed to various doses of moderately fast neutrons and hard gamma rays. In the eight survivors, two radiation cataracts resulted (15). In 1948 it was reported that five nuclear physicists with a common...

Kyzar, James Ronald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

196

A case study of radiotherapy planning for Intensity Modulation Radiation Therapy for the whole scalp with matching electron treatment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to communicate a technique to match an electron field to the dose distribution of an Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) plan. A patient with multiple areas of squamous cell carcinoma over the scalp was treated using 60 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions to the entire scalp and first echelon nodes with multiple 6-MV photon fields. To deliver an adequate dose to the scalp, a custom 1.0-cm bolus helmet was fashioned using a solid piece of aquaplast. Along with the IMRT scalp treatment, a left zygoma area was treated with electrons matching the anterior border of the IMRT dose distribution. The border was matched by creating a left lateral field with the multileaf collimator shaped to the IMRT dose distribution. The result indicated an adequate dose to the skin match between the IMRT plan and the electron field. Results were confirmed using optically stimulated luminescence placed at the skin match area, so that the dose matched the prescription within 10%.

Sponseller, Patricia, E-mail: sponselp@uw.edu [Masters Program at the University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, La Crosse, WI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paravathaneni, Upendra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

198

Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Atomic bomb dosimetry studies. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02)

199

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

200

[Studies of the repair of radiation-induced genetic damage in Drosophila]. Annual progress report, October 1, 1988--June 1, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this study is to achieve a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms employed by higher organisms to repair DNA damage induced by both ionizing and nonionizing radiation. These studies are also contributing to an improved understanding of the processes of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in higher eukaryotes. The studies employ Drosophila as a model organism for investigating repair functions that are common to all higher eukaryotes. Drosophila was chosen in the early phases of this study primarily because of the ease with which one can isolate and characterize repair-deficient mutants in a metazoan organism. The laboratory has gone on to investigate the metabolic defects of such mutants while others have performed complementary genetic and cytogenetic studies which relate DNA repair processes to mutagenesis and chromosome stability. The repair studies have exploited the capacity to introduce mutant Drosophila cells into tissue culture and thereby compare repair defects directly with those of homologous human disorders. Researchers are currently employing recombinant DNA technology to investigate the mechanisms of the DNA repair pathways defined by those mutants.

NONE

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

Yu, Kaiyuan

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

203

Occupational radiation monitoring at a large medical center in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Occupational radiation dose monitoring is a method of ensuring that radiation levels are within the regulatory limits. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the radiation doses experienced by personnel ...

Hussein Y. ALMasri; Yasumasa Kakinohana…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Radiation protection: Natural radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... radiation to which humans are exposed consists of four components - cosmic, gamma, internal, radon. The relative contribution that each makes to the sum is shown in the chart. ... but exposure of the whole body to terrestrial gamma rays and of the lungs to radon daughters are influenced by the nature and location of housing. Gamma rays are emitted ...

M. C. O'Riordan

1983-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

205

Reducing Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

Blankenbecler, Richard

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

206

Laser fluorescence study of AIO formed in the reaction AI + O2: Product state distribution, dissociation energy, and radiative  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5 ± I kcallmole is recommended for aluminum monoxide. Direct measurement of the fluorescence decay + 0 has been studied by Fontijn, Felder, and Houghton! in a fast- flow reactor. They find, comparison of the ex- perimental and theoretical internal state distributions 1824 The Journal of Chemical

Zare, Richard N.

207

Long-Term Dosimetry of Solar UV Radiation in Antarctica with Spores of Bacillus subtilis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biologically harmful ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica with a biological...hanced springtime ultraviolet radiation at Palmer Station, Ant- arctica...monitoring studies at Tokyo, Japan. J. Radiat. Res. 30:338-351...Ozone depletion: ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in...

Monika Puskeppeleit; Lothar E. Quintern; Saad el Naggar; Jobst-Ulrich Schott; Ute Eschweiler; Gerda Horneck; Horst Bücker

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

How Bees Remember Flower Shapes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...INFLUENCE OF POINTED REGIONS ON SHAPE PREFERENCE OF HONEY BEES, ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 25 : 88 ( 1977 ). ANDERSON, A.M., INFORMATION PROCESSI 207 ( 1972 ). ANDERSON, A.M., MODEL FOR LANDMARK LEARNING IN HONEYBEE, JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY...

JAMES L. GOULD

1985-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

209

Radiation dose in dental radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure in panoramic radiography (PR), dental CT, and digital volume tomography (DVT) ... at appropriate locations were exposed as in a dental examination. In PR...

M. Cohnen; J. Kemper; O. Möbes; J. Pawelzik; U. Mödder

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Radiation Transport Simulation Studies Using MCNP for a Cow Phantom to Determine an Optimal Detector Configuration for a New Livestock Portal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scalable gamma radiation portal monitor (RPM) which can be used to assess the level of contamination on large animals like cattle. This work employed a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code for the purpose. A virtual system of cow...

Joe Justina, -

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

211

SU?FF?T?174: Dose Rate Dependence of Film Dosimetry in Radiation Treatment: Study of Reciprocity Law  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose: Film has become an important tool for dose verification in individualized IMRTtreatment fields. The optical density (OD) is related to dose rate also known as reciprocity law; (D= Dr*t). However for modern films (EDR and XV) reciprocity law has not been investigated which is presented in this study. Method and Materials: Using a Varian linear accelerator dose rate dependence was studied for Kodak films (XV and EDR). The dose rate on this unit could be varied in the range of 80–400 MU/min for both (6 MV and 15 MV) photons beams. A large dose rate range; 5 cGy/min ?1100 cGy/min was achieved in conjunction with distance (1–4 meters) and machine dose rate. This was verified using ion chamber. At each dose rate films were exposed in a solid phantom at a depth of dmax for 300 cGy and 50 cGy for EDR and XV films respectively. Calibration curves (dose vs. OD) were also established during this experiment in a standard condition. The measured dose through film and ion chamber were compared and analyzed. Results: Reciprocity law holds good in the dose rate range of 20–400 cGy/min for both energies but deviates at low and high dose rates. The effect is more pronounced at dose rate beyond 400 cGy/min where deviation up to 7.5% was noted for both the films. At low dose rate the deviation is ?3.5% for both films and energies. Conclusion: Low and high dose regions are created in the same time of exposure in IMRT and hence reciprocity law becomes critical for film dosimetry. The reciprocity law failure is due to the interaction of ion pairs to form latent image which could be suppressed at extreme dose rates. The dosimetric impact is noted to be up to 7.5% for both films.

S Srivastava; I Das

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Study of electron acceleration and x-ray radiation as a function of plasma density in capillary-guided laser wakefield accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Laser wakefield electron acceleration in the blow-out regime and the associated betatron X-ray radiation were investigated experimentally as a function of the plasma density in a configuration where the laser is guided. Dielectric capillary tubes were employed to assist the laser keeping self-focused over a long distance by collecting the laser energy around its central focal spot. With a 40 fs, 16 TW pulsed laser, electron bunches with tens of pC charge were measured to be accelerated to an energy up to 300 MeV, accompanied by X-ray emission with a peak brightness of the order of 10{sup 21} ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%BW. Electron trapping and acceleration were studied using the emitted X-ray beam distribution to map the acceleration process; the number of betatron oscillations performed by the electrons was inferred from the correlation between measured X-ray fluence and beam charge. A study of the stability of electron and X-ray generation suggests that the fluctuation of X-ray emission can be reduced by stabilizing the beam charge. The experimental results are in good agreement with 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation.

Ju, J.; Döpp, A.; Cros, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Svensson, K.; Genoud, G.; Wojda, F.; Burza, M.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Wahlström, C.-G. [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Ferrari, H. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and CNEA-CAB (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and CNEA-CAB (Argentina)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM).  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DREAM tool increases space weather DREAM tool increases space weather predictions April 13, 2012 Predicting space weather improved by new DREAM modeling tool Earth's radiation belts can now be studied with a new modeling tool called Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM). Researchers in LANL's Space Science and Applications (ISR-1) group are developing DREAM and described its current capabilities and applications in an article published in Space Weather, a journal of the American Geophysical Union. - 2 - Space environment and its hazards The space environment poses a number of radiation hazards to space systems and their occupants. Relativistic electrons, the dominant source of the radiation dose to spacecraft traveling in the outer radiation belts (3-7 Earth radii), have an electron flux

214

Numerical and theoretical study of the generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation by relativistic laser interaction with a grating  

SciTech Connect

The generation of harmonics by the interaction of a femtosecond, relativistic intensity laser pulse with a grating of subwavelength periodicity was studied numerically and theoretically. For normal incidence, strong, coherent emission at the wavelength of the grating period and its harmonics is obtained, nearly parallel to the target surface, due to relativistic electron bunches emanating from each protuberance. For oblique incidence (30 deg.), only even harmonics of the grating periodicity are seen, but with an even higher intensity. This is due to constructive interference of the emission from the grating protuberances. The emission along the grating surface is composed of trains of attosecond pulses; therefore there is no need to use a filter. An efficiency greater than 10{sup -4} is obtained for the 24th harmonic. The conversion efficiency is fairly constant when the similarity parameter S=n{sub e}/(a{sub 0}n{sub c})({proportional_to}n{sub e{lambda}L}/I{sub L}{sup 1/2}) is held fixed, and is optimum when S{approx_equal}4. Here, n{sub e} and n{sub c} are the electron density and the critical density; a{sub 0}=eE{sub L}/(m{sub e{omega}L}c) is the quiver momentum in the laser field E{sub L} normalized to m{sub e}c.

Lavocat-Dubuis, X.; Matte, J.-P. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Radiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer in Japan: Results of the Patterns of Care Study 1999–2001  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To describe patient characteristics and the process of radiotherapy (RT) for patients with esophageal cancer treated between 1999 and 2001 in Japan. Methods and Materials The Japanese Patterns of Care Study (PCS) Working Group conducted a third nationwide survey of 76 institutions. Detailed information was accumulated on 621 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who received RT. Results The median age of patients was 68 years. Eighty-eight percent were male, and 12% were female. Ninety-nine percent had squamous cell carcinoma histology. Fifty-five percent had the main lesion in the middle thoracic esophagus. Fourteen percent had clinical Stage 0–I disease, 32% had Stage IIA–IIB, 43% had Stage III, and 10% had Stage IV disease. Chemotherapy was given to 63% of patients; 39% received definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) without surgery and 24% pre- or postoperative CRT. Sixty-two percent of the patients aged ?75 years were treated with RT only. Median total dose of external RT was 60 Gy for definitive CRT patients, 60 Gy for RT alone, and 40 Gy for preoperative CRT. Conclusions This PCS describes general aspects of RT for esophageal cancer in Japan. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for the majority of patients. The standard total external RT dose for esophageal cancer was higher in Japan than in the United States. Chemoradiotherapy had become common for esophageal cancer treatment, but patients aged ?75 years were more likely to be treated by RT only.

Masahiro Kenjo; Takashi Uno; Yuji Murakami; Yasushi Nagata; Masahiko Oguchi; Susumu Saito; Hodaka Numasaki; Teruki Teshima; Michihide Mitsumori

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data  

SciTech Connect

A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Natural and Radiation Carcinogenesis in Man. III. Radiation Carcinogenesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mice. NATURAL AND RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN. 3. RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS. | Journal Article | Japan Neoplasms etiology Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced Radiation Genetics | JAPAN NEOPLASM ETIOLOGY NEOPLASMS, RADIATION-INDUCED RADIATION...

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

220

In situ high-energy synchrotron radiation study of boehmite formation, growth, and phase transformation to alumina in sub- and supercritical water.  

SciTech Connect

Boehmite (AlOOH) nanoparticles have been synthesized in subcritical (300 bar, 350 C) and supercritical (300 bar, 400 C) water. The formation and growth of AlOOH nanoparticles were studied in situ by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) using 80 keV synchrotron radiation. The SAXS/WAXS data were measured simultaneously with a time resolution greater than 10 s and revealed the initial nucleation of amorphous particles takes place within 10 s with subsequent crystallization after 30 s. No diffraction signals were observed from Al(OH){sub 3} within the time resolution of the experiment, which shows that the dehydration step of the reaction is fast and the hydrolysis step rate-determining. The sizes of the crystalline particles were determined as a function of time. The overall size evolution patterns are similar in sub- and supercritical water, but the growth is faster and the final particle size larger under supercritical conditions. After approximately 5 min, the rate of particle growth decreases in both sub- and supercritical water. Heating of the boehmite nanoparticle suspension allowed an in situ X-ray investigation of the phase transformation of boehmite to aluminium oxide. Under the wet conditions used in this work, the transition starts at 530 C and gives a two-phase product of hydrated and non-hydrated aluminium oxide.

Lock, N.; Bremholm, M.; Christensen, M.; Almer, J .D.; Chen, Y.-S.; Iverson, B. B.; Univ. of Aarhus; Univ. of Chicago; Princeton Univ.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Three-dimensional, two-species magnetohydrodynamic studies of the early time behaviors of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite G2 barium release  

SciTech Connect

We present a three-dimensional, two-species (Ba{sup +} and H{sup +}) MHD model to study the early time behaviors of a barium release at about 1 R{sub E} like Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite G2, with emphasis placed on the three-dimensional evolution of the barium cloud and its effects on the ambient plasma environment. We find that the perturbations caused by the cloud are the combined results of the initial injection, the radial expansion, and the diamagnetic effect and propagate as fast MHD waves in the magnetosphere. In return, the transverse expansion and the cross-B motion of barium ions are constrained by the magnetic force, which lead to a field-aligned striation of ions and the decoupling of these ions from the neutrals. Our simulation shows the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity in the barium cloud. The estimated time scale for the cavity evolution might be much shorter if photoionization time scale and field aligned expansion of barium ions are considered. In addition, our two species MHD simulation also finds the snowplow effect resulting from the momentum coupling between barium ions and background H{sup +}, which creates density hole and bumps in the background H{sup +} when barium ions expanding along the magnetic field lines.

Xie, Lianghai, E-mail: xielh@nssc.ac.cn; Li, Lei; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Yiteng [Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Incorporating biologic measurements (SF2, CFE) into a tumor control probability model increases their prognostic significance: a study in cervical carcinoma treated with radiation therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess whether incorporation of measurements of surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) into a tumor control probability (tcp) model increases their prognostic significance. Methods and Materials: Measurements of SF2 and CFE were available from a study on carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation alone. These measurements, as well as tumor volume, dose, and treatment time, were incorporated into a Poisson tcp model (tcp?,?). Regression analysis was performed to assess the prognostic power of tcp?,? vs. the use of either tcp models with biologic parameters fixed to best-fit estimates (but incorporating individual dose, volume, and treatment time) or the use of SF2 and CFE measurements alone. Results: In a univariate regression analysis of 44 patients, tcp?,? was a better prognostic factor for both local control and survival (p CFE alone (p = 0.015 for local control, p = 0.38 for survival). In multivariate analysis, tcp?,? emerged as the most important prognostic factor for local control (p CFE was still a significant independent prognostic factor for local control, whereas SF2 was not. The sensitivities of tcp?,? and SF2 as predictive tests for local control were 87% and 65%, respectively. Specificities were 70% and 77%, respectively. Conclusions: A Poisson tcp model incorporating individual SF2, CFE, dose, tumor volume, and treatment time was found to be the best independent prognostic factor for local control and survival in cervical carcinoma patients.

Francesca Meteora Buffa; Susan E. Davidson; Robert D. Hunter; Alan E. Nahum; Catharine M.L. West

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Radiation Dose Measurement by Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Tooth Enamel in Lime and Non-lime Consuming Individuals from the Silchar Region of Northeast India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......uranium in nuclear workers occupationally exposed to uranium in Rocketdyne, USA (19501994). Apart from the known toxic effects of...radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics Interna- tional. Environ Health Perspect. 108......

Deborshi Bhattacharjee; Alexander I. Ivannikov; Kassym Zhumadilov; Valeriy F. Stepanenko; Kenichi Tanaka; Satoru Endo; Megu Ohtaki; Shin Toyoda; Joyeeta Bhattacharyya; Masaharu Hoshi

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A Theoretical Study on the Spontaneous Radiation of Inertia-gravity Waves Using the Renormalization Group Method. Part II: Verification of the Theoretical Equations by Numerical Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The renormalization group equations (RGEs) describing spontaneous inertia-gravity wave (GW) radiation from part of a balanced flow through a quasi-resonance that were derived in a companion paper by Yasuda et al. are validated through numerical ...

Yuki Yasuda; Kaoru Sato; Norihiko Sugimoto

225

Fully Automated Simultaneous Integrated Boosted-Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Is Feasible for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively determine whether overlap volume histogram (OVH)-driven, automated simultaneous integrated boosted (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning for head-and-neck cancer can be implemented in clinics. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to compare fully automated plans (APs) created by an OVH-driven, automated planning application with clinical plans (CPs) created by dosimetrists in a 3-dose-level (70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy), head-and-neck SIB-IMRT planning. Because primary organ sparing (cord, brain, brainstem, mandible, and optic nerve/chiasm) always received the highest priority in clinical planning, the study aimed to show the noninferiority of APs with respect to PTV coverage and secondary organ sparing (parotid, brachial plexus, esophagus, larynx, inner ear, and oral mucosa). The sample size was determined a priori by a superiority hypothesis test that had 85% power to detect a 4% dose decrease in secondary organ sparing with a 2-sided alpha level of 0.05. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used for statistical comparison. Results: Forty consecutive patients were accrued from July to December 2010. GEE analysis indicated that in APs, overall average dose to the secondary organs was reduced by 1.16 (95% CI = 0.09-2.33) with P=.04, overall average PTV coverage was increased by 0.26% (95% CI = 0.06-0.47) with P=.02 and overall average dose to the primary organs was reduced by 1.14 Gy (95% CI = 0.45-1.8) with P=.004. A physician determined that all APs could be delivered to patients, and APs were clinically superior in 27 of 40 cases. Conclusions: The application can be implemented in clinics as a fast, reliable, and consistent way of generating plans that need only minor adjustments to meet specific clinical needs.

Wu Binbin, E-mail: binbin.wu@gunet.georgetown.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zahurak, Marianna [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Simari, Patricio [Autodesk Research, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Autodesk Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pang, Dalong [Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Russell [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Sanguineti, Giuseppe [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The purposes of this study were to estimate the radiation-absorbed doses of 18 F-SP203 in humans. Radiation-absorbed doses were estimated by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme. Results AfterORIGINAL ARTICLE Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron emission tomographic ligand

Shen, Jun

227

SU?E?I?41: Study On the CT Radiation Attenuation Characteristics of Human Body for Phantom Design Using Monte Carlo Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose: The CTDI values measured with standard PMMA phantoms were now being challenged due to the clinical application of new technologies such as automatic tube current modulation(TCM) the aim of this study is to simulate the CT radiation attenuation characteristics of human body along Z?axis which were the basic data of developing new phantoms used to evaluate TCM. Methods: The CT model used in this study has been modeled including the source energy spectrum the bow?tie filter as well and the beam shape. The voxel phantoms RPI Adult Male designed to match the ICRP anatomical references for average individuals were also selected in this study. MCNPX 2.5.0 was used to simulate the 120 kVp CT X?ray attenuation of voxel phantom along the z?axis. Averaged photon flux was tallied before and after it passed though the phantom separately simulations were also carried out using different thickness of PMMA plates instead of the voxel phantom. Results: The CT X?ray attenuation of PMMA and its thickness presents a significant negative exponential relationship with the r2=0.9975. The CT X?ray attenuation data of every 2cm along Z?axis direction of voxel phantom were obtained combined with characteristics of CT X?ray attenuation of PMMA the PMMA equivalent thickness of the voxel phantom torso along the Z?axis direction in terms of CT X?ray attenuation were calculated. The PMMA equivalent thickness ranges from 5.5cm to 30.1cm. The liver and spleen plane which contents substantive organs such as the liver and spleen and bone structure as ribs and the lumbar was the maximum attenuation plane. Conclusion: The trend of the overall attenuation characteristics of the human body in terms of CT X?ray was in accord with the anatomical structure these results could be used to develop new dose phantoms which were used to evaluate automatic tube current modulation with further study. This project was partially funded by National Institutes of Health (National Library of Medicine R01LM009362 and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering R42EB010404)

h Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Nuclear radiation electronic gear  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear radiation electronic gear ... Examines the line of nuclear radiation instrumentation offered by Nuclear-Chicago Corporation and Victoreen Instrument Company. ... Nuclear / Radiochemistry ...

S. Z. Lewin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

230

A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes (FNET) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to 16 selected uncertain parameters mainly related to the cloud microphysics and aerosol schemes in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). We adopted a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach to effectively explore the high dimensional parameter space. The output response variables (e.g., FNET) were simulated using CAM5 for each parameter set, and then evaluated using generalized linear model analysis. In response to the perturbations of these 16 parameters, the CAM5-simulated global annual mean FNET ranges from -9.8 to 3.5 W m-2 compared to the CAM5-simulated FNET of 1.9 W m-2 with the default parameter values. Variance-based sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbation to the global FNET variance. The results indicate that the changes in the global mean FNET are dominated by those of cloud forcing (CF) within the parameter ranges being investigated. The size threshold parameter related to auto-conversion of cloud ice to snow is confirmed as one of the most influential parameters for FNET in the CAM5 simulation. The strong heterogeneous geographic distribution of FNET variation shows parameters have a clear localized effect over regions where they are acting. However, some parameters also have non-local impacts on FNET variance. Although external factors, such as perturbations of anthropogenic and natural emissions, largely affect FNET variations at the regional scale, their impact is weaker than that of model internal parameters in terms of simulating global mean FNET in this study. The interactions among the 16 selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion of the total FNET variations over most regions of the globe. This study helps us better understand the CAM5 model behavior associated with parameter uncertainties, which will aid the next step of reducing model uncertainty via calibration of uncertain model parameters with the largest sensitivity.

Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; McFarlane, Sally A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Ma, Po-Lun; Yan, Huiping; Bao, Jie

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

231

Radiation Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Simon Bouffler Health Protection Agency Abstract Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation. The CBA mouse model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has been used extensively for both quantitative and mechanistic studies. Loss of genetic material from chromosome 2 (chr2) is known to be associated with most radiation-induced AMLs. AML develops in CBA mice exposed to X- or γ-radiation, after a mean latency period of 18 months, with a maximal incidence of approximately 25% at 3Gy. A strong candidate AML-suppressor gene located within the commonly deleted region of chr2 has been identified, Sƒpil/PU.1. This gene suffers hemizygous loss and specific

232

High-let radiation carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads.

Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ullrich, R.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Long-Term Follow-Up of Preoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy and Concomitant Boost Irradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Multi-Institutional Phase II Study (KROG 04-01)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a prospective phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative pelvic radiation therapy and concomitant small-field boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, mid-to-lower rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. They had received preoperative chemoradiation therapy and total mesorectal excision. Pelvic radiation therapy of 43.2 Gy in 24 fractions plus concomitant boost radiation therapy of 7.2 Gy in 12 fractions was delivered to the pelvis and tumor bed for 5 weeks. Two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin were administered for 3 days in the first and fifth week of radiation therapy. The pathologic response, survival outcome, and treatment toxicity were evaluated for the study endpoints. Results: Of 69 patients, 8 (11.6%) had a pathologically complete response. Downstaging rates were 40.5% for T classification and 68.1% for N classification. At the median follow-up of 69 months, 36 patients have been followed up for more than 5 years. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 66.0% and 75.3%, respectively. Higher pathologic T (P = .045) and N (P = .032) classification were significant adverse prognostic factors for DFS, and high-grade histology was an adverse prognostic factor for both DFS (P = .025) and overall survival (P = .031) on the multivariate analysis. Fifteen patients (21.7%) experienced grade 3 or 4 acute toxicity, and 7 patients (10.1%) had long-term toxicity. Conclusion: Preoperative pelvic radiation therapy with concomitant boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks showed acceptable acute and long-term toxicities. However, the benefit of concomitant small-field boost irradiation for 5 weeks in rectal cancer patients was not demonstrated beyond conventional irradiation for 6 weeks in terms of tumor response and survival.

Lee, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Vincent's Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Go-Yang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Go-Yang (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Taek-Keun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwa-Sun (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwa-Sun (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sei-Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doo Seok [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Daehang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Daehang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Chang, Hee Jin [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Go-Yang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Go-Yang (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Mee Sun; Jeong, Jae-Uk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwa-Sun (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwa-Sun (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hong Seok, E-mail: hsjang11@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Cold ion-atom chemistry driven by spontaneous radiative relaxation: a case study for the formation of the YbCa+ molecular ion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using both quantum and semi-classical methods, we calculate the rates for radiative association and charge transfer in cold collisions of Yb+ with Ca. We demonstrate the fidelity of the local optical potential method in predictions for the total radiative relaxation rates. We find a large variation in the isotope dependence of the cross sections at ultra-cold gas temperatures. However, at cold temperatures, 1?mK ?15?cm3?s?1. It is about five orders of magnitude smaller than the chemical reaction rate measured in Rellergert et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 243201).

B Zygelman; Zelimir Lucic; Eric R Hudson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

236

Vitamin E and L-carnitine, Separately or in Combination, in The Prevention of Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis and Myelosuppression: a Controlled Study in A Rat Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......increased hospitalization stays and the costs, and these complications may have adverse...radiation, bred at Atat rk University Medical School, Department of Pharma- cology...automatic tempera- ture (22 1 C) and lighting controls (12 hr light / 12 hr dark......

Harun Üçüncü; Mustafa Vecdi Ertekin; Özgür Yörük; Orhan Sezen; Asuman Özkan; Fazli Erdogan; Ahmet Kiziltunç; Cemal Gündogdu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Motexafin-Gadolinium and Involved Field Radiation Therapy for Intrinsic Pontine Glioma of Childhood: A Children's Oncology Group Phase 2 Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects on 1-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of combining motexafin and gadolinium (MGd), a potent radiosensitizer, with daily fractionated radiation therapy in children with newly diagnosed intrinsic pontine gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed intrinsic pontine glioma were treated with MGd daily for 5 consecutive days each week, for a total of 30 doses. Patients received a 5- to 10-min intravenous bolus of MGd, 4.4 mg/kg/day, given 2 to 5 h prior to standard dose irradiation. Radiation therapy was administered at a daily dose of 1.8 Gy for 30 treatments over 6 weeks. The total dose was 54 Gy. Results: Sixty eligible children received MGd daily, concurrent with 6 weeks of radiation therapy. The estimated 1-year EFS was 18% {+-} 5%, and the estimated 1-year OS was 53% {+-} 6.5%. The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities were lymphopenia, transient elevation of liver transaminases, and hypertension. Conclusions: Compared to historical controls, the addition of MGd to a standard 6-week course of radiation did not improve the survival of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed intrinsic pontine gliomas.

Bradley, Kristin A., E-mail: bradley@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Zhou Tianni [Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); McNall-Knapp, Rene Y. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Jakacki, Regina I. [Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Levy, Adam S. [Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Vezina, Gilbert [Department of Radiology, Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Pollack, Ian F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Study on the radiation flux and temperature distributions of the concentrator–receiver system in a solar dish/Stirling power facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uniform heater temperature and high optical–thermal efficiency are crucial for the reliable and economical operation of a Solar Dish/Stirling engine facility. The Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method is utilized to predict the radiation flux distributions of the concentrator–receiver system. The ray-tracing method is first validated by experiment, then the radiation flux profiles on the solar receiver surface for faceted real concentrator and ideal paraboloidal concentrator, irradiated by Xe-arc lamps and real sun, for different aperture positions and receiver shapes are analyzed, respectively. The resulted radiation flux profiles are subsequently transferred to a CFD code as boundary conditions to numerically simulate the fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in the receiver cavity by coupling the radiation, natural convection and heat conduction together, and the CFD method is also validated through experiment. The results indicate that a faceted concentrator in combination with a solar simulator composed of 12 Xe-arc lamps is advantageous to drive the solar Stirling engine for all-weather indoor tests. Based on the simulation results, a solar receiver-Stirling heater configuration is designed to achieve a considerably uniform temperature distribution on the heater head tubes while maintaining a high efficiency of 60.7%.

Zhigang Li; Dawei Tang; Jinglong Du; Tie Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

High-pressure phase transition and behavior of protons in brucite Mg(OH)2: a high-pressure–temperature study using IR synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Infrared absorption spectra of brucite Mg (OH)2...were measured under high pressure and high temperature from 0.1?MPa 25?°C to 16?GPa 360?°C using infrared synchrotron radiation at BL43IR of Spring-8 and a high-...

K. Shinoda; M. Yamakata; T. Nanba; H. Kimura…

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Treatment of metal surfaces with excimer laser radiation for radiative applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the effects of intense excimer laser irradiation (108–109 W cm?2) on some radiative properties of copper, aluminum, magnesium, tantalum,...

Kinsman, G; Duley, W W

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The New Radiation Therapy Clinical Practice: The Emerging Role of Clinical Peer Review for Radiation Therapists and Medical Dosimetrists  

SciTech Connect

The concept of peer review for radiation therapists and medical dosimetrists has been studied very little in radiation oncology practice. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze the concept of peer review in the clinical setting for both radiation therapists and medical dosimetrists. The literature reviewed both the percentages and causes of radiation therapy deviations. The results indicate that peer review can be both implemented and evaluated into both the radiation therapist and medical dosimetrist clinical practice patterns.

Adams, Robert D.; Marks, Lawrence B. [UNC Department of Radiation Oncology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Pawlicki, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Hayman, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Church, Jessica, E-mail: jachurch@email.unc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The objective of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. The course curriculum combines...

243

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation emitted by the earth. This instrument is onboard a European Union geostationary weather satellite launched in December 2005; it is collecting data over Niamey and the...

244

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

245

Japan Program: Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Life Span Study is the major RERF epidemiologic study that generates data on cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and non-cancer effects in relation to radiation dose. The...

246

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

247

RTOG 0913: A Phase 1 Study of Daily Everolimus (RAD001) in Combination With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the safety of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) administered daily with concurrent radiation and temozolomide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. Methods and Materials: Everolimus was administered daily with concurrent radiation (60 Gy in 30 fractions) and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2} per day). Everolimus was escalated from 2.5 mg/d (dose level 1) to 5 mg/d (dose level 2) to 10 mg/d (dose level 3). Adjuvant temozolomide was delivered at 150 to 200 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1 to 5, every 28 days, for up to 12 cycles, with concurrent everolimus at the previously established daily dose of 10 mg/d. Dose escalation continued if a dose level produced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in fewer than 3 of the first 6 evaluable patients. Results: Between October 28, 2010, and July 2, 2012, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0913 protocol initially registered a total of 35 patients, with 25 patients successfully meeting enrollment criteria receiving the drug and evaluable for toxicity. Everolimus was successfully escalated to the predetermined maximum tolerated dose of 10 mg/d. Two of the first 6 eligible patients had a DLT at each dose level. DLTs included gait disturbance, febrile neutropenia, rash, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, hypoxia, ear pain, headache, and mucositis. Other common toxicities were grade 1 or 2 hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. At the time of analysis, there was 1 death reported, which was attributed to tumor progression. Conclusions: Daily oral everolimus (10 mg) combined with both concurrent radiation and temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide is well tolerated, with an acceptable toxicity profile. A randomized phase 2 clinical trial with mandatory correlative biomarker analysis is currently under way, designed to both determine the efficacy of this regimen and identify molecular determinants of response.

Chinnaiyan, Prakash, E-mail: prakash.chinnaiyan@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Experimental Therapeutics and Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Won, Minhee [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wen, Patrick Y. [Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rojiani, Amyn M. [Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia (United States); Wendland, Merideth [Radiation Oncology, US Oncology-Willamette Valley Cancer Institute, Eugene, Oregon (United States); Dipetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Corn, Benjamin W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Silver Clear Nylon Dressing is Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Patients With Lower Gastrointestinal Cancer: Results From a Phase III Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: For patients with anal canal and advanced rectal cancer, chemoradiation therapy is a curative modality or an important adjunct to surgery. Nearly all patients treated with chemoradiation experience some degree of radiation-induced dermatitis (RID). Prevention and effective treatment of RID, therefore, is of considerable clinical relevance. The present phase III randomized trial compared the efficacy of silver clear nylon dressing (SCND) with that of standard skin care for these patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 42 rectal or anal canal cancer patients were randomized to either a SCND or standard skin care group. SCND was applied from Day 1 of radiation therapy (RT) until 2 weeks after treatment completion. In the control arm, sulfadiazine cream was applied at the time of skin dermatitis. Printed digital photographs taken 2 weeks prior to, on the last day, and two weeks after the treatment completion were scored by 10 blinded readers, who used the common toxicity scoring system for skin dermatitis. Results: The radiation dose ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy, and there were no differences between the 2 groups. On the last day of RT, when the most severe RID occurs, the mean dermatitis score was 2.53 (standard deviation [SD], 1.17) for the standard and 1.67 (SD, 1.2; P=.01) for the SCND arm. At 2 weeks after RT, the difference was 0.39 points in favor of SCND (P=.39). There was considerable intraclass correlation among the 10 observers. Conclusions: Silver clear nylon dressing is effective in reducing RID in patients with lower gastrointestinal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Vuong, Te, E-mail: tvuong@jgh.mcgill.ca [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Azoulay, Laurant [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Marijnen, Corrie [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bujko, Kryzstof [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland)] [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland); Nasr, Elie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon); Lambert, Christine; Duclos, Marie; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Cummings, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. Discusses natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, ...

Coderre, Jeffrey A.

250

Atomistic simulations of radiation damage in amorphous metal alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While numerous fundamental studies have characterized the atomic-level radiation response mechanisms in irradiated crystalline alloys, comparatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of radiation damage in amorphous ...

Baumer, Richard E. (Richard Edward)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

252

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

253

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Calicivirus Inactivation by Nonionizing (253.7-Nanometer-Wavelength [UV]) and Ionizing (Gamma) Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...7-nm-wavelength [UV]) radiation, inactivation by ionizing (gamma) radiation was studied as a process...constituents on inactivation by radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Viruses...Shoji Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was propagated in MDCK...

Ana Maria de Roda Husman; Paul Bijkerk; Willemijn Lodder; Harold van den Berg; Walter Pribil; Alexander Cabaj; Peter Gehringer; Regina Sommer; Erwin Duizer

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with radiation exposure (1). Ionizing radiation at moderate and higher doses (0.1-10 Gy) can produce DNA strand...death. Studies of mutants sensitive to ionizing radiation at this range of doses have revealed that the responsible genes...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air- tantly, what radiation dose people may have received. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP, additionalProjectworkcouldresultin revisions of these dose estimates. April 21, 1994 Companion

257

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

258

WI Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

259

Radiation and Health Thormod Henriksen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of radioactivity from reactor accidents and fallout from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. These subjects were interest is the effect of small radiation doses, given at a low dose rate. These studies are of importance for environmental problems as well as within cancer treatment. The group have close cooperations with professor

Johansen, Tom Henning

260

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

262

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

264

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

265

The myth of cell phone radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the purported link between cell phone radiation and cancer. We show that it is inconsistent with the photoelectric effect, and that epidemiological studies of any link have no scientific basis.

Natarajan, Vasant

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

The myth of cell phone radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the purported link between cell-phone radiation and cancer. We show that it is inconsistent with the photoelectric effect, and that epidemiological studies of any link have no scientific basis.

Vasant Natarajan

2012-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

267

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

269

The flying radiation case  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Div.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

272

Radiation.cdr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An average American's exposure is about 620 millirems per year from naturally occurring and other sources. Other Factors Background radiation varies with location....

273

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

274

Radiation Safety September 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...................................................................................... 8 2.6 RUA Holder........................................................................................................ 11 3.3 Radiation Use Authorization (RUA).......................................................................................... 11 3.4 Review of RUA Applications

California at Irvine, University of

275

Radiative polarization of electrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a new method of calculating the radiative polarization of electrons in homogeneous magnetic fields, using the modified electron propagation function.

Julian Schwinger and Wu-yang Tsai

1974-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

277

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

278

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

279

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

280

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DDE ESTIMATED DOSE FROM CONCEPTION TO DECLARATION: DDE Radiation Safety Officer Signature for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation dose of the occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (5.0 rem). The CPMC Radiation Safety Office will provide education

Jia, Songtao

283

RADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · Radiation therapist - a health professional who designs, calculates (plans) and provides the radiation dose and monitors the delivery of radiation therapy, taking into account the protection and safety of patientsRADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE #12;A Career in Radiation Oncology YOUR CHOICE SAVE LIVES

Tobar, Michael

284

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......occupational illness to personnel, major damage...acceptable levels. Selection of control measures...or equipment operating correctly in...99 103 to 104 Personnel life safety...and abnormal operating conditions under...radiation risk to personnel, public and...worker radiation training) reduces the......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......disable this safety function and...circuits and software. Other required...source in case of radiation monitors. Feedback...from other non-safety systems to prevent...write and check software. The expected...logic systems for safety functions can...levels of prompt radiation hazard. ACS......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Risks from ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... RADON indoors now accounts for nearly half of the average UK population exposure to ionizing radiation ... exposure to ionizing radiation. We believe that the extent of the variation in exposure to radon in the United Kingdom and else-where and its magnitude in relation to exposures from ...

R. H. Clarke; T. R. E. Southwood

1989-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Radiation Weighting Factors and High Energy Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......generally inadequate for high energy radiation. In order to determine...appropriate wR values in the high energy region, several criteria are...are proposed for neutrons of energy above 100 MeV and for protons above 10 MeV. The wR value for muons is confirmed to be practically......

M. Pelliccioni

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

290

Phase I/II trial of initial treatment with chemo-radiation in patients with highly advanced gastric adenocarcinoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...CA Phase II study of radiation therapy combined with...Kitasato Gynecologic Radiation Oncology Group (KGROG...Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan, Kitasato University...chemoradiotherapy with lesser radiation dose for LAUCC using...Pharmaceutical Co., Japan. If this phase II trial...

Kohshi Kumagai; Yoshiro Saikawa; Ryo Ito; Takahiro Igarashi; Tsuyoshi Kiyota; Rieko Nakamura; Masaki Ohashi; Norihito Wada; Masashi Yoshida; Tetsuro Kubota; Koichiro Kumai; and Masaki Kitajima

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Patterns of cell division, DNA base compositions, and fine structures of some radiation-resistant vegetative bacteria found in food.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...29. Thornley, M. J. 1963. Radiation resistance among bac- VOL...Glauert. 1968. Fine structure and radiation resistance in Acinetobacter studies...Maxcy. 1971. Impact of low doses of gamma radiation and storage of the microflora...

S W Sanders; R B Maxcy

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward 10.1126/science.331.6024...radiation, workers at the damaged Fukushima nuclear plant wear protective gear...Candidate radiation drugs inch forward. | News | 0 (E)-4-carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone...

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee

2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

293

[Studies of the repair of radiation-induced genetic damage in Drosophila]. Annual progress report, February 1, 1993--November 1, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on two repair deficient mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, namely mei-9, mei-41. In addition, the authors propose to extend this study to include the mus-312 mutation. They expect these studies to provide substantial insights into both the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair in Drosophila and the role these genes play in normal biological processes.

Hawley, R.S.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

295

RADIATION RESEARCH 162, 264269 (2004) 0033-7587/04 $15.00  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Chiba 263-8555, Japan; e264 RADIATION RESEARCH 162, 264­269 (2004) 0033-7587/04 $15.00 2004 by Radiation Research Society. Radiat. Res. 162, 264­269 (2004). In the present study, we examined the potential contribu- tion

296

RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN ULTRARELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect

Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the equation of radiative transfer in ultrarelativistic opaque jets. The solution describes the initial trapping of radiation, its adiabatic cooling, and the transition to transparency. Two opposite regimes are examined. (1) Matter-dominated outflow. Surprisingly, radiation develops enormous anisotropy in the fluid frame before decoupling from the fluid. The radiation is strongly polarized. (2) Radiation-dominated outflow. The transfer occurs as if radiation propagated in vacuum, preserving the angular distribution and the blackbody shape of the spectrum. The escaping radiation has a blackbody spectrum if (and only if) the outflow energy is dominated by radiation up to the photospheric radius.

Beloborodov, Andrei M., E-mail: amb@phys.columbia.edu [Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

297

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

298

BNL NASA Space Radiation Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Purpose: To use beams of heavy ions provided by the Booster accelerator at Brookhaven to study the effects of simulated space radiation on biological and physical systems, with the goal of developing methods and materials to reduce the risk to human beings on prolonged space missions of the effects of ionizing radiation Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Project cost $34 million over 4 years Operating costs Nearly $8 million per year in 2007 Features * beams of heavy ions extracted from the Booster accelerator with masses and energies similar to the cosmic rays encountered in space: * 1-billion electron volt (GeV)/nucleon iron-56 * 0.3-GeV/nucleon gold-97 * 0.6-GeV/nucleon silicon-28 * 1-GeV/nucleon protons * 1-GeV/nucleon titanium

299

Radiation prevents much cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evidence reviewed here supports the concept that chronic exposure to ionising radiation can dramatically decrease cancer incidence and mortality. This evidence includes an inverse relationship between radiation levels and cancer induction and/or mortality in: over 200 million people in the USA; 200 million people in India; 10,000 residents of Taipei who live in cobalt-60 contaminated homes; high radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran; 12 million person-years of exposed and carefully selected control nuclear workers; almost 300,000 homes with radon in the USA; non-smokers in high radon areas of Saxony, Germany.

T.D. Luckey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

303

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

304

Radiation Induced Mammary Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Induced Mammary Cancer R.L. Ullrich * R.J. Preston # * Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550 # Biology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831, U.S.A Over the last......

R.L. Ullrich; R.J. Preston

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum

307

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

308

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

309

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB mediates survival advantage by Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB mediates survival advantage by Telomerase Activation. Authors: Natarajan M.,1 Mohan S.,2 Pandeswara, S.L.,1 and Herman T.S.1 Institutions: Departments of 1Radiation Oncology and 2Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas Activation of NF-kB in response to low doses of ionizing radiation was first shown in our laboratory. Although studies have shown that NF-kB plays an important role in anti-apoptotic function, little has been done to understand the molecular link between the activation of NF-kB and cellular outcome such as enhanced cell survival after low dose low-linear transfer (LET) radiation. Because upregulation of telomerase activity is associated with longevity and allows cells to escape from senescence, we hypothesize

310

Radiative Muon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of radiative muon capture is developed. The discussion includes both parity conserving and nonconserving effects. The Gell-Mann weak magnetic term and the induced pseudoscalar are included, along with comparable relativistic effects in the nucleons. The theory is applied to light nuclei and especially to the radiative Godfrey reaction ?-+C126??+?+B125. An experiment to detect the induced pseudoscalar directly is proposed.

Jeremy Bernstein

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Solid cancer incidence among the Chernobyl emergency workers residing in Russia: estimation of radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the method of radiation dose measurement, the dosimetric data for the studied... 1. Exposure or absorbed dose recorded...

V. K. Ivanov; A. I. Gorski; A. F. Tsyb…

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

SciTech Connect: Fast Monte Carlo for radiation therapy: the...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; RADIOTHERAPY; PLANNING; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY...

313

First Study of the Radiation-Amplitude Zero in W? Production and Limits on Anomalous WW? Couplings at s?=1.96??TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from a study of pp-bar?W?+X events utilizing data corresponding to 0.7??fb(?1) of integrated luminosity at s?=1.96??TeV collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We set limits on ...

Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Hensel, Carsten; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

314

Atmospheres and radiating surfaces of neutron stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a breakthrough in the studies of thermal radiation of neutron stars. Observations with modern space telescopes have provided a wealth of valuable information. Being correctly interpreted, this information can elucidate physics of superdense matter in the interiors of these stars. The theory of formation of thermal spectra of neutron stars is based on the physics of plasmas and radiative processes in stellar photospheres. It provides the framework for interpretation of observational data and for extracting neutron-star parameters from these data. This paper presents a review of the current state of the theory of surface layers of neutron stars and radiative processes in these layers, with the main focus on the neutron stars that possess strong magnetic fields. In addition to the conventional deep (semi-infinite) atmospheres, radiative condensed surfaces of neutron stars and "thin" (finite) atmospheres are also considered.

Potekhin, A Y

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: William F. Morgan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

William F. Morgan William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PO Box 999 Richland, Washington About this Project Projects Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Mechanisms of Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose/ Low Dose Rate Radiation Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation

316

Cloud Formation and Acceleration in a Radiative Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a radiatively heated and cooled medium, the thermal instability is a plausible mechanism for forming clouds, while the radiation force provides a natural acceleration, especially when ions recombine and opacity increases. Here we extend Field's theory to self-consistently account for a radiation force resulting from bound-free and bound-bound transitions in the optically thin limit. We present physical arguments for clouds to be significantly accelerated by a radiation force due to lines during a nonlinear phase of the instability. To qualitatively illustrate our main points, we perform both one and two-dimensional (1-D/2-D) hydrodynamical simulations that allow us to study the nonlinear outcome of the evolution of thermally unstable gas subjected to this radiation force. Our 1-D simulations demonstrate that the thermal instability can produce long-lived clouds that reach a thermal equilibrium between radiative processes and thermal conduction, while the radiation force can indeed accelerate the clouds to ...

Proga, Daniel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Radiation and viral DNA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation and viral DNA Radiation and viral DNA Name: Loretta L Lamb Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can viral DNA be changed through exposure to radiation? If so, what type of radiation will do this? Can these irradiated viruses cause changes in the genome of any human cells they may infect? Can these (or any) viruses actually cause cancer, or do they merely act as triggering devices for cancer? Replies: In theory, any nucleic acid (viral or otherwise) can be changed by exposure to many kinds of radiation. Depending on the type of virus, these may then change the human cells that they infect. Although there are many different things that are being implicated in causing cancers, it looks like a fairly common model involves the sequential "knockout" of several human genes. Viruses may be one cause of such gene changes, radiation and other environmental causes may also contribute. Some of these changes may be inherited through families, so it becomes more likely that the environmental factors may happen to "hit" the right places in cells to cause cancers in these families. If you ask something more specific, perhaps I can focus my response a bit more

318

Radiative muon capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown by relating the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture to that of radiative pion capture, that the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture proposed recently by Hwang and Primakoff differs from the others mainly by Low's counter terms. Despite the fact that the "original" transition amplitude does not violate seriously the conservation of the hadronic electromagnetic current, Low's counter terms, as introduced via Low's prescription to secure the presence of small conservation-of-hadronic-electromagnetic-current-breaking terms, are confirmed to be of numerical importance. Further, it is found in the "elementary-particle" treatment of radiative muon capture that the uncertainty arising from the nuclear structure can be reduced to become negligible. Therefore, an exclusive radiative muon capture experiment can in principle differentiate the Hwang-Primakoff theory from the others and yet provide a comprehensive test of partial conservation of axial-vector current.RADIOACTIVITY Theories of radiative muon capture, linearity hypothesis versus Low's prescription; nuclear structure and PCAC.

W -Y. P. Hwang

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Photon rockets and gravitational radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The absence of gravitational radiation in Kinnersley's ``photon rocket'' solution of Einstein's equations is clarified by studying the mathematically well-defined problem of point-like photon rockets in Minkowski space (i.e. massive particles emitting null fluid anisotro\\-pically and accelerating because of the recoil). We explicitly compute the (uniquely defined) {\\it linearized} retarded gravitational waves emitted by such objects, which are the coherent superposition of the gravitational waves generated by the motion of the massive point-like rocket and of those generated by the energy-momentum distribution of the photon fluid. In the special case (corresponding to Kinnersley's solution) where the anisotropy of the photon emission is purely dipolar we find that the gravitational wave amplitude generated by the energy-momentum of the photons exactly cancels the usual $1/r$ gravitational wave amplitude generated by the accelerated motion of the rocket. More general photon anisotropies would, however, generate genuine gravitational radiation at infinity. Our explicit calculations show the compatibility between the non-radiative character of Kinnersley's solution and the currently used gravitational wave generation formalisms based on post-Minkowskian perturbation theory.

T. Damour

1994-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

320

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, Narbe [University of Texas

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

323

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

324

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

325

Proteasome Structures Affected by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect of ionizing radiation on 26S but...radiation doses, and immediately...the dose range 1 to 20 Gy...ionizing radiation induced a...38), ionizing radiation (39...over a wide range of radiation doses and further...

Milena Pervan; Keisuke S. Iwamoto; and William H. McBride

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation studies on radiation-induced silver agglomeration in a SAPO-42 molecular sieve: A comparison with isostructural zeolite A  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on paramagnetic silver species produced by [gamma]-radiolysis of a silver silicoaluminophosphate-42 (Ag-SAPO-42) molecular sieve. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation spectroscopies have been used to study the structure, location, and coordination of silver adducts and clusters stabilized in dehydrated SAPO-42 and exposed to methanol and ammonia. It was found that in dehydrated AG-SAPO-42, small silver clusters are formed with very low yield, whereas, in AgNa-A, Ag[sub 3][sup 2+] or AG[sub 6][sup b+] clusters are efficiently stabilized. The less restricted mobility of Ag[sup 0] in SAPO-42 due to its lower cation capacity is postulated to explain the observed differences. In the presence of methanol and ammonia in the molecular sieve cages, the differences are less significant. The major paramagnetic products of radiolysis in both SAPO-42 and type A molecular sieves are silver methoxy radicals (methanol adsorbed) or silver-ammonia adducts (ammonia adsorbed). They are located in [alpha]-cages, although the electron spin echo modulation results suggest some differences in location, possibly due to a different distribution of negative charge between the aluminophosphate and aluminosilicate frameworks. 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Michalik, J.; Sadlo, J. (Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)); Kevan, L.; Zamadics, M. (Univ. of Houston, TX (United States))

1993-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists study clouds and their influence on the sun's radiant energy, which heats our planet. Above is one of the purchases: the Vaisala Present Weather Detector. It optically measures visibility, present weather, precipitation intensity, and precipitation type. It provides a measure of current weather conditions by combining measurements from three

328

Perceiving, Remembering and Communicating Structure in Events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to someone how to get from downtown Palo Alto, CA to the Golden Gate Bridge, one might begin: "Get on highway

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

329

Some key Y-12 General Foremen remembered  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

actual amount of time available in each period. They were all the same. In 1947, when Carbide and Carbon Chemical Company expanded from K-25 to Y-12 and X-10, they brought their...

330

MRN ____________________ PLEASE REMEMBER TO COMPLETE PAGE 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No Yes No ¨ ¨ stroke/TIA ¨ ¨ seizures/epilepsy ¨ ¨ heart attack/angina ¨ ¨ heart failure ¨ ¨ heart arrhythmia ¨ ¨ heart valve abnl ¨ ¨ high blood pressure ¨ ¨ high cholesterol ¨ ¨ asthma ¨ ¨ COPD

Salzman, Daniel

331

Another key Y-12 General Foreman remembered  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

they exhibited. These men were genuine. They were deeply concerned for their workers and for the families of those workers. They were more than just good supervisors;...

332

Jiminy: Helping Users to Remember Their Passwords  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renaud,K.V. Smith,E. Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists. SAICSIT'2001. Pretoria, South Africa. 25-28 September 2001. University of South Africa

Renaud, K.V.

333

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Structural Model of the 50 S Subunit of Escherichia coli Ribosomes from Solution Scattering: I. X-ray Synchroton Radiation Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of new methods of small-angle scattering data interpretation to a contrast variation study of the 50 S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli in solution is described. The experimental X-ray data from contrast variation with sucrose are analysed in terms of the basic functions in real and the scattering curves from the volume inaccessible to sucrose and from the regions inside this volume occupied mainly by RNA and by proteins are obtained. From these curves models of the shape of the 50 S subunit and its RNA-rich core are evaluated. These two shapes are positioned so that their difference, which approximates the volume occupied by the proteins, produces a scattering curve which is in good agreement with the scattering from the protein moiety.

D.I. Svergun; M.H.J. Koch; I.N. Serdyuk

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Los Alamos provides HOPE for radiation belt storm probes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HOPE for radiation belt storm probes HOPE for radiation belt storm probes Los Alamos provides HOPE for radiation belt storm probes The HOPE analyzer is one of a suite of instruments that was successfully launched as part of the Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission. August 30, 2012 Artist's rendering showing two spacecraft representing the not-yet-designed Radiation Belt Storm Probes that will study the sun and its effects on Earth. PHOTO CREDIT: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Artist's rendering showing two spacecraft representing the not-yet-designed Radiation Belt Storm Probes that will study the sun and its effects on Earth. PHOTO CREDIT: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Contact James E. Rickman Communications Office (505) 665-9203 Email "Today we are boldly going where no spacecraft ever wants to go."

336

Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Instrument Calibrations Weather Observations Measurement Research Support Measurements & Instrumentation Team Center for Electric & Hydrogen Technologies & Systems http://www.nrel.gov/srrl NREL * * * * 1617 Cole Boulevard * * * * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 * * * * (303) 275-3000 Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Mission Provide a unique outdoor research facility for supporting renewable energy conversion technologies and climate change studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE). Objectives * Provide Improved Methods for Radiometer Calibrations * Develop a Solar Resource Climate Database for Golden, Colorado

337

Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties  

SciTech Connect

Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

Rayas-Solis, P.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Assimilation of observations of radiation level into an atmospheric transport model: A case study with the particle filter and the ETEX tracer dataset  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric transport models and observations from monitoring networks are commonly used aids for forecasting spatial distribution of contamination in case of a radiological incident. In this study, we assessed the particle filter data-assimilation technique as a tool for ensemble forecasting the spread of radioactivity. We used measurements from the ETEX-1 tracer experiment and model results from the NPK-Puff atmospheric dispersion model. We showed that assimilation of observations improves the ensemble forecast compared to runs without data assimilation. The improvement is most prominent for nowcasting: the mean squared error was reduced by a factor of 7. For forecasting, the improvement of the mean squared error resulting from assimilation of observations was found to dissipate within a few hours. We ranked absolute model values and observations and calculated the mean squared error of the ranked values. This measure of the correctness of the pattern of high and low values showed an improvement for forecasting up to 48 h. We conclude that the particle filter is an effective tool in better modeling the spread of radioactivity following a release.

Paul H. Hiemstra; Derek Karssenberg; Arjan van Dijk

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Depth profile of oxide volume fractions of Zircaloy-2 in high-temperature steam: An in-situ synchrotron radiation study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To study the steam oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-2, a high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique was applied to perform an in-situ oxidation measurement. The depth profiles of oxide volume fractions were obtained at both 600 and 800 °C. Multiple layers, including ZrO2 scale, (? + ?) Zr matrix with ZrO2 incursions, and (? + ?) Zr matrix, were mapped according to the volume fraction of each phase. The volume fractions of these phases were observed to change gradually with different distances to the surface, without a sharp edge distinguishing each of the layers. The ZrO2 consisted of tetragonal and monoclinic crystal structures, which were observed to coexist with different ratios of volume fractions in depth. The higher amount of tetragonal ZrO2 observed in the very inner region of the oxidizing Zircaloy sample indicates that the tetragonal crystal structure is the ab initio phase type, in which new oxide molecules form at the metal–oxide interface.

Walid Mohamed; Di Yun; Kun Mo; Michael J. Pellin; Michael C. Billone; Jonathan Almer; Abdellatif M. Yacout

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Radiation Minimum Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Frost resulting from cooling of vegetation by nocturnal radiation is a serious agricultural problem. Because of the number of variables involved attacks on this problem from a purely theoretical point of view have met with only moderate success. It seems logical to suppose that an instrument might be devised which would speed up the natural radiation processes and enable an observer to obtain in a few hours a measure of the cooling which occurs naturally over a period of 12 to 14 hr. Such an instrument could serve as a frost warning device. This paper describes the construction of a radiation device and presents experimental evidence to show that it can be used as a predictor of freezing temperatures at vegetation level.

Francis K. Davis Jr.

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Audible radiation monitor  

SciTech Connect

This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

Odell, D.M.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

345

Si(001) vicinal surface oxidation in O2: Angle-resolved Si 2p core-level study using synchroton radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to determine if, after oxidation in pure O2, a vicinal surface Si(001) miscut 5° towards the [110] direction, exhibits a preferential SiO2 formation on the [110] ledges. In a first stage, combining XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) available in an auxiliary chamber, we examine the cleaning conditions leading to a non-faceted stepped Si surface with dominant (2 × 1) single domains. This surface preparation is reproduced in the synchroton facility chamber where ARPR-single-resolved photoemission spectroscopy) is performed: after cleaning the Si surface and studying the starting situation (san- states, initial contamination), an ultra-thin oxide film (? 1.5 × 1015 oxidised Si atoms/cm2) is grown at 785–800°C, under Torr of oxygen. The absence of anisotropy in the ARPES emission of the Si 2p core levels taken at the minimum electron escape depth (hv=130eV), points to no extra-growth of the oxide on the ledges. The in-depth distribution of the oxide states seems to be homogeneous, within the sensitivity of the probe. On the other hand, after partial thermal desorption of the ultra-thin oxide film in vacuum, a strong anisotropy in the emission of electrons from SiO2 is seen in areas where oxide patches coexist with bare silicon. It is shown that this ensues from a significant step bunching and (111) faceting of the surface. A correlation is made with SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images of the surface. The problem of step bunching, inasmuch as it can alter the interpretation of shadowing effects, is emphasized.

F. Rochet; H. Roulet; G. Dufour; S. Carniato; C. Guillot; N. Barrett; M. Froment

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Motion-induced radiation from electrons moving in Maxwell's fish-eye  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In \\u{C}erenkov radiation and transition radiation, evanescent wave from motion of charged particles transfers into radiation coherently. However, such dissipative motion-induced radiations require particles to move faster than light in medium or to encounter velocity transition to pump energy. Inspired by a method to detect cloak by observing radiation of a fast-moving electron bunch going through it by Zhang {\\itshape et al.}, we study the generation of electron-induced radiation from electrons' interaction with Maxwell's fish-eye sphere. Our calculation shows that the radiation is due to a combination of \\u{C}erenkov radiation and transition radiation, which may pave the way to investigate new schemes of transferring evanescent wave to radiation.

Liu, Yangjie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Tunable terahertz radiation source  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

348

RADIATION ALERT User Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not contaminate the Inspector by touching it to radioactive surfaces or materials. If contamination is suspected Environmental Area Monitoring 16 Checking for Surface Contamination 16 5 Maintenance 17 Calibration 17, and x-ray radiation. Its applications include: · Detecting and measuring surface contamination

Haller, Gary L.

349

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Solar energy: Radiation nation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Australia receives more solar radiation per square metre, on average, than any other continent. Although turning this ... to make use of its heat. We spoke to Australian proponents of two very different solar-thermal systems, both rather confusingly known as ...

Carina Dennis

2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

351

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

353

Infrared radiation: Herschel revisited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The year 2000 marks the 200th anniversary of Herschel’s discovery of infrared radiation. Using a car light in place of the Sun and a liquid crystal sheet instead of thermometers the experiment is an effective classroom demonstration of invisible light.

Erin E. Pursell; Richard Kozlowski

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

356

Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the Industrial Era  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the direct and diffuse solar radiation changes are estimated, and they contribute to the understanding of the observed global dimming and the more recent global brightening during the industrial era. Using a multistream radiative ...

Maria M. Kvalevåg; Gunnar Myhre

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Modeling radiation-induced mixing at interfaces between low solubility metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis studies radiation-induced mixing at interfaces between low solubility metals using molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. It provides original contributions on the fundamental mechanisms of radiation-induced ...

Zhang, Liang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Hydrogen peroxide significantly contributes to radiation-induced genomic instability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

peroxide significantly contributes to radiation- peroxide significantly contributes to radiation- induced genomic instability Disha Dayal 1 , Sean M. Martin 1 , Sujatha Venkataraman 1 , Charles L. Limoli 2 , Douglas R Spitz 1 . 1 Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA- 52246, 2 Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of California, Irvine, CA-92697 Chronic metabolic oxidative stress is associated with genomic instability following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Mitochondria have long been known to be a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing oxidative stress. We hypothesized that radiation damages mitochondria, leading to oxidative stress and eventually genomic instability. This hypothesis is based on preliminary studies in parental

359

Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION The familiar level of this module is designed to provide the basic information to meet the requirements that are related to 10 CFR 835, "Occupational Radiation Protection," in the following DOE Functional Area Qualification Standards: DOE-STD-1177-2004, Emergency Management DOE-STD-1151-2002, Facility Representative DOE-STD-1146-2007, General Technical Base DOE-STD-1138-2007, Industrial Hygiene DOE-STD-1183-2007, Nuclear Safety Specialist DOE-STD-1174-2003, Radiation Protection DOE-STD-1175-2006, Senior Technical Safety Manager DOE-STD-1178-2004, Technical Program Manager DOE-STD-1155-2002, Transportation and Traffic Management DOE Order Self Study Modules - 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection

360

Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Research supported by OHER [Office of Health and Environmental Research] and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

Setlow, Richard B.

1982-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

362

ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of external surfaces by naturally occurring atomic oxygen. CCD detectors are particularly vulnerable to damage damage. A comprehensive discussion of the types of radiation damage known to occur in CCDs is beyond1 ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment Michael R. Jones Space Telescope Science

Sirianni, Marco

363

Notes: Role of the Nfo and ExoA Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonucleases in Radiation Resistance and Radiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis Spores  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology Department...Group, Chiba-shi, Japan 5 University of Florida...to different types of radiation have been studied...of spore samples for radiation exposure has been described...NIRS) in Chiba, Japan, under the aegis of...

Ralf Moeller; Peter Setlow; Mario Pedraza-Reyes; Ryuichi Okayasu; Günther Reitz; Wayne L. Nicholson

2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

364

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

365

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports September 24, 2013 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report...

366

Occupational Radiation Exposure | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Radiation Exposure Welcome The Occupational Radiation Exposure Information page on this web page is intended to provide the latest available information on radiation exposure to...

367

Acceleration and Classical Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Classical radiation from an accelerated charge is reviewed along with the reciprocal topic of accelerated observers detecting radiation from a static charge. This review commemerates Bahram Mashhoon's 60th birthday.

E. N. Glass

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

368

Mathematical Problems of Radiative Equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in turn with the cases of purely absorbing and grey material in local radiative equilibrium (Schwarzschild-Milne model) and that of monochromatic radiative equilibrium with scattering but zero emissivity (Schuster ...

1935-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

369

Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A successful candidate in this position will serve as the Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist) senior subject matter expert for health physics/radiation safety at the sites. You will...

370

Nuclear radiation electronic gear (continued)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear radiation electronic gear (continued) ... Examines nuclear instrumentation available from several major U.S. manufacturers. ... Nuclear / Radiochemistry ...

S. Z. Lewin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

DOE Radiation Records Contacts List  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

372

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

373

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

374

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Radiation Preservation of Food, Commercialization Technology and Economics in Radiation Processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiation Preservation of Food, Commercialization Technology and Economics in Radiation Processing ...

H. F. Kraybill; D. C. Brunton

1960-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Kinetic equilibration from a radiative transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinetic equilibration during the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision is studied using a radiative transport model. Thermalization is found to dominate over expansion with medium regulated cross sections. Pressure anisotropy shows an approximate alpha_s scaling when radiative processes are included. It approaches an asymptotic time evolution on a time scale of 1 to 2 fm/c. Energy density is also found to approach an asymptotic time evolution that decreases slower than the ideal hydro evolution. These observations indicate that viscosity is important during the early longitudinal expansion phase of a relativistic heavy ion collision.

Bin Zhang

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term {\\it \\`a la} Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the electromagnetic wave, i.e., scalar (spin 0), massless spin $\\frac12$ and electromagnetic (spin 1) fields, is studied too.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

379

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group: Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Who To Call Who To Call Rad Training Dosimetry Telemetry Laser Safety Radiation Safety Committee Pub-3000 Ch. 21 Forms RPG Procedures RPG Internal Radiation Safety Committee Charter Purpose The Berkeley Lab Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) is appointed by, and reports to, the Laboratory Director and is responsible for advising LBNL Management on all matters related to occupational and environmental radiation safety. The Radiation Safety Committee reviews and recommends approval of radiation safety policies and guides the Environment, Health and Safety Division and radiation user divisions in carrying out these programs. The scope of its actions will generally be in issues of broad institutional concern and impact, or areas of potential high consequence either in terms of safety or institutional needs.

380

Opportunities in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation Tuesday 10/8/02 Chair: Lars Pettersson 1:30-1:40 Anders Nilsson Welcome 1:40-2:30 Gabor Somorjai University of California, Berkeley and LBLN Need for New Directions of Research at the Frontiers of Catalysis Science 2:30-3:00 Geoff Thornton University of Manchester Influence of defects on the reactivity of ZnO 3:00-3:30 Anders Nilsson Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of Surfaces and Reactions 3:30-3:45 Break Chair: Anders Nilsson 3:45-4:15 Lars Pettersson Stockholm University Adsorbate-Substrate Bonding: An Experimental and Theoretical MO Picture 4:15-4:45 Miquel Salmeron Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Photoelectron Spectroscopy studies of surfaces in high pressure gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radiative ablation to low-Z matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Eight beams of 0.35-?m laser with pulse duration of about 1.0 ns and energy of 260 J per beam were injected into a cylindrical cavity to generate intense x-ray radiation on the Shengguang II high power laser facility. Plastic foils with a thickness in the range of about 3.0–45 ?m were attached on the diagnostic hole of the cavity and ablated by the intense x-ray radiation. The radiative energy transport through plastic foils with different thicknesses has been studied experimentally. The burn-through time of the plastic foils has been obtained. For comparison, we also simulated the experimental results with Planckian and non-Planckian x-ray spectrum source, respectively. It is shown that for thick plastic foil the simulation with non-Planckian x-ray spectrum source is in good agreement with the experiment.

Jiamin Yang; Jiatian Sheng; Yaonan Ding; Yunsheng Li; Shaoen Jiang; Tinggui Feng; Zhijian Zheng; Kexu Sun; Wenghai Zhang; Yanli Cui; Jiushen Cheng

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Preservation of food by ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension.

Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bands Campaign (RHUBC) D. Turner and E. Mlawer RHUBC Breakout Session 2008 ARM Science Team Meeting 13 March, 2008 Norfolk, Virginia Motivation * Radiative heating/cooling in the mid-troposphere modulate the vertical motions of the atmosphere - This heating/cooling occurs primarily in water vapor absorption bands that are opaque at the surface * Approximately 40% of the OLR comes from the far-IR * Until recently, the observational tools were not available to evaluate the accuracy of the far-IR radiative transfer models - Spectrally resolved far-IR radiances, accurate PWV * Need to validate both clear sky (WV) absorption and cirrus scattering properties in these normally opaque bands Scientific Objectives * Conduct clear sky radiative closure studies in order to reduce uncertainties

384

Terahertz radiation mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

385

Time encoded radiation imaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

386

Radiation Emergency Procedure Demonstrations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Managing Radiation Emergencies Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstrations Procedure Demonstrations Note: RealPlayer is needed for listening to the narration that accompany these demonstrations. Real Player Dressing To Prevent the Spread of Radioactive Contamination This demonstration shows how your team can dress to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination. Click to begin presentation on dressing to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination. Preparing The Area This demonstration shows basic steps you can take to gather equipment and prepare a room to receive a patient who may be contaminated with radioactive material. Click to begin presentation on preparing a room to receive a radioactive contaminated patient. Removing Contaminated Clothing This demonstration shows the procedure for removing clothing from a patient who may be contaminated with radioactive material.

387

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Aharonov-Bohm radiation  

SciTech Connect

A solenoid oscillating in vacuum will pair produce charged particles due to the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interaction. We calculate the radiation pattern and power emitted for charged scalar particles. We extend the solenoid analysis to cosmic strings and find enhanced radiation from cusps and kinks on loops. We argue by analogy with the electromagnetic AB interaction that cosmic strings should emit photons due to the gravitational AB interaction of fields in the conical spacetime of a cosmic string. We calculate the emission from a kink and find that it is of similar order as emission from a cusp, but kinks are vastly more numerous than cusps and may provide a more interesting observational signature.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Vachaspati, Tanmay [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Straddle Carrier Radiation Portal Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation’s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O Dennis

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Medical radiation protection in next decade  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......towards increasing radiation safety levels. Whether...users whenever the radiation dose to the patient...human errors and software-related problems...global view of radiation protection in medicine...increasing radiation safety levels. Whether......

Madan M. Rehani; Eliseo Vano

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Coherence in Spontaneous Radiation Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By considering a radiating gas as a single quantum-mechanical system, energy levels corresponding to certain correlations between individual molecules are described. Spontaneous emission of radiation in a transition between two such levels leads to the emission of coherent radiation. The discussion is limited first to a gas of dimension small compared with a wavelength. Spontaneous radiation rates and natural line breadths are calculated. For a gas of large extent the effect of photon recoil momentum on coherence is calculated. The effect of a radiation pulse in exciting "super-radiant" states is discussed. The angular correlation between successive photons spontaneously emitted by a gas initially in thermal equilibrium is calculated.

R. H. Dicke

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Method for microbeam radiation therapy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

393

Anisotropic radiation elds: causality and quantum statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation transport 5 2.1 Radiation transport equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Closures The transport of radiation through a medium is described by the radiation transport equation for the radiative is used to describe anisotropic radiation. Because the two moment equations do not form a closed set

Honingh, Aline

394

DOE Order Self Study Modules - Getting Started  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Getting Started DOE Orders Self-Study Program Getting Started August 2011 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDERS SELF-STUDY PROGRAM GETTING STARTED This course was developed using the Criterion Referenced Instruction (CRI) method of training. That means the course contains only the information you need to perform your job. You will be shown the learning objectives at the beginning of the course. If you think you can demonstrate competency without additional instruction, you may complete the practice at any time. When you complete all of the practices successfully, you may ask the course manager for the criterion test. The familiar level requires that you understand and remember the material. The general level requires that you understand the applicability of the material. If you are unsure of the level of proficiency

395

Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 - Ionizing Radiation 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Radiation Decay chain Half-life Dose Radiation measurements Sources of radiation Average annual exposure Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation.pptx More Documents & Publications DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2007

396

Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation.  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation, we conduct a literature study of the best experimental and theoretical data available for thin and thick atmospheres on THz radiation propagation from 0.1 to 10 THz. We determined that for thick atmospheres no data exists beyond 450 GHz. For thin atmospheres data exists from 0.35 to 1.2 THz. We were successful in using FASE code with the HITRAN database to simulate the THz transmission spectrum for Mauna Kea from 0.1 to 2 THz. Lastly, we successfully measured the THz transmission spectra of laboratory atmospheres at relative humidities of 18 and 27%. In general, we found that an increase in the water content of the atmosphere led to a decrease in the THz transmission. We identified two potential windows in an Albuquerque atmosphere for THz propagation which were the regions from 1.2 to 1.4 THz and 1.4 to 1.6 THz.

Wanke, Michael Clement; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Detection of DNA Damage Induced by Space Radiation in Mir and Space Shuttle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......American space shuttle for 9 days. After landing, we labeled space-radiation-induced...American space shuttle for 9 days. After landing, we labeled space-radiation-induced...studied in Go human lymphocytes using the comet assay. J. Radiat. Res. 42: 91101......

Takeo Ohnishi; Ken Ohnishi; Akihisa Takahashi; Yoshitaka Taniguchi; Masaru Sato; Tamotsu Nakano; Shunji Nagaoka

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ECOLOGY Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis...study the impact of solar UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) on...Ink and Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan. 12 Dismukes, G. C., V...Effects of solar and ultraviolet radiation on motility, photomovement...

Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafañe; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...263-8555 Chiba, Japan. Phone: 81-43-206-3159...doses of ionizing radiation (5). A recent...study showed that Japan has the worlds highest...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...Inage, Chiba, Japan. fujimora@nirs...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Augmentation of Radiation Response by Motesanib, a Multikinase Inhibitor that Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...measured by Image J software. Statistical significance...administration of the final radiation dose, three mice per...response by combining radiation and the vascular-damaging...Phase II study of safety and efficacy of motesanib...Data Augmentation of radiation response by motesanib...

Tim J. Kruser; Deric L. Wheeler; Eric A. Armstrong; Mari Iida; Kevin R. Kozak; Albert J. van der Kogel; Johan Bussink; Angela Coxon; Anthony Polverino; and Paul M. Harari

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A FAST FORWARD SOLVER OF RADIATIVE TRANSFER HAO GAO AND HONGKAI ZHAO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

studying the numerical solutions to the radiative transport equation (RTE) or the within-group neutron transport equation [4, 13] in the field of neutron transport [4], atmospheric radiative transfer [1], heatA FAST FORWARD SOLVER OF RADIATIVE TRANSFER EQUATION HAO GAO AND HONGKAI ZHAO Abstract

Soatto, Stefano

402

Human Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Tachykinin NK1 Antagonist Radioligand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with PET. The aims of this study were to estimate the radiation safety profile and relative risks of [18F wall, kidneys, and thyroid had the highest radiation-absorbed doses. Biexponential fitting of mean: Insofar as effective dose is an accurate measure of radiation risk, all 3 methods of analysis provided

Shen, Jun

403

Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1 Receptor-SCH-23390 (6,7), and is highly reliable for PET quantification (7). Radiation-absorbed dose estimates of 11C and Behaviour, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia The present study estimated radiation

Shen, Jun

404

Use of Superconducting Magnet Technology for Astronaut Radiation Protection PI: Jeffery Hoffman, MIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Superconducting Magnet Technology for Astronaut Radiation Protection PI: Jeffery Hoffman of radiation from cosmic rays. The proposed superconducting magnetic radiation shielding system could a conceptual systems design. In Phase II, we plan to extend the shielding studies to a detailed comparison

Shepherd, Simon

405

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

406

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Gregory A. Kimmel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gregory A. Kimmel Gregory A. Kimmel Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Past Project A Novel Spatially Resolved Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander and Adaptive Responses to Low-LET Radiation. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Spatially Resolved Single Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low LET Radiation. Resat, M.S., Kimmel, G.A., Miller, J.H., McDonald, J.C., Murphy, M.K., Strom, D.J., Thrall, B.D., and Colson, S.D. 2001 Workshop: Spatially Resolved Single Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low LET Radiation. Resat, M.S., Kimmel, G.A., Miller, J.H., McDonald, J.C., Murphy, M.K., Strom, D.J., Thrall, B.D., Metting, N.F., and Colson, S.D 1999 Workshop: A Novel, Spatially Resolved Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander and Adaptive Responses to Low-LET Radiation.

407

Predicting solar radiation fluxes for solar energy system applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mean daily global solar radiation flux is influenced by astronomical, climatological, geographical, geometrical, meteorological, and physical parameters. This paper deals with the study of the effects of i...

M. H. Saffaripour; M. A. Mehrabian…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Transgenerational Effects of Radiation and Chemicals in Mice and Humans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......transgenerational radiation car- cinogenesis. In other words...caused functional damage and defective gonad development.6,1214...studies on transgenerational car- cinogenesis were started from...leukemia in their offspring. Car- cinogenesis 19: 15531558......

Taisei Nomura

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Summary of Prometheus Radiation Shielding Nuclear Design Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report transmits a summary of radiation shielding nuclear design studies performed to support the Prometheus project. Together, the enclosures and references associated with this document describe NRPCT (KAPL & Bettis) shielding nuclear design analyses done for the project.

J. Stephens

2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

410

Novel electromagnetic radiation in Left-Handed materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, Cerenkov radiation of a moving charged particle inside a Left-Handed material (LHM) is studied through both theory and numerical simulations. A LHM is a material whose permittivity and permeability have ...

Lu, Jie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

RADIATION LABORATO DISCLAIMER  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R : R : . . . RADIATION LABORATO DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any

412

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

413

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection: Annual Occupational Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report Print information on Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report (pdf). This webpage provides information to help you understand the dose quantities being reported to you on your Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report. If you would like general information about radiation exposure, please refer to www.radiationanswers.org. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835), requires assessment, recording and reporting of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or radioactive contamination. This includes assessing external exposure from a variety of radiation types, such as, beta, photon, and neutron radiation. External exposures may be uniform over the whole body or occur in a non-uniform (i.e., limited body location) fashion. Internal doses occur when radioactive material is taken into the body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption or wounds. The requirements include assessing doses to the whole body, skin, lens of the eyes, extremities and various organs and tissues.

415

Measurement of radiation impedance of stepped piston radiator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was noted in a paper given in 1972 [A. H. Lubell J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52 1310 (1972)] that the radiation mass of a stepped piston underwater loudspeaker was approximately half of the value expected from simple piston theory. Recently the integral equation approach was used to compute the radiation impedance for the Lubell Laboratories model 98 underwater loudspeaker and new measurements were made. This paper reviews the measurement and data reduction procedures and compares measured and theoretical radiation impedances. The original observation of reduced radiation mass is supported. A companion paper covers the integral equation computation. [This work was supported by Lubell Laboratories Inc.

Alan H. Lubell

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Radiation Control Program and Radiation Control Act (Nebraska)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute authorizes the state to implement a regulatory program for sources of radiation, and contains rules for the Department, licensing and registration, and taxation of radioactive materials.

417

Electron Beam Diagnostics using Coherent Cherenkov Radiation in Aerogel  

SciTech Connect

The use of coherent Cherenkov radiation as a diagnostic tool for longitudinal distribution of an electron beam is studied in this paper. Coherent Cherenkov radiation is produced in an aerogel with an index of refraction close to unity. An aerogel spectral properties are experimentally studied and analyzed. This method will be employed for the helical IFEL bunching experiment at Neptune linear accelerator facility at UCLA.

Tikhoplav, R.; Knyazik, A.; Rosenzweig, J. B. [UCLA Physics Dept., Los Angeles, CA 90066 (United States); Ruelas, M. [RadiaBeam Technologies, Marina Del Ray, CA 90292 (United States)

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

418

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients With Lung Cancer Previously Treated With Thoracic Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) provides excellent local control with acceptable toxicity for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, the efficacy and safety of SBRT for patients previously given thoracic radiation therapy is not known. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed outcomes after SBRT for recurrent disease among patients previously given radiation therapy to the chest. Materials and Methods: A search of medical records for patients treated with SBRT to the thorax after prior fractionated radiation therapy to the chest at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center revealed 36 such cases. The median follow-up time after SBRT was 15 months. The endpoints analyzed were overall survival, local control, and the incidence and severity of treatment-related toxicity. Results: SBRT provided in-field local control for 92% of patients; at 2 years, the actuarial overall survival rate was 59%, and the actuarial progression-free survival rate was 26%, with the primary site of failure being intrathoracic relapse. Fifty percent of patients experienced worsening of dyspnea after SBRT, with 19% requiring oxygen supplementation; 30% of patients experienced chest wall pain and 8% Grade 3 esophagitis. No Grade 4 or 5 toxic effects were noted. Conclusions: SBRT can provide excellent in-field tumor control in patients who have received prior radiation therapy. Toxicity was significant but manageable. The high rate of intrathoracic failure indicates the need for further study to identify patients who would derive the most benefit from SBRT for this purpose.

Kelly, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Balter, Peter A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rebueno, Neal; Sharp, Hadley J.; Liao Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Safety Around Sources of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Keeping Exposure Low Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The BEIR V (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) Committee of the National Research Council estimates that among 100,000 people exposed to a one-time dose of 10 rem (10,000 mrem) and followed over their life span, about 790 more would die of cancer than the estimated 20,000 cancer deaths that would be expected among a non-exposed group of the same size. NOTE: 10 rem = 100 millisieverts (100 mSv).

420

Radiation transport in inhomogeneous media  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of radiation transport in heated materials are greatly complicated by the presence of regions in which two or more materials are inhomogeneously mixed. This phenomenon is important in many systems, such as astrophysical systems where density clumps can be found in star-forming regions and molecular clouds. Laboratory experiments have been designed to test the modeling of radiation transport through inhomogeneous plasmas. A laser-heated hohlraum is used as a thermal source to drive radiation through polymer foam containing randomly distributed gold particles. Experimental measurements of radiation transport in foams with gold particle sizes ranging from 5-9 {mu}m to submicrometer diameters as well as the homogeneous foam case are presented. The simulation results of the radiation transport are compared to the experiment and show that an inhomogeneous transport model must be applied to explain radiation transport in foams loaded with 5 {mu}m diameter gold particles.

Keiter, Paul; Gunderson, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Foster, John; Rosen, Paula; Comley, Andrew; Taylor, Mark [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Perry, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Radiative Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems, and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g.\\ at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H \\textsc{ii} region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick "adiabatic" regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved,for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state, and we derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability conditi...

Jacquet, Emmanuel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Origins and consequences of radiationÂ…induced centrosome aberrations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Origins and consequences of radiation-induced centrosome aberrations Origins and consequences of radiation-induced centrosome aberrations Sangeetha Vijayakumar, Nisarg Shah, Ignacio Fernandez-Garcia, Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NY, NY. Centrosome aberrations are frequently observed in pre-neoplastic breast lesions and are known to drive chromosomal instability (Lingle et al., 2002). Previous studies from our lab have shown that human mammary epithelial cells exposed to low doses of radiation exhibit centrosome aberrations (CAs) in a dose dependent manner from 10-200 cGy (Maxwell et al., 2008). These data demonstrated that radiation-induced CAs actually precede and generate genomic instability and that TGFβ is a key mediator

423

Low dose radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform pre-malignant human breast cells Paul Yaswen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Determine whether low dose radiation exerts persistent epigenetic effects that promote malignancy. Background and Significance: Some persistent carcinogenic effects of radiation may not be traceable to specific DNA sequence alterations and may not be linearly related to dose. Through the biochemical initiation of positive feedback loops, ionization-induced events may have heritable non-linear effects on cellular behavior. Inflammatory responses involving the transcription factor NFκB may be subject to such effects. Increased NFκB activity has been strongly linked to carcinogenesis in a number of published in vitro and in vivo studies (reviewed in [1]). Since radiation

424

Effects of radiation on materials: twelfth international symposium  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides information on irradiation creep of structural metals; microstructural development, neutron-induced swelling and charged particle irradiation. The theory of swelling is discussed along with mechanical properties, pressure vessel steels and irradiation facilities. The influence of helium on radiation-induced microstructural development, and radiation-induced changes in fracture toughness of iron-based austenitic and ferrite alloys are presented. The final section on other radiation studies covers the following: a modified method of helium introduction into alloys via the tritium trick, radiation damage aspects of a novel method for providing safe storage of Krypton-85 from fuel re-processing, and radiation effects on resins and zeolites forming part of the waste stream from the clean-up effort at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant.

Garner, F.A. (ed.); Perrin, J.S. (ed)

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Deterministic methods in radiation transport  

SciTech Connect

The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W. (eds.)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Cancer incidence in areas with elevated levels of natural radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been reported that on reaching a certain level of cell damage the production of repair enzymes is triggered which decreases the chromosome aberrations. If this happens, prolonged exposure to high levels of natural radiation in areas with elevated levels of background radiation could decrease the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Recent epidemiological studies indicated that there is an increased risk of cancer in healthy individuals with high levels of chromosomal aberrations. Studies performed in Nordic countries as well as Italy, showed that increased levels of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes can be used to predict cancer risk in humans. One may conclude that a dose of ionising radiation sufficient to produce a certain level of cell damage increases production of antioxidants and repair enzymes that decrease either the frequency of chromosome aberrations or the cancer risk. People in some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, receive an annual radiation dose from background radiation that is more than five times higher than the 20 mSv. Yr-1 that is permitted for radiation workers. Inhabitants of Ramsar have lived for many generations in these high background areas. If an annual radiation dose of a few hundred mSv is detrimental to health, causing genetic abnormalities or an increased risk of cancer, it should be evident in these people. The absorbed dose rate in some high background radiation areas of Ramsar is approximately 55-200 times higher than that of the average global dose rate. It has been reported that 3â??8% of all cancers are caused by current levels of ionising radiation. If this estimation were true, all the inhabitants of such an area with extraordinary elevated levels of natural radiation would have died of cancer. Our cytogenetic studies show no significant differences between people in the high background area compared to people in normal background areas. As there was no increased level of chromosome aberrations, it may be predicted that the cancer incidence is not higher than in the neighbouring areas with a normal background radiation level. Although there is not yet solid epidemiological information, most local physicians in Ramsar report anecdotally that there is no increase in the incidence rates of cancer or leukemia in their area. There are no data to indicate a significant increase of cancer incidence in other high background radiation areas (HBRAs). Furthermore, several studies show a significant decrease of cancer death rates in areas with high backgrounds. It can be concluded that prolonged exposure to high levels of natural radiation possibly triggers processes such as the production of antioxidants and repair enzymes, which decreases the frequency of chromosome aberrations and the cancer incidence rate.

S.M.J. Mortazavi; M. Ghiassi-Nejad; P.A. Karam; T. Ikushima; A. Niroomand-Rad; J.R. Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Radiation Emergency Medicine Fact Sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Global Response Improving Global Response to Radiation Emergencies Improving Radiation Emergency Response Through Education and Specialized Expertise In the event of a radiological or nuclear incident, first responders as well as hospital and emergency management personnel must call on their knowledge and training to provide immediate and effective care for victims. Through practical, hands-on education programs, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is improving global response to radiation emergencies. In addition, dedicated 24/7 deployable teams of physicians, nurses, and health physicists from the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), which is managed by ORAU for DOE/NNSA, provide expert medical management of radiological incidents

428

Presentation: Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources delivered by Patricia Dehmer, U.S. Department of Energy

429

Reporting Occupational Radiation Exposure Data  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

IMPORTANT NOTICE: Due to increasing security concerns for the protection of Personnally Identifiable Information (PII), AU-23 has issued a policy statement regarding the submission of radiation...

430

Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

Rauch, Philipp J. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Park, Henry S. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Knisely, Jonathan P.S. [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York (United States); Chiang, Veronica L. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Vortmeyer, Alexander O., E-mail: alexander.vortmeyer@yale.edu [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The Role of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Clinical Stage II-III Breast Cancer Patients With pN0: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study (KROG 12-05)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in clinical stage II-III breast cancer patients with pN0. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 417 clinical stage II-III breast cancer patients who achieved an ypN0 at surgery after receiving NAC between 1998 and 2009. Of these, 151 patients underwent mastectomy after NAC. The effect of PMRT on disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis including known prognostic factors using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log–rank test and Cox proportional regression analysis. Results: Of the 151 patients who underwent mastectomy, 105 (69.5%) received PMRT and 46 patients (30.5%) did not. At a median follow-up of 59 months, 5 patients (3.3%) developed LRR (8 sites of recurrence) and 14 patients (9.3%) developed distant metastasis. The 5-year DFS, LRRFS, and OS rates were 91.2, 98.1, and 93.3% with PMRT and 83.0%, 92.3%, and 89.9% without PMRT, respectively (all P values not significant). By univariate analysis, only age (?40 vs >40 years) was significantly associated with decreased DFS (P=.027). By multivariate analysis, age (?40 vs >40 years) and pathologic T stage (0-is vs 1 vs 2-4) were significant prognostic factors affecting DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.353, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.135-0.928, P=.035; HR 2.223, 95% CI 1.074-4.604, P=.031, respectively). PMRT showed no correlation with a difference in DFS, LRRFS, or OS by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: PMRT might not be necessary for pN0 patients after NAC, regardless of clinical stage. Prospective randomized clinical trial data are needed to assess whether PMRT can be safely omitted in pN0 patients after NAC and mastectomy for clinical stage II-III breast cancer.

Shim, Su Jung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eulji General Hospital, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won, E-mail: wonro.park@samsung.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam Kwon [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Medical Center, Korea University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Yong Bae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Su Ssan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W.; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Kyubo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Soo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bundang CHA Hospital, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dong-A University Hospital, Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety;  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE Functions The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety; formulate campus radiation safety policies in compliance the Risk Manager) monitor the performance of the Radiation Safety Officer as it relates to implementation

Sze, Lawrence

434

Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......studies of radiation workers, such as the Rocketdyne(149), Mayak(150, 151) and National...occupational studies is not known. Rocketdyne study-other studies of radiation workers...in the 15-country study include the Rocketdyne study(149). By itself, this study......

Lawrence T. Dauer; Antone L. Brooks; David G. Hoel; William F. Morgan; Daniel Stram; Phung Tran

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

RADIATION APPLICATIONS INCORPORATED  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

. <' ," . . * . RADIATION APPLICATIONS INCORPORATED . 370 Lexl.ngton Avenue New York 17# New York jq.5' L- Contract No. A T (30-l)-2093 with the United States Atom ic Energy Commission F O A M SEPARATION Progress Report for March, 1959 Abstract Appreciable cesium enrichment in the foam has been obtained using the system sodium tetraphenyl boron-Geigy reagent. Enrichment ratios varied from 1.5 to 3.5 depending upon operating conditions. The en- richment appears to depend on the ratio of the sodium tetraphenyl boron to Geigy reagent rather than on the absolute values of the indi- vidual concentrations. Further experiments are being conducted to verify and extend the range of results. Continuous countercurrent column operation has been continued.

436

Appendix F. Radiation Annual Site Environmental Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;Annual Site Environmental Report Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis

Pennycook, Steve

437

Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation: Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation: An Evaluation of the State of the Field in 2002 A BioSync Report. Issued by the Structural Biology Synchrotron users Organization, October, 2002. 2 Table of Contents: Introduction .................................................................................................... 3 Abbreviations .................................................................................................. 5 Executive Summary ......................................................................................... 6 General Concerns ............................................................................................ 9 Synchrotron operations and maintenance ............................................... 9 NSLS, CHESS and the geographical distribution of beam lines

438

RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: equivalent sphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: equivalent sphere model, space radiation, organ dose IMPROVEMENT- alent sphere is used to represent the organ for a fast estimate of the organ dose. It has been found ~ESM! with an organ- specific constant radius parameter is used for fast estimates of the organ dose

Lin, Zi-wei

439

Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM`s highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM`s experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

Patrinos, A.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ellingson, R.G. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

Patrinos, A.A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Ellingson, R.G. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation studies remembering" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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441

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilities Facilities Photo of two researchers standing on a platform near a solar tracker at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory gathers solar radiation and meteorological data on South Table Mountain. NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar radiation components since 1981. Since then, it has expanded its expertise to include integrated metrology, optics, electronics, and data acquisition capabilities. In addition, the SRRL provides facilities for outdoor performance testing of new research instrumentation and energy conversion devices such as photovoltaic modules. The SRRL is located on NREL's South Table Mountain site in Golden, Colorado, where it has excellent solar access because of its unrestricted

442

7 - Estimation of Radiation Doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation doses to the Japanese population from inhalation of contaminated air, external irradiation, terrestrial and marine food contamination are estimated and compared with other sources of anthropogenic (global fallout, Chernobyl accident), natural (radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation) and medical applications (X-ray tests, CT-tests, etc.) of ionizing radiation. The estimated doses from inhalation, ingestion of terrestrial and marine food, and radiation exposure from radioactive clouds and deposited radionuclides were generally below the levels which could cause health damage of the Japanese population, as well as of the world population. The estimated total radiation doses to fish and shellfish in coastal waters during the largest radionuclide releases were by a factor of 10 lower than the baseline safe level postulated for the marine organisms, therefore no harmful effects are expected for the marine ecosystem as well.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

T violation in radiative $\\beta$ decay and electric dipole moments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In radiative $\\beta$ decay, $T$ violation can be studied through a spin-independent $T$-odd correlation. We consider contributions to this correlation by beyond the standard model (BSM) sources of $T$-violation, arising above the electroweak scale. At the same time such sources, parametrized by dimension-6 operators, can induce electric dipole moments (EDMs). As a consequence, the manifestations of the $T$-odd BSM physics in radiative $\\beta$ decay and EDMs are not independent. Here we exploit this connection to show that current EDM bounds already strongly constrain the spin-independent $T$-odd correlation in radiative $\\beta$ decay.

Dekens, W G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis  

SciTech Connect

The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stockham, Abigail L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Shiue, Kevin [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Super?bandgap radiation in a?Si  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nature of the super?bandgap radiation observed in a?Si and a?Si:H is investigated. This broad spectrum postulated to arise from localized states above the mobility gap exhibits many remarkable features. These same features occur in radiation from porous quartz but in that case the effect is known to be surface related.2 Using the Raman spectrum for calibration the strength of the signal from a?Si has been studied as a function of surface preparation. The results suggest the possibility that the radiation is a surface contaminant effect unrelated to the bulk states of the material.

B. A. Wilson

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Space Radiation and Cataracts (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Summer Lecture Series 2009: Eleanor Blakely, radiation biologist of the Life Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has been a scientist at Berkeley Lab since 1975. She is studying the effect of radiation on cataracts which concerns not only cancer patients, but also astronauts. As astronauts spend increasingly longer time in space, the effects of cosmic radiation exposure will become an increasingly important health issue- yet there is little human data on these effects. Blakely reviews this emerging field and the contributions made at Berkeley Lab

Blakely, Eleanor

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

BNL NASA Space Radiation Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tech Notes Tech Notes Item Number Title Author(s) Date NSRL-TN-05-001 NSRL Beam Characterization Study I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek, Michael Sivertz 10 December 2005 NSRL-TN-05-002 Time of Flight of NSRL Beams I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek, Michael Sivertz 18 October 2005 NSRL-TN-06-001 ToF Results From Run 06C I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek, Michael Sivertz 15 September 2006 NSRL-TN-07-001 Radiation Levels in the NSRL Target Room Michael Sivertz 27 November 2007 NSRL-TN-09-001 Development of the Pixel Chamber I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek, Daniel Ottavio, Dysart Ravenhall and Steve Bellavia 14 July 2009 NSRL-TN-10-001 Iron Beam Characterization Studies at NSRL Michael Sivertz, I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek 22 February 2010 NSRL-TN-10-002 Gold Beams at NSRL Michael Sivertz, I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek 10 March 2010

448

Potential Health Hazards of Radiation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Potential Health Hazards of Radiation More Documents &...

449

Grain Alignment by Radiation in Dark Clouds and Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study alignment of grains by radiative torques. We found steep rise of radiative torque efficiency as grain size increases. This allows larger grains that are known to exist within molecular clouds to be aligned by the attenuated and reddened interstellar radiation field. In particular, we found that, even deep inside giant molecular clouds, e.g. at optical depths corresponding to less than Av of 10 large grains can still be aligned by radiative torque. This means that, contrary to earlier claims, far-infrared/submillimeter polarimetry provides a reliable tool to study magnetic fields of pre-stellar cores. Our results show that the grain size distribution is important for determining the relation between the degree of polarization and intensity.

J. Cho; A. Lazarian

2005-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

450

Effect of multiple scattering on Cerenkov radiation from energetic electrons  

SciTech Connect

Cerenkov radiation can be used as a diagnostic tool to study energetic electrons generated in ultra-intense laser matter interactions. However, electrons suffer scattering with nuclei as they move in a medium. In this article, we theoretically study the effect of multiple scattering on Cerenkov radiation, and obtain analytical formulas under some circumstances. The results show that when the speed of an energetic electron is not close to the light speed in the medium, Cerenkov radiation is just slightly decreased due to multiple scattering. In the case that the electron speed is very close to the light speed in the medium, the effect of multiple scattering becomes significant, and the radiation is dominated by bremsstrahlung.

Zheng Jian [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

DNA damage: risk comparisons of low radiation vis-a-vis dietary micronutrient deficiencies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micronutrients are the substances in minute amounts that are essential for human life. This study discusses laboratory and epidemiological evidence that dietary micronutrient deficiencies cause DNA damage. DNA damage comparisons are made between dietary micronutrient deficiencies and low dose radiation. Laboratory studies show that micronutrient deficiencies can cause greater DNA damage than radiation doses significantly above background environmental levels. Previous concerns that have been expressed about comparing endogenous DNA damages to radiation-induced DNA damages are discussed, in particular, the role of radiation clusters. It is shown that cluster damage does not preclude making comparisons of dietary micronutrient deficiencies vis-a-vis radiation, especially at background environmental levels. Such damage comparisons provide the public with a means of placing radiation risk in perspective by comparing a readily appreciated, everyday concept (dietary deficiencies) with that of radiation.

Daniel P. Hayes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Molecular Pathways: Targeted ?-Particle Radiation Therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and profibrotic cytokines. Radiation-induced malignancy can...1-5 Gy). Kyoji Furukawa (Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan) reviewed the Japanese atomic...late effects of ionizing radiation exposure at low/moderate...

Kwamena E. Baidoo; Kwon Yong; and Martin W. Brechbiel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Resistance of Marine Bacterioneuston to Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Marine Bacterioneuston to Solar Radiation Helene Agogue Fabien...after exposure to simulated solar radiation. Bacterioneuston...estimate of their screening capacity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...D. P. 2000. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic...

Hélène Agogué; Fabien Joux; Ingrid Obernosterer; Philippe Lebaron

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Radiation induced strand breakage analyzed by tunel technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION INDUCED STRAND BREAKAGE ANALYZED BY TUNEL TECHNIQUE A Thesis MAtuSSA DAWN REYNOLDS Submitted to the 015ce of Graduate Studies of Texas Ad. M University in partial fu1611ment of the requirements for the dree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 2003 Major Subject: Health Physics RADIATION INDUCED STRAND BREAKAGE ANALYZED BY TUNEL TECHNIQUE A Thesis MAtuSSA DAWN REYNOLDS Submitted to Texas %%:M University in partial fulfillmen of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Reynolds, Marissa Dawn

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Radiative energy shifts of an accelerated two-level system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the influence of acceleration on the radiative energy shifts of atoms in Minkowski space. We study a two-level atom coupled to a scalar quantum field. Using a Heisenberg picture approach, we are able to separate the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the Lamb shift of the two-level atom. The resulting energy shifts for the special case of a uniformly accelerated atom are then compared with those of an atom at rest.

Jürgen Audretsch and Rainer Müller

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Ionizing radiation and atherosclerosis: Current knowledge and future challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The evaluation of the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation has always been a focus of debate and investigation within the scientific community. During the last decade, epidemiological studies provided evidence that an excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can be associated with moderate and low dose radiation. The precise quantification of CVD risk in the low-dose radiation range (dose below which there is no risk. A limited number of studies with imaging surrogate endpoints and cardiovascular biomarkers in asymptomatic patients revealed early signs of cardiovascular alterations, even at a low dose. In vitro studies have shown that several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, alterations of coagulation and platelet activity may have a relevant role in radiation-induced cardiovascular effects. Exposure to high-dose data in experimental models accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, predisposing to the formation of an inflammatory, thrombotic plaque phenotype, especially in animals that are genetically predisposed to this disease. On the contrary, low dose exposure produced both protective and detrimental effects, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may influence radiation-induced atherosclerosis. However, only very limited and specific information can be obtained from cell cultures and animal models. Planned studies of radiation-exposed cohorts need to be conducted to explore biological mechanisms of low-dose radiation-associated cardiovascular disease. Further investigations with functional imaging to assess vascular function and cardiovascular biomarkers have great potential for providing new insights into low-dose radiation cardiovascular risk, especially in occupational exposure and modern medicine.

Andrea Borghini; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo; Eugenio Picano; Maria Grazia Andreassi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation  

SciTech Connect

When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions  

SciTech Connect

Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments w