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Sample records for radiation oncology feinberg

  1. Stuart Feinberg | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ES&H/QA Coordinator Stuart Feinberg Telephone 630.252.4673 E-mail sfeinberg@anl.gov

  2. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Don . E-mail: donyee@cancerboard.ab.ca; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada.

  3. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology Plug and Play-The Future of Radiation Oncology?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Rengan, Ramesh; Curran, Bruce; Swerdloff, Stuart; Miettinen, Mika; Field, Colin; Ranjitkar, Sunita; Palta, Jatinder; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To describe the processes and benefits of the integrating healthcare enterprises in radiation oncology (IHE-RO). Methods: The IHE-RO process includes five basic steps. The first step is to identify common interoperability issues encountered in radiation treatment planning and the delivery process. IHE-RO committees partner with vendors to develop solutions (integration profiles) to interoperability problems. The broad application of these integration profiles across a variety of vender platforms is tested annually at the Connectathon event. Demonstration of the seamless integration and transfer of patient data to the potential users are then presented by vendors at the public demonstration event. Users can then integrate these profiles into requests for proposals and vendor contracts by institutions. Results: Incorporation of completed integration profiles into requests for proposals can be done when purchasing new equipment. Vendors can publish IHE integration statements to document the integration profiles supported by their products. As a result, users can reference integration profiles in requests for proposals, simplifying the systems acquisition process. These IHE-RO solutions are now available in many of the commercial radiation oncology-related treatment planning, delivery, and information systems. They are also implemented at cancer care sites around the world. Conclusions: IHE-RO serves an important purpose for the radiation oncology community at large.

  4. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  5. The radiation oncology workforce: A focus on medical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Gregg F.; Mobile, Katherine; Yu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 ± 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists' greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession's current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field.

  6. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ? P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ? P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results support further development of structured didactic curricula for the radiation oncology clerkship.

  7. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, Daniel W.; Spektor, Alexander; Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C.; Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency.

  8. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Holliday, Emma; Eastwick, Gary; Takita, Cristiane; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  9. Medical Malpractice Claims in Radiation Oncology: A Population-Based Study 1985-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Deborah C.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Fox, Dov; Recht, Abram; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine trends in radiation oncology malpractice claims and expenses during the last 28 years and to compare radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of other specialties. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of closed malpractice claims filed from 1985 to 2012, collected by a nationwide medical liability insurance trade association. We analyzed characteristics and trends among closed claims, indemnity payments (payments to plaintiff), and litigation expenses. We also compared radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of 21 other medical specialties. Time series dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation (2012 was the index year). Results: There were 1517 closed claims involving radiation oncology, of which 342 (22.5%) were paid. Average and median indemnity payments were $276,792 and $122,500, respectively, ranking fifth and eighth, respectively, among the 22 specialty groups. Linear regression modeling of time trends showed decreasing total numbers of claims (β = −1.96 annually, P=.003), increasing average litigation expenses paid (β = +$1472 annually, P≤.001), and no significant changes in average indemnity payments (β = −$681, P=.89). Conclusions: Medical professional liability claims filed against radiation oncologists are not common and have declined in recent years. However, indemnity payments in radiation oncology are large relative to those of many other specialties. In recent years, the average indemnity payment has been stable, whereas litigation expenses have increased.

  10. SU-E-T-524: Web-Based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System (ROIRLS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M; Grover, S; Malik, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Describe a Web-based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: The VA National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and near miss data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. Software used for this program is deployed on the VAs intranet as a Website. All data entry forms (adverse event or near miss reports, work product reports) utilize standard causal, RT process step taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM and ASTRO reports on error reporting (AAPM Work Group Report on Prevention of Errors and ASTROs safety is no accident report). All reported incidents are investigated by the radiation oncology domain experts. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The operational workflow is similar to that of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. This system is also synergistic with ROSIS and SAFRON. Results: The ROIRLS facilitates the collection of data that help in tracking adverse events and near misses and develop new interventions to prevent such incidents. The ROIRLS electronic infrastructure is fully integrated with each registered facility profile data thus minimizing key strokes and multiple entries by the event reporters. Conclusions: OIRLS is expected to improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in the VA and fulfills our goal of Effecting Quality While Treating Safely The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations Inc. and is deployed on the VA intranet as a Website. The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations Inc. and is deployed on the VA intranet as a Website.

  11. Radiation oncology career decision variables for graduating trainees seeking positions in 2003-2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Lynn D. . E-mail: lynn.wilson@yale.edu; Flynn, Daniel F.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology trainees must consider an array of variables when deciding upon an academic or private practice career path. This prospective evaluation of the 2004 graduating radiation oncology trainees, evaluates such variables and provides additional descriptive data. Methods: A survey that included 15 questions (one subjective, eleven categorical, and 3 continuous variables) was mailed to the 144 graduating radiation oncology trainees in United States programs in January of 2004. Questions were designed to gather information regarding factors that may have influenced career path choices. The responses were anonymous, and no identifying information was sought. Survey data were collated and analyzed for differences in both categorical and continuous variables as they related to choice of academic or private practice career path. Results: Sixty seven (47%) of the surveys were returned. Forty-five percent of respondents indicated pursuit of an academic career. All respondents participated in research during training with 73% participating in research publication authorship. Post graduate year-3 was the median in which career path was chosen, and 20% thought that a fellowship position was 'perhaps' necessary to secure an academic position. Thirty percent of the respondents revealed that the timing of the American Board of Radiology examination influenced their career path decision. Eighteen variables were offered as possibly influencing career path choice within the survey, and the top five identified by those seeking an academic path were: (1) colleagues, (2) clinical research, (3) teaching, (4) geography, (5) and support staff. For those seeking private practice, the top choices were: (1) lifestyle, (2) practice environment, (3) patient care, (4) geography, (5) colleagues. Female gender (p = 0.064), oral meeting presentation (p = 0.053), and international meeting presentation (p 0.066) were the variables most significantly associated with pursuing an academic career path. The following variables were ranked significantly differently in hierarchy (p < 0.05) by those seeking an academic versus private practice path with respect to having influence on the career decision: lifestyle, income, case-mix, autonomy, ability to sub-specialize, basic research, clinical research, teaching, patient care, board structure, practice environment, and mentoring. Conclusion: These data offer descriptive information regarding variables that lead to radiation oncology trainee career path decisions. Such information may be of use in modification of training programs to meet future personnel and programmatic needs within the specialty.

  12. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Kevin L. Moiseenko, Vitali; Kagadis, George C.; McNutt, Todd R.; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-15

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authors contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.

  13. Delayed Workforce Entry and High Emigration Rates for Recent Canadian Radiation Oncology Graduates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewen, Shaun K.; Halperin, Ross; Lefresne, Shilo; Trotter, Theresa; Stuckless, Teri; Brundage, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the employment status and location of recent Canadian radiation oncology (RO) graduates and to identify current workforce entry trends. Methods and Materials: A fill-in-the-blank spreadsheet was distributed to all RO program directors in December 2013 and June 2014, requesting the employment status and location of their graduates over the last 3 years. Visa trainee graduates were excluded. Results: Response rate from program directors was 100% for both survey administrations. Of 101 graduates identified, 99 (98%) had known employment status and location. In the December survey, 5 2013 graduates (16%), 17 2012 graduates (59%), and 18 2011 graduates (75%) had permanent staff employment. Six months later, 5 2014 graduates (29%), 15 2013 graduates (48%), 24 2012 graduates (83%), and 21 2011 graduates (88%) had secured staff positions. Fellowships and temporary locums were common for those without staff employment. The proportion of graduates with staff positions abroad increased from 22% to 26% 6 months later. Conclusions: Workforce entry for most RO graduates was delayed but showed steady improvement with longer time after graduation. High emigration rates for jobs abroad signify domestic employment challenges for newly certified, Canadian-trained radiation oncologists. Coordination on a national level is required to address and regulate radiation oncologist supply and demand disequilibrium in Canada.

  14. Validation and Simplification of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jing; Wang Meihua; Won, Minhee; Shaw, Edward G.; Coughlin, Christopher; Curran, Walter J.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Previous recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of patients with malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] and anaplastic astrocytoma [AA]) produced six prognostic groups (I-VI) classified by six factors. We sought here to determine whether the classification for GBM could be improved by using an updated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) GBM database excluding AA and by considering additional baseline variables. Methods and Materials: The new analysis considered 42 baseline variables and 1,672 GBM patients from the expanded RTOG glioma database. Patients receiving radiation only were excluded such that all patients received radiation+carmustine. 'Radiation dose received' was replaced with 'radiation dose assigned.' The new RPA models were compared with the original model by applying them to a test dataset comprising 488 patients from six other RTOG trials. Fitness of the original and new models was evaluated using explained variation. Results: The original RPA model explained more variations in survival in the test dataset than did the new models (20% vs. 15%) and was therefore chosen for further analysis. It was reduced by combining Classes V and VI to produce three prognostic classes (Classes III, IV, and V+VI), as Classes V and VI had indistinguishable survival in the test dataset. The simplified model did not further improve performance (explained variation 18% vs. 20%) but is easier to apply because it involves only four variables: age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. Applying this simplified model to the updated GBM database resulted in three distinct classes with median survival times of 17.1, 11.2, and 7.5 months for Classes III, IV, and V+VI, respectively. Conclusions: The final model, the simplified original RPA model combining Classes V and VI, resulted in three distinct prognostic groups defined by age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. This classification will be used in future RTOG GBM trials.

  15. Patient-Physician Communication About Complementary and Alternative Medicine in a Radiation Oncology Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge Jin; Fishman, Jessica; Annenberg School for Communication at University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Vapiwala, Neha; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Li, Susan Q.; Desai, Krupali; Xie, Sharon X.; Mao, Jun J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the extensive use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among cancer patients, patient-physician communication regarding CAM therapies remains limited. This study quantified the extent of patient-physician communication about CAM and identified factors associated with its discussion in radiation therapy (RT) settings. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 305 RT patients at an urban academic cancer center. Patients with different cancer types were recruited in their last week of RT. Participants self-reported their demographic characteristics, health status, CAM use, patient-physician communication regarding CAM, and rationale for/against discussing CAM therapies with physicians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify relationships between demographic/clinical variables and patients' discussion of CAM with radiation oncologists. Results: Among the 305 participants, 133 (43.6%) reported using CAM, and only 37 (12.1%) reported discussing CAM therapies with their radiation oncologists. In multivariate analyses, female patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.98) and patients with full-time employment (AOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.81) were less likely to discuss CAM with their radiation oncologists. CAM users (AOR 4.28, 95% CI 1.93-9.53) were more likely to discuss CAM with their radiation oncologists than were non-CAM users. Conclusions: Despite the common use of CAM among oncology patients, discussions regarding these treatments occur rarely in the RT setting, particularly among female and full-time employed patients. Clinicians and patients should incorporate discussions of CAM to guide its appropriate use and to maximize possible benefit while minimizing potential harm.

  16. Emergence of Integrated Urology-Radiation Oncology Practices in the State of Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jhaveri, Pavan M. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Section of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Sun Zhuyi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ballas, Leslie [Valley Radiotherapy Associates Medical Group, Manhattan Beach, California (United States)] [Valley Radiotherapy Associates Medical Group, Manhattan Beach, California (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang Jing [Division of Quantitative Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Division of Quantitative Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: BSmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Integrated urology-radiation oncology (RO) practices have been advocated as a means to improve community-based prostate cancer care by joining urologic and radiation care in a single-practice environment. However, little is known regarding the scope and actual physical integration of such practices. We sought to characterize the emergence of such practices in Texas, their extent of physical integration, and their potential effect on patient travel times for radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A telephone survey identified integrated urology-RO practices, defined as practices owned by urologists that offer RO services. Geographic information software was used to determine the proximity of integrated urology-RO clinic sites with respect to the state's population. We calculated patient travel time and distance from each integrated urology-RO clinic offering urologic services to the RO treatment facility owned by the integrated practice and to the nearest nonintegrated (independent) RO facility. We compared these times and distances using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 229 urology practices identified, 12 (5%) offered integrated RO services, and 182 (28%) of 640 Texas urologists worked in such practices. Approximately 53% of the state population resides within 10 miles of an integrated urology-RO clinic site. Patients with a diagnosis of prostate cancer at an integrated urology-RO clinic site travel a mean of 19.7 miles (26.1 min) from the clinic to reach the RO facility owned by the integrated urology-RO practice vs 5.9 miles (9.2 min) to reach the nearest nonintegrated RO facility (P<.001). Conclusions: Integrated urology-RO practices are common in Texas and are generally clustered in urban areas. In most integrated practices, the urology clinics and the integrated RO facilities are not at the same location, and driving times and distances from the clinic to the integrated RO facility exceed those from the clinic to the nearest nonintegrated RO facility.

  17. Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flippo, Kirk A; Gaillard, Sandrine A; Offermann, D T; Cobble, J A; Schmitt, M J; Gautier, D C; Kwan, T J T; Montgomery, D S; Kluge, Thomas; Bussmann, Micheal; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Gall, B; Geissel, M; Korgan, G; Kovaleski, S; Lockard, T; Malekos, S; Schollmeier, M; Sentoku, Y; Cowan, T E

    2010-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  18. Implementation of Remote 3-Dimensional Image Guided Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James M.; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Parker, William; Breen, Stephen; Yin Fangfang; Cai Jing; Papiez, Lech S.; Li, X. Allen; Bednarz, Greg; Chen Wenzhou; Xiao Ying

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the process and initial experience of remote credentialing of three-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as part of the quality assurance (QA) of submitted data for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials; and to identify major issues resulting from this process and analyze the review results on patient positioning shifts. Methods and Materials: Image guided radiation therapy datasets including in-room positioning CT scans and daily shifts applied were submitted through the Image Guided Therapy QA Center from institutions for the IGRT credentialing process, as required by various RTOG trials. A centralized virtual environment is established at the RTOG Core Laboratory, containing analysis tools and database infrastructure for remote review by the Physics Principal Investigators of each protocol. The appropriateness of IGRT technique and volumetric image registration accuracy were evaluated. Registration accuracy was verified by repeat registration with a third-party registration software system. With the accumulated review results, registration differences between those obtained by the Physics Principal Investigators and from the institutions were analyzed for different imaging sites, shift directions, and imaging modalities. Results: The remote review process was successfully carried out for 87 3D cases (out of 137 total cases, including 2-dimensional and 3D) during 2010. Frequent errors in submitted IGRT data and challenges in the review of image registration for some special cases were identified. Workarounds for these issues were developed. The average differences of registration results between reviewers and institutions ranged between 2 mm and 3 mm. Large discrepancies in the superior-inferior direction were found for megavoltage CT cases, owing to low spatial resolution in this direction for most megavoltage CT cases. Conclusion: This first experience indicated that remote review for 3D IGRT as part of QA for RTOG clinical trials is feasible and effective. The magnitude of registration discrepancy between institution and reviewer was presented, and the major issues were investigated to further improve this remote evaluation process.

  19. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.; Filippi, Andrea R.; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A.; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  20. Workflow Enhancement (WE) Improves Safety in Radiation Oncology: Putting the WE and Team Together

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Samuel T.; Meier, Tim; Hugebeck, Brian; Reddy, Chandana A.; Godley, Andrew; Kolar, Matt; Suh, John H.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To review the impact of a workflow enhancement (WE) team in reducing treatment errors that reach patients within radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: It was determined that flaws in our workflow and processes resulted in errors reaching the patient. The process improvement team (PIT) was developed in 2010 to reduce errors and was later modified in 2012 into the current WE team. Workflow issues and solutions were discussed in PIT and WE team meetings. Due to tensions within PIT that resulted in employee dissatisfaction, there was a 6-month hiatus between the end of PIT and initiation of the renamed/redesigned WE team. In addition to the PIT/WE team forms, the department had separate incident forms to document treatment errors reaching the patient. These incident forms are rapidly reviewed and monitored by our departmental and institutional quality and safety groups, reflecting how seriously these forms are treated. The number of these incident forms was compared before and after instituting the WE team. Results: When PIT was disbanded, a number of errors seemed to occur in succession, requiring reinstitution and redesign of this team, rebranded the WE team. Interestingly, the number of incident forms per patient visits did not change when comparing 6 months during the PIT, 6 months during the hiatus, and the first 6 months after instituting the WE team (P=.85). However, 6 to 12 months after instituting the WE team, the number of incident forms per patient visits decreased (P=.028). After the WE team, employee satisfaction and commitment to quality increased as demonstrated by Gallup surveys, suggesting a correlation to the WE team. Conclusions: A team focused on addressing workflow and improving processes can reduce the number of errors reaching the patient. Time is necessary before a reduction in errors reaching patients will be seen.

  1. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Translational Research Program Stem Cell Symposium: Incorporating Stem Cell Hypotheses into Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, Wendy A. Bristow, Robert G.; Clarke, Michael F.; Coppes, Robert P.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Duda, Dan G.; Fike, John R.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Hill, Richard P.; Jordan, Craig T.; Milas, Luka; Pajonk, Frank; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Chen Yuhchyau

    2009-08-01

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease sites. This report summarizes the major topics discussed and the future directions that research should take. Major conclusions of the symposium were that the flow cytometry of multiple markers in fresh tissue would remain the standard technique of evaluating cancer-initiating cells and that surrogates need to be developed for both experimental and clinical use.

  2. SU-F-18C-06: Prospective Patient Evaluation of Iterative Reconstruction in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, R; Vance, S; Cattaneo, R; Schultz, L; Elshaikh, M; Chetty, I; Glide-Hurst, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work incorporates iterative reconstruction (IR) into a dose reduction study to characterize image quality metrics, delineation, and dosimetric assessment, with the goal of reducing imaging dose in Radiation Oncology. Methods: Three-dimensional noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis characterized noise magnitude/texture (120 kVp, 50–200 mAs, IR levels 1–6 yielding noise reduction of 0.89–0.55 compared to filtered backprojection (FBP)). Task-specific Modulation Transfer Functions (MTFtask) were characterized across varied subject contrasts. A prospective dose reduction study (500 to 150 mAs) was conducted for 12 patients (43 inter-fraction CTs) for high-dose rate brachytherapy. Three physicians performed qualitative image assessment between full-dose FBP (FD-FBP, 500 mAs), low-dose FBP (LD-FBP, 150–250 mAs), and low-dose IRL5-6 (LD-IR) scans for image noise, cuff/bladder interface detectability, spatial resolution, texture, and segmentation confidence. Comparisons between LD-FBP and LD-IR were conducted for the following metrics: delineation (bladder and rectum evaluated via overlap indices (OI) and Dice similarity coefficients (DSC)), noise, boundary changes, dose calculation, and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Results: NPS showed ?50% reduction in noise magnitude and ?0.1 1/mm spatial frequency shift with IRL6. The largest MTFtask decrease between FBP and IR was 0.08 A.U. Qualitative patient image evaluation revealed LD-IR was equivalent or slightly worse than FD-FBP, and superior to LD-FBP for all metrics except low contrast interface and texture. The largest CT number discrepancy from FBP occurred at a bone/tissue interface using IRL6 (?1.2 ± 4.9 HU (range: ?17.6 – 12.5 HU)). No significant contour differences (OIs and DSCs = 0.85 – 0.95) and dose calculation discrepancy (<0.02%) were observed. DRRs preserved anatomical detail and demonstrated <2% difference in intensity between LD-FBP and LD-IRL6. Conclusion: While phantom analysis showed slight noise texture differences with IR, patient results revealed that image quality, contouring ability, and dosimetric parameters were not adversely affected, thus support integrating IR into treatment planning. Research supported in part by a grant from Philips HealthCare.

  3. Internet-Based Survey Evaluating Use of Pain Medications and Attitudes of Radiation Oncology Patients Toward Pain Intervention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simone, Charles B. Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lung (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.

  4. SU-E-E-03: Developing Solutions to Critical Radiation Oncology Challenges in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenton, O; Dachi, J; Metz, J; Avery, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Develop solutions to critical medical physics challenges in Tanzania. Methods: In September of 2013 we began working with Jumaa Bin Dachi, a Therapy Physicist at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We developed a bi-lateral learning partnership over the course of eight qualitative Skype meetings with Jumaa. From these meetings we have ascertained that there is a gap between the installation of new equipment and treating patients. This gap has often been overlooked by international partners attempting to improve radiation therapy access. Relationships with academic institutions abroad can fill these gaps, and lead to sustained care of patients needing radiation. Results: Our efforts are best given in a supporting role to help develop solutions and new technology that can reduce the burden on the Medical Physicist. Solutions may include: training material, support for radiation therapy classes, development of appropriate local protocols, and peer-review on documents being produced. New technology needs to focus around simple and easy field shaping, improved patient imaging systems, and systems for patient set-up. We believe our work can help alleviate some of the burdens faced by this institute. Conclusion: While we are just in the beginning stage of this partnership, we believe there is great potential for success between both parties. We hope that the Ocean Road Cancer Institute will benefit from potential funding and resources by partnering with a High Income Country to develop affordable solutions to clinical problems in Tanzania.

  5. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Aleman, Berthe; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Dharmarajan, Kavita; Ng, Andrea; Ricardi, Umberto; Wirth, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  6. The Impact of New Technologies on Radiation Oncology Events and Trends in the Past Decade: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Pastrana, Gerri; Amols, Howard I.; Killen, Aileen; Alektiar, Kaled

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To review the type and frequency of patient events from external-beam radiotherapy over a time period sufficiently long to encompass significant technology changes. Methods and Materials: Ten years of quality assurance records from January 2001 through December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the frequency of events affecting patient treatment from four radiation oncology process steps: simulation, treatment planning, data entry/transfer, and treatment delivery. Patient events were obtained from manual records and, from May 2007 onward, from an institution-wide database and reporting system. Events were classified according to process step of origination and segregated according to the most frequently observed event types. Events from the institution-wide database were evaluated to determine time trends. Results: The overall event rate was 0.93% per course of treatment, with a downward trend over time led by a decrease in treatment delivery events. The frequency of certain event types, particularly in planning and treatment delivery, changed significantly over the course of the study, reflecting technologic and process changes. Treatments involving some form of manual intervention carried an event risk four times higher than those relying heavily on computer-aided design and delivery. Conclusions: Although the overall event rate was low, areas for improvement were identified, including manual calculations and data entry, late-day treatments, and staff overreliance on computer systems. Reducing the incidence of pretreatment events is of particular importance because these were more likely to occur several times before detection and were associated with larger dosimetric impact. Further improvements in quality assurance systems and reporting are imperative, given the advent of electronic charting, increasing reliance on computer systems, and the potentially severe consequences that can arise from mistakes involving complex intensity-modulated or image-guided treatments.

  7. SU-E-T-544: A Radiation Oncology-Specific Multi-Institutional Federated Database: Initial Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, K; Phillips, M; Fishburn, M; Evans, K; Banerian, S; Mayr, N; Wong, J; McNutt, T; Moore, J; Robertson, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a common database structure and user-friendly web-browser based data collection tools across several medical institutions to better support evidence-based clinical decision making and comparative effectiveness research through shared outcomes data. Methods: A consortium of four academic medical centers agreed to implement a federated database, known as Oncospace. Initial implementation has addressed issues of differences between institutions in workflow and types and breadth of structured information captured. This requires coordination of data collection from departmental oncology information systems (OIS), treatment planning systems, and hospital electronic medical records in order to include as much as possible the multi-disciplinary clinical data associated with a patients care. Results: The original database schema was well-designed and required only minor changes to meet institution-specific data requirements. Mobile browser interfaces for data entry and review for both the OIS and the Oncospace database were tailored for the workflow of individual institutions. Federation of database queries--the ultimate goal of the project--was tested using artificial patient data. The tests serve as proof-of-principle that the system as a whole--from data collection and entry to providing responses to research queries of the federated database--was viable. The resolution of inter-institutional use of patient data for research is still not completed. Conclusions: The migration from unstructured data mainly in the form of notes and documents to searchable, structured data is difficult. Making the transition requires cooperation of many groups within the department and can be greatly facilitated by using the structured data to improve clinical processes and workflow. The original database schema design is critical to providing enough flexibility for multi-institutional use to improve each institution s ability to study outcomes, determine best practices, and support research. The project has demonstrated the feasibility of deploying a federated database environment for research purposes to multiple institutions.

  8. Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Paulus, Rebecca; Ettinger, David S.; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.; Choy, Hak

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538/Cancer and Leukemia Group B 30610).

  9. Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

  10. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Theodore S.; Bosch, Walter R.; Krishnan, Sunil; Kim, Tae K.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Seong, Jinsil; Haddock, Michael G.; Cheng, Jason C.; Feng, Mary U.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Roberge, David; and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment planning, especially if differential dosing is contemplated. Guidelines for HCC GTV contouring are recommended.

  11. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Schell, Michael C.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Komaki, Ritsuko; Souhami, Luis; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Khuntia, Deepak; Demas, William; Shah, Sunjay A.; Nedzi, Lucien A.; Perry, Gad; Suh, John H.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  12. SU-E-T-570: Management of Radiation Oncology Patients with Cochlear Implant and Other Bionic Devices in the Brain and Head and Neck Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, F.Q; Chen, Z; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the current status of clinical usage of cochlear implant (CI) and other bionic devices (BD) in the brain and head and neck regions (BH and N) and their management in patients during radiotherapy to ensure patient health and safety as well as optimum radiation delivery. Methods: Literature review was performed with both CIs and radiotherapy and their variants as keywords in PubMed, INSPEC and other sources. The focus was on CIs during radiotherapy, but it also included other BDs in BHȦN, such as auditory brainstem implant, bionic retinal implant, and hearing aids, among others. Results: Interactions between CIs and radiation may cause CIs malfunction. The presence of CIs may also cause suboptimum dose distribution if a treatment plan was not well designed. A few studies were performed for the hearing functions of CIs under irradiations of 4 MV and 6 MV x-rays. However, x-rays with higher energies (10 to 18 MV) broadly used in radiotherapy have not been explored. These higher energetic beams are more damaging to electronics due to strong penetrating power and also due to neutrons generated in the treatment process. Modern CIs are designed with more and more complicated integrated circuits, which may be more susceptible to radiation damage and malfunction. Therefore, careful management is important for safety and treatment outcomes. Conclusion: Although AAPM TG-34, TG-63, and TG-203 (update of TG-34, not published yet) reports may be referenced for management of CIs and other BDs in the brain and H and N regions, a site- and device-specified guideline should be developed for CIs and other BDs. Additional evaluation of CI functions under clinically relevant set-ups should also be performed to provide clinicians with better knowledge in clinical decision making.

  13. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, W.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested.

  14. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kron, Tomas; Willis, David; Link, Emma; Lehman, Margot; Campbell, Gillian; O'Brien, Peter; Chua, Boon

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

  15. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machtay, Mitchell; Movsas, Benjamin; Paulus, Rebecca; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Albain, Kathy; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray's proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control and survival in the setting of chemoradiotherapy.

  16. A Phase I Study of Short-Course Accelerated Whole Brain Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy) Department of Radiation Oncology, The Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary's Health Care, Grand Rapids, Michigan (United States) Department of...

  17. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  18. Surgeons' Knowledge and Practices Regarding the Role of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jessica; Griffith, Kent A.; Hawley, Sarah T.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Janz, Nancy K.; Sabel, Michael S.; Katz, Steven J.; Jagsi, Reshma

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Population-based studies suggest underuse of radiation therapy, especially after mastectomy. Because radiation oncology is a referral-based specialty, knowledge and attitudes of upstream providers, specifically surgeons, may influence patients' decisions regarding radiation, including whether it is even considered. Therefore, we sought to evaluate surgeons' knowledge of pertinent risk information, their patterns of referral, and the correlates of surgeon knowledge and referral in specific breast cancer scenarios. Methods and Materials: We surveyed a national sample of 750 surgeons, with a 67% response rate. We analyzed responses from those who had seen at least 1 breast cancer patient in the past year (n=403), using logistic regression models to identify correlates of knowledge and appropriate referral. Results: Overall, 87% of respondents were general surgeons, and 64% saw >10 breast cancer patients in the previous year. In a scenario involving a 45-year-old undergoing lumpectomy, only 45% correctly estimated the risk of locoregional recurrence without radiation therapy, but 97% would refer to radiation oncology. In a patient with 2 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 30% would neither refer to radiation oncology nor provide accurate information to make radiation decisions. In a patient with 4 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 9% would not refer to radiation oncology. Fewer than half knew that the Oxford meta-analysis revealed a survival benefit from radiation therapy after lumpectomy (45%) or mastectomy (32%). Only 16% passed a 7-item knowledge test; female and more-experienced surgeons were more likely to pass. Factors significantly associated with appropriate referral to radiation oncology included breast cancer volume, tumor board participation, and knowledge. Conclusions: Many surgeons have inadequate knowledge regarding the role of radiation in breast cancer management, especially after mastectomy. Targeted educational interventions may improve the quality of care.

  19. Towards a Science of Tumor Forecast for Clinical Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yankeelov, Tom; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J; Rericha, Erin

    2015-01-01

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community make a concerted effort to apply the methods of weather forecasting to develop an analogous theory for predicting tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of response is not predicted, but rather assessed post hoc by physical exam or imaging methods. This fundamental limitation of clinical oncology makes it extraordinarily difficult to select an optimal treatment regimen for a particular tumor of an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoply of molecularly targeted therapies is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. With a successful theory of tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor specific datasets of varied types, and effectively defeat cancer one patient at a time.

  20. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

    2010-12-07

    A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  1. Characterization of a commercial hybrid iterative and model-based reconstruction algorithm in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Ryan G.; Vance, Sean; Cattaneo, Richard; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Chetty, Indrin J.; Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Schultz, Lonni

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) reduces noise, thereby allowing dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) while maintaining comparable image quality to filtered back-projection (FBP). This study sought to characterize image quality metrics, delineation, dosimetric assessment, and other aspects necessary to integrate IR into treatment planning. Methods: CT images (Brilliance Big Bore v3.6, Philips Healthcare) were acquired of several phantoms using 120 kVp and 25–800 mAs. IR was applied at levels corresponding to noise reduction of 0.89–0.55 with respect to FBP. Noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis was used to characterize noise magnitude and texture. CT to electron density (CT-ED) curves were generated over all IR levels. Uniformity as well as spatial and low contrast resolution were quantified using a CATPHAN phantom. Task specific modulation transfer functions (MTF{sub task}) were developed to characterize spatial frequency across objects of varied contrast. A prospective dose reduction study was conducted for 14 patients undergoing interfraction CT scans for high-dose rate brachytherapy. Three physicians performed image quality assessment using a six-point grading scale between the normal-dose FBP (reference), low-dose FBP, and low-dose IR scans for the following metrics: image noise, detectability of the vaginal cuff/bladder interface, spatial resolution, texture, segmentation confidence, and overall image quality. Contouring differences between FBP and IR were quantified for the bladder and rectum via overlap indices (OI) and Dice similarity coefficients (DSC). Line profile and region of interest analyses quantified noise and boundary changes. For two subjects, the impact of IR on external beam dose calculation was assessed via gamma analysis and changes in digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were quantified. Results: NPS showed large reduction in noise magnitude (50%), and a slight spatial frequency shift (?0.1 mm{sup ?1}) with application of IR at L6. No appreciable changes were observed for CT-ED curves between FBP and IR levels [maximum difference ?13 HU for bone (?1% difference)]. For uniformity, differences were ?1 HU between FBP and IR. Spatial resolution was well conserved; the largest MTF{sub task} decrease between FBP and IR levels was 0.08 A.U. No notable changes in low-contrast detectability were observed and CNR increased substantially with IR. For the patient study, qualitative image grading showed low-dose IR was equivalent to or slightly worse than normal dose FBP, and is superior to low-dose FBP (p < 0.001 for noise), although these did not translate to differences in CT number, contouring ability, or dose calculation. The largest CT number discrepancy from FBP occurred at a bone/tissue interface using the most aggressive IR level [?1.2 ± 4.9 HU (range: ?17.6–12.5 HU)]. No clinically significant contour differences were found between IR and FBP, with OIs and DSCs ranging from 0.85 to 0.95. Negligible changes in dose calculation were observed. DRRs preserved anatomical detail with <2% difference in intensity from FBP combined with aggressive IRL6. Conclusions: These results support integrating IR into treatment planning. While slight degradation in edges and shift in texture were observed in phantom, patient results show qualitative image grading, contouring ability, and dosimetric parameters were not adversely affected.

  2. Beta Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

  3. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5. Instruments cannot detect alpha radiation through even a thin layer of water, blood, dust, paper, or other material, because alpha radiation is not penetrating. 6. Alpha...

  4. Measured dose rate constant from oncology patients administered 18F for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Brian; Holahan, Brian; Aime, Jean; Humm, John; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Patient exposure rate measurements verify published patient dose rate data and characterize dose rates near 2-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) patients. A specific dose rate constant based on patient exposure rate measurements is a convenient quantity that can be applied to the desired distance, injection activity, and time postinjection to obtain an accurate calculation of cumulative external radiation dose. This study reports exposure rates measured at various locations near positron emission tomography (PET) {sup 18}F-FDG patients prior to PET scanning. These measurements are normalized for the amount of administered activity, measurement distance, and time postinjection and are compared with other published data. Methods: Exposure rates were measured using a calibrated ionization chamber at various body locations from 152 adult oncology patients postvoid after a mean uptake time of 76 min following injection with a mean activity of 490 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG. Data were obtained at nine measurement locations for each patient: three near the head, four near the chest, and two near the feet. Results: On contact with, 30 cm superior to and 30 cm lateral to the head, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.482 (0.511), 0.135 (0.155), and 0.193 (0.223) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. On contact with, 30 cm anterior to, 30 cm lateral to and 1 m anterior to the chest, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.623 (0.709), 0.254 (0.283), 0.190 (0.218), and 0.067 (0.081) {mu}Sv/MBq h respectively. 30 cm inferior and 30 cm lateral to the feet, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.024 (0.022) and 0.039 (0.044) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. Conclusions: The measurements for this study support the use of 0.092 {mu}Sv m{sup 2}/MBq h as a reasonable representation of the dose rate anterior from the chest of patients immediately following injection. This value can then be reliably scaled to the desired time and distance for planning and staff dose evaluation purposes. At distances closer than 1 m, a distance-specific dose rate constant of 0.367 {mu}Sv/MBq h at 30 cm is recommended for accurate calculations. An accurate patient-specific dose rate constant that accounts for patient-specific variables (e.g., distribution and attenuation) will allow an accurate evaluation of the dose rate from a patient injected with an isotope rather than simply utilizing a physical constant.

  5. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  6. Regulatory aspects of oncology drug safety evaluation: Past practice, current issues, and the challenge of new drugs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeldt, Hans; Kropp, Timothy; Benson, Kimberly; Ricci, M. Stacey; McGuinn, W. David; Verbois, S. Leigh

    2010-03-01

    The drug development of new anti-cancer agents is streamlined in response to the urgency of bringing effective drugs to market for patients with limited life expectancy. FDA's regulation of oncology drugs has evolved from the practices set forth in Arnold Lehman's seminal work published in the 1950s through the current drafting of a new International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) safety guidance for anti-cancer drug nonclinical evaluations. The ICH combines the efforts of the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan, and the United States and the pharmaceutical industry from these three regions to streamline the scientific and technical aspects of drug development. The recent development of new oncology drug classes with novel mechanisms of action has improved survival rates for some cancers but also brings new challenges for safety evaluation. Here we present the legacy of Lehman and colleagues in the context of past and present oncology drug development practices and focus on some of the current issues at the center of an evolving harmonization process that will generate a new safety guidance for oncology drugs, ICH S9. The purpose of this new guidance will be to facilitate oncology drug development on a global scale by standardizing regional safety requirements.

  7. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping

  8. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  9. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  10. Definition of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Radiation research technician Radiation is used in research. Basics of Radiation Radiation is energy that comes from a source and travels through some material or through space. Light, heat and sound are types of radiation. The kind of radiation

  11. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  12. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  13. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hand. Basically, you are not permitted to set up camp at CAMD. Theoretically, radiation falls off as 1r2 or one over the distance squared. In practice this relationship appears...

  14. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  15. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  16. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  17. Phase I Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Dose Escalation Study in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 98-03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsien, Christina Moughan, Jennifer; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Purdy, James; Simpson, Joseph; Kresel, John J.; Curran, Walter J.; Diaz, Aidnag; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a Phase I trial the feasibility and toxicity of dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with primary supratentorial glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 209 patients were enrolled. All received 46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions to the first planning target volume (PTV{sub 1}), defined as the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus 1.8 cm. A subsequent boost was given to PTV{sub 2}, defined as GTV plus 0.3 cm. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group 1: PTV{sub 2} <75 cm{sup 3}; Group 2: PTV{sub 2} {>=}75 cm{sup 3}). Four RT dose levels were evaluated: 66, 72, 78, and 84 Gy. Carmustine 80 mg/m{sup 2} was given during RT, then every 8 weeks for 6 cycles. Pretreatment characteristics were well balanced. Results: Acute and late Grade 3/4 RT-related toxicities were no more frequent at higher RT dose or with larger tumors. There were no dose-limiting toxicities (acute Grade {>=}3 irreversible central nervous system toxicities) observed on any dose level in either group. On the basis of the absence of dose-limiting toxicities, dose was escalated to 84 Gy in both groups. Late RT necrosis was noted at 66 Gy (1 patient), 72 Gy (2 patients), 78 Gy (2 patients), and 84 Gy (3 patients) in Group 1. In Group 2, late RT necrosis was noted at 78 Gy (1 patient) and 84 Gy (2 patients). Median time to RT necrosis was 8.8 months (range, 5.1-12.5 months). Median survival in Group 1 was 11.6-19.3 months. Median survival in Group 2 was 8.2-13.9 months. Conclusions: Our study shows the feasibility of delivering higher than standard (60 Gy) RT dose with concurrent chemotherapy for primary GBM, with an acceptable risk of late central nervous system toxicity.

  18. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  19. ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific ...

  20. Lesson 4- Ionizing Radiation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure.

  1. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  2. How Radiation Oncologists Would Disclose Errors: Results of a Survey of Radiation Oncologists and Trainees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Suzanne B.; Yu, James B.; Chagpar, Anees

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze error disclosure attitudes of radiation oncologists and to correlate error disclosure beliefs with survey-assessed disclosure behavior. Methods and Materials: With institutional review board exemption, an anonymous online survey was devised. An email invitation was sent to radiation oncologists (American Society for Radiation Oncology [ASTRO] gold medal winners, program directors and chair persons of academic institutions, and former ASTRO lecturers) and residents. A disclosure score was calculated based on the number or full, partial, or no disclosure responses chosen to the vignette-based questions, and correlation was attempted with attitudes toward error disclosure. Results: The survey received 176 responses: 94.8% of respondents considered themselves more likely to disclose in the setting of a serious medical error; 72.7% of respondents did not feel it mattered who was responsible for the error in deciding to disclose, and 3.9% felt more likely to disclose if someone else was responsible; 38.0% of respondents felt that disclosure increased the likelihood of a lawsuit, and 32.4% felt disclosure decreased the likelihood of lawsuit; 71.6% of respondents felt near misses should not be disclosed; 51.7% thought that minor errors should not be disclosed; 64.7% viewed disclosure as an opportunity for forgiveness from the patient; and 44.6% considered the patient's level of confidence in them to be a factor in disclosure. For a scenario that could be considerable, a non-harmful error, 78.9% of respondents would not contact the family. Respondents with high disclosure scores were more likely to feel that disclosure was an opportunity for forgiveness (P=.003) and to have never seen major medical errors (P=.004). Conclusions: The surveyed radiation oncologists chose to respond with full disclosure at a high rate, although ideal disclosure practices were not uniformly adhered to beyond the initial decision to disclose the occurrence of the error.

  3. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  4. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  5. Gamma Radiation & X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

  6. Radiation.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation is a natural part of our everyday environment. Cosmic rays showering the Earth through the atmosphere and radon gas seeping up from the soil are only two examples of natural radiation. Radiation Basics The study of radiation begins with the atom. Tremendous amounts of energy are stored in an atom's nucleus. When atoms are split, heat and radiation are produced. The heat can be used to turn water into steam and produce electricity. The radiation produced from splitting an atom's

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING WARNING Today is April 1 But that ...

  8. Prospective Study of Local Control and Late Radiation Toxicity After Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, David W.; Marvelde, Luc te; Chua, Boon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the local recurrence rate and late toxicity of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) boost to the tumor bed using the Intrabeam System followed by external-beam whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in women with early-stage breast cancer in a prospective single-institution study. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer ?3 cm were recruited between February 2003 and May 2005. After breast-conserving surgery, a single dose of 5 Gy IORT boost was delivered using 50-kV x-rays to a depth of 10 mm from the applicator surface. This was followed by WBI to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients were reviewed at regular, predefined intervals. Late toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring systems. Results: Fifty-five patients completed both IORT boost and external-beam WBI. Median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 1.4-4.1 years). There was no reported locoregional recurrence or death. One patient developed distant metastases. Grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 29 (53%) and 8 patients (15%), respectively. Conclusions: The use of IORT as a tumor bed boost using kV x-rays in breast-conserving therapy was associated with good local control but a clinically significant rate of grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis.

  9. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation exposure Regardless of where or how an accident involving radiation happens, three types of radiation-induced injury can occur: external irradiation, contamination with radioactive materials, and incorporation of radioactive material into body cells, tissues, or organs. External Irradiation External irradiation occurs when

  10. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Protection and Safety Training (3 hrs) Instructors: John Seaman and Neil Miller Course Description: The objective of this course is to provide students with an...

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    campaign is sponsored by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the largest global change research program within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. ...

  12. Radiation Safety Poster | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster

  13. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  14. CASL - Radiation Transport Methods Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Transport Methods Update The Radiation Transport Methods (RTM) focus area is responsible for the development of methods, algorithms, and implementations of radiation...

  15. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  16. radiation.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total

  17. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco

  18. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  19. TU-C-BRE-11: 3D EPID-Based in Vivo Dosimetry: A Major Step Forward Towards Optimal Quality and Safety in Radiation Oncology Practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mijnheer, B; Mans, A; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Spreeuw, H; Herk, M van

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a 3D in vivo dosimetry method that is able to substitute pre-treatment verification in an efficient way, and to terminate treatment delivery if the online measured 3D dose distribution deviates too much from the predicted dose distribution. Methods: A back-projection algorithm has been further developed and implemented to enable automatic 3D in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments using a-Si EPIDs. New software tools were clinically introduced to allow automated image acquisition, to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database, and to automatically run the EPID dosimetry software. The comparison of the EPID-reconstructed and planned dose distribution is done offline to raise automatically alerts and to schedule actions when deviations are detected. Furthermore, a software package for online dose reconstruction was also developed. The RMS of the difference between the cumulative planned and reconstructed 3D dose distributions was used for triggering a halt of a linac. Results: The implementation of fully automated 3D EPID-based in vivo dosimetry was able to replace pre-treatment verification for more than 90% of the patient treatments. The process has been fully automated and integrated in our clinical workflow where over 3,500 IMRT/VMAT treatments are verified each year. By optimizing the dose reconstruction algorithm and the I/O performance, the delivered 3D dose distribution is verified in less than 200 ms per portal image, which includes the comparison between the reconstructed and planned dose distribution. In this way it was possible to generate a trigger that can stop the irradiation at less than 20 cGy after introducing large delivery errors. Conclusion: The automatic offline solution facilitated the large scale clinical implementation of 3D EPID-based in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments; the online approach has been successfully tested for various severe delivery errors.

  20. Tobacco Smoking During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Is Associated With Unfavorable Outcome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Chen, Leon M.; Vaughan, Andrew; Sreeraman, Radhika; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters. Methods and Materials: A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.

  1. ORISE Video: What is the difference between radiation exposure and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation contamination?

  2. ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for

  3. radiation.p65

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small

  4. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  5. Designation of Environmental Management Federal Project Director...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Management Federal Project Director for Separations Process Research Unit by feinberg DesignationofEMFedProjDir-SeparationsProcessResearchUnit-FeinbergEM.pdf -- PDF...

  6. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  7. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  8. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  9. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  10. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Following In-Field...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ... of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ...

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... ; Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou ... ; Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou ...

  12. Long-Term Outcomes of Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Su Shengfa 1 ; Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen ... 1 ; Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou ...

  13. Results of a Phase 2 Study Examining the Effects of Omitting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, ... China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, ...

  14. Reverse-Contrast Imaging and Targeted Radiation Therapy of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Kramer, Robin M.; Chen, Qing; Jeong, Jeho; Lupu, Mihaela E.; Lee, Alycia M.; Moynahan, Mary E.; Lowery, Maeve; Ulmert, David; Zanzonico, Pat; Deasy, Joseph O.; Humm, John L.; Russell, James

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of delivering experimental radiation therapy to tumors in the mouse pancreas. Imaging and treatment were performed using combined CT (computed tomography)/orthovoltage treatment with a rotating gantry. Methods and Materials: After intraperitoneal administration of radiopaque iodinated contrast, abdominal organ delineation was performed by x-ray CT. With this technique we delineated the pancreas and both orthotopic xenografts and genetically engineered disease. Computed tomographic imaging was validated by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Therapeutic radiation was delivered via a 1-cm diameter field. Selective x-ray radiation therapy of the noninvasively defined orthotopic mass was confirmed using γH2AX staining. Mice could tolerate a dose of 15 Gy when the field was centered on the pancreas tail, and treatment was delivered as a continuous 360° arc. This strategy was then used for radiation therapy planning for selective delivery of therapeutic x-ray radiation therapy to orthotopic tumors. Results: Tumor growth delay after 15 Gy was monitored, using CT and ultrasound to determine the tumor volume at various times after treatment. Our strategy enables the use of clinical radiation oncology approaches to treat experimental tumors in the pancreas of small animals for the first time. We demonstrate that delivery of 15 Gy from a rotating gantry minimizes background healthy tissue damage and significantly retards tumor growth. Conclusions: This advance permits evaluation of radiation planning and dosing parameters. Accurate noninvasive longitudinal imaging and monitoring of tumor progression and therapeutic response in preclinical models is now possible and can be expected to more effectively evaluate pancreatic cancer disease and therapeutic response.

  15. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  16. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  17. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  18. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  19. Underwater radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

  20. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  1. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  2. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  3. Low Dose Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or

  4. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  5. Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation governing the use of radioactive materials at Ames Laboratory is 10 CFR 835. To implement this...

  6. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  7. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  8. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  9. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  10. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  11. Radiation-induced complications in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azuddin, A. Yusof; Rahman, I. Abdul; Mohamed, F.; Siah, N. J.; Saadc, M.; Ismail, F.

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complications with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters for prostate cancer patients that underwent the conformal radiotherapy treatment. 17 prostate cancer patients that have been treated with conformal radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. The dosimetric data was retrieved in the form of dose-volume histogram (DVH) from Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System. The DVH was utilised to derived Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) in radiobiological data. Follow-up data from medical records were used to grade the occurrence of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring system. The chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complication with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters. 8 (47%) and 7 (41%) patients were having acute GI and GU complications respectively. The acute GI complication can be associated with V60{sub rectum}, rectal mean dose and NTCP{sub rectum} with p-value of 0.016, 0.038 and 0.049 respectively. There are no significant relationships of acute GU complication with dosimetric and radiobiological variables. Further study can be done by increase the sample size and follow up duration for deeper understanding of the factors that effecting the GU and GI complication in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

  12. A Population-Based Study of the Fractionation of Postlumpectomy Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, Allison; Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario ; Kong, Weidong; Whelan, Timothy; Mackillop, William J.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal fractionation schedule of post lumpectomy radiation therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the fractionation of post-lumpectomy radiation therapy (RT) in Ontario, before and after the seminal Ontario Clinical Oncology Group (OCOG) trial, which showed the equivalence of 16- and 25-fraction schedules. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted by linking electronic treatment records to a population-based cancer registry. The study population included all patients who underwent lumpectomy for invasive breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between 1984 and 2008. Results: Over the study period, 41,747 breast cancer patients received post lumpectomy radiation therapy to the breast only. Both 16- and 25-fraction schedules were commonly used throughout the study period. In the early 1980s, shorter fractionation schedules were used in >80% of cases. Between 1985 and 1995, the proportion of patients treated with shorter fractionation decreased to 48%. After completion of the OCOG trial, shorter fractionation schemes were once again widely adopted across Ontario, and are currently used in about 71% of cases; however, large intercenter variations in fractionation persisted. Conclusions: The use of shorter schedules of post lumpectomy RT in Ontario increased after completion of the OCOG trial, but the trial had a less normative effect on practice than expected.

  13. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  14. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  15. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  16. Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection: Annual Occupational Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dosimetry Report Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report Print information on Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report (pdf). This webpage provides information to help you understand the dose quantities being reported to you on your Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report. If you would like general information about radiation exposure, please refer to www.radiationanswers.org. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835),

  17. Safety Around Sources of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The

  18. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A.; Robison, Thomas W.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2002-01-01

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  19. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  20. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  1. Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) is a physical optics computer code for calculation of detailed characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) generated by relativistic electrons in magnetic fields of arbitrary configuration and for simulation of the radiation wavefront propagation through optical systems of beamlines. Frequency-domain near-field methods are used for the SR calculation, and the Fourier-optics based approach is generally used for the wavefront propagation simulation. The code enables both fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation simulations inmore » steady-state and in frequency-/time-dependent regimes. With these features, the code has already proven its utility for a large number of applications in infrared, UV, soft and hard X-ray spectral range, in such important areas as analysis of spectral performances of new synchrotron radiation sources, optimization of user beamlines, development of new optical elements, source and beamline diagnostics, and even complete simulation of SR based experiments. Besides the SR applications, the code can be efficiently used for various simulations involving conventional lasers and other sources. SRW versions interfaced to Python and to IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics), as well as cross-platform library with C API, are available.« less

  2. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  3. Mobile Technology and Social Media in the Clinical Practice of Young Radiation Oncologists: Results of a Comprehensive Nationwide Cross-sectional Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Blanchard, Pierre; Biau, Julian; Cervellera, Mathilde; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean Christophe; and others

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. Methods and Materials: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. Results: In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Conclusions: Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital.

  4. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  5. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  6. Audible radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, Daniel M. C. (11 Russellwood Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  7. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  8. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  9. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  10. Tunable terahertz radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

    2014-01-21

    Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

  11. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  12. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  13. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  14. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  15. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  16. Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course PDF icon Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course More Documents...

  17. Radiation Effects Facility - Facilities - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Effects Facility Typical DUT(device under test) set-up at the end of the Radiation Effects beamline. The Radiation Effects Facility is available for commercial,...

  18. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help tailoring therapies to reduce toxicities among patients treated with RT for HNC.

  19. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levels in Real Time? There's an App for That! Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are expanding their global network of radiation monitoring stations to include up-to-date readings from the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) based out of southern Nevada. The CEMP was established in 1981 to monitor manmade and natural radiation levels surrounding

  20. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    West Antarctic Radiation Experiment of the most advanced atmospheric research instrumentation for cloud, radiative, and aerosol observations. From the fall of 2015 to early 2017, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) will gather data from McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf. Using a portable observatory ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), researchers will be measuring clouds, aerosols, and energy coming from the sun and

  1. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  2. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  3. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  4. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  5. SU-E-P-07: Evaluation of Productivity Systems for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, C; Usynin, A [Thompson Cancer Survival Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Health systems throughout the United States are under increased financial pressure to reduce operating cost. As a result, productivity models developed by third-party consultants are being used to optimize staff to treatment volumes. The purpose of this study was to critically evaluate productivity systems for radiation oncology. Methods: Staffing efficiency was evaluated using multiple productivity models. The first model evaluated staffing levels using equal weighting of procedure codes and hours worked. A second productivity model was developed using hours worked by job class and relative value units for each procedure code. A third model was developed using the measured procedure times extracted from the electronic medical record, which tracks the wait and treatment times for each patient for each treatment fraction. A MatLab program was developed to query and analyze the daily treatment data. A model was then created to determine any theoretical gains in treatment productivity. Results: Productivity was evaluated for six radiation therapy departments operating nine linear accelerators delivering over 40,000 treatment fractions per year. Third party productivity models that do not take into consideration the unique nature of radiation therapy can be counterproductive. For example, other outpatient departments can compress their daily schedule to decrease the worked hours. This approach was tested using the treatment schedule evaluation tool developed as part of this study. It was determined that the maximum possible savings for treatment schedule compression was $32,000 per year per linac. All annual cost savings would be lost if only two patients per year choose to be treated elsewhere because of limited or restricted appointment times. Conclusion: The use of productivity models in radiation therapy can easily result in a loss of treatment revenue that is greater than any potential cost savings in reduced hours worked by staff.

  6. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Mitra, Nandita; Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James; Rengan, Ramesh; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received {>=}50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received {<=}78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving {>=}1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of patients.

  7. Terahertz radiation mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-05-20

    A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

  8. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  9. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  10. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  11. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

    1998-07-28

    A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

  12. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-12-26

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  13. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  14. Multilayer radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Urbahn, John Arthur (Saratoga Springs, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Niskayuna, NY)

    2009-06-16

    A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

  15. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Format for Proposal Extension Request Proposals are eligible for a one-time extension request. Submit extension requests by Email as a Word or PDF attachment to: Michelle Steger (steger@slac.stanford.edu) Proposal Number: Date of Extension Request: Spokesperson: 1. PROGRESS: Provide a progress report describing work accomplished at SSRL on this proposal to date (1-2 pages) 2. NEW ELEMENTS: Describe any new elements that may add interest to extending the

  16. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  17. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

    1994-08-16

    A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

  18. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  19. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, Daniel N. (Sound Beach, NY); Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Spanne, Per O. (Shoreham, NY)

    1994-01-01

    A method of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation, in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study ... for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research ...

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) Biological and ... BER Home About Research Facilities User Facilities Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ...

  2. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  3. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

  4. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  5. Radiation Safety Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Access Procedure: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ONLY! Please complete at least two weeks prior to your arrival at CAMD. Please enter your personal information in the spaces below. After that, complete the Radiation Safety Test. This form can also be picked up and filled out in the CAMD front office, rm. 107 A minimum passing score is 80% (24 out of 30) After completing the test, you will be notified by e-mail or telephone for further instructions. You can prepare for

  6. RADIATION APPLICATIONS INCORPORATED

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . <' ," . . * . RADIATION APPLICATIONS INCORPORATED . 370 Lexl.ngton Avenue New York 17# New York jq.5' L- Contract No. A T (30-l)-2093 with the United States Atom ic Energy Commission F O A M SEPARATION Progress Report for March, 1959 Abstract Appreciable cesium enrichment in the foam has been obtained using the system sodium tetraphenyl boron-Geigy reagent. Enrichment ratios varied from 1.5 to 3.5 depending upon operating conditions. The en- richment appears to depend on the ratio of

  7. Analysis of Contribution from Edge Radiation to Optical Diffraction Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Liu, P. Evtushenko, A. Freyberger, C. Liu, A.H. Lumpkin

    2009-05-01

    Beam size measurement with near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) has been carried out successfully at CEBAF. The ODR station is installed on the Hall-A beam line after eight bending magnets. The ODR images were affected by an unexpected radiation. Some calculations for analyzing the source of the radiation will be presented. Furthermore, two schemes will be proposed to alleviate the contamination.

  8. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard; Williams, Paul T; Phillips, Rick; Erickson, Marjorie A; Kirk, Mark T; Stevens, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

  9. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  10. RTOG 0211: A Phase 1/2 Study of Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Gefitinib for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Lautenschlaeger, Tim; Curran, Walter J.; Brachman, David G.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Choucair, Ali; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Christiansen, Jason; Gustavson, Mark; Molinaro, Annette; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California ; Mischel, Paul; Dicker, Adam P.; and others

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety and efficacy of gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with radiation for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Methods and Materials: Between March 21, 2002, and May 3, 2004, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0211 enrolled 31 and 147 GBM patients in the phase 1 and 2 arms, respectively. Treatment consisted of daily oral gefinitnib started at the time of conventional cranial radiation therapy (RT) and continued post RT for 18 months or until progression. Tissue microarrays from 68 cases were analyzed for EGFR expression. Results: The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of gefitinib was determined to be 500 mg in patients on non-enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (non-EIAEDs). All patients in the phase 2 component were treated at a gefitinib dose of 500 mg; patients receiving EIADSs could be escalated to 750 mg. The most common side effects of gefitinib in combination with radiation were dermatologic and gastrointestinal. Median survival was 11.5 months for patients treated per protocol. There was no overall survival benefit for patients treated with gefitinib + RT when compared with a historical cohort of patients treated with RT alone, matched by RTOG recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class distribution. Younger age was significantly associated with better outcome. Per protocol stratification, EGFR expression was not found to be of prognostic value for gefitinib + RT-treated patients. Conclusions: The addition of gefitinib to RT is well tolerated. Median survival of RTOG 0211 patients treated with RT with concurrent and adjuvant gefitinib was similar to that in a historical control cohort treated with radiation alone.

  11. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer

  12. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Atmospheric State, Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  13. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Damage/Materials Modification High-energy ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade their physical properties to the point of failure. For example, alpha-decay in nuclear fuels results in dislocation damage to and accumulation of helium and fission gasses in the material. Similarly, neutrons interacting with non-nuclear components can displace atoms

  14. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer

  15. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  16. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder; Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  17. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM); Looney, Larry D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  18. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers...

  19. ARM - Measurement - Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is...

  20. Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835) and enforced under the Price Anderson Amendments Act. We have over 250 knowledgeable professionals, who provide a full...

  1. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority estimates that 15 to 30 percent of the heat is wasted by overheating of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a ...

  2. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  3. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huddart, Robert A.; Hall, Emma; Hussain, Syed A.; Jenkins, Peter; Rawlings, Christine; Tremlett, Jean; Crundwell, Malcolm; Adab, Fawzi A.; Sheehan, Denise; Syndikus, Isabel; Hendron, Carey; Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel; James, Nicholas D.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 × 2 factorial design. The primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT ? sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval ?7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (?12.8%, 14.6%) in the “per-protocol” population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  4. NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photographs Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface meteorology data. Learn more about this equipment by exploring the photographs below. Click on a thumbnail to view the full image. Photo of researcher working on an instrument platform in front of the SRRL building. The SRRL is located on South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado, at 39.74° N, 105.18° W,

  5. WE-B-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Planning II: Cloud Computing in RT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K; Kagadis, G; Xing, L; McNutt, T

    2014-06-15

    As defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, cloud computing is “a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.” Despite the omnipresent role of computers in radiotherapy, cloud computing has yet to achieve widespread adoption in clinical or research applications, though the transition to such “on-demand” access is underway. As this transition proceeds, new opportunities for aggregate studies and efficient use of computational resources are set against new challenges in patient privacy protection, data integrity, and management of clinical informatics systems. In this Session, current and future applications of cloud computing and distributed computational resources will be discussed in the context of medical imaging, radiotherapy research, and clinical radiation oncology applications. Learning Objectives: Understand basic concepts of cloud computing. Understand how cloud computing could be used for medical imaging applications. Understand how cloud computing could be employed for radiotherapy research.4. Understand how clinical radiotherapy software applications would function in the cloud.

  6. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedel, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Wintenberg, Alan L. (Knoxville, TN); Clonts, Lloyd G. (Knoxville, TN); Cooper, Ronald G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  7. Radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

  8. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  9. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilson, Verle A. (Livermore, CA); Schriever, Richard L. (Livermore, CA); Shearer, James W. (Livermore, CA)

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  11. Code of Federal Regulations OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

  12. Radiation-thermoacoustic microscopy of condensed media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyamshev, L.M.; Chelnokov, B.I.

    1984-07-01

    Possibilities are discussed for the application of scanning radiation-thermoacoustic microscopy, using different types of radiation, for microstructure analysis. (AIP)

  13. Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

  14. DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http:energy.govehssoccupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii MATTHEW B....

  15. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Apparatus, systems, and methods for...

  16. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting You are accessing a document from...

  17. ORISE: Radiation and Radioactive Contamination FAQ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    does radiation come from? A: Radiation comes from many sources, some natural and some man-made. Naturally occurring radioactive materials, such as uranium, thorium and radon are...

  18. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

  19. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Medicine - Continuing Medical Education...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and hands-on practical exercises. The course begins with a discussion of the fundamentals of radiation physics, radiation detectionmeasurementidentification, prevention of...

  20. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  1. 10 CFR 835- Occupational Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

  2. ORISE Resources: Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Health Planners A newly released guide from the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for...

  3. Endoscopic Radiation Revolutionizes Cancer Treatment - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Endoscopic Radiation Revolutionizes Cancer Treatment Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology

    Conventional X-ray radiation and electron beam therapy: a...

  4. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Other Related Sites DOE - Main Home Page - the home page for ...

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    employees during 1985. May 19, 2006 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor...

  6. Safety - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron Institute / Texas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of administrative and engineered controls are incorporated into the design of the Radiation Effects Facility. Radiation levels in the surrounding areas were measured while each...

  7. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Preparedeness Conference | How ORISE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Emergency Preparedness Conference White House thanks ORISE for assisting CDC in hosting radiation emergency preparedness conference How ORISE is Making a Difference The...

  8. Oak Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS), ORAU Director Oak Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency...

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... DOESC-ARM-16-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-12-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... DOESC-ARM-11-008 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility ...

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... DOESC-ARM-10-029 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility ...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ... Fiscal Year 2004 Budget Summary and User Statistics Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ...

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... DOESC-ARM-11-002 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility ...

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-15-069 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-11-022 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... DOESC-ARM-11-019 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility ...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-12-007 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  19. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  20. Multiple-mode radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claus, Liam D.; Derzon, Mark S.; Kay, Randolph R.; Bauer, Todd; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Henry, Michael David

    2015-08-25

    An apparatus for detecting radiation is provided. In embodiments, at least one sensor medium is provided, of a kind that interacts with radiation to generate photons and/or charge carriers. The apparatus also includes at least one electrode arrangement configured to collect radiation-generated charge from a sensor medium that has been provided. The apparatus also includes at least one photodetector configured to produce an electrical output in response to photons generated by radiation in such a sensor medium, and an electronic circuit configured to produce an output that is jointly responsive to the collected charge and to the photodetector output. At least one such electrode arrangement, at least one such photodetector, and at least one such sensor medium are combined to form an integral unit.

  1. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levels in Real Time? There's an App for That Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the ...

  2. Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation: An Evaluation of the State of the Field in 2002 A BioSync Report. Issued by the Structural Biology Synchrotron users Organization, October, 2002. 2 Table of Contents: Introduction .................................................................................................... 3 Abbreviations .................................................................................................. 5 Executive Summary

  3. CRAD, NNSA- Radiation Protection (RP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CRAD for Radiation Protection (RP). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to conduct a well-organized and thorough assessment of elements of safety and health programs.

  4. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  5. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, James (Albuquerque, NM); Buden, David (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Kenneth (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  6. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detector’s coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  7. Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    overview Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility was established in 1990 to improve global climate models by increasing understanding of clouds and radiative feedbacks. Through the ARM Facility, DOE funded the development of highly instrumented research sites at strategic locations around the world: the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA).

  8. Guidance for Radiation Accident Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procedure Demonstration Introduction Radioactive materials are among the many kinds of hazardous substances emergency responders might have to deal with in an accident. It is prudent that they know their role in responding to a radiation accident should one occur in their communities. The information provided here addresses not only basic explanations and definitions related to radiation but also offers guidance to those responding both at the scene of an accident (prehospital) and at the

  9. Simplified field-in-field technique for a large-scale implementation in breast radiation treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier-Bidoz, Nathalie; Kirova, Youlia M.; Campana, Francois; Dendale, Remi; Fourquet, Alain

    2012-07-01

    We wanted to evaluate a simplified 'field-in-field' technique (SFF) that was implemented in our department of Radiation Oncology for breast treatment. This study evaluated 15 consecutive patients treated with a simplified field in field technique after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer. Radiotherapy consisted of whole-breast irradiation to the total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions, and a boost of 16 Gy in 8 fractions to the tumor bed. We compared dosimetric outcomes of SFF to state-of-the-art electronic surface compensation (ESC) with dynamic leaves. An analysis of early skin toxicity of a population of 15 patients was performed. The median volume receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose was 763 mL (range, 347-1472) for SFF vs. 779 mL (range, 349-1494) for ESC. The median residual 107% isodose was 0.1 mL (range, 0-63) for SFF and 1.9 mL (range, 0-57) for ESC. Monitor units were on average 25% higher in ESC plans compared with SFF. No patient treated with SFF had acute side effects superior to grade 1-NCI scale. SFF created homogenous 3D dose distributions equivalent to electronic surface compensation with dynamic leaves. It allowed the integration of a forward planned concomitant tumor bed boost as an additional multileaf collimator subfield of the tangential fields. Compared with electronic surface compensation with dynamic leaves, shorter treatment times allowed better radiation protection to the patient. Low-grade acute toxicity evaluated weekly during treatment and 2 months after treatment completion justified the pursuit of this technique for all breast patients in our department.

  10. Valproic Acid Use During Radiation Therapy for Glioblastoma Associated With Improved Survival

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Christopher A.; Bishop, Andrew J.; Chang, Maria; Beal, Kathryn; Chan, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Valproic acid (VA) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor taken by patients with glioblastoma (GB) to manage seizures, and it can modulate the biologic effects of radiation therapy (RT). We investigated whether VA use during RT for GB was associated with overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 544 adults with GB were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses were performed to determine the association of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RTOG RPA) class, seizure history, and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) and AED use during RT with OS. Results: Seizures before the end of RT were noted in 217 (40%) patients, and 403 (74%) were taking an AED during RT; 29 (7%) were taking VA. Median OS in patients taking VA was 16.9 months (vs 13.6 months taking another AED, P=.16). Among patients taking an AED during RT, OS was associated with VA (P=.047; hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-1.07), and RTOG RPA class (P<.0001; HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.37-1.61). Of the 5 most common AEDs, only VA was associated with OS. Median OS of patients receiving VA and TMZ during RT was 23.9 months (vs 15.2 months for patients taking another AED, P=.26). When the analysis was restricted to patients who received concurrent TMZ, VA use was marginally associated with OS (P=.057; HR, 0.54; 95% CI, ?0.09 to 1.17), independently of RTOG RPA class and seizure history. Conclusions: VA use during RT for GB was associated with improved OS, independently of RTOG RPA, seizure history, and concurrent TMZ use. Further studies of treatment that combines HDAC inhibitors and RT are warranted.

  11. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1985-03-29

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  12. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

  13. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L. (Del Mar, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  14. International Conference Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI `94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report contains abstracts for the international conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  15. Hybrid Radiator Cooling System | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiator Cooling System Technology available for licensing: Hybrid radiator cooling system uses conventional finned air cooling under most driving conditions that would be sufficient to remove all of the required engine heat, but adds active evaporate cooling under extreme conditions. Enables an existing engine to function with a smaller radiator and cooling system Increases heat removal by 46%, over conventional radiator PDF icon hybrid_radiator-cooling_system

  16. Occupational Radiation Exposure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Occupational Radiation Exposure Occupational Radiation Exposure Welcome The Occupational Radiation Exposure Information page on this web page is intended to provide the latest available information on radiation exposure to the workforce at DOE facilities. In addition, this page is intended to serve as a central location for the dissemination of information concerning the recording and reporting requirements for occupational radiation exposure at DOE facilities. Only "occupationally"

  17. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  18. Imaging radiation detector with gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

  19. Imaging radiation detector with gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1982-07-21

    A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

  20. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  1. Precision Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Poor Performing Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westover, Kenneth D.; Loo, Billy W.; Gerber, David E.; Iyengar, Puneeth; Choy, Hak; Diehn, Maximilian; Hughes, Randy; Schiller, Joan; Dowell, Jonathan; Wardak, Zabi; Sher, David; Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin; Corona, Irma; Sharma, Akanksha; Wadsworth, Margaret E.; Timmerman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Treatment regimens for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) give suboptimal clinical outcomes. Technological advancements such as radiation therapy, the backbone of most treatment regimens, may enable more potent and effective therapies. The objective of this study was to escalate radiation therapy to a tumoricidal hypofractionated dose without exceeding the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage II to IV or recurrent NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or greater and not candidates for surgical resection, stereotactic radiation, or concurrent chemoradiation were eligible. Highly conformal radiation therapy was given to treat intrathoracic disease in 15 fractions to a total of 50, 55, or 60 Gy. Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled: 15 at the 50-Gy, 21 at the 55-Gy, and 19 at the 60-Gy dose levels. A 90-day follow-up was completed in each group without exceeding the MTD. With a median follow-up of 12.5 months, there were 93 grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), including 39 deaths, although most AEs were considered related to factors other than radiation therapy. One patient from the 55- and 60-Gy dose groups developed grade ≥3 esophagitis, and 5, 4, and 4 patients in the respective dose groups experienced grade ≥3 dyspnea, but only 2 of these AEs were considered likely related to therapy. There was no association between fraction size and toxicity (P=.24). The median overall survival was 6 months with no significant differences between dose levels (P=.59). Conclusions: Precision hypofractionated radiation therapy consisting of 60 Gy in 15 fractions for locally advanced NSCLC is generally well tolerated. This treatment regimen could provide patients with poor performance status a potent alternative to chemoradiation. This study has implications for the cost effectiveness of lung cancer therapy. Additional studies of long-term safety and efficacy of this therapy are warranted.

  2. JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States | Department of Energy JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States March 18, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - The United States Government has an extensive network of radiation monitors around the country and no radiation levels of concern have been

  3. Enhanced radiation detectors using luminescent materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vardeny, Zeev V. (Holladay, UT); Jeglinski, Stefan A. (Durham, NC); Lane, Paul A. (Sheffield, GB)

    2001-01-01

    A radiation detecting device comprising a radiation sensing element, and a layer of luminescent material to expand the range of wavelengths over which the sensing element can efficiently detect radiation. The luminescent material being selected to absorb radiation at selected wavelengths, causing the luminescent material to luminesce, and the luminescent radiation being detected by the sensing element. Radiation sensing elements include photodiodes (singly and in arrays), CCD arrays, IR detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Luminescent materials include polymers, oligomers, copolymers and porphyrines, Luminescent layers include thin films, thicker layers, and liquid polymers.

  4. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  5. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  6. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  7. Radiation augmentation energy storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christe, K.O.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a method of converting radiation energy into chemical energy to produce a high-performance propellant. It comprises: photolytically converting oxygen to ozone; storing and stabilizing the ozone in liquid oxygen to form an ozone/liquid oxygen solution; and combusting the ozone/liquid oxygen solution with hydrogen.

  8. Solar Radiation Empirical Quality Assessment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-03-01

    The SERIQC1 subroutine performs quality assessment of one, two, or three-component solar radiation data (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) obtained from one-minute to one-hour integrations. Included in the package is the QCFIT tool to derive expected values from historical data, and the SERIQC1 subroutine to assess the quality of measurement data.

  9. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

  10. Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros Radiation amplitude zeros...

  11. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1988 Report | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1989 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1990 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1991

  12. Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 January 29, 2015 OE-3 2015-01: DOE Occupational Radiation...

  13. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents Radiation Monitoring...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radiation Monitoring Subgroup TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents Radiation Monitoring Subgroup Radiation Monitoring Subgroup PDF icon Draft Work Plan - February 4,...

  14. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1982 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fifteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1982.

  15. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1980 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Thirteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1980.

  16. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1981 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fourteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1981.

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1983 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sixteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1983.

  18. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1979 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Twelfth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1979.

  19. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1978 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eleventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1978.

  20. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1977 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1977.

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1987 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Twentieth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1987.

  2. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1976 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ninth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1976.

  3. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1986 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Nineteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1986.

  4. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1975 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eighth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for ERDA & ERDA Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and its contractor employees during 1975.

  6. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1984.

  7. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1985 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eighteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1985.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Undulator Radiation at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu, Geoffrey Krafft, Guimei Wang

    2010-05-01

    The performance of undulator radiation (UR) at CEBAF with a 3.5 m helical undulator is evaluated and compared with APS undulator-A radiation in terms of brilliance, peak brilliance, spectral flux, flux density and intensity distribution.

  9. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  10. Optimization of radiation protection: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.R.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    This document provides a bibliography of radiation protection optimization documents. Abstracts, an author index, and a subject index are provided.

  11. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  12. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  13. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification December 17, 2015 Monitoring records are required to be reported to the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiation Records Repository by March 31 under DOE Order 231.1B and in accordance with the REMS Reporting Guide. These records form the basis for the analysis presented in the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure annual report. In July of 2007,

  14. ORISE Resources: Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Health Planners A newly released guide from the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sets the standard for population monitoring after a radiation emergency. The second edition of Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Public Health Planners was released in April and presented at the National Association of County and City Health

  15. How much radiation is too much?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How much radiation is too much? How much radiation is too much? Federal government standards limit the dose that the public may receive from Laboratory operations. August 1, 2013 For an individual living near LANL in 2012, the average radiation exposure from all sources was estimated at approximately 751 mrem. One-tenth of one percent can be attributed to LANL sources. For an individual living near LANL in 2012, the average radiation exposure from all sources was estimated at approximately 751

  16. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  17. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum wells structures (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well

  18. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Can Be Used Safely to Boost Residual Disease in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feddock, Jonathan; Arnold, Susanne M.; Department of Medical Oncology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky ; Shelton, Brent J.; Sinha, Partha; Conrad, Gary; Chen, Li; Rinehart, John; McGarry, Ronald C.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a prospective, single-institution study evaluating the feasibility of conventional chemoradiation (CRT) followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a means of dose escalation for patients with stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with residual disease. Methods and Materials: Patients without metastatic disease and with radiologic evidence of limited residual disease (?5 cm) within the site of the primary tumor and good or complete nodal responses after standard CRT to a target dose of 60 Gy were considered eligible. The SBRT boost was done to achieve a total combined dose biological equivalent dose >100 Gy to the residual primary tumor, consisting of 10 Gy × 2 fractions (20 Gy total) for peripheral tumors, and 6.5 Gy × 3 fractions (19.5 Gy total) for medial tumors using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0813 definitions. The primary endpoint was the development of grade ?3 radiation pneumonitis (RP). Results: After a median follow-up of 13 months, 4 patients developed acute grade 3 RP, and 1 (2.9%) developed late and persistent grade 3 RP. No patients developed grade 4 or 5 RP. Mean lung dose, V2.5, V5, V10, and V20 values were calculated for the SBRT boost, and none were found to significantly predict for RP. Only advancing age (P=.0147), previous smoking status (P=.0505), and high CRT mean lung dose (P=.0295) were significantly associated with RP development. At the time of analysis, the actuarial local control rate at the primary tumor site was 82.9%, with only 6 patients demonstrating recurrence. Conclusions: Linear accelerator-based SBRT for dose escalation of limited residual NSCLC after definitive CRT was feasible and did not increase the risk for toxicity above that for standard radiation therapy.

  19. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  20. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  1. SSRL- Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management of SPEAR3 Project at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory wins DOE Award for Excellence Friday, August 13, 2004 Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham, Hanley Lee (DOE Stanford Site Office), Richard Boyce, Bob Hettel, Tom Elioff, and Deputy Secretary of Energy Kyle McSlarrow (L to R). The SPEAR3 Management Team and Hanley Lee received the award from The Secretary. Trophy awarded to the laboratory. Each of the members of the Project Management Team also received individual plaques.

  2. RADIATION DOSIMETER AND DOSIMETRIC METHODS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taplin, G.V.

    1958-10-28

    The determination of ionizing radiation by means of single fluid phase chemical dosimeters of the colorimetric type is presented. A single fluid composition is used consisting of a chlorinated hydrocarbon, an acidimetric dye, a normalizer and water. Suitable chlorinated hydrocarbons are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, trichlorethane, ethylene dichioride and tetracbloroethylene. Suitable acidimetric indicator dyes are phenol red, bromcresol purple, and creosol red. Suitable normallzers are resorcinol, geraniol, meta cresol, alpha -tocopberol, and alpha -naphthol.

  3. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form #: Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers mitigate the radiological hazards introduced by the proposed work? Yes No (b) Can the closed state of the beam line injection stoppers be assured during the proposed work (ie., work does NOT involve injection stoppers or associated HPS)? Yes No If the answers to both questions are yes, the work can be performed safely

  4. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to "room temperature", and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  5. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  6. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  7. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-03-23

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to room temperature'' and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  8. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Kimbrough, Joseph R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO.sub.2 insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron's generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO.sub.2 layer.

  9. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Kimbrough, J.R.

    1996-11-19

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO{sub 2} insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron`s generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO{sub 2} layer. 7 figs.

  10. Calibration method for video and radiation imagers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Mark F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fabris, Lorenzo (Knoxville, TN); Gee, Timothy F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goddard, Jr., James S. (Knoxville, TN); Karnowski, Thomas P. (Knoxville, TN); Ziock, Klaus-peter (Clinton, TN)

    2011-07-05

    The relationship between the high energy radiation imager pixel (HERIP) coordinate and real-world x-coordinate is determined by a least square fit between the HERIP x-coordinate and the measured real-world x-coordinates of calibration markers that emit high energy radiation imager and reflect visible light. Upon calibration, a high energy radiation imager pixel position may be determined based on a real-world coordinate of a moving vehicle. Further, a scale parameter for said high energy radiation imager may be determined based on the real-world coordinate. The scale parameter depends on the y-coordinate of the moving vehicle as provided by a visible light camera. The high energy radiation imager may be employed to detect radiation from moving vehicles in multiple lanes, which correspondingly have different distances to the high energy radiation imager.

  11. Patent: Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter Citation Details Title: Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter...

  12. radiation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    27, 2015

    A U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) helicopter may be seen flying at low altitudes around...

  13. radiation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, United Kingdom, on the growing...

  14. Muddy Water? Variation in Reporting Receipt of Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy by Population-Based Tumor Registries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Williams, Melanie; Jiang, Jing; Niu, Jiangong; MacKinnon, Jill; Anderson, Patricia; Wohler, Brad; Sinclair, Amber H.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Schymura, Maria J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate, in the setting of breast cancer, the accuracy of registry radiation therapy (RT) coding compared with the gold standard of Medicare claims. Methods and Materials: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare data, we identified 73,077 patients aged ?66 years diagnosed with breast cancer in the period 2001-2007. Underascertainment (1 - sensitivity), sensitivity, specificity, ?, and ?{sup 2} were calculated for RT receipt determined by registry data versus claims. Multivariate logistic regression characterized patient, treatment, and geographic factors associated with underascertainment of RT. Findings in the SEER–Medicare registries were compared with three non-SEER registries (Florida, New York, and Texas). Results: In the SEER–Medicare registries, 41.6% (n=30,386) of patients received RT according to registry coding, versus 49.3% (n=36,047) according to Medicare claims (P<.001). Underascertainment of RT was more likely if patients resided in a newer SEER registry (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-1.80; P<.001), rural county (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48; P<.001), or if RT was delayed (OR 1.006/day, 95% CI 1.006-1.007; P<.001). Underascertainment of RT receipt in SEER registries was 18.7% (95% CI 18.6-18.8%), compared with 44.3% (95% CI 44.0-44.5%) in non-SEER registries. Conclusions: Population-based tumor registries are highly variable in ascertainment of RT receipt and should be augmented with other data sources when evaluating quality of breast cancer care. Future work should identify opportunities for the radiation oncology community to partner with registries to improve accuracy of treatment data.

  15. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  16. Radiation effects in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B.; Yazzie, A.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T.; Leavitt, C.P.

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  17. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy.

  18. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.

    1992-08-11

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy. 4 figs.

  19. Direct detector for terahertz radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

    2008-09-02

    A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

  20. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, Raymond A. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

  1. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, R.A.

    1994-12-13

    A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

  2. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  3. Impedance scaling and synchrotron radiation intercept (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Impedance scaling and synchrotron radiation intercept Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impedance scaling and synchrotron radiation intercept This paper presents several scalings in 2-D and 3-D impedance calculations. Most of the scalings are empirical and found by using the boundary perturbation method and numerical simulations. As an application of these scalings, the impedance of one type of synchrotron radiation intercept is calculated. The results are then

  4. DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure HSS Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security This document is available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http://energy.gov/ehss/occupational-radiation-exposure It is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to protect the health and safety of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) provides the

  5. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  6. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accident Registries The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) maintains a number of radiation accident registries that provide medical professionals with up-to-date radiation accident information. Information for these accident registries is gathered from many sources, including the World Health Organization, International Atomic Energy Agency, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state radiological health

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Research Foundations: Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects and High Energy Density Science Radiation Effects and High Energy Density Science Rings of Saturn, Sandia's workhorse pulsed-power machine. The Radiation Effects and High Energy Density Science Research Foundation seeks to advance science and engineering in the areas of radiation effects sciences, high energy density science, and pulsed-power science and technology to address critical national security issues. Why our work matters We address several issues key to nuclear security and

  8. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metamaterials (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM) are of great interest due to their ability to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. Here we demonstrate that an annular, transparent HMM enables

  9. radiation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, NNSA, Argentina Transition Radiation...

  10. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shulte, J.W.; Suttle, J.F.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to a method and device for determining quantities of gamma radiation and x radiation by exposing to such radiation a mature of a purified halogenated hydrocarbon chosen from the class consisting of chloroform, bromoform, tetrachloroethane and 1,1,2trichloroethane, and a minor quantity of a sensitizer chosen from the class consisting of oxygen, benzoyl peroxide, sodium peroxide, and nitrobenzene, the proportion of the sensitizer being at least about 10/sup -5/ moles per cubic centimeter of halogenated hydrocarbon, the total amount of sensitizer depending upon the range of radiation to be measured, and chemically measuring the amount of decomposition generated by the irradiation of the sensitized halogenated hydrocarbon.

  11. Accelerators for Testing Radiation Tolerances of Electronics...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Accelerated beams test semiconductor devices for tolerances to space radiation. ... The ability to test in air makes it possible to quickly change components and to easily ...

  12. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  13. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  14. Radiation Emergency Assistance Center / Training Site | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Registry System, which allows the team to conduct medical follow-ups on patients previously seen and track treatment procedures and trends in radiation-induced medical conditions. ...

  15. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2005-05-03

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  16. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  17. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  18. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  19. Transport Test Problems for Radiation Detection Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2012-09-30

    This is the final report and deliverable for the project. It is a list of the details of the test cases for radiation detection scenarios.

  20. SRNL Deploys Innovative Radiation Mapping Device

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), EM’s national lab, has made strides with remote technology designed to reduce worker exposure while measuring radiation in contaminated areas.

  1. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    parallel plates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel ...

  2. Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz...

  3. ARM - PI Product - Radiative Flux Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsRadiative Flux Analysis ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Radiative Flux Analysis The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and

  4. HUMAN RADIATION STUDIES: REMEMBERING THE EARLY YEARS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Use of a Particle Accelerator to Explore Cancer Therapy (Los Alamos) of Workman's ... Between External Radiation Exposure and Cancer Incidence Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

  5. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide December 17, 2015 Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System ...

  6. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick H. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-18

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  7. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  8. Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system Citation Details ... Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote ...

  9. Ion Beams - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron Institute...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Useful Graphs Various ion beams have been developed specifically for the Radiation Effects Facility. These beams provide for a wide scope of LET with high energies for...

  10. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analytical theory...

  11. Support - Facilities - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chamber In-Air Station Software Support Support During experiments at the Radiation Effects Facility users are assisted by the experienced on-site support staff. Our...

  12. An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia S. M. Sakerin, F. V. Dorofeev, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, V. V. ...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER ...

  14. Session Papers Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program- Unmanned...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Session Papers Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program- Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle: The Follow-On Phase J. Vitko, Jr. ARM-UAV Technical Director Sandia National Laboratories ...

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ...

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM ...

  17. JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    radiation monitors around the country and no radiation levels of concern have been detected. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RadNet system is designed to protect the ...

  18. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EXAFLAG (Conference) | SciTech Connect THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Authors: Powell, Devon M. [1] ; Lovegrove, Elizabeth G. [1] ; Fung, Jimmy [1] ; Kenamond, Mark A. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-08-16 OSTI Identifier: 1090702 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-26513

  19. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2012-03-29

    The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit the minimum achievable emittance in the synchrotron light sources for short bunches.

  20. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Fairfax, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Lenard, Roger (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  1. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  2. Alpha-beta radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, D.M.; Simmons, K.L.; Froelich, T.J.; Carter, G.L.

    1998-08-18

    The invention is based in part on the discovery that a plastic housing that is lightweight is surprisingly efficient inasmuch as background signals from any gamma radiation are significantly reduced by using a plastic housing instead of a metal housing. A further aspect of the present invention is the profile of the housing as a bi-linear approximation to a parabola resulting in full optical response from any location on the scintillation material to the photomultiplier tube. A yet further aspect of the present invention is that the survey probe is resistant to magnetic fields. A yet further aspect of the present invention is the use of a snap-fit retaining bracket that overcomes the need for multiple screws. 16 figs.

  3. Alpha-beta radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Dale M. (Richland, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Froelich, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Carter, Gregory L. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is based in part on the discovery that a plastic housing that is lightweight is surprisingly efficient inasmuch as background signals from any gamma radiation are significantly reduced by using a plastic housing instead of a metal housing. A further aspect of the present invention is the profile of the housing as a bi-linear approximation to a parabola resulting in full optical response from any location on the scintillation material to the photomultiplier tube. A yet further aspect of the present invention is that the survey probe is resistant to magnetic fields. A yet further aspect of the present invention is the use of a snap-fit retaining bracket that overcomes the need for multiple screws.

  4. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-12-21

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

  5. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  6. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength.

  7. Study of material properties using channeling radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantell, R.H.; Kephart, J.O.; Klein, R.K.; Park, H.; Berman, B.L.; Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    A possible application for channeling radiation is for investigating the properties of crystals in which the channeling occurs. In this paper we present some general considerations concerning channeling radiation as a measurement technique, and then we proceed to describe several specific examples.

  8. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  9. Verification of proton range, position, and intensity in IMPT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Beddar, S. 1 ; Departments of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 2 ; Departments of Radiation Physics, University of...

  10. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    R.; Beddar, S. Departments of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departments of Radiation Oncology,...

  11. Verification of proton range, position, and intensity in IMPT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    R.; Beddar, S. Departments of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departments of Radiation Oncology,...

  12. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    M T Mohan R Beddar S Departments of Radiation Physics University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center Houston Texas United States Departments of Radiation Oncology University of...

  13. Radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  14. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    November 17, 2015 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report The DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2014. December 3, 2014 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2013 Report The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2013. September 24, 2013 Annual DOE Occupational

  15. http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cemp/Radiation.html

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Radiation in Perspective From United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, August 1990 Radiation-What it is Radiation occurs in the form of energy or as atomic particles. The term "radiation," although broad enough to include sunlight and heat, radiowaves and microwaves, is most often used to mean "ionizing" radiation. That is radiation which changes the physical state of atoms, causing them to become electrically charged or "ionized." The earth

  16. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2013 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 3 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2013 Report The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2013. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public in controlled areas that are monitored for exposure to radiation. The 105 DOE organizations submitting radiation

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report The DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2014. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 96 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2014 have been grouped into 32

  18. Radiative Decays Involving Light Scalar Mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deirdre Black; Masayasu Harada; Joseph Schechter

    2002-09-01

    We present a vector dominance model to describe radiative decays involving the light scalar mesons. Assuming that the light scalar mesons form a nonet this model gives relations among various decay amplitudes of the form S--> gamma gamma, V-->Sgamma and S--> Vgamma, where S and V denote scalar and vector mesons. By comparing with experimental radiative decay rates, including those recently measured for phi--> PP'gamma, we obtain various predictions. We discuss briefly ongoing extensions of the present work in an attempt to describe the radiative phi decay measurements in detail.

  19. Methods of in vivo radiation measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Dennis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelsey, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Lane, Richard (Galveston, TX); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Snelling, Jay B. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements relay on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity with operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  20. Radiation stability of graphene under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sunil, E-mail: kumar.sunil092@gmail.com; Tripathi, Ambuj; Khan, Saif A.; Pannu, Compesh; Avasthi, Devesh K. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-09-29

    In this letter, we report radiation stability of graphene under extreme condition of high energy density generated by 150?MeV Au ion irradiation. The experiment reveals that graphene is radiation resistant for irradiation at 10{sup 14?}ions/cm{sup 2} of 150?MeV Au ions. It is significant to note that annealing effects are observed at lower fluences whereas defect production occurs at higher fluences but significant crystallinity is retained. Our results demonstrate applicability of graphene based devices in radiation environment and space applications.

  1. Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edward A.

    1998-11-17

    An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Accretion Including Radiation Transport |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Snapshot of the global structure of a radiation-dominated accretion flow around a black hole computed using the Athena++ code Snapshot of the global structure of a radiation-dominated accretion flow around a black hole computed using the Athena++ code. Left half of the image shows the density (in units of 0.01g/cm^3), and the right half shows the radiation energy density (in units of the energy density for a 10^7 degree black body). Coordinate axes are

  3. Three-axis asymmetric radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martini, Mario Pierangelo (Oak Ridge, TN); Gedcke, Dale A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raudorf, Thomas W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sangsingkeow, Pat (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A three-axis radiation detection system whose inner and outer electrodes are shaped and positioned so that the shortest path between any point on the inner electrode and the outer electrode is a different length whereby the rise time of a pulse derived from a detected radiation event can uniquely define the azimuthal and radial position of that event, and the outer electrode is divided into a plurality of segments in the longitudinal axial direction for locating the axial location of a radiation detection event occurring in the diode.

  4. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  5. Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in Climate Models: Comparison of Clear-Sky Calculations with Observations from the Spectral Radiation Experiment and the...

  6. Materials Modeling for High-Performance Radiation Detectors ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials Modeling for High-Performance Radiation Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials Modeling for High-Performance Radiation Detectors You are...

  7. Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros You are accessing a...

  8. Optimizing Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment at the Department of Energy Optimizing Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment at the Department of...

  9. Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light ...

  10. ORISE: REAC/TS Provides Radiation Expertise as NASA Prepares...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Expertise as NASA Prepares Mars Science Laboratory Launch REACTS staff consult on radiation safety issues during liftoff of plutonium-powered space vehicles Artist...

  11. Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in ...

  12. PNNL Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Bob

    2013-07-10

    PNNL's Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School gives graduate and advanced graduate students an understanding of how radiation detectors are used in national security missions.

  13. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through...

  14. First Measurements of the FACET Coherent Terahertz Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurements of the FACET Coherent Terahertz Radiation Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First Measurements of the FACET Coherent Terahertz Radiation Source You...

  15. Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Subpart A - General Provisions The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and ...

  16. Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in...

  17. ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Oklahoma Univ. of Oklahoma 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative transfer, Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative transfer, The...

  18. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  19. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  20. Scaling law of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scaling law of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling law of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular ...

  1. Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in ...

  2. NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Boston...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    at NNSA Blog Home Library Press Releases NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey ... NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Boston area Press...

  3. NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Phoenix...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    at NNSA Blog Home Library Press Releases NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey ... NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Phoenix,...

  4. ORISE: Collaboration with the CDC yields Radiation Basics Made...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    training designed to help public health and emergency medical professionals learn fundamentals of radiation How ORISE is Making a Difference Radiation Basics Made Simple, the...

  5. Fiber-Optic Environmental Radiation Dosimeter - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This Return to Search Fiber-Optic Environmental Radiation Dosimeter Radiation DetectorSensor Naval Research Laboratory Contact NRL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document...

  6. ORISE: Operating Public Shelters in a Radiation Emergency | How...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operating Public Shelters in a Radiation Emergency CDC, ORISE and NACCHO collaborate on guide for shelters A Guide to Operating Public Shelters in a Radiation Emergency cover A...

  7. DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy Resources with Additional ... made many contributions to radiation and cancer therapy, including PEREGRINE and Boron ...

  8. Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & ...

  9. A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting September ...

  10. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Policy for Submitting of PII information Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems ... Guide. PDF icon Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting ...

  11. Improved models for synchrotron radiation sources in SHADOW ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Improved models for synchrotron radiation sources in SHADOW Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved models for synchrotron radiation sources in SHADOW...

  12. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Radiative Role...

  13. A Basic Overview of the Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Occupational Radiation Exposure: Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of OCCUPATIONAL ... the radiation exposure to workers within the DOE Complex and to the public. ...

  14. ORISE: The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness: Medical Management Proceedings of the Fifth International REACTS Symposium on the Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident...

  15. Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber Authors:...

  16. Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    General. The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

  17. Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility's ... Program through its Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility. 2. Data Cube ...

  18. Posters Single-Column Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Posters Single-Column Model for AtmosphericRadiation Measurement Sites: Model Development ... Using observational data obtained from the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ...

  19. A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S. Department of Energy User Facility AtmosphericRadiationMeasurement Climate Research Facility U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program DOESC-ARM...

  20. Modeling Workflow for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workflow for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility's LES ARM Symbiotic ... and Environmental Research Program through its Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility. ...

  1. Testing AGCM-Predicted Cloud and Radiation Properties with ARM...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    evaluate treatment of clouds and radiation in an atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) using long-term observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. ...

  2. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Radiative Properties and Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamical Processes at Two Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites in the Tropical ... U. S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites located on Manus ...

  3. ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned ... This program has its origins in the Atmospheric RadiationMeasurement (ARM) Program's long ...

  4. Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    underpinning of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is largely ... Ackerman, T. P., and G. M. Stokes (2003): The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. ...

  5. DOE/SC-ARM-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  6. Posters Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor AtmosphericRadiation Measurement Data in Near ... large networks of instruments such as the AtmosphericRadiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ...

  7. Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility March 2013 Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility March 2013 Work ...

  8. SSRL Events & Presentations | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anford-synchrotron-radiation-lightsource-ssrl Updated: 11 hours 1 min ago SSRL Hosts 17th Annual RapiData Course in Macromolecular X-ray Diffraction Mon, 20150518 - 9:30am The...

  9. ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring System (REMS) ORISE maintains large database of radition exposure records for the U.S. Department of Energy ORISE staff monitoring radiation data for DOE Rule 10 CFR 835...

  10. Occupational Radiation Protection Program (10 CFR 835)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The occupational radiation protection program is governed by the Rule, specified as 10 CFR 835. The requirements given in 10 CFR 835 are matters of law, punishable by civil and criminal penalties.

  11. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  12. The darkness of spin-0 dark radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, M.C. David

    2015-01-01

    We show that the scattering of a general spin-0 sector of dark radiation off the pre-recombination thermal plasma results in undetectably small spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  13. Contact Us | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Us Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 69 Menlo Park, CA 94025 Tel: 650-926-4000 Fax: 650-926-4100 SSRL...

  14. Japan Program: Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Life Span Study is the major RERF epidemiologic study that generates data on cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and non-cancer effects in relation to radiation dose. The RERF ...

  15. Posters Comparison of Stochastic Radiation Transfer Predictions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    models for estimating the effects of broken cloud on radiative transfer in the context of a general circulation model (GCM). These schemes are required to be very fast and...

  16. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Burger, Arnold; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2009-06-23

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  17. Radiation absorption properties of different plaster samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akkurt, Iskender; Guenoglu, Kadir; Mavi, Betuel; K Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I l Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ncarslan, Semsettin; Seven, Aysun

    2012-09-06

    Although the plaster is one of the oldest known synthetic building materials, nowadays, it is used as interior coating of walls and ceilings of buildings. Thus measuring its radiation shielding properties is vital. For this purpose, radiation absorption properties of different plaster samples in this study. The measurements have been performed using gamma spectrometer system which connected to 3'' Multiplication-Sign 3''NaI (TI) detector.

  18. Source of coherent short wavelength radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco (Alameda, CA)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for producing coherent radiation ranging from X-rays to the far ultraviolet (i.e., 1 Kev to 10 eV) utilizing the Compton scattering effect. A photon beam from a laser is scattered on a high energy electron bunch from a pulse power linac. The short wavelength radiation produced by such scattering has sufficient intensity and spatial coherence for use in high resolution applications such as microscopy.

  19. Spallation Neutron Source Radiation Shielding Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.; Johnston, J.O.; Lillie, R.A.; McNeilly, G.S.; Santoro, R.T.

    1999-11-14

    This paper summarizes results of Spallation Neutron Source calculations to estimate radiation hazards and shielding requirements for activated Mercury, target components, target cooling water, and {sup 7}Be plateout. Dose rates in the accelerator tunnel from activation of magnets and concrete were investigated. The impact of gaps and other streaming paths on the radiation environment inside the test cell during operation and after shutdown were also assessed.

  20. Radiative Effects of Cloud Inhomogeneity and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Effects of Cloud Inhomogeneity and Geometric Association Over the Tropical Western Pacific Warm Pool X. Wu National Center for Atmospheric Research (a) Boulder, Colorado X. -Z. Liang Illinois State Water Survey Champaign, Illinois Introduction The representation of cloud systems and cloud-radiation interaction is considered to be one of major uncertainties in general circulation models (GCMs). This arises because (1) complete observations of cloud systems are impossible and available

  1. Posters Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Radiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Radiative Properties to Ice Crystal Size and Shape in General Circulation Model Simulations D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada J. E. Kristjánsson Department of Geophysics University of Oslo, Norway M. J. Newman Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico Introduction Recent research (e.g., Mitchell and Arnott 1994) has shown that the radiative properties of cirrus clouds (i.e., optical depth, albedo, emissivity) depend on the

  2. Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation Authors: Chen, Hou-tong [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-03-30 OSTI Identifier: 1057121 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-01944; LA-UR-11-1944 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference:

  3. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Treatment Medications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment Medications The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) is a valuable resource in the use of drug therapies to treat radiation exposure. REAC/TS maintains a repository of clinical information and qualified staff provide expertise to practitioners worldwide on the use of calcium and zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Radiogardase (Prussian Blue). Calcium-DTPA and zinc-DTPA are injectable chelating agents used to enhance the excretion of plutonium

  4. Genotoxicology of Rads | Environmental Radiation Protection Curriculum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genotoxicology: Genetic Effects of Radiation and Other Environmental Mutagens (3 hrs) Instructor: Stacey Lance Course Description: The goal of this course is provide students with an in-depth knowledge concerning the genetic effects of radiation and other environmental mutagens. Topics to be covered include: the molecular mechanisms of mutation and mutation repair, biomarkers and biomonitoring, genomic instability, transgenerational effects, and individual susceptibility. In addition to gaining

  5. Cyclotron Institute TAMU - Radiation Effects Testing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TAMU - Radiation Effects Testing Facility CONTROL SOFTWARE DOWNLOAD PAGE (Updated on January 12, 2016) INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS: The latest (2016) version of the the control software for the Cyclotron Institute TAMU Radiation Effects Testing Facility (SEUSS) is included in the ZIP archive that can be downloaded from http://cyclotron.tamu.edu/vladimir/SeussW.zip (12,351 kb). After downloading the archive, please extract the files it contains into an EMPTY folder of your choice. The files can be

  6. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource December 2008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 2016 Business & Administration Carlson, S. Safety Evans, I. Science Advisory Committee Proposal Review Panel Photon Science Faculty User Research Administration Knotts, C. Director - Gaffney, K. Deputy Director Pianetta, P. Science Director Hedman, B. SSRL Users' Organization Beam Line Development & Support Harrington, D. Synchrotron Radiation Materials Sciences Division Toney, M. / Lu, D. Beam Line Systems Division Rabedeau, T. Synchrotron Radiation Chemistry & Catalysis

  7. Detection of contraband using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, Richard P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Bacon, Larry D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

  8. United States Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Office of Radiation Programs Technical Note

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Office of Radiation Programs Technical Note Las Vegas Facility ORP/LV-78-3 P.O. Box 15027 October 1978 Las Vegas NV 89114 &EPA Levels and Distribution of Environmental Plutonium Around the Trinity Site Technical Note ORP/LV-78-3 LEVELS AND DISTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLUTONIUM AROUND THE TRINITY SITE Richard L. Douglas October 1978 OFFICE OF RADIATION PROGRAMS - LAS VEGAS FACILITY U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY LAS VEGAS, NEVADA 89114

  9. Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

  10. Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

  11. Radiative accelerations for evolutionary model calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richer, J.; Michaud, G.; Rogers, F.; Iglesias, C.; Turcotte, S.; LeBlanc, F.

    1998-01-01

    Monochromatic opacities from the OPAL database have been used to calculate radiative accelerations for the 21 included chemical species. The 10{sup 4} frequencies used are sufficient to calculate the radiative accelerations of many elements for T{gt}10{sup 5}K, using frequency sampling. This temperature limit is higher for less abundant elements. As the abundances of Fe, He, or O are varied, the radiative acceleration of other elements changes, since abundant elements modify the frequency dependence of the radiative flux and the Rosseland opacity. Accurate radiative accelerations for a given element can only be obtained by allowing the abundances of the species that contribute most to the Rosseland opacity to vary during the evolution and recalculating the radiative accelerations and the Rosseland opacity during the evolution. There are physical phenomena that cannot be included in the calculations if one uses only the OPAL data. For instance, one should correct for the momentum given to the electron in a photoionization. Such effects are evaluated using atomic data from Opacity Project, and correction factors are given. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  12. Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations- Course Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides use in the Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations refresher training course.

  13. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Potential Health Hazards of Radiation PDF icon Potential Health Hazards of Radiation More Documents & Publications Radioactive Materials Emergencies Course Presentation DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008

  14. Presentation: Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources Presentation: Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources delivered by Patricia Dehmer, U.S. Department of Energy PDF icon Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources More Documents & Publications EA-1426: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1904: Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1904: Final Environmental Assessment

  15. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data transmission in place of NSA Type 1 devices.

  16. Radiator debris removing apparatus and work machine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Kevin L. (Washburn, IL); Elliott, Dwight E. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2008-09-02

    A radiator assembly includes a finned radiator core and a debris removing apparatus having a compressed air inlet and at least one compressed air outlet configured to direct compressed air through the radiator core. A work machine such as a wheel loader includes a radiator and a debris removing apparatus coupled with on-board compressed air and having at least one pressurized gas outlet configured to direct a gas toward the face of the radiator.

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2006 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 06 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2006 Report The DOE 2006 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2006. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 95 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2006 have been grouped into 34 sites across the complex. This

  18. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1989 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 89 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1989 Report The Twenty-second Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1989. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees and contractors that are monitored for exposure to radiation. This information has been analyzed and trends over time

  19. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1990 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 0 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1990 Report The Twenty-third Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1990. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees and contractors that are monitored for exposure to radiation. This information has been analyzed and trends over time

  20. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1991 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1991 Report The Twenty-fourth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1991. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees and contractors that are monitored for exposure to radiation. This information has been analyzed and trends over time

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1999 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 9 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1999 Report The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1999 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at DOE facilities during the calendar year 1999. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 103 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 1999 have been grouped into 29 geographic sites across

  2. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2000 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 0 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2000 Report The DOE 2000 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2000. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 104 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2000 have been grouped into 28 geographic sites across the complex.

  3. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2001 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2001 Report The DOE 2001 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2001. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 107 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2001 have been grouped into 30 geographic sites across the complex.

  4. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2002 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2002 Report The DOE 2002 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2002. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 102 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2002 have been grouped into 29 geographic sites across the complex.

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2003 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 3 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2003 Report The DOE 2003 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2003. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 99 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2003 have been grouped into 27 geographic sites across the complex. This

  6. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2004 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2004 Report The DOE 2004 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2004. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 96 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2004 have been grouped into 25 geographic sites across the complex. This

  7. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2005 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2005 Report The DOE 2005 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2005. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 101 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2005 have been grouped into 26 geographic sites across the complex.

  8. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2007 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 7 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2007 Report The DOE 2007 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2007. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 90 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2007 have been grouped into 29 sites across the complex. This

  9. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2008 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 8 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2008 Report The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2008. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 92 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2008 have been grouped into 30 sites across the complex. This

  10. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2009 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 9 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2009 Report The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2009. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 100 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2009 have been grouped into 32 sites across the complex. This

  11. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2010 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 0 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2010 Report The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2010. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 101 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2010 have been grouped into 32 sites across the complex. This

  12. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2011 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2011 Report The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2011. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 107 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2011 have been grouped into 32 sites. This information has been

  13. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2012. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 94 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2012 have been grouped into 32 sites. This information has been analyzed

  14. ORISE: Collaboration with the CDC yields Radiation Basics Made Simple

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    online training module Collaboration with CDC Yields Radiation Basics Made Simple Training Module Online training designed to help public health and emergency medical professionals learn fundamentals of radiation How ORISE is Making a Difference Radiation Basics Made Simple, the first in a series of online training modules developed by the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), delivers foundational knowledge about radiation to its audiences.

  15. Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Radiation Detection - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation Detection Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at ORNL invented a promising material for more efficient nanoscale scintillators, or radiation detectors. The new material, which can detect most kinds of radiation,

  16. History of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource History of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource SPEAR Based on new applications of synchrotron radiation, SSRL began in 1973 as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project (SSRP). The first synchrotron scientific user activities were originally attached to the SPEAR ring and were operated in "parasitic mode" on the SPEAR high-energy physics program. SSRL/SSRP was the first multi-GeV storage ring based synchrotron radiation source in the

  17. Russian Health Studies Program - Relationship to Other Radiation Research

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Programs | Department of Energy Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Russian Health Studies Program - Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Russian Health Studies Program What is the relationship of the Russian Health Studies Program to other radiation health effects programs? Current radiation protection standards are derived primarily from studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients who received

  18. Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Subpart A - General Provisions | Department of Energy PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Subpart A - General Provisions Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Subpart A - General Provisions The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities. PDF icon Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION

  19. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orton, C; Borras, C; Carlson, D

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how they might be used to address clinically relevant problems. Underlying assumptions and limitations of existing models and their proper application will be discussed. This multidisciplinary educational session combines the fundamentals of radiobiology for radiation therapy and radiation protection with the practical application of biophysical models for treatment planning and evaluation. Learning Objectives: To understand fractionation in teletherapy and dose rate techniques in brachytherapy. To understand how the linear-quadratic models the effect of radiobiological parameters for radiotherapy. To understand the radiobiological basis of radiation protection standards applied to radiotherapy. To distinguish between stochastic effects and tissue reactions. To learn how to apply concepts of biological effective dose and RBE-weighted dose and to incorporate biological factors that alter radiation response. To discuss clinical strategies to increase therapeutic ratio, i.e., maximize local control while minimizing the risk of acute and late normal tissue effects.

  20. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminiscent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminscent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO.sub.4) or cerussite (PbCO.sub.3) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes.

  1. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ``false negative or false positive`` indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments.

  2. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  3. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  4. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  5. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Kaplan, Selig N.; Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  6. Coherent Radiation Effects in the LCLS Undulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reiche, S.; /UCLA; Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2010-12-14

    For X-ray Free-Electron Lasers such as LCLS and TESLA FEL, a change in the electron energy while amplifying the FEL radiation can shift the resonance condition out of the bandwidth of the FEL. The largest sources of energy loss is the emission of incoherent undulator radiation. Because the loss per electron depends only on the undulator parameters and the beam energy, which are fixed for a given resonant wavelength, the average energy loss can be compensated for by a fixed taper of the undulator. Coherent radiation has a strong enhancement proportional to the number of electrons in the bunch for frequencies comparable to or longer than the bunch dimension. If the emitted coherent energy becomes comparable to that of the incoherent emission, it has to be included in the taper as well. However, the coherent loss depends on the bunch charge and the applied compression scheme and a change of these parameters would require a change of the taper. This imposes a limitation on the practical operation of Free-Electron Lasers, where the taper can only be adjusted manually. In this presentation we analyze the coherent emission of undulator radiation and transition undulator radiation for LCLS, and estimate whether the resulting energy losses are significant for the operation of LCLS.

  7. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1994-08-09

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminescent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminescent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO[sub 4]) or cerussite (PbCO[sub 3]) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes. 3 figs.

  8. Plasma wake field XUV radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, Michael E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A XUV radiation source uses an interaction of electron beam pulses with a gas to create a plasma radiator. A flowing gas system (10) defines a circulation loop (12) with a device (14), such as a high pressure pump or the like, for circulating the gas. A nozzle or jet (16) produces a sonic atmospheric pressure flow and increases the density of the gas for interacting with an electron beam. An electron beam is formed by a conventional radio frequency (rf) accelerator (26) and electron pulses are conventionally formed by a beam buncher (28). The rf energy is thus converted to electron beam energy, the beam energy is used to create and then thermalize an atmospheric density flowing gas to a fully ionized plasma by interaction of beam pulses with the plasma wake field, and the energetic plasma then loses energy by line radiation at XUV wavelengths Collection and focusing optics (18) are used to collect XUV radiation emitted as line radiation when the high energy density plasma loses energy that was transferred from the electron beam pulses to the plasma.

  9. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future.

  10. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mc Fee, Matthew C. (New Ellenton, SC); Kirkham, Tim J. (Beech Island, SC); Johnson, Tippi H. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

  11. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

  12. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Grace L.; Jiang, Jing; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Xu, Ying; Hoffman, Karen E.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the ?{sup 2} test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone. In all patients, brachytherapy showed a higher postoperative infection risk (16.5% vs 9.9% after lumpectomy alone vs 11.4% after EBRT, P<.001); higher incidence of breast pain (22.9% vs 11.2% vs 16.7%, P<.001); and higher incidence of fat necrosis (15.3% vs 5.3% vs 7.7%, P<.001). Conclusions: In this study era, brachytherapy showed lesser breast preservation benefit compared with EBRT. Suitability criteria predicted differential absolute, but not relative, benefit in patients with invasive cancer.

  13. The Influence of Radiation Modality and Lymph Node Dissection on Survival in Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chino, Junzo P., E-mail: junzo.chino@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Jones, Ellen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Caroline, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Berchuck, Andrew; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Havrilesky, Laura J. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Background: The appropriate uses of lymph node dissection (LND) and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for Stage I endometrial cancer are controversial. We explored the impact of specific RT modalities (whole pelvic RT [WPRT], vaginal brachytherapy [VB]) and LND status on survival. Materials and Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results dataset was queried for all surgically treated International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I endometrial cancers; subjects were stratified into low, intermediate and high risk cohorts using modifications of Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocol 99 and PORTEC (Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer) trial criteria. Five-year overall survival was estimated, and comparisons were performed via the log-rank test. Results: A total of 56,360 patients were identified: 70.4% low, 26.2% intermediate, and 3.4% high risk. A total of 41.6% underwent LND and 17.6% adjuvant RT. In low-risk disease, LND was associated with higher survival (93.7 LND vs. 92.7% no LND, p < 0.001), whereas RT was not (91.6% RT vs. 92.9% no RT, p = 0.23). In intermediate-risk disease, LND (82.1% LND vs. 76.5% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (80.6% RT vs. 74.9% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with higher survival without differences between RT modalities. In high-risk disease, LND (68.8% LND vs. 54.1% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (66.9% RT vs. 57.2% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with increased survival; if LND was not performed, VB alone was inferior to WPRT (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Both WPRT and VB alone are associated with increased survival in the intermediate-risk group. In the high-risk group, in the absence of LND, only WPRT is associated with increased survival. LND was also associated with increased survival.

  14. Rectal wall sparing by dosimetric effect of rectal balloon used during Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teh, Bin S.

    2005-03-31

    The use of an air-filled rectal balloon has been shown to decrease prostate motion during prostate radiotherapy. However, the perturbation of radiation dose near the air-tissue interfaces has raised clinical concerns of underdosing the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric effects of an air-filled rectal balloon on the rectal wall/mucosa and prostate gland. Clinical rectal toxicity and dose-volume histogram (DVH) were also assessed to evaluate for any correlation. A film phantom was constructed to simulate the 4-cm diameter air cavity created by a rectal balloon. Kodak XV2 films were utilized to measure and compare dose distribution with and without air cavity. To study the effect in a typical clinical situation, the phantom was computed tomography (CT) scanned on a Siemens DR CT scanner for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. A target object was drawn on the phantom CT images to simulate the treatment of prostate cancer. Because patients were treated in prone position, the air cavity was situated superiorly to the target. The treatment used a serial tomotherapy technique with the Multivane Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiC) in arc treatment mode. Rectal toxicity was assessed in 116 patients treated with IMRT to a mean dose of 76 Gy over 35 fractions (2.17-Gy fraction size). They were treated in the prone position, immobilized using a Vac-LokTM bag and carrier-box system. Rectal balloon inflated with 100 cc of air was used for prostate gland immobilization during daily treatment. Rectal toxicity was assessed using modifications of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and late effects Normal Tissue Task Force (LENT) scales systems. DVH of the rectum was also evaluated. From film dosimetry, there was a dose reduction at the distal air-tissue interface as much as 60% compared with the same geometry without the air cavity for 15-MV photon beam and 2 x 2-cm field size. The dose beyond the interface recovered quickly and the dose reductions due to air cavity were 50%, 28%, 11%, and 1% at 2, 5, 10, and 15 mm, respectively, from the distal air-tissue interface. Evaluating the dose profiles of the more clinically relevant situation revealed the dose at air-tissue interface was approximately 15% lower in comparison to that without an air cavity. The dose built up rapidly so that at 1 and 2 mm, there was only an 8% and 5% differential, respectively. The dosimetric coverage at the depth of the posterior prostate wall was essentially equal with or without the air cavity. The median follow-up was 31.3 months. Rectal toxicity profile was very favorable: 81% (94/116) patients had no rectal complaint while 10.3% (12/116), 6.9% (8/116), and 1.7% (2/116) had grade 1, 2, and 3 toxicity, respectively. There was no grade 4 rectal toxicity. DVH analysis revealed that none of the patients had more than 25% of the rectum receiving 70 Gy or greater. Rectal balloon has rendered anterior rectal wall sparing by its dosimetric effects. In addition, it has reduced rectal volume, especially posterior and lateral rectal wall receiving high-dose radiation by rectal wall distension. Both factors may have contributed to decreased rectal toxicity achieved by IMRT despite dose escalation and higher than conventional fraction size. The findings have clinical significance for future very high-dose escalation trials whereby radiation proctitis is a major limiting factor.

  15. Adaptable radiation monitoring system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Daniel E. (Livermore, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA); Mauger, G. Joseph (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Mercer, Michael B. (Manteca, CA); Pletcher, David C. (Sacramento, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Schek, James L. (Tracy, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-06-20

    A portable radioactive-material detection system capable of detecting radioactive sources moving at high speeds. The system has at least one radiation detector capable of detecting gamma-radiation and coupled to an MCA capable of collecting spectral data in very small time bins of less than about 150 msec. A computer processor is connected to the MCA for determining from the spectral data if a triggering event has occurred. Spectral data is stored on a data storage device, and a power source supplies power to the detection system. Various configurations of the detection system may be adaptably arranged for various radiation detection scenarios. In a preferred embodiment, the computer processor operates as a server which receives spectral data from other networked detection systems, and communicates the collected data to a central data reporting system.

  16. A Methodology for Calculating Radiation Signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Marc Louis; Wilcox, Trevor; Bathke, Charles G.; James, Michael R.

    2015-05-01

    A rigorous formalism is presented for calculating radiation signatures from both Special Nuclear Material (SNM) as well as radiological sources. The use of MCNP6 in conjunction with CINDER/ORIGEN is described to allow for the determination of both neutron and photon leakages from objects of interest. In addition, a description of the use of MCNP6 to properly model the background neutron and photon sources is also presented. Examinations of the physics issues encountered in the modeling are investigated so as to allow for guidance in the user discerning the relevant physics to incorporate into general radiation signature calculations. Furthermore, examples are provided to assist in delineating the pertinent physics that must be accounted for. Finally, examples of detector modeling utilizing MCNP are provided along with a discussion on the generation of Receiver Operating Curves, which are the suggested means by which to determine detectability radiation signatures emanating from objects.

  17. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    2008-01-15

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  18. Technology of the radiation hardened MOS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragan, M.; Draghici, I.; Sachelarie, D.; Sachelarie, M.

    1984-02-01

    During technological processes such as ion doping, plasma corrosion or X-ray lithography, radiation effects can be harmful to MOS devices used in the space, military and nuclear industries. Silicon and silicon dioxide preparation for radiation resistant MOS devices is reviewed. To obtain the lowest possible threshold voltage (1-2 V of 1,000,000 rad) the following points are outlined: (1) the silicon must be of the (100) type (2) the optimum oxidation temperature should be between 850 to 1000 C, while the sintering temperature should be between 460 to 500 C (3) aluminum doping can be useful. Silicon, silicon dioxide and metallization preparation and subsequent treatments are presented to achieve a very low shift in the threshold voltage under neutron radiation of a 10 to 4th power rad (si) total dose.

  19. Radiation shielding materials and containers incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirsky, Steven M. (Greenbelt, MD); Krill, Stephen J. (Arlington, VA); Murray, Alexander P. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound ("PYRUC") shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  20. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  1. DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    T A * S H I E L D * A L A R A * N E U T R O N * ELECTRO N * T E D * I N T E R N A L * C E D * G A M M A * B E T A * S H I E L D * A L A R A * N E U T R O N * E L E C TR ON * TE D * IN T E R N A L * C E D * G A M M A * B E T A * S H I E L D * A L A R A September 2015 DOE 2014 OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE This document is available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http://energy.gov/ehss/occupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii

  2. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  3. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  4. Waveshifters and Scintillators for Ionizing Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Baumgaugh; J.Bishop; D.Karmgard; J.Marchant; M.McKenna; R.Ruchti; M.Vigneault; L.Hernandez; C.Hurlbut

    2007-12-11

    Scintillation and waveshifter materials have been developed for the detection of ionizing radiation in an STTR program between Ludlum Measurements, Inc. and the University of Notre Dame. Several new waveshifter materials have been developed which are comparable in efficiency and faster in fluorescence decay than the standard material Y11 (K27) used in particle physics for several decades. Additionally, new scintillation materials useful for fiber tracking have been developed which have been compared to 3HF. Lastly, work was done on developing liquid scintillators and paint-on scintillators and waveshifters for high radiation environments.

  5. Solids mass flow indication with radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E. (Irwin, PA); Estriplet, Isnard (Irwin, PA)

    1985-06-04

    Method and apparatus for indicating mass flow of a solid particulate material through a rotary feeder. A radiation source and detector are positioned in a manner whereby radiation flux is directed through, and attenuated by, particulate material contained in rotating pockets. A Cesium-137 gamma source can be mounted within the shaft of the feeder, and one or more detectors can be mounted outside of the feeder housing. The detected signal is indicative of the mass of particulate material contained within a given pocket rotating within the feeder.

  6. Pocket radiation dosimeter: dosimeter charger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, F.W.

    1982-03-17

    This invention is a novel pocket-type radiation dosimeter comprising an electrometric radiation dosimeter and a charging circuit therefor. The instrument is especially designed to be amenable to mass production, to have a long shelf life, and to be compact, lightweight, and usable by the layman. The dosimeter proper may be of conventional design. The charging circuit includes a shake-type electrostatic generator, a voltage doubler for integrating generator output voltages of one polarity, and a switch operated by an external permanent magnet.

  7. Radiation effects on corrosion of zirconium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1989-06-01

    From the wide use of zirconium alloys as components in nuclear reactors, has come clear evidence that reactor radiation is a major corrosion parameter. The evidence emerges from comparisons of zirconium alloy corrosion behavior in different reactor types, for example, BWRs versus PWRs and in corresponding reactor loop chemistries; also, oxidation rates differ with location along components such as fuel rods and reactor pressure tubes. In most respects, oxidation effects on power reactor components are paralleled by oxidation behavior on specimens exposed to radiation in reactor loops.

  8. Pocket radiation dosimeter--dosimeter charger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, Frank W. (Norris, TN)

    1984-01-01

    This invention is a novel pocket-type radiation dosimeter comprising an electrometric radiation dosimeter and a charging circuit therefor. The instrument is especially designed to be amenable to mass production, to have a long shelf life, and to be compact, lightweight, and usable by the layman. The dosimeter proper may be of conventional design. The charging circuit includes a shake-type electrostatic generator, a voltage doubler for integrating generator output voltages of one polarity, and a switch operated by an external permanent magnet.

  9. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING RADIATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeder, S.D.

    1962-04-17

    A chemical dosimeter for measuring the progress of a radiation-induced oxidation-reduction reaction is described. The dosimeter comprises a container filled with an aqueous chemical oxidation-reduction system which reacts quantitatively to the radiation. An anode of the group consisting of antimony and tungsten and a cathode of the group consisting of gold and platnium are inserted into the system. Means are provided to stir the system and a potential sensing device is connected across the anode and cathode to detect voltage changes. (AEC)

  10. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSON RL

    2008-07-18

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel.

  11. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.

    2015-07-15

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. Research showed that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  12. Three-dimensional, position-sensitive radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Zhong; Zhang, Feng

    2010-04-06

    Disclosed herein is a method of determining a characteristic of radiation detected by a radiation detector via a multiple-pixel event having a plurality of radiation interactions. The method includes determining a cathode-to-anode signal ratio for a selected interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions based on electron drift time data for the selected interaction, and determining the radiation characteristic for the multiple-pixel event based on both the cathode-to-anode signal ratio and the electron drift time data. In some embodiments, the method further includes determining a correction factor for the radiation characteristic based on an interaction depth of the plurality of radiation interactions, a lateral distance between the selected interaction and a further interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions, and the lateral positioning of the plurality of radiation interactions.

  13. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (14316 Bauer Rd., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Reed, Scott (10308 Leymon Ct., NW., Albuquerque, NM 87114); Shepodd, Timothy J. (1838 Broadmore St., Livermore, CA 94550); Leonard, Leroy E. (4944 Ten Oaks Rd., Dayton, MD 21036); Ellefson, Robert E. (193 Elmwood Dr., Centerville, OH 45459); Gill, John T. (906 E. Linden Ave., Miamisburg, OH 45342); Walko, Robert J. (3215 Blume, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Renschler, Clifford L. (7 Lagarto Rd., Tijeras, NM 87059)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. In the composition, a composite is formed from a carrier material and at least one of the source of the exciting radiation or the component which is capable of interacting with the exciting radiation. The composite is then employed for loading a porous substrate, preferably an aerogel substrate.

  14. Los Alamos Science: Number 23, 1995. Radiation protection and the human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, N.G.

    1995-12-31

    There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the ionizing radiation that surrounds and penetrates us all. Dispel a few of these by taking a leisurely tour of radiation and its properties, of the natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation, and of the way doses are calculated. By damaging DNA and inducing genetic mutations, ionizing radiation can potentially initiate a cell on the road to cancer. The authors review what is currently known about regulation of cellular reproduction, DNA damage and repair, cellular defense mechanisms, and the specific cancer-causing genes that are susceptible to ionizing radiation. A rapid survey of the data on radiation effects in humans shows that high radiation doses increase the risk of cancer, whereas the effects of low doses are very difficult to detect. The hypothetical risks at low doses, which are estimated from the atomic-bomb survivors, are compared to the low-dose data so that the reader can assess the present level of uncertainty. As part of the openness initiative, ten individuals who have worked with plutonium during various periods in the Laboratory`s history were asked to share their experiences including their accidental intakes. The history and prognosis of people who have had plutonium exposures is discussed by the Laboratory`s leading epidemiologist.

  15. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingos, T.I.; Recht, A.; Vicini, F.; Abner, A.; Silver, B.; Harris, J.R. )

    1991-07-01

    The likelihood of radiation pneumonitis and factors associated with its development in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy have not been well established. To assess these, the authors retrospectively reviewed 1624 patients treated between 1968 and 1985. Median follow-up for patients without local or distant failure was 77 months. Patients were treated with either tangential fields alone (n = 508) or tangents with a third field to the supraclavicular (SC) or SC-axillary (AX) region (n = 1116). Lung volume treated in the tangential fields was generally limited by keeping the perpendicular distance (demagnified) at the isocenter from the deep field edges to the posterior chest wall (CLD) to 3 cm or less. Seventeen patients with radiation pneumonitis were identified (1.0%). Radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed when patients presented with cough (15/17, 88%), fever (9/17, 53%), and/or dyspnea (6/17, 35%) and radiographic changes (17/17) following completion of RT. Radiographic infiltrates corresponded to treatment portals in all patients, and in 12 of the 17 patients, returned to baseline within 1-12 months. Five patients had permanent scarring on chest X ray. No patient had late or persistent pulmonary symptoms. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis was correlated with the combined use of chemotherapy (CT) and a third field. Three percent (11/328) of patients treated with a 3-field technique who received chemotherapy developed radiation pneumonitis compared to 0.5% (6 of 1296) for all other patients (p = 0.0001). When patients treated with a 3-field technique received chemotherapy concurrently with radiation therapy, the incidence of radiation pneumonitis was 8.8% (8/92) compared with 1.3% (3/236) for those who received sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p = 0.002).

  16. Methods of and apparatus for radiation measurement, and specifically for in vivo radiation measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1986-08-29

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements rely on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity which operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  17. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  18. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  19. How much radiation is too much?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an airplane flight at 36,000 feet yields a rate of about 0.2 to 0.8 millirem per hour. Chest x-rays range from 4 to 15 millirem, and a bone scan is about 440 millirem. Radiation...

  20. Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A method of sintering ceramic materials following: A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article.