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Sample records for radiation oncology feinberg

  1. Stuart Feinberg | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stuart Feinberg ES&H/QA Coordinator Telephone 630.252.4673 E-mail sfeinberg

  2. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Don . E-mail: donyee@cancerboard.ab.ca; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada.

  3. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  4. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology Plug and Play-The Future of Radiation Oncology?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Rengan, Ramesh; Curran, Bruce; Swerdloff, Stuart; Miettinen, Mika; Field, Colin; Ranjitkar, Sunita; Palta, Jatinder; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To describe the processes and benefits of the integrating healthcare enterprises in radiation oncology (IHE-RO). Methods: The IHE-RO process includes five basic steps. The first step is to identify common interoperability issues encountered in radiation treatment planning and the delivery process. IHE-RO committees partner with vendors to develop solutions (integration profiles) to interoperability problems. The broad application of these integration profiles across a variety of vender platforms is tested annually at the Connectathon event. Demonstration of the seamless integration and transfer of patient data to the potential users are then presented by vendors at the public demonstration event. Users can then integrate these profiles into requests for proposals and vendor contracts by institutions. Results: Incorporation of completed integration profiles into requests for proposals can be done when purchasing new equipment. Vendors can publish IHE integration statements to document the integration profiles supported by their products. As a result, users can reference integration profiles in requests for proposals, simplifying the systems acquisition process. These IHE-RO solutions are now available in many of the commercial radiation oncology-related treatment planning, delivery, and information systems. They are also implemented at cancer care sites around the world. Conclusions: IHE-RO serves an important purpose for the radiation oncology community at large.

  5. The radiation oncology workforce: A focus on medical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Gregg F.; Mobile, Katherine; Yu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists' greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession's current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field.

  6. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  7. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon ranksum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ? P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ? P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results

  8. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, Daniel W.; Spektor, Alexander; Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C.; Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency.

  9. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manley, Stephen Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-06-15

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  10. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Holliday, Emma; Eastwick, Gary; Takita, Cristiane; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  11. Medical Malpractice Claims in Radiation Oncology: A Population-Based Study 1985-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Deborah C.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Fox, Dov; Recht, Abram; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine trends in radiation oncology malpractice claims and expenses during the last 28 years and to compare radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of other specialties. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of closed malpractice claims filed from 1985 to 2012, collected by a nationwide medical liability insurance trade association. We analyzed characteristics and trends among closed claims, indemnity payments (payments to plaintiff), and litigation expenses. We also compared radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of 21 other medical specialties. Time series dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation (2012 was the index year). Results: There were 1517 closed claims involving radiation oncology, of which 342 (22.5%) were paid. Average and median indemnity payments were $276,792 and $122,500, respectively, ranking fifth and eighth, respectively, among the 22 specialty groups. Linear regression modeling of time trends showed decreasing total numbers of claims (β = −1.96 annually, P=.003), increasing average litigation expenses paid (β = +$1472 annually, P≤.001), and no significant changes in average indemnity payments (β = −$681, P=.89). Conclusions: Medical professional liability claims filed against radiation oncologists are not common and have declined in recent years. However, indemnity payments in radiation oncology are large relative to those of many other specialties. In recent years, the average indemnity payment has been stable, whereas litigation expenses have increased.

  12. Modern Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim; Wilson, Lynn D.; Hoppe, Richard T.

    2015-05-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment, either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era.

  13. SU-E-T-524: Web-Based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System (ROIRLS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M; Grover, S; Malik, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Describe a Web-based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: The VA National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and near miss data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. Software used for this program is deployed on the VAs intranet as a Website. All data entry forms (adverse event or near miss reports, work product reports) utilize standard causal, RT process step taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM and ASTRO reports on error reporting (AAPM Work Group Report on Prevention of Errors and ASTROs safety is no accident report). All reported incidents are investigated by the radiation oncology domain experts. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The operational workflow is similar to that of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. This system is also synergistic with ROSIS and SAFRON. Results: The ROIRLS facilitates the collection of data that help in tracking adverse events and near misses and develop new interventions to prevent such incidents. The ROIRLS electronic infrastructure is fully integrated with each registered facility profile data thus minimizing key strokes and multiple entries by the event reporters. Conclusions: OIRLS is expected to improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in the VA and fulfills our goal of Effecting Quality While Treating Safely The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations

  14. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Hoppe, Richard T.; Li, Ye-Xiong; Tsang, Richard; Wirth, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT.

  15. TH-A-16A-01: Image Quality for the Radiation Oncology Physicist: Review of the Fundamentals and Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seibert, J; Imbergamo, P

    2014-06-15

    The expansion and integration of diagnostic imaging technologies such as On Board Imaging (OBI) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) into radiation oncology has required radiation oncology physicists to be responsible for and become familiar with assessing image quality. Unfortunately many radiation oncology physicists have had little or no training or experience in measuring and assessing image quality. Many physicists have turned to automated QA analysis software without having a fundamental understanding of image quality measures. This session will review the basic image quality measures of imaging technologies used in the radiation oncology clinic, such as low contrast resolution, high contrast resolution, uniformity, noise, and contrast scale, and how to measure and assess them in a meaningful way. Additionally a discussion of the implementation of an image quality assurance program in compliance with Task Group recommendations will be presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of automated analysis methods. Learning Objectives: Review and understanding of the fundamentals of image quality. Review and understanding of the basic image quality measures of imaging modalities used in the radiation oncology clinic. Understand how to implement an image quality assurance program and to assess basic image quality measures in a meaningful way.

  16. A Profile of Academic Training Program Directors and Chairs in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To identify objective characteristics and benchmarks for program leadership in academic radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: A study of the 87 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education radiation oncology training program directors (PD) and their chairs was performed. Variables included age, gender, original training department, highest degree, rank, endowed chair assignment, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, and Hirsch index (H-index). Data were gathered from online sources such as departmental websites, NIH RePORTER, and Scopus. Results: There were a total of 87 PD. The median age was 48, and 14 (16%) were MD/PhD. A total of 21 (24%) were female, and rank was relatively equally distributed above instructor. Of the 26 professors, at least 7 (27%) were female. At least 24 (28%) were working at the institution from which they had received their training. A total of 6 individuals held endowed chairs. Only 2 PD had active NIH funding in 2012. The median H-index was 12 (range, 0-51) but the index dropped to 9 (range, 0-38) when those who served as both PD and chair were removed from the group. A total of 76 chairs were identified at the time of the study. The median age was 55, and 9 (12%) were MD/PhD. A total of 7 (9%) of the chairs were female, and rank was professor for all with the exception of 1 who was listed as “Head” and was an associate professor. Of the 76 chairs, at least 10 (13%) were working at the institution from which they received their training. There were a total of 21 individuals with endowed chairs. A total of 13 (17%) had NIH funding in 2012. The median H-index was 29 (range, 3-60). Conclusions: These data provide benchmarks for individuals and departments evaluating leadership positions in the field of academic radiation oncology. Such data are useful for evaluating leadership trends over time and comparing academic radiation oncology with other specialties.

  17. Radiation oncology career decision variables for graduating trainees seeking positions in 2003-2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Lynn D. . E-mail: lynn.wilson@yale.edu; Flynn, Daniel F.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology trainees must consider an array of variables when deciding upon an academic or private practice career path. This prospective evaluation of the 2004 graduating radiation oncology trainees, evaluates such variables and provides additional descriptive data. Methods: A survey that included 15 questions (one subjective, eleven categorical, and 3 continuous variables) was mailed to the 144 graduating radiation oncology trainees in United States programs in January of 2004. Questions were designed to gather information regarding factors that may have influenced career path choices. The responses were anonymous, and no identifying information was sought. Survey data were collated and analyzed for differences in both categorical and continuous variables as they related to choice of academic or private practice career path. Results: Sixty seven (47%) of the surveys were returned. Forty-five percent of respondents indicated pursuit of an academic career. All respondents participated in research during training with 73% participating in research publication authorship. Post graduate year-3 was the median in which career path was chosen, and 20% thought that a fellowship position was 'perhaps' necessary to secure an academic position. Thirty percent of the respondents revealed that the timing of the American Board of Radiology examination influenced their career path decision. Eighteen variables were offered as possibly influencing career path choice within the survey, and the top five identified by those seeking an academic path were: (1) colleagues, (2) clinical research, (3) teaching, (4) geography, (5) and support staff. For those seeking private practice, the top choices were: (1) lifestyle, (2) practice environment, (3) patient care, (4) geography, (5) colleagues. Female gender (p = 0.064), oral meeting presentation (p = 0.053), and international meeting presentation (p 0.066) were the variables most significantly associated with pursuing an

  18. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Kevin L. Moiseenko, Vitali; Kagadis, George C.; McNutt, Todd R.; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-15

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authors contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.

  19. Delayed Workforce Entry and High Emigration Rates for Recent Canadian Radiation Oncology Graduates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewen, Shaun K.; Halperin, Ross; Lefresne, Shilo; Trotter, Theresa; Stuckless, Teri; Brundage, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the employment status and location of recent Canadian radiation oncology (RO) graduates and to identify current workforce entry trends. Methods and Materials: A fill-in-the-blank spreadsheet was distributed to all RO program directors in December 2013 and June 2014, requesting the employment status and location of their graduates over the last 3 years. Visa trainee graduates were excluded. Results: Response rate from program directors was 100% for both survey administrations. Of 101 graduates identified, 99 (98%) had known employment status and location. In the December survey, 5 2013 graduates (16%), 17 2012 graduates (59%), and 18 2011 graduates (75%) had permanent staff employment. Six months later, 5 2014 graduates (29%), 15 2013 graduates (48%), 24 2012 graduates (83%), and 21 2011 graduates (88%) had secured staff positions. Fellowships and temporary locums were common for those without staff employment. The proportion of graduates with staff positions abroad increased from 22% to 26% 6 months later. Conclusions: Workforce entry for most RO graduates was delayed but showed steady improvement with longer time after graduation. High emigration rates for jobs abroad signify domestic employment challenges for newly certified, Canadian-trained radiation oncologists. Coordination on a national level is required to address and regulate radiation oncologist supply and demand disequilibrium in Canada.

  20. Validation and Simplification of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jing; Wang Meihua; Won, Minhee; Shaw, Edward G.; Coughlin, Christopher; Curran, Walter J.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Previous recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of patients with malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] and anaplastic astrocytoma [AA]) produced six prognostic groups (I-VI) classified by six factors. We sought here to determine whether the classification for GBM could be improved by using an updated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) GBM database excluding AA and by considering additional baseline variables. Methods and Materials: The new analysis considered 42 baseline variables and 1,672 GBM patients from the expanded RTOG glioma database. Patients receiving radiation only were excluded such that all patients received radiation+carmustine. 'Radiation dose received' was replaced with 'radiation dose assigned.' The new RPA models were compared with the original model by applying them to a test dataset comprising 488 patients from six other RTOG trials. Fitness of the original and new models was evaluated using explained variation. Results: The original RPA model explained more variations in survival in the test dataset than did the new models (20% vs. 15%) and was therefore chosen for further analysis. It was reduced by combining Classes V and VI to produce three prognostic classes (Classes III, IV, and V+VI), as Classes V and VI had indistinguishable survival in the test dataset. The simplified model did not further improve performance (explained variation 18% vs. 20%) but is easier to apply because it involves only four variables: age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. Applying this simplified model to the updated GBM database resulted in three distinct classes with median survival times of 17.1, 11.2, and 7.5 months for Classes III, IV, and V+VI, respectively. Conclusions: The final model, the simplified original RPA model combining Classes V and VI, resulted in three distinct prognostic groups defined by age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. This classification will be used

  1. Patient-Physician Communication About Complementary and Alternative Medicine in a Radiation Oncology Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge Jin; Fishman, Jessica; Annenberg School for Communication at University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Vapiwala, Neha; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Li, Susan Q.; Desai, Krupali; Xie, Sharon X.; Mao, Jun J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the extensive use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among cancer patients, patient-physician communication regarding CAM therapies remains limited. This study quantified the extent of patient-physician communication about CAM and identified factors associated with its discussion in radiation therapy (RT) settings. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 305 RT patients at an urban academic cancer center. Patients with different cancer types were recruited in their last week of RT. Participants self-reported their demographic characteristics, health status, CAM use, patient-physician communication regarding CAM, and rationale for/against discussing CAM therapies with physicians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify relationships between demographic/clinical variables and patients' discussion of CAM with radiation oncologists. Results: Among the 305 participants, 133 (43.6%) reported using CAM, and only 37 (12.1%) reported discussing CAM therapies with their radiation oncologists. In multivariate analyses, female patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.98) and patients with full-time employment (AOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.81) were less likely to discuss CAM with their radiation oncologists. CAM users (AOR 4.28, 95% CI 1.93-9.53) were more likely to discuss CAM with their radiation oncologists than were non-CAM users. Conclusions: Despite the common use of CAM among oncology patients, discussions regarding these treatments occur rarely in the RT setting, particularly among female and full-time employed patients. Clinicians and patients should incorporate discussions of CAM to guide its appropriate use and to maximize possible benefit while minimizing potential harm.

  2. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  3. Emergence of Integrated Urology-Radiation Oncology Practices in the State of Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jhaveri, Pavan M. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Section of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Sun Zhuyi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ballas, Leslie [Valley Radiotherapy Associates Medical Group, Manhattan Beach, California (United States)] [Valley Radiotherapy Associates Medical Group, Manhattan Beach, California (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang Jing [Division of Quantitative Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Division of Quantitative Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: BSmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Integrated urology-radiation oncology (RO) practices have been advocated as a means to improve community-based prostate cancer care by joining urologic and radiation care in a single-practice environment. However, little is known regarding the scope and actual physical integration of such practices. We sought to characterize the emergence of such practices in Texas, their extent of physical integration, and their potential effect on patient travel times for radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A telephone survey identified integrated urology-RO practices, defined as practices owned by urologists that offer RO services. Geographic information software was used to determine the proximity of integrated urology-RO clinic sites with respect to the state's population. We calculated patient travel time and distance from each integrated urology-RO clinic offering urologic services to the RO treatment facility owned by the integrated practice and to the nearest nonintegrated (independent) RO facility. We compared these times and distances using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 229 urology practices identified, 12 (5%) offered integrated RO services, and 182 (28%) of 640 Texas urologists worked in such practices. Approximately 53% of the state population resides within 10 miles of an integrated urology-RO clinic site. Patients with a diagnosis of prostate cancer at an integrated urology-RO clinic site travel a mean of 19.7 miles (26.1 min) from the clinic to reach the RO facility owned by the integrated urology-RO practice vs 5.9 miles (9.2 min) to reach the nearest nonintegrated RO facility (P<.001). Conclusions: Integrated urology-RO practices are common in Texas and are generally clustered in urban areas. In most integrated practices, the urology clinics and the integrated RO facilities are not at the same location, and driving times and distances from the clinic to the integrated RO facility exceed those from the clinic to the nearest

  4. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S.; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T.; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N. George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    use of ISRT has not yet been validated in a formal study, it is more conservative than INRT, accounting for suboptimal information and appropriately designed for safe local disease control. The goal of modern smaller field radiation therapy is to reduce both treatment volume and treatment dose while maintaining efficacy and minimizing acute and late sequelae. This review is a consensus of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) Steering Committee regarding the modern approach to RT in the treatment of HL, outlining a new concept of ISRT in which reduced treatment volumes are planned for the effective control of involved sites of HL. Nodal and extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are covered separately by ILROG guidelines.

  5. Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flippo, Kirk A; Gaillard, Sandrine A; Offermann, D T; Cobble, J A; Schmitt, M J; Gautier, D C; Kwan, T J T; Montgomery, D S; Kluge, Thomas; Bussmann, Micheal; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Gall, B; Geissel, M; Korgan, G; Kovaleski, S; Lockard, T; Malekos, S; Schollmeier, M; Sentoku, Y; Cowan, T E

    2010-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  6. Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flippo, K. A.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Gautier, D. C.; Kwan, T. J.; Montgomery, D. S.; Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Gall, B.; Kovaleski, S.; Geissel, M.; Schollmeier, M.; Korgan, G.; Malekos, S.; Lockard, T.

    2010-11-04

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  7. A 10-Year Analysis of American Society for Radiation Oncology Junior Faculty Career Development Awards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimple, Randall J.; Kao, Gary D.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Between 2000 and 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) awarded 22 Junior Faculty Career Development Awards (JFA) totaling $4.4 million. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these awards on the grantees' career development, including current position, publications, and subsequent independent grant funding. Methods: Each awardee was requested via email and telephone to provide an updated curriculum vitae, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) biosketch, and information regarding current position of employment. Twenty-one of the 22 JFA recipients complied. Reported grant funding was extracted from each candidate's CV, and the amounts of NIH grants obtained were confirmed via NIH REPORTER. Reported publications were confirmed via PubMed. Results: All survey respondents (21 of 21) have remained in academic positions. Subsequent aggregate grant funding totaled more than $25 million (range, $0-$4.1 million), 5.9 times the initial investment. NIH grant funding totaled almost $15 million, 3 times the initial investment. Awardees have published an average of 34.6 publications (range, 0-123) for an overall rate of 4.5 papers/year (range, 1-11). Conclusions: ASTRO JFAs over the past decade have been strongly associated with grantees remaining in academic positions, success in attracting private and NIH grants, and publication productivity. In an era of dwindling federal research funding, the support provided by the ASTRO JFA may be especially helpful to support the research careers of promising junior faculty members.

  8. Feasibility of Economic Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 91-11 Using Medicare Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konski, Andre; Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Owen, Jean; Paulus, Rebecca; Cooper, Jay; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: The specific aim of this analysis was to evaluate the feasibility of performing a cost-effectiveness analysis using Medicare data from patients treated on a randomized Phase III clinical trial. Methods and Materials: Cost data included Medicare Part A and Part B costs from all providers-inpatient, outpatient, skilled nursing facility, home health, hospice, and physicians-and were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for patients eligible for Medicare, treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9111 between 1992 and 1996. The 47-month expected discounted (annual discount rate of 3%) cost for each arm of the trial was calculated in 1996 dollars, with Kaplan-Meier sampling average estimates of survival probabilities for each month and mean monthly costs. Overall and disease-free survival was also discounted 3%/year. The analysis was performed from a payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated comparing the chemotherapy arms to the radiation alone arm. Results: Of the 547 patients entered, Medicare cost data and clinical outcomes were available for 66 patients. Reasons for exclusion included no RTOG follow-up, Medicare HMO enrollment, no Medicare claims since trial entry, and trial entry after 1996. Differences existed between groups in tumor characteristics, toxicity, and survival, all which could affect resource utilization. Conclusions: Although we were able to test the methodology of economic analysis alongside a clinical trial using Medicare data, the results may be difficult to translate to the entire trial population because of non-random missing data. Methods to improve Medicare data capture and matching to clinical trial samples are required.

  9. Implementation of Remote 3-Dimensional Image Guided Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James M.; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Parker, William; Breen, Stephen; Yin Fangfang; Cai Jing; Papiez, Lech S.; Li, X. Allen; Bednarz, Greg; Chen Wenzhou; Xiao Ying

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the process and initial experience of remote credentialing of three-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as part of the quality assurance (QA) of submitted data for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials; and to identify major issues resulting from this process and analyze the review results on patient positioning shifts. Methods and Materials: Image guided radiation therapy datasets including in-room positioning CT scans and daily shifts applied were submitted through the Image Guided Therapy QA Center from institutions for the IGRT credentialing process, as required by various RTOG trials. A centralized virtual environment is established at the RTOG Core Laboratory, containing analysis tools and database infrastructure for remote review by the Physics Principal Investigators of each protocol. The appropriateness of IGRT technique and volumetric image registration accuracy were evaluated. Registration accuracy was verified by repeat registration with a third-party registration software system. With the accumulated review results, registration differences between those obtained by the Physics Principal Investigators and from the institutions were analyzed for different imaging sites, shift directions, and imaging modalities. Results: The remote review process was successfully carried out for 87 3D cases (out of 137 total cases, including 2-dimensional and 3D) during 2010. Frequent errors in submitted IGRT data and challenges in the review of image registration for some special cases were identified. Workarounds for these issues were developed. The average differences of registration results between reviewers and institutions ranged between 2 mm and 3 mm. Large discrepancies in the superior-inferior direction were found for megavoltage CT cases, owing to low spatial resolution in this direction for most megavoltage CT cases. Conclusion: This first experience indicated that remote review for 3D IGRT as part of QA

  10. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.; Filippi, Andrea R.; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A.; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  11. Workflow Enhancement (WE) Improves Safety in Radiation Oncology: Putting the WE and Team Together

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Samuel T.; Meier, Tim; Hugebeck, Brian; Reddy, Chandana A.; Godley, Andrew; Kolar, Matt; Suh, John H.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To review the impact of a workflow enhancement (WE) team in reducing treatment errors that reach patients within radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: It was determined that flaws in our workflow and processes resulted in errors reaching the patient. The process improvement team (PIT) was developed in 2010 to reduce errors and was later modified in 2012 into the current WE team. Workflow issues and solutions were discussed in PIT and WE team meetings. Due to tensions within PIT that resulted in employee dissatisfaction, there was a 6-month hiatus between the end of PIT and initiation of the renamed/redesigned WE team. In addition to the PIT/WE team forms, the department had separate incident forms to document treatment errors reaching the patient. These incident forms are rapidly reviewed and monitored by our departmental and institutional quality and safety groups, reflecting how seriously these forms are treated. The number of these incident forms was compared before and after instituting the WE team. Results: When PIT was disbanded, a number of errors seemed to occur in succession, requiring reinstitution and redesign of this team, rebranded the WE team. Interestingly, the number of incident forms per patient visits did not change when comparing 6 months during the PIT, 6 months during the hiatus, and the first 6 months after instituting the WE team (P=.85). However, 6 to 12 months after instituting the WE team, the number of incident forms per patient visits decreased (P=.028). After the WE team, employee satisfaction and commitment to quality increased as demonstrated by Gallup surveys, suggesting a correlation to the WE team. Conclusions: A team focused on addressing workflow and improving processes can reduce the number of errors reaching the patient. Time is necessary before a reduction in errors reaching patients will be seen.

  12. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Translational Research Program Stem Cell Symposium: Incorporating Stem Cell Hypotheses into Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, Wendy A. Bristow, Robert G.; Clarke, Michael F.; Coppes, Robert P.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Duda, Dan G.; Fike, John R.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Hill, Richard P.; Jordan, Craig T.; Milas, Luka; Pajonk, Frank; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Chen Yuhchyau

    2009-08-01

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease sites. This report summarizes the major topics discussed and the future directions that research should take. Major conclusions of the symposium were that the flow cytometry of multiple markers in fresh tissue would remain the standard technique of evaluating cancer-initiating cells and that surrogates need to be developed for both experimental and clinical use.

  13. SU-F-18C-06: Prospective Patient Evaluation of Iterative Reconstruction in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, R; Vance, S; Cattaneo, R; Schultz, L; Elshaikh, M; Chetty, I; Glide-Hurst, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work incorporates iterative reconstruction (IR) into a dose reduction study to characterize image quality metrics, delineation, and dosimetric assessment, with the goal of reducing imaging dose in Radiation Oncology. Methods: Three-dimensional noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis characterized noise magnitude/texture (120 kVp, 50–200 mAs, IR levels 1–6 yielding noise reduction of 0.89–0.55 compared to filtered backprojection (FBP)). Task-specific Modulation Transfer Functions (MTFtask) were characterized across varied subject contrasts. A prospective dose reduction study (500 to 150 mAs) was conducted for 12 patients (43 inter-fraction CTs) for high-dose rate brachytherapy. Three physicians performed qualitative image assessment between full-dose FBP (FD-FBP, 500 mAs), low-dose FBP (LD-FBP, 150–250 mAs), and low-dose IRL5-6 (LD-IR) scans for image noise, cuff/bladder interface detectability, spatial resolution, texture, and segmentation confidence. Comparisons between LD-FBP and LD-IR were conducted for the following metrics: delineation (bladder and rectum evaluated via overlap indices (OI) and Dice similarity coefficients (DSC)), noise, boundary changes, dose calculation, and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Results: NPS showed ∼50% reduction in noise magnitude and ∼0.1 1/mm spatial frequency shift with IRL6. The largest MTFtask decrease between FBP and IR was 0.08 A.U. Qualitative patient image evaluation revealed LD-IR was equivalent or slightly worse than FD-FBP, and superior to LD-FBP for all metrics except low contrast interface and texture. The largest CT number discrepancy from FBP occurred at a bone/tissue interface using IRL6 (−1.2 ± 4.9 HU (range: −17.6 – 12.5 HU)). No significant contour differences (OIs and DSCs = 0.85 – 0.95) and dose calculation discrepancy (<0.02%) were observed. DRRs preserved anatomical detail and demonstrated <2% difference in intensity between LD-FBP and LD-IRL6. Conclusion: While

  14. Internet-Based Survey Evaluating Use of Pain Medications and Attitudes of Radiation Oncology Patients Toward Pain Intervention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simone, Charles B. Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lung (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.

  15. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Results From the Radiation Oncology Academic Development and Mentorship Assessment Project (ROADMAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Fuller, Clifton D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze survey information regarding mentorship practices and cross-correlate the results with objective metrics of academic productivity among academic radiation oncologists at US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited residency training programs. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved survey for the Radiation Oncology Academic Development and Mentorship Assessment Project (ROADMAP) was sent to 1031 radiation oncologists employed at an ACGME-accredited residency training program and administered using an international secure web application designed exclusively to support data capture for research studies. Data collected included demographics, presence of mentorship, and the nature of specific mentoring activities. Productivity metrics, including number of publications, number of citations, h-index, and date of first publication, were collected for each survey respondent from a commercially available online database, and m-index was calculated. Results: A total of 158 academic radiation oncologists completed the survey, 96 of whom reported having an academic/scientific mentor. Faculty with a mentor had higher numbers of publications, citations, and h- and m-indices. Differences in gender and race/ethnicity were not associated with significant differences in mentorship rates, but those with a mentor were more likely to have a PhD degree and were more likely to have more time protected for research. Bivariate fit regression modeling showed a positive correlation between a mentor's h-index and their mentee's h-index (R{sup 2} = 0.16; P<.001). Linear regression also showed significant correlates of higher h-index, in addition to having a mentor (P=.001), included a longer career duration (P<.001) and fewer patients in treatment (P=.02). Conclusions: Mentorship is widely believed to be important to career development and academic productivity. These results emphasize the importance of identifying and

  16. Results of the 2012-2013 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Job Search and Career Planning Survey of Graduating Residents in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Kharofa, Jordan; Zeidan, Youssef H.; Tung, Kaity; Gondi, Vinai; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the timeline used by postgraduate year (PGY)-5 radiation oncology residents during the job application process and the factors most important to them when deciding on a first job. Methods and Materials: In 2012 and 2013, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide electronic survey of PGY-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 2 months of their training. Descriptive statistics are reported. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Surveys were completed by 180 of 314 residents contacted. The median time to start networking for the purpose of employment was January PGY-4; to start contacting practices, complete and upload a curriculum vitae to a job search website, and use the American Society of Radiation Oncology Career Center was June PGY-4; to obtain letters of recommendation was July PGY-5; to start interviewing was August PGY-5; to finish interviewing was December PGY-5; and to accept a contract was January PGY-5. Those applying for a community position began interviewing at an earlier average time than did those applying for an academic position (P=.04). The most important factors to residents when they evaluated job offers included (in order from most to least important) a collegial environment, geographic location, emphasis on best patient care, quality of support staff and facility, and multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Factors that were rated significantly different between subgroups based on the type of position applied for included adequate mentoring, dedicated research time, access to clinical trials, amount of time it takes to become a partner, geographic location, size of group, starting salary, and amount of vacation and days off. Conclusions: The residents' perspective on the job application process over 2 years is documented to provide a resource for current and future residents and employers to use.

  17. SU-E-E-03: Developing Solutions to Critical Radiation Oncology Challenges in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenton, O; Dachi, J; Metz, J; Avery, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Develop solutions to critical medical physics challenges in Tanzania. Methods: In September of 2013 we began working with Jumaa Bin Dachi, a Therapy Physicist at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We developed a bi-lateral learning partnership over the course of eight qualitative Skype meetings with Jumaa. From these meetings we have ascertained that there is a gap between the installation of new equipment and treating patients. This gap has often been overlooked by international partners attempting to improve radiation therapy access. Relationships with academic institutions abroad can fill these gaps, and lead to sustained care of patients needing radiation. Results: Our efforts are best given in a supporting role to help develop solutions and new technology that can reduce the burden on the Medical Physicist. Solutions may include: training material, support for radiation therapy classes, development of appropriate local protocols, and peer-review on documents being produced. New technology needs to focus around simple and easy field shaping, improved patient imaging systems, and systems for patient set-up. We believe our work can help alleviate some of the burdens faced by this institute. Conclusion: While we are just in the beginning stage of this partnership, we believe there is great potential for success between both parties. We hope that the Ocean Road Cancer Institute will benefit from potential funding and resources by partnering with a High Income Country to develop affordable solutions to clinical problems in Tanzania.

  18. Advances in nuclear data and all-particle transport for radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R.M.; Chadwick, M.B.; Chandler, W.P.; Hartmann Siantar, C.L.; Westbrook, C.K.

    1994-05-01

    Fast neutrons have been used to treat over 15,000 cancer patients worldwide and proton therapy is rapidly emerging as a treatment of choice for tumors around critical anatomical structures. Neutron therapy requires evaluated data to {approximately}70 MeV while proton therapy requires data to {approximately}250 MeV. Collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the medical physics community has revealed limitations in nuclear cross section evaluations and radiation transport capabilities that have prevented neutron and proton radiation therapy centers from using Monte Carlo calculations to accurately predict dose in patients. These evaluations require energy- and angle-dependent cross sections for secondary neutrons, charged-particles and recoil nuclei. We are expanding the LLNL nuclear databases to higher energies for biologically important elements and have developed a three-dimensional, all-particle Monte Carlo radiation transport code that uses computer-assisted-tomography (CT) images as the input mesh. This code, called PEREGRINE calculates dose distributions in the human body and can be used as a tool to determine the dependence of dose on details of the evaluated nuclear data. In this paper, we will review the status of the nuclear data required for neutron and proton therapy, describe the capabilities of the PEREGRINE package, and show the effects of tissue inhomogeneities on dose distribution.

  19. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Aleman, Berthe; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Dharmarajan, Kavita; Ng, Andrea; Ricardi, Umberto; Wirth, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  20. The Impact of New Technologies on Radiation Oncology Events and Trends in the Past Decade: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Pastrana, Gerri; Amols, Howard I.; Killen, Aileen; Alektiar, Kaled

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To review the type and frequency of patient events from external-beam radiotherapy over a time period sufficiently long to encompass significant technology changes. Methods and Materials: Ten years of quality assurance records from January 2001 through December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the frequency of events affecting patient treatment from four radiation oncology process steps: simulation, treatment planning, data entry/transfer, and treatment delivery. Patient events were obtained from manual records and, from May 2007 onward, from an institution-wide database and reporting system. Events were classified according to process step of origination and segregated according to the most frequently observed event types. Events from the institution-wide database were evaluated to determine time trends. Results: The overall event rate was 0.93% per course of treatment, with a downward trend over time led by a decrease in treatment delivery events. The frequency of certain event types, particularly in planning and treatment delivery, changed significantly over the course of the study, reflecting technologic and process changes. Treatments involving some form of manual intervention carried an event risk four times higher than those relying heavily on computer-aided design and delivery. Conclusions: Although the overall event rate was low, areas for improvement were identified, including manual calculations and data entry, late-day treatments, and staff overreliance on computer systems. Reducing the incidence of pretreatment events is of particular importance because these were more likely to occur several times before detection and were associated with larger dosimetric impact. Further improvements in quality assurance systems and reporting are imperative, given the advent of electronic charting, increasing reliance on computer systems, and the potentially severe consequences that can arise from mistakes involving complex intensity

  1. SU-E-P-02: Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Houston QA Center (RPC) Credentialing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amador, C; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Molineu, A; Followill, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide information pertaining to IROC Houston QA Center's (RPC) credentialing process for institutions participating in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: IROC Houston issues credentials for NCI sponsored study groups. Requirements for credentialing might include any combination of questionnaires, knowledge assessment forms, benchmarks, or phantom irradiations. Credentialing requirements for specific protocols can be found on IROC Houston's website (irochouston.mdanderson.org). The website also houses the credentialing status inquiry (CSI) form. Once an institution has reviewed the protocol's credentialing requirements, a CSI form should be completed and submitted to IROC Houston. This form is used both to request whether requirements have been met as well as to notify IROC Houston that the institution requests credentialing for a specific protocol. IROC Houston will contact the institution to discuss any delinquent requirements. Once the institution has met all requirements IROC Houston issues a credentialing letter to the institution and will inform study groups and other IROC offices of the credentials. Institutions can all phone the IROC Houston office to initiate credentialing or ask any credentialing related questions. Results: Since 2010 IROC has received 1313 credentialing status inquiry forms. We received 317 in 2010, 266 in 2011, 324 in 2012, and 406 in 2013. On average we receive 35 phone calls per week with multiple types of credentialing questions. Decisions regarding credentialing status are based on the protocol specifications and previous completed credentialing by the institution. In some cases, such as for general IMRT credentialing, up to 5 sites may be credentialed based on the credentialing of one main center. Each of these situations is handled individually. Conclusion: IROC Houston will issue radiation therapy credentials for the NCI trials in the National Clinical Trials Network. Credentialing requirements and the CSI form

  2. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Mack Silvio, Michelle de; Rebbick, Timothy; Grignon, David; Rotman, Marvin; Wolkov, Harvey; Fisher, Barbara; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William U.; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah Ph.D.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) {+-} 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out.

  3. Factors that Determine Academic Versus Private Practice Career Interest in Radiation Oncology Residents in the United States: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Daniel T.; Shaffer, Jenny L.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wilson, Lynn D.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine what factors US radiation oncology residents consider when choosing academic or nonacademic careers. Methods and Materials: A 20-question online survey was developed and sent to all US radiation oncology residents to assess factors that influence their career interest. Residents were asked to rate their interest in academics (A) versus private practice (PP) on a 0 (strong interest in A) to 100 (strong interest in PP) scale. Responses were classified as A (0-30), undecided (40-60), and PP (70-100). Residents were also asked to rank 10 factors that most strongly influenced their career interest. Results: Three hundred thirty-one responses were collected, of which 264 were complete and form the basis for this analysis. Factors that correlated with interest in A included having a PhD (P=.018), postgraduate year level (P=.0006), research elective time (P=.0003), obtaining grant funding during residency (P=.012), and number of publications before residency (P=.0001), but not number of abstracts accepted in the past year (P=.65) or publications during residency (P=.67). The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in A were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) research opportunities during residency. The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in PP were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) academic pressure and obligations. Conclusions: Interest in A correlated with postgraduate year level, degree, and research time during residency. Publications before but not during residency correlated with academic interest, and baseline interest was the most influential factor. These data can be used by residency program directors to better understand what influences residents' career interest.

  4. SU-E-T-544: A Radiation Oncology-Specific Multi-Institutional Federated Database: Initial Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, K; Phillips, M; Fishburn, M; Evans, K; Banerian, S; Mayr, N; Wong, J; McNutt, T; Moore, J; Robertson, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a common database structure and user-friendly web-browser based data collection tools across several medical institutions to better support evidence-based clinical decision making and comparative effectiveness research through shared outcomes data. Methods: A consortium of four academic medical centers agreed to implement a federated database, known as Oncospace. Initial implementation has addressed issues of differences between institutions in workflow and types and breadth of structured information captured. This requires coordination of data collection from departmental oncology information systems (OIS), treatment planning systems, and hospital electronic medical records in order to include as much as possible the multi-disciplinary clinical data associated with a patients care. Results: The original database schema was well-designed and required only minor changes to meet institution-specific data requirements. Mobile browser interfaces for data entry and review for both the OIS and the Oncospace database were tailored for the workflow of individual institutions. Federation of database queries--the ultimate goal of the project--was tested using artificial patient data. The tests serve as proof-of-principle that the system as a whole--from data collection and entry to providing responses to research queries of the federated database--was viable. The resolution of inter-institutional use of patient data for research is still not completed. Conclusions: The migration from unstructured data mainly in the form of notes and documents to searchable, structured data is difficult. Making the transition requires cooperation of many groups within the department and can be greatly facilitated by using the structured data to improve clinical processes and workflow. The original database schema design is critical to providing enough flexibility for multi-institutional use to improve each institution s ability to study outcomes, determine best practices

  5. Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Paulus, Rebecca; Ettinger, David S.; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.; Choy, Hak

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538

  6. NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0822: A Phase 2 Study of Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination With Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin for Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Theodore S.; Moughan, Jennifer; Garofalo, Michael C.; Bendell, Johanna; Berger, Adam C.; Oldenburg, Nicklas B.E.; Anne, Pramila Rani; Perera, Francisco; Jabbour, Salma K.; Nowlan, Adam; DeNittis, Albert; Crane, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity of neoadjuvant chemoradiation with capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in cT3-4 rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized, nonmetastatic T3 or T4 rectal cancer <12 cm from the anal verge were enrolled in a prospective, multi-institutional, single-arm study of preoperative chemoradiation. Patients received 45 Gy with IMRT in 25 fractions, followed by a 3-dimensional conformal boost of 5.4 Gy in 3 fractions with concurrent capecitabine/oxaliplatin (CAPOX). Surgery was performed 4 to 8 weeks after the completion of therapy. Patients were recommended to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy after surgery. The primary endpoint of the study was acute grade 2 to 5 GI toxicity. Seventy-one patients provided 80% probability to detect at least a 12% reduction in the specified GI toxicity with the treatment of CAPOX and IMRT, at a significance level of .10 (1-sided). Results: Seventy-nine patients were accrued, of whom 68 were evaluable. Sixty-one patients (89.7%) had cT3 disease, and 37 (54.4%) had cN (+) disease. Postoperative chemotherapy was given to 42 of 68 patients. Fifty-eight patients had target contours drawn per protocol, 5 patients with acceptable variation, and 5 patients with unacceptable variations. Thirty-five patients (51.5%) experienced grade ≥2 GI toxicity, 12 patients (17.6%) experienced grade 3 or 4 diarrhea, and pCR was achieved in 10 patients (14.7%). With a median follow-up time of 3.98 years, the 4-year rate of locoregional failure was 7.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0%-13.7%). The 4-year rates of OS and DFS were 82.9% (95% CI: 70.1%-90.6%) and 60.6% (95% CI: 47.5%-71.4%), respectively. Conclusion: The use of IMRT in neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer did not reduce the rate of GI toxicity.

  7. Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilling, Thomas J.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Garden, Adam S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Kian Ang, K.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

  8. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Stentz, Natalie Clark; Woodward, Wendy A.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. Results: A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; P<.001), had a PhD (33% vs 19.3%, respectively; P=.033), were married (99% vs 43%, respectively; P<.001), and had a partner who did not work (24.7% vs 1.9%, respectively; <.001). There were no differences in the number of manuscripts published or the number of residents who expressed likelihood of pursing an academic career by parental status. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; P<.001) and reported that their partner performed a greater percentage of childcare duties (70% [IQR: 60%-80%] vs 35% [IQR: 20%-50%], respectively; P<.001). Conclusions: Pregnancy and parenthood are common during residency. Female residents are frequently responsible for more childcare duties than males

  9. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Theodore S.; Bosch, Walter R.; Krishnan, Sunil; Kim, Tae K.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Seong, Jinsil; Haddock, Michael G.; Cheng, Jason C.; Feng, Mary U.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Roberge, David; and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment planning

  10. A Phase 3 Trial of 2 Years of Androgen Suppression and Radiation Therapy With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase 3 Randomized Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 9902

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, Seth A.; Hunt, Daniel; Sartor, A. Oliver; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Gomella, Leonard; Grignon, David; Rajan, Raghu; Kerlin, Kevin J.; Jones, Christopher U.; Dobelbower, Michael; Shipley, William U.; Zeitzer, Kenneth; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Donavanik, Viroon; Rotman, Marvin; Hartford, Alan C.; Michalski, Jeffrey; Seider, Michael; Kim, Harold; and others

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Long-term (LT) androgen suppression (AS) with radiation therapy (RT) is a standard treatment of high-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9902 was a randomized trial testing the hypothesis that adjuvant combination chemotherapy (CT) with paclitaxel, estramustine, and oral etoposide plus LT AS plus RT would improve overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Patients with high-risk PCa (prostate-specific antigen 20-100 ng/mL and Gleason score [GS] ≥7 or clinical stage ≥T2 and GS ≥8) were randomized to RT and AS (AS + RT) alone or with adjuvant CT (AS + RT + CT). CT was given as four 21-day cycles, delivered beginning 28 days after 70.2 Gy of RT. AS was given as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for 24 months, beginning 2 months before RT plus an oral antiandrogen for 4 months before and during RT. The study was designed based on a 6% improvement in OS from 79% to 85% at 5 years, with 90% power and a 2-sided alpha of 0.05. Results: A total of 397 patients (380 eligible) were randomized. The patients had high-risk PCa, 68% with GS 8 to 10 and 34% T3 to T4 tumors, and median prostate-specific antigen of 22.6 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 9.2 years. The trial closed early because of excess thromboembolic toxicity in the CT arm. The 10-year results for all randomized patients revealed no significant difference between the AS + RT and AS + RT + CT arms in OS (65% vs 63%; P=.81), biochemical failure (58% vs 54%; P=.82), local progression (11% vs 7%; P=.09), distant metastases (16% vs 14%; P=.42), or disease-free survival (22% vs 26%; P=.61). Conclusions: NRG Oncology RTOG 9902 showed no significant differences in OS, biochemical failure, local progression, distant metastases, or disease-free survival with the addition of adjuvant CT to LT AS + RT. The trial results provide valuable data regarding the natural history of high-risk PCa treated with LT AS + RT and have implications for

  11. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Schell, Michael C.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Komaki, Ritsuko; Souhami, Luis; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Khuntia, Deepak; Demas, William; Shah, Sunjay A.; Nedzi, Lucien A.; Perry, Gad; Suh, John H.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  12. Dummy Run of Quality Assurance Program in a Phase 3 Randomized Trial Investigating the Role of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation in Breast Cancer Patients: Korean Radiation Oncology Group 08-06 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Yoonsun; Kim, Jun Won; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Su Ssan; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Park, Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Dong Won; Lee, Kyu Chan; Suh, Hyun Suk; Kim, Jin Hee; Shin, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 study protocol allowed radiation therapy (RT) technique to include or exclude breast cancer patients from receiving radiation therapy to the internal mammary lymph node (IMN). The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric differences between the 2 groups and potential influence on clinical outcome by a dummy run procedure. Methods and Materials: All participating institutions were asked to produce RT plans without irradiation (Arm 1) and with irradiation to the IMN (Arm 2) for 1 breast-conservation treatment case (breast-conserving surgery [BCS]) and 1 mastectomy case (modified radical mastectomy [MRM]) whose computed tomography images were provided. We assessed interinstitutional variations in IMN delineation and evaluated the dose-volume histograms of the IMN and normal organs. A reference IMN was delineated by an expert panel group based on the study guidelines. Also, we analyzed the potential influence of actual dose variation observed in this study on patient survival. Results: Although physicians intended to exclude the IMN within the RT field, the data showed almost 59.0% of the prescribed dose was delivered to the IMN in Arm 1. However, the mean doses covering the IMN in Arm 1 and Arm 2 were significantly different for both cases (P<.001). Due to the probability of overdose in Arm 1, the estimated gain in 7-year disease-free survival rate would be reduced from 10% to 7.9% for BCS cases and 7.1% for MRM cases. The radiation doses to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and coronary artery were lower in Arm 1 than in Arm 2. Conclusions: Although this dummy run study indicated that a substantial dose was delivered to the IMN, even in the nonirradiation group, the dose differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant. However, this dosimetric profile should be studied further with actual patient samples and be taken into consideration when analyzing clinical outcomes according to IMN

  13. Motexafin-Gadolinium and Involved Field Radiation Therapy for Intrinsic Pontine Glioma of Childhood: A Children's Oncology Group Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, Kristin A.; Zhou Tianni; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y.; Jakacki, Regina I.; Pollack, Ian F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects on 1-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of combining motexafin and gadolinium (MGd), a potent radiosensitizer, with daily fractionated radiation therapy in children with newly diagnosed intrinsic pontine gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed intrinsic pontine glioma were treated with MGd daily for 5 consecutive days each week, for a total of 30 doses. Patients received a 5- to 10-min intravenous bolus of MGd, 4.4 mg/kg/day, given 2 to 5 h prior to standard dose irradiation. Radiation therapy was administered at a daily dose of 1.8 Gy for 30 treatments over 6 weeks. The total dose was 54 Gy. Results: Sixty eligible children received MGd daily, concurrent with 6 weeks of radiation therapy. The estimated 1-year EFS was 18% {+-} 5%, and the estimated 1-year OS was 53% {+-} 6.5%. The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities were lymphopenia, transient elevation of liver transaminases, and hypertension. Conclusions: Compared to historical controls, the addition of MGd to a standard 6-week course of radiation did not improve the survival of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed intrinsic pontine gliomas.

  14. SU-E-T-570: Management of Radiation Oncology Patients with Cochlear Implant and Other Bionic Devices in the Brain and Head and Neck Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, F.Q; Chen, Z; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the current status of clinical usage of cochlear implant (CI) and other bionic devices (BD) in the brain and head and neck regions (BH and N) and their management in patients during radiotherapy to ensure patient health and safety as well as optimum radiation delivery. Methods: Literature review was performed with both CIs and radiotherapy and their variants as keywords in PubMed, INSPEC and other sources. The focus was on CIs during radiotherapy, but it also included other BDs in BHȦN, such as auditory brainstem implant, bionic retinal implant, and hearing aids, among others. Results: Interactions between CIs and radiation may cause CIs malfunction. The presence of CIs may also cause suboptimum dose distribution if a treatment plan was not well designed. A few studies were performed for the hearing functions of CIs under irradiations of 4 MV and 6 MV x-rays. However, x-rays with higher energies (10 to 18 MV) broadly used in radiotherapy have not been explored. These higher energetic beams are more damaging to electronics due to strong penetrating power and also due to neutrons generated in the treatment process. Modern CIs are designed with more and more complicated integrated circuits, which may be more susceptible to radiation damage and malfunction. Therefore, careful management is important for safety and treatment outcomes. Conclusion: Although AAPM TG-34, TG-63, and TG-203 (update of TG-34, not published yet) reports may be referenced for management of CIs and other BDs in the brain and H and N regions, a site- and device-specified guideline should be developed for CIs and other BDs. Additional evaluation of CI functions under clinically relevant set-ups should also be performed to provide clinicians with better knowledge in clinical decision making.

  15. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, W.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested.

  16. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kron, Tomas; Willis, David; Link, Emma; Lehman, Margot; Campbell, Gillian; O'Brien, Peter; Chua, Boon

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dosevolume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dosevolume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

  17. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machtay, Mitchell; Movsas, Benjamin; Paulus, Rebecca; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Albain, Kathy; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray's proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control and

  18. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 02-29: A Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy and Full-Dose Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgical Resection and Consolidative Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suntharalingam, Mohan; Paulus, Rebecca; Edelman, Martin J.; Krasna, Mark; Burrows, Whitney; Gore, Elizabeth; Wilson, Lynn D.; Choy, Hak

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mediastinal nodal clearance (MNC) rates after induction chemotherapy and concurrent, full-dose radiation therapy (RT) in a phase II trimodality trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0229). Patients and Methods: Patients (n=57) with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (pathologically proven N2 or N3) were eligible. Induction chemotherapy consisted of weekly carboplatin (AUC = 2.0) and paclitaxel 50 mg/m{sup 2}. Concurrent RT was prescribed, with 50.4 Gy to the mediastinum and primary tumor and a boost of 10.8 Gy to all gross disease. The mediastinum was pathologically reassessed after completion of chemoradiation. The primary endpoint of the study was MNC, with secondary endpoints of 2-year overall survival and postoperative morbidity/mortality. Results: The grade 3/4 toxicities included hematologic 35%, gastrointestinal 14%, and pulmonary 23%. Forty-three patients (75%) were evaluable for the primary endpoint. Twenty-seven patients achieved the primary endpoint of MNC (63%). Thirty-seven patients underwent resection. There was a 14% incidence of grade 3 postoperative pulmonary complications and 1 30-day, postoperative grade 5 toxicity (3%). With a median follow-up of 24 months for all patients, the 2-year overall survival rate was 54%, and the 2-year progression-free survival rate was 33%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 75% for those who achieved nodal clearance, 52% for those with residual nodal disease, and 23% for those who were not evaluable for the primary endpoint (P=.0002). Conclusions: This multi-institutional trial confirms the ability of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation with full-dose RT to sterilize known mediastinal nodal disease.

  19. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G.; Porceddu, Sandro V.; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I.; Morton, Randall P.; Hay, K. David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T.; Fraser-Browne, Carol L.; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  20. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand) Veterinary ... of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 5; ...

  1. A Phase I Study of Short-Course Accelerated Whole Brain Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy) Department of Radiation Oncology, The Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary's Health Care, Grand Rapids, Michigan (United States) Department of...

  2. Phase III Study of Radiation Therapy With or Without Cis-Platinum in Patients With Unresectable Squamous or Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: An Intergroup Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E2382)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quon, Harry; Leong, Traci; Haselow, Robert; Leipzig, Bruce; Cooper, Jay; Forastiere, Arlene

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: The Head and Neck Intergroup conducted a Phase III randomized trial to determine whether the addition weekly cisplatin to daily radiation therapy (RT) would improve survival in patients with unresectable squamous cell head-and-neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to RT (70 Gy at 1.8-2 Gy/day) or to the identical RT with weekly cisplatin dosed at 20 mg/m{sup 2}. Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log rank test. Results: Between 1982 and 1987, 371 patients were accrued, and 308 patients were found eligible for analysis. Median follow-up was 62 months. The median FFS was 6.5 and 7.2 months for the RT and RT + cisplatin groups, respectively (p = 0.30). The p value for the treatment difference was p = 0.096 in multivariate modeling of FFS (compared to a p = 0.30 in univariate analysis). Expected acute toxicities were significantly increased with the addition of cisplatin except for in-field RT toxicities. Late toxicities were not significantly different except for significantly more esophageal (9% vs. 3%, p = 0.03) and laryngeal (11% vs. 4%, p = 0.05) late toxicities in the RT + cisplatin group. Conclusion: The addition of concurrent weekly cisplatin at 20 mg/m{sup 2} to daily radiation did not improve survival, although there was evidence of activity. Low-dose weekly cisplatin seems to have modest tumor radiosensitization but can increase the risk of late swallowing complications.

  3. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Yoo, Stella K.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  4. Recommendations for Radioembolization of Hepatic Malignancies Using Yttrium-90 Microsphere Brachytherapy: A Consensus Panel Report from the Radioembolization Brachytherapy Oncology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Andrew; Nag, Subir . E-mail: subir.nag@kp.org; Salem, Riad; Murthy, Ravi; McEwan, Alexander J.; Nutting, Charles; Benson, Al; Espat, Joseph; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Sharma, Ricky A.; Thomas, James P.; Coldwell, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To standardize the indications, techniques, multimodality treatment approaches, and dosimetry to be used for yttrium-90 (Y90) microsphere hepatic brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Members of the Radioembolization Brachytherapy Oncology Consortium met as an independent group of experts in interventional radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, medical oncology, and surgical oncology to identify areas of consensus and controversy and to issue clinical guidelines for Y90 microsphere brachytherapy. Results: A total of 14 recommendations are made with category 2A consensus. Key findings include the following. Sufficient evidence exists to support the safety and effectiveness of Y90 microsphere therapy. A meticulous angiographic technique is required to prevent complications. Resin microsphere prescribed activity is best estimated by the body surface area method. By virtue of their training, certification, and contribution to Y90 microsphere treatment programs, the disciplines of radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and interventional radiology are all qualified to use Y90 microspheres. The panel strongly advocates the creation of a treatment registry with uniform reporting criteria. Initiation of clinical trials is essential to further define the safety and role of Y90 microspheres in the context of currently available therapies. Conclusions: Yttrium-90 microsphere therapy is a complex procedure that requires multidisciplinary management for safety and success. Practitioners and cooperative groups are encouraged to use these guidelines to formulate their treatment and dose-reporting policies.

  5. Long-Term Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9903: A Randomized Phase 3 Trial to Assess the Effect of Erythropoietin on Local-Regional Control in Anemic Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenouda, George; Zhang, Qiang; Ang, K. Kian; Machtay, Mitchell; Parliament, Matthew B.; Hershock, Diane; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Lin, Alexander; Rotman, Marvin; Nabid, Abdenour; Hong, Susan; Shehata, Sarwat; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Sultanem, Khalil; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This paper reports long-term results of RTOG 9903, to determine whether the addition of erythropoietin (EPO) would improve the outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) in mildly to moderately anemic patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCa). Methods and Materials: The trial included HNSCCa patients treated with definitive RT. Patients with stage III or IV disease received concomitant chemoradiation therapy or accelerated fractionation. Pretreatment hemoglobin levels were required to be between 9.0 and 13.5 g/dL (12.5 g/dL for females). EPO, 40,000 U, was administered weekly starting 7 to 10 days before RT was initiated in the RT + EPO arm. Results: A total of 141 of 148 enrolled patients were evaluable. The baseline median hemoglobin level was 12.1 g/dL. In the RT + EPO arm, the mean hemoglobin level at 4 weeks increased by 1.66 g/dL, whereas it decreased by 0.24 g/dL in the RT arm. With a median follow-up of 7.95 years (range: 1.66-10.08 years) for surviving patients and 3.33 years for all patients (range: 0.03-10.08 years), the 5-year estimate of local-regional failure was 46.2% versus 39.4% (P=.42), local-regional progression-free survival was 31.5% versus 37.6% (P=.20), and overall survival was 36.9% versus 38.2% (P=.54) for the RT + EPO and RT arms, respectively. Late toxicity was not different between the 2 arms. Conclusions: This long-term analysis confirmed that despite the ability of EPO to raise hemoglobin levels in anemic patients with HNSCCa, it did not improve outcomes when added to RT. The possibility of a detrimental effect of EPO could not be ruled out.

  6. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  7. Surgeons' Knowledge and Practices Regarding the Role of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jessica; Griffith, Kent A.; Hawley, Sarah T.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Janz, Nancy K.; Sabel, Michael S.; Katz, Steven J.; Jagsi, Reshma

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Population-based studies suggest underuse of radiation therapy, especially after mastectomy. Because radiation oncology is a referral-based specialty, knowledge and attitudes of upstream providers, specifically surgeons, may influence patients' decisions regarding radiation, including whether it is even considered. Therefore, we sought to evaluate surgeons' knowledge of pertinent risk information, their patterns of referral, and the correlates of surgeon knowledge and referral in specific breast cancer scenarios. Methods and Materials: We surveyed a national sample of 750 surgeons, with a 67% response rate. We analyzed responses from those who had seen at least 1 breast cancer patient in the past year (n=403), using logistic regression models to identify correlates of knowledge and appropriate referral. Results: Overall, 87% of respondents were general surgeons, and 64% saw >10 breast cancer patients in the previous year. In a scenario involving a 45-year-old undergoing lumpectomy, only 45% correctly estimated the risk of locoregional recurrence without radiation therapy, but 97% would refer to radiation oncology. In a patient with 2 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 30% would neither refer to radiation oncology nor provide accurate information to make radiation decisions. In a patient with 4 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 9% would not refer to radiation oncology. Fewer than half knew that the Oxford meta-analysis revealed a survival benefit from radiation therapy after lumpectomy (45%) or mastectomy (32%). Only 16% passed a 7-item knowledge test; female and more-experienced surgeons were more likely to pass. Factors significantly associated with appropriate referral to radiation oncology included breast cancer volume, tumor board participation, and knowledge. Conclusions: Many surgeons have inadequate knowledge regarding the role of radiation in breast cancer management, especially after mastectomy. Targeted educational interventions may

  8. Towards a Science of Tumor Forecast for Clinical Oncology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yankeelov, Tom; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J; Rericha, Erin

    2015-01-01

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community make a concerted effort to apply the methods of weather forecasting to develop an analogous theory for predicting tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of response is not predicted, but rather assessed post hoc by physical exam or imaging methods. This fundamental limitation of clinical oncology makes it extraordinarily difficult to select an optimal treatment regimen for a particular tumor of an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoplymore » of molecularly targeted therapies is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. With a successful theory of tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor specific datasets of varied types, and effectively defeat cancer one patient at a time.« less

  9. Toward a science of tumor forecasting for clinical oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J.; Rericha, Erin C.

    2015-03-15

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community makes a concerted effort to apply lessons from weather forecasting to develop an analogous methodology for predicting and evaluating tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of tumor response is not predicted; instead, response is only assessed post hoc by physical examination or imaging methods. This fundamental practice within clinical oncology limits optimization of a treatment regimen for an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoply of molecularly targeted therapies is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. Furthermore, with a successful methodology toward tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor-specific datasets of varied types and effectively defeat one cancer patient at a time.

  10. Toward a science of tumor forecasting for clinical oncology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J.; Rericha, Erin C.

    2015-03-15

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community makes a concerted effort to apply lessons from weather forecasting to develop an analogous methodology for predicting and evaluating tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of tumor response is not predicted; instead, response is only assessed post hoc by physical examination or imaging methods. This fundamental practice within clinical oncology limits optimization of a treatment regimen for an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoply of molecularly targeted therapiesmore » is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. Furthermore, with a successful methodology toward tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor-specific datasets of varied types and effectively defeat one cancer patient at a time.« less

  11. Towards a Science of Tumor Forecast for Clinical Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yankeelov, Tom; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J; Rericha, Erin

    2015-01-01

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community make a concerted effort to apply the methods of weather forecasting to develop an analogous theory for predicting tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of response is not predicted, but rather assessed post hoc by physical exam or imaging methods. This fundamental limitation of clinical oncology makes it extraordinarily difficult to select an optimal treatment regimen for a particular tumor of an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoply of molecularly targeted therapies is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. With a successful theory of tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor specific datasets of varied types, and effectively defeat cancer one patient at a time.

  12. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

    2010-12-07

    A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  13. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  14. Characterization of a commercial hybrid iterative and model-based reconstruction algorithm in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Ryan G.; Vance, Sean; Cattaneo, Richard; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Chetty, Indrin J.; Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Schultz, Lonni

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) reduces noise, thereby allowing dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) while maintaining comparable image quality to filtered back-projection (FBP). This study sought to characterize image quality metrics, delineation, dosimetric assessment, and other aspects necessary to integrate IR into treatment planning. Methods: CT images (Brilliance Big Bore v3.6, Philips Healthcare) were acquired of several phantoms using 120 kVp and 25–800 mAs. IR was applied at levels corresponding to noise reduction of 0.89–0.55 with respect to FBP. Noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis was used to characterize noise magnitude and texture. CT to electron density (CT-ED) curves were generated over all IR levels. Uniformity as well as spatial and low contrast resolution were quantified using a CATPHAN phantom. Task specific modulation transfer functions (MTF{sub task}) were developed to characterize spatial frequency across objects of varied contrast. A prospective dose reduction study was conducted for 14 patients undergoing interfraction CT scans for high-dose rate brachytherapy. Three physicians performed image quality assessment using a six-point grading scale between the normal-dose FBP (reference), low-dose FBP, and low-dose IR scans for the following metrics: image noise, detectability of the vaginal cuff/bladder interface, spatial resolution, texture, segmentation confidence, and overall image quality. Contouring differences between FBP and IR were quantified for the bladder and rectum via overlap indices (OI) and Dice similarity coefficients (DSC). Line profile and region of interest analyses quantified noise and boundary changes. For two subjects, the impact of IR on external beam dose calculation was assessed via gamma analysis and changes in digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were quantified. Results: NPS showed large reduction in noise magnitude (50%), and a slight spatial frequency shift (∼0.1 mm{sup −1}) with application of IR at L6. No appreciable changes were observed for CT-ED curves between FBP and IR levels [maximum difference ∼13 HU for bone (∼1% difference)]. For uniformity, differences were ∼1 HU between FBP and IR. Spatial resolution was well conserved; the largest MTF{sub task} decrease between FBP and IR levels was 0.08 A.U. No notable changes in low-contrast detectability were observed and CNR increased substantially with IR. For the patient study, qualitative image grading showed low-dose IR was equivalent to or slightly worse than normal dose FBP, and is superior to low-dose FBP (p < 0.001 for noise), although these did not translate to differences in CT number, contouring ability, or dose calculation. The largest CT number discrepancy from FBP occurred at a bone/tissue interface using the most aggressive IR level [−1.2 ± 4.9 HU (range: −17.6–12.5 HU)]. No clinically significant contour differences were found between IR and FBP, with OIs and DSCs ranging from 0.85 to 0.95. Negligible changes in dose calculation were observed. DRRs preserved anatomical detail with <2% difference in intensity from FBP combined with aggressive IRL6. Conclusions: These results support integrating IR into treatment planning. While slight degradation in edges and shift in texture were observed in phantom, patient results show qualitative image grading, contouring ability, and dosimetric parameters were not adversely affected.

  15. Beta Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells ...

  16. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  17. Measured dose rate constant from oncology patients administered 18F for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Brian; Holahan, Brian; Aime, Jean; Humm, John; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Patient exposure rate measurements verify published patient dose rate data and characterize dose rates near 2-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) patients. A specific dose rate constant based on patient exposure rate measurements is a convenient quantity that can be applied to the desired distance, injection activity, and time postinjection to obtain an accurate calculation of cumulative external radiation dose. This study reports exposure rates measured at various locations near positron emission tomography (PET) {sup 18}F-FDG patients prior to PET scanning. These measurements are normalized for the amount of administered activity, measurement distance, and time postinjection and are compared with other published data. Methods: Exposure rates were measured using a calibrated ionization chamber at various body locations from 152 adult oncology patients postvoid after a mean uptake time of 76 min following injection with a mean activity of 490 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG. Data were obtained at nine measurement locations for each patient: three near the head, four near the chest, and two near the feet. Results: On contact with, 30 cm superior to and 30 cm lateral to the head, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.482 (0.511), 0.135 (0.155), and 0.193 (0.223) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. On contact with, 30 cm anterior to, 30 cm lateral to and 1 m anterior to the chest, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.623 (0.709), 0.254 (0.283), 0.190 (0.218), and 0.067 (0.081) {mu}Sv/MBq h respectively. 30 cm inferior and 30 cm lateral to the feet, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.024 (0.022) and 0.039 (0.044) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. Conclusions: The measurements for this study support the use of 0.092 {mu}Sv m{sup 2}/MBq h as a reasonable representation of the dose rate anterior from the chest of

  18. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping

  19. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Home MSDS Search MSDS Help Safety Training and Tests Contact Links LSU Campus Safety Glossary Radiation Safety Manual Radiation Safety Test NOTE: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ONLY! **Please allow two weeks for your badge to be processed.** Regulations and Hierarchy The CAMD Safety Officer reports to two separate individuals regarding safety. These are the Radiation Safety Officer for the University, and the Campus Safety Officer in all other matters. Thus safety

  20. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  1. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  2. Regulatory aspects of oncology drug safety evaluation: Past practice, current issues, and the challenge of new drugs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeldt, Hans; Kropp, Timothy; Benson, Kimberly; Ricci, M. Stacey; McGuinn, W. David; Verbois, S. Leigh

    2010-03-01

    The drug development of new anti-cancer agents is streamlined in response to the urgency of bringing effective drugs to market for patients with limited life expectancy. FDA's regulation of oncology drugs has evolved from the practices set forth in Arnold Lehman's seminal work published in the 1950s through the current drafting of a new International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) safety guidance for anti-cancer drug nonclinical evaluations. The ICH combines the efforts of the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan, and the United States and the pharmaceutical industry from these three regions to streamline the scientific and technical aspects of drug development. The recent development of new oncology drug classes with novel mechanisms of action has improved survival rates for some cancers but also brings new challenges for safety evaluation. Here we present the legacy of Lehman and colleagues in the context of past and present oncology drug development practices and focus on some of the current issues at the center of an evolving harmonization process that will generate a new safety guidance for oncology drugs, ICH S9. The purpose of this new guidance will be to facilitate oncology drug development on a global scale by standardizing regional safety requirements.

  3. Definition of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of ...

  4. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  5. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  6. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  7. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  8. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  9. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  10. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  11. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  12. radiation.p65

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that ...

  13. Phase I Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Dose Escalation Study in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 98-03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsien, Christina Moughan, Jennifer; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Purdy, James; Simpson, Joseph; Kresel, John J.; Curran, Walter J.; Diaz, Aidnag; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a Phase I trial the feasibility and toxicity of dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with primary supratentorial glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 209 patients were enrolled. All received 46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions to the first planning target volume (PTV{sub 1}), defined as the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus 1.8 cm. A subsequent boost was given to PTV{sub 2}, defined as GTV plus 0.3 cm. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group 1: PTV{sub 2} <75 cm{sup 3}; Group 2: PTV{sub 2} {>=}75 cm{sup 3}). Four RT dose levels were evaluated: 66, 72, 78, and 84 Gy. Carmustine 80 mg/m{sup 2} was given during RT, then every 8 weeks for 6 cycles. Pretreatment characteristics were well balanced. Results: Acute and late Grade 3/4 RT-related toxicities were no more frequent at higher RT dose or with larger tumors. There were no dose-limiting toxicities (acute Grade {>=}3 irreversible central nervous system toxicities) observed on any dose level in either group. On the basis of the absence of dose-limiting toxicities, dose was escalated to 84 Gy in both groups. Late RT necrosis was noted at 66 Gy (1 patient), 72 Gy (2 patients), 78 Gy (2 patients), and 84 Gy (3 patients) in Group 1. In Group 2, late RT necrosis was noted at 78 Gy (1 patient) and 84 Gy (2 patients). Median time to RT necrosis was 8.8 months (range, 5.1-12.5 months). Median survival in Group 1 was 11.6-19.3 months. Median survival in Group 2 was 8.2-13.9 months. Conclusions: Our study shows the feasibility of delivering higher than standard (60 Gy) RT dose with concurrent chemotherapy for primary GBM, with an acceptable risk of late central nervous system toxicity.

  14. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Protection and Safety Training (3 hrs) Instructors: John Seaman and Neil Miller ... with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. ...

  15. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contacts Hirohito Ogasawara, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Dennis Nordlund, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Anders Nilsson, Stanford Synchrotron ...

  16. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation ...

  17. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  18. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W.; Hegland, Joel E.; Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  19. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  20. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  1. How Radiation Oncologists Would Disclose Errors: Results of a Survey of Radiation Oncologists and Trainees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Suzanne B.; Yu, James B.; Chagpar, Anees

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze error disclosure attitudes of radiation oncologists and to correlate error disclosure beliefs with survey-assessed disclosure behavior. Methods and Materials: With institutional review board exemption, an anonymous online survey was devised. An email invitation was sent to radiation oncologists (American Society for Radiation Oncology [ASTRO] gold medal winners, program directors and chair persons of academic institutions, and former ASTRO lecturers) and residents. A disclosure score was calculated based on the number or full, partial, or no disclosure responses chosen to the vignette-based questions, and correlation was attempted with attitudes toward error disclosure. Results: The survey received 176 responses: 94.8% of respondents considered themselves more likely to disclose in the setting of a serious medical error; 72.7% of respondents did not feel it mattered who was responsible for the error in deciding to disclose, and 3.9% felt more likely to disclose if someone else was responsible; 38.0% of respondents felt that disclosure increased the likelihood of a lawsuit, and 32.4% felt disclosure decreased the likelihood of lawsuit; 71.6% of respondents felt near misses should not be disclosed; 51.7% thought that minor errors should not be disclosed; 64.7% viewed disclosure as an opportunity for forgiveness from the patient; and 44.6% considered the patient's level of confidence in them to be a factor in disclosure. For a scenario that could be considerable, a non-harmful error, 78.9% of respondents would not contact the family. Respondents with high disclosure scores were more likely to feel that disclosure was an opportunity for forgiveness (P=.003) and to have never seen major medical errors (P=.004). Conclusions: The surveyed radiation oncologists chose to respond with full disclosure at a high rate, although ideal disclosure practices were not uniformly adhered to beyond the initial decision to disclose the occurrence of the error.

  2. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sheep Cortical Bone Using Synchrotron Radiation Transmission X-ray Microscopy", PLoS ONE ... Garry R. Brock, Cornell University Joy C. Andrews, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation ...

  3. Radiation Effects Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Reasearch Facility Geomechanics and ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Radiation Effects Sciences Home...

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With the Severity of Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorbanzadeh-Moghaddam, Amir; Gholamrezaei, Ali; Hemati, Simin

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced injury to normal tissues is a common complication of radiation therapy in cancer patients. Considering the role of vitamin D in mucosal barrier hemostasis and inflammatory responses, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis in cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study was conducted in cancer patients referred for pelvic radiation therapy. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before radiation therapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <35 nmol/L and <40 nmol/L in male and female patients, respectively, based on available normative data. Acute proctitis was assessed after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (total received radiation dose of 50 Gy) and graded from 0 to 4 using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Ninety-eight patients (57.1% male) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 9.1 years were studied. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57 patients (58.1%). Symptoms of acute proctitis occurred in 72 patients (73.4%) after radiation therapy. RTOG grade was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in normal cases (median [interquartile range] of 2 [0.5-3] vs 1 [0-2], P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with RTOG grade of ≥2, independent of possible confounding factors; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.07 (1.27-7.50), P=.013. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of this association and evaluating the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in preventing radiation-induced acute proctitis is warranted.

  5. Wireless radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Kress, Reid L.

    2016-08-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  6. Prospective Study of Local Control and Late Radiation Toxicity After Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, David W.; Marvelde, Luc te; Chua, Boon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the local recurrence rate and late toxicity of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) boost to the tumor bed using the Intrabeam System followed by external-beam whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in women with early-stage breast cancer in a prospective single-institution study. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer ?3 cm were recruited between February 2003 and May 2005. After breast-conserving surgery, a single dose of 5 Gy IORT boost was delivered using 50-kV x-rays to a depth of 10 mm from the applicator surface. This was followed by WBI to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients were reviewed at regular, predefined intervals. Late toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring systems. Results: Fifty-five patients completed both IORT boost and external-beam WBI. Median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 1.4-4.1 years). There was no reported locoregional recurrence or death. One patient developed distant metastases. Grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 29 (53%) and 8 patients (15%), respectively. Conclusions: The use of IORT as a tumor bed boost using kV x-rays in breast-conserving therapy was associated with good local control but a clinically significant rate of grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis.

  7. Radiation Safety Poster | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster

  8. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  9. Determining an Imaging Literacy Curriculum for Radiation Oncologists: An International Delphi Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giuliani, Meredith E.; Gillan, Caitlin; Milne, Robin A.; Uchino, Minako; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Catton, Pamela

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Rapid evolution of imaging technologies and their integration into radiation therapy practice demands that radiation oncology (RO) training curricula be updated. The purpose of this study was to develop an entry-to-practice image literacy competency profile. Methods and Materials: A list of 263 potential imaging competency items were assembled from international objectives of training. Expert panel eliminated redundant or irrelevant items to create a list of 97 unique potential competency items. An international 2-round Delphi process was conducted with experts in RO. In round 1, all experts scored, on a 9-point Likert scale, the degree to which they agreed an item should be included in the competency profile. Items with a mean score ≥7 were included, those 4 to 6 were reviewed in round 2, and items scored <4 were excluded. In round 2, items were discussed and subsequently ranked for inclusion or exclusion in the competency profile. Items with >75% voting for inclusion were included in the final competency profile. Results: Forty-nine radiation oncologists were invited to participate in round 1, and 32 (65%) did so. Participants represented 24 centers in 6 countries. Of the 97 items ranked in round 1, 80 had a mean score ≥7, 1 item had a score <4, and 16 items with a mean score of 4 to 6 were reviewed and rescored in round 2. In round 2, 4 items had >75% of participants voting for inclusion and were included; the remaining 12 were excluded. The final list of 84 items formed the final competency profile. The 84 enabling competency items were aggregated into the following 4 thematic groups of key competencies: (1) imaging fundamentals (42 items); (2) clinical application (27 items); (3) clinical management (5 items); and (4) professional practice (10 items). Conclusions: We present an imaging literacy competency profile which could constitute the minimum training standards in radiation oncology residency programs.

  10. NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface ...

  11. Collisional-Radiative Modeling for Radiation Hydrodynamics (Book...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: Modern Methods in Collisional-Radiative Modelling of Plasmas, Collisional-Radiative Modeling for Radiation Hydrodynamics, Springer International Publishing, unknown, ...

  12. Radiation.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation is a natural part of our everyday environment. Cosmic rays showering the Earth ... and radon gas seeping up from the soil are only two examples of natural radiation. ...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan -

  14. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  15. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH ...

  16. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  17. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  18. RADIATION WAVE DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wouters, L.F.

    1958-10-28

    The detection of the shape and amplitude of a radiation wave is discussed, particularly an apparatus for automatically indicating at spaced lntervals of time the radiation intensity at a flxed point as a measure of a radiation wave passing the point. The apparatus utilizes a number of photomultiplier tubes surrounding a scintillation type detector, For obtainlng time spaced signals proportional to radiation at predetermined intervals the photolnultiplier tubes are actuated ln sequence following detector incidence of a predetermined radiation level by electronic means. The time spaced signals so produced are then separately amplified and relayed to recording means.

  19. PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1961-12-26

    A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

  20. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Diehn, Felix E.; Boughey, Judy C.; Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mutter, Robert W.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  1. Predictors of Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients Receiving Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Smith, Grace L.; Milgrom, Sarah; Osborne, Eleanor M.; Reddy, Jay P.; Akhtari, Mani; Reed, Valerie; Arzu, Isidora; Allen, Pamela K.; Wogan, Christine F.; Fanale, Michele A.; Oki, Yasuhiro; Turturro, Francesco; Romaguera, Jorge; Fayad, Luis; Fowler, Nathan; Westin, Jason; Nastoupil, Loretta; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.; Rodriguez, M. Alma [Department of Lymphoma and others

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Few studies to date have evaluated factors associated with the development of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), especially in patients treated with contemporary radiation techniques. These patients represent a unique group owing to the often large radiation target volumes within the mediastinum and to the potential to receive several lines of chemotherapy that add to pulmonary toxicity for relapsed or refractory disease. Our objective was to determine the incidence and clinical and dosimetric risk factors associated with RP in lymphoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed clinical charts and radiation records of 150 consecutive patients who received mediastinal IMRT for HL and NHL from 2009 through 2013. Clinical and dosimetric predictors associated with RP according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity criteria were identified in univariate analysis using the Pearson χ{sup 2} test and logistic multivariate regression. Results: Mediastinal radiation was administered as consolidation therapy in 110 patients with newly diagnosed HL or NHL and in 40 patients with relapsed or refractory disease. The overall incidence of RP (RTOG grades 1-3) was 14% in the entire cohort. Risk of RP was increased for patients who received radiation for relapsed or refractory disease (25%) versus those who received consolidation therapy (10%, P=.019). Several dosimetric parameters predicted RP, including mean lung dose of >13.5 Gy, V{sub 20} of >30%, V{sub 15} of >35%, V{sub 10} of >40%, and V{sub 5} of >55%. The likelihood ratio χ{sup 2} value was highest for V{sub 5} >55% (χ{sup 2} = 19.37). Conclusions: In using IMRT to treat mediastinal lymphoma, all dosimetric parameters predicted RP, although small doses to large volumes of lung had the greatest influence. Patients with relapsed

  2. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  3. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco

  4. Tobacco Smoking During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Is Associated With Unfavorable Outcome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Chen, Leon M.; Vaughan, Andrew; Sreeraman, Radhika; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters. Methods and Materials: A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.

  5. RADIATION WAVE DETECTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wouters, L.F.

    1960-08-30

    Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

  6. TU-C-BRE-11: 3D EPID-Based in Vivo Dosimetry: A Major Step Forward Towards Optimal Quality and Safety in Radiation Oncology Practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mijnheer, B; Mans, A; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Spreeuw, H; Herk, M van

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a 3D in vivo dosimetry method that is able to substitute pre-treatment verification in an efficient way, and to terminate treatment delivery if the online measured 3D dose distribution deviates too much from the predicted dose distribution. Methods: A back-projection algorithm has been further developed and implemented to enable automatic 3D in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments using a-Si EPIDs. New software tools were clinically introduced to allow automated image acquisition, to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database, and to automatically run the EPID dosimetry software. The comparison of the EPID-reconstructed and planned dose distribution is done offline to raise automatically alerts and to schedule actions when deviations are detected. Furthermore, a software package for online dose reconstruction was also developed. The RMS of the difference between the cumulative planned and reconstructed 3D dose distributions was used for triggering a halt of a linac. Results: The implementation of fully automated 3D EPID-based in vivo dosimetry was able to replace pre-treatment verification for more than 90% of the patient treatments. The process has been fully automated and integrated in our clinical workflow where over 3,500 IMRT/VMAT treatments are verified each year. By optimizing the dose reconstruction algorithm and the I/O performance, the delivered 3D dose distribution is verified in less than 200 ms per portal image, which includes the comparison between the reconstructed and planned dose distribution. In this way it was possible to generate a trigger that can stop the irradiation at less than 20 cGy after introducing large delivery errors. Conclusion: The automatic offline solution facilitated the large scale clinical implementation of 3D EPID-based in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments; the online approach has been successfully tested for various severe delivery errors.

  7. Radiotherapy With or Without Erythropoietin for Anemic Patients With Head and Neck Cancer: A Randomized Trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 99-03)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machtay, Mitchell Pajak, Thomas F.; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Shenouda, George; Hershock, Diane; Stripp, Diana C.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Schulsinger, Alan

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the addition of recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) could improve the outcomes of anemic patients receiving definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had SCCHN, with a plan for continuous-course definitive radiotherapy (66-72 Gy) with or without chemotherapy. Patients with Stage III or IV SCCHN were required to undergo concurrent chemoradiotherapy and/or accelerated fractionation radiotherapy. Preradiotherapy hemoglobin was required to be between 9.0 g/dL and 13.5 g/dL (12.5 g/dL for women). Patients randomized to Epo received 40,000 U once weekly, starting 7-10 days before start of radiotherapy. Results: A total of 148 patients were enrolled; 141 were evaluable. Median pretreatment hemoglobin was 12.1 g/dL. Hemoglobin levels at 4 weeks rose by an average of 1.66 g/dL in the Epo arm, compared with an average 0.24 g/dL decrease in the control arm (p = 0.0001). Median follow-up was 2.5 years (3.1 years for surviving patients). There was no statistically significant difference in the primary endpoint of local-regional failure (LRF) rate between the treatment arms. The 3-year LRF rate was 36% for control and 44% for Epo (p = 0.56). There were also no significant differences in local-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS), patterns of failure, overall survival, or toxicity. The 3-year LRPFS rate was 52% for control and 47% for Epo. The overall survival rate was 57% and 56%, respectively. Conclusions: The addition of Epo to definitive radiotherapy for SCCHN did not improve outcomes. The study was not specifically designed to detect a potential negative association between Epo and tumor progression/survival.

  8. ORISE Video: What is the difference between radiation exposure and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation contamination?

  9. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  10. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SSRLUO functions include: sponsoring and presenting the Annual Farrel W. Lytle Award to promote important technical or scientific accomplishments in synchrotron radiation-based ...

  11. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  12. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  13. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now the Synchrotron Medical Imaging Team, a group of Canadian, US, and European scientists (including scientists from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource) are using ...

  14. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This work demonstrates that synchrotron radiation-based spectroscopies provide invaluable, atom-specific tools to determine the electronic properties of different dopant and defect ...

  15. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  16. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  17. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  18. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  19. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  20. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  1. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Lyons, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  3. Reverse-Contrast Imaging and Targeted Radiation Therapy of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Kramer, Robin M.; Chen, Qing; Jeong, Jeho; Lupu, Mihaela E.; Lee, Alycia M.; Moynahan, Mary E.; Lowery, Maeve; Ulmert, David; Zanzonico, Pat; Deasy, Joseph O.; Humm, John L.; Russell, James

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of delivering experimental radiation therapy to tumors in the mouse pancreas. Imaging and treatment were performed using combined CT (computed tomography)/orthovoltage treatment with a rotating gantry. Methods and Materials: After intraperitoneal administration of radiopaque iodinated contrast, abdominal organ delineation was performed by x-ray CT. With this technique we delineated the pancreas and both orthotopic xenografts and genetically engineered disease. Computed tomographic imaging was validated by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Therapeutic radiation was delivered via a 1-cm diameter field. Selective x-ray radiation therapy of the noninvasively defined orthotopic mass was confirmed using γH2AX staining. Mice could tolerate a dose of 15 Gy when the field was centered on the pancreas tail, and treatment was delivered as a continuous 360° arc. This strategy was then used for radiation therapy planning for selective delivery of therapeutic x-ray radiation therapy to orthotopic tumors. Results: Tumor growth delay after 15 Gy was monitored, using CT and ultrasound to determine the tumor volume at various times after treatment. Our strategy enables the use of clinical radiation oncology approaches to treat experimental tumors in the pancreas of small animals for the first time. We demonstrate that delivery of 15 Gy from a rotating gantry minimizes background healthy tissue damage and significantly retards tumor growth. Conclusions: This advance permits evaluation of radiation planning and dosing parameters. Accurate noninvasive longitudinal imaging and monitoring of tumor progression and therapeutic response in preclinical models is now possible and can be expected to more effectively evaluate pancreatic cancer disease and therapeutic response.

  4. Underwater radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W.; McKnight, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

  5. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  6. Radiation Effects In Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2011-06-01

    Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

  7. Non-LTE Radiation Transport in High Radiation Plasmas (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Non-LTE Radiation Transport in High Radiation Plasmas Citation Details ... DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  8. Designation of Environmental Management Federal Project Director...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Management Federal Project Director for Separations Process Research Unit by feinberg DesignationofEMFedProjDir-SeparationsProcessResearchUnit-FeinbergEM.pdf -- PDF...

  9. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  10. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Following In-Field...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ... of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ...

  11. Low Dose Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or

  12. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John; Wolf, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  13. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  14. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  15. Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation: An Evaluation of the State of the Field ... Maxwell's equations show that electromagnetic radiation is generated when charged ...

  16. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : ... Safety Office (namesignaturedate) Radiation Physics (namesignaturedate) Section 4: ...

  17. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    West Antarctic Radiation Experiment of the most advanced atmospheric research ... From the fall of 2015 to early 2017, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West ...

  18. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    If you have any questions regarding the completion of this process please contact Matt Padilla (mpadilla@slac.stanford.edu, 1-650-926-3861 or Radiation Protection Field Operations ...

  19. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  20. RADIATION APPLICATIONS INCORPORATED

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . <' ," . . * . RADIATION APPLICATIONS INCORPORATED . 370 Lexl.ngton Avenue New York 17 New York jq.5' L- Contract No. A T (30-l)-2093 with the United States Atom ic Energy ...

  1. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 2021-08-11 SHANGHAI INST OF APPLIED PHYSICS CHINA 2020-10-23 SHANGHAI SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FACILITY 2020-10-23 SHANGHAI TECH UNIVERSITY 2019-01-23 SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY ...

  2. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey, University of Texas at El Paso Joy C. Andrews, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Jose A. Hernandez-Viezcas, University of Texas at El Paso 2575 ...

  3. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  4. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  5. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W.

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  6. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  7. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  8. Quantitative Ultrasonic Nakagami Imaging of Neck Fibrosis After Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Yoshida, Emi; Cassidy, Richard J.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of ultrasound Nakagami imaging to quantitatively assess radiation-induced neck fibrosis, a common sequela of radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck. Methods and Materials: In a pilot study, 40 study participants were enrolled and classified into 3 subgroups: (1) a control group of 12 healthy volunteers; (2) an asymptomatic group of 11 patients who had received intensity modulated RT for head and neck cancer and had experienced no neck fibrosis; and (3) a symptomatic group of 17 post-RT patients with neck fibrosis. Each study participant underwent 1 ultrasound study in which scans were performed in the longitudinal orientation of the bilateral neck. Three Nakagami parameters were calculated to quantify radiation-induced tissue injury: Nakagami probability distribution function, shape, and scaling parameters. Physician-based assessments of the neck fibrosis were performed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late morbidity scoring scheme, and patient-based fibrosis assessments were rated based on symptoms such as pain and stiffness. Results: Major discrepancies existed between physician-based and patient-based assessments of radiation-induced fibrosis. Significant differences in all Nakagami parameters were observed between the control group and 2 post-RT groups. Moreover, significant differences in Nakagami shape and scaling parameters were observed among asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. Compared with the control group, the average Nakagami shape parameter value increased by 32.1% (P<.001), and the average Nakagami scaling parameter increased by 55.7% (P<.001) for the asymptomatic group, whereas the Nakagami shape parameter increased by 74.1% (P<.001) and the Nakagami scaling parameter increased by 83.5% (P<.001) for the symptomatic group. Conclusions: Ultrasonic Nakagami imaging is a potential quantitative tool to characterize radiation-induced asymptomatic and symptomatic neck fibrosis.

  9. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E.

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  10. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  11. Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection: Annual Occupational Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dosimetry Report Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report Print information on Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report (pdf). This webpage provides information to help you understand the dose quantities being reported to you on your Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report. If you would like general information about radiation exposure, please refer to www.radiationanswers.org. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835),

  12. Radiation-induced complications in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azuddin, A. Yusof; Rahman, I. Abdul; Mohamed, F.; Siah, N. J.; Saadc, M.; Ismail, F.

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complications with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters for prostate cancer patients that underwent the conformal radiotherapy treatment. 17 prostate cancer patients that have been treated with conformal radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. The dosimetric data was retrieved in the form of dose-volume histogram (DVH) from Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System. The DVH was utilised to derived Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) in radiobiological data. Follow-up data from medical records were used to grade the occurrence of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring system. The chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complication with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters. 8 (47%) and 7 (41%) patients were having acute GI and GU complications respectively. The acute GI complication can be associated with V60{sub rectum}, rectal mean dose and NTCP{sub rectum} with p-value of 0.016, 0.038 and 0.049 respectively. There are no significant relationships of acute GU complication with dosimetric and radiobiological variables. Further study can be done by increase the sample size and follow up duration for deeper understanding of the factors that effecting the GU and GI complication in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

  13. A Population-Based Study of the Fractionation of Postlumpectomy Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, Allison; Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario ; Kong, Weidong; Whelan, Timothy; Mackillop, William J.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal fractionation schedule of post lumpectomy radiation therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the fractionation of post-lumpectomy radiation therapy (RT) in Ontario, before and after the seminal Ontario Clinical Oncology Group (OCOG) trial, which showed the equivalence of 16- and 25-fraction schedules. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted by linking electronic treatment records to a population-based cancer registry. The study population included all patients who underwent lumpectomy for invasive breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between 1984 and 2008. Results: Over the study period, 41,747 breast cancer patients received post lumpectomy radiation therapy to the breast only. Both 16- and 25-fraction schedules were commonly used throughout the study period. In the early 1980s, shorter fractionation schedules were used in >80% of cases. Between 1985 and 1995, the proportion of patients treated with shorter fractionation decreased to 48%. After completion of the OCOG trial, shorter fractionation schemes were once again widely adopted across Ontario, and are currently used in about 71% of cases; however, large intercenter variations in fractionation persisted. Conclusions: The use of shorter schedules of post lumpectomy RT in Ontario increased after completion of the OCOG trial, but the trial had a less normative effect on practice than expected.

  14. Safety Around Sources of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The

  15. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A.; Robison, Thomas W.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2002-01-01

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  16. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  17. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  18. Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) is a physical optics computer code for calculation of detailed characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) generated by relativistic electrons in magnetic fields of arbitrary configuration and for simulation of the radiation wavefront propagation through optical systems of beamlines. Frequency-domain near-field methods are used for the SR calculation, and the Fourier-optics based approach is generally used for the wavefront propagation simulation. The code enables both fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation simulations inmore » steady-state and in frequency-/time-dependent regimes. With these features, the code has already proven its utility for a large number of applications in infrared, UV, soft and hard X-ray spectral range, in such important areas as analysis of spectral performances of new synchrotron radiation sources, optimization of user beamlines, development of new optical elements, source and beamline diagnostics, and even complete simulation of SR based experiments. Besides the SR applications, the code can be efficiently used for various simulations involving conventional lasers and other sources. SRW versions interfaced to Python and to IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics), as well as cross-platform library with C API, are available.« less

  19. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang; Hegland, Joel E.; Jones, Scott C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  20. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  1. Semiconductor radiation detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  2. Audible radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, Daniel M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  3. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  4. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  5. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  6. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  7. Mobile Technology and Social Media in the Clinical Practice of Young Radiation Oncologists: Results of a Comprehensive Nationwide Cross-sectional Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Blanchard, Pierre; Biau, Julian; Cervellera, Mathilde; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean Christophe; and others

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. Methods and Materials: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. Results: In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Conclusions: Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital.

  8. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  9. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  10. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  11. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  12. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  13. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  14. Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing

  15. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Since 1981, NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar radiation components, ...

  16. Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course (628.78 KB) More ...

  17. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Medicine - Continuing Medical Education...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Emergency Medicine Dates Scheduled Register Online August 9-12, 2016 Fee: 200 ... The course begins with a discussion of the fundamentals of radiation physics, radiation ...

  18. ORISE: The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents provides the basic information needed for the medical management of victims of radiation ...

  19. ORISE: Radiation Treatment Medication Package Inserts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training RANET Asset Resources Overview Frequently Asked Questions about Radiation Understanding Radiation Video Series The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents Dose Estimates ...

  20. Radiation Effects Facility - Facilities - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Effects Facility Typical DUT(device under test) set-up at the end of the Radiation Effects beamline. The Radiation Effects Facility is available for commercial, ...

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports November 17, 2015 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report The...

  2. Apparatus for generating partially coherent radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-02-22

    Techniques for generating partially coherent radiation and particularly for converting effectively coherent radiation from a synchrotron to partially coherent EUV radiation suitable for projection lithography.

  3. "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the ...

  4. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are ...

  5. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  6. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  7. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  8. radiation | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    radiation NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Boston area BOSTON - On April 12 through April 15, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) will conduct low-altitude helicopter flights around Boston to measure naturally occurring background radiation. Officials from NNSA announced that the... NNSA to Participate in Aerial Radiation Training Exercise in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - On March 21 through March 24, the

  9. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation damage materials modification Radiation Damage/Materials Modification High-energy ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade their physical properties to the point of failure. For example, alpha-decay in nuclear fuels results in dislocation damage to and accumulation of helium and fission gasses in the material. Similarly, neutrons interacting with

  10. ARM - Measurement - Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPhotosynthetically Active Radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Photosynthetically Active Radiation Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) designates the spectral range (wave band) of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is

  11. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  12. Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTACTS Division Leader Shawna Eisele Office Administrator Shirley D. Martinez Senior Advisor Paul Hoover Special Assistant and Issues Management Coordinator Elinor Gwynn Radiation Protection Radiation Protection The Radiation Protection Division supports the Laboratory in accomplishing its mission by helping to ensure radiological work is conducted safely and within requirements established by Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835) and enforced under the Price Anderson Amendments Act.

  13. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levels in Real Time? There's an App for That! Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are expanding their global network of radiation monitoring stations to include up-to-date readings from the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) based out of southern Nevada. The CEMP was established in 1981 to monitor manmade and natural radiation levels surrounding

  14. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2000-12-26

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  15. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J.; Lessing, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  16. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

    1998-07-28

    A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

  17. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  18. Multilayer radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Urbahn, John Arthur; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon

    2009-06-16

    A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

  19. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  20. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  1. Terahertz radiation mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C.; Allen, S. James; Lee, Mark

    2008-05-20

    A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

  2. RADIATION SHIELDING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-23

    ABS>A radiation shield that is suitable for the protection of personnel from both gamma rays and nentrons is described. The shield is comprised of a hollow wall and an aggregate consisting of iron and water in approximately equal amounts by volume substantially filling the wall. A means is provided to circulate the water through the wall to cool the shield when in use.

  3. Hyperon radiative decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaxiras, Efthimios; Moniz, Ernest J.; Soyeur, Madeleine

    1985-08-01

    The radiative decay widths of the low-lying strange baryons are calculated both within the relativistic quark bag model and the nonrelativistic potential model. These widths are found to depend sensitively upon the quark-model dynamics through multiplet mixing and q4q-bar admixtures. The comparison between our calculated results and the very limited experimental data is discussed.

  4. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Format for Proposal Extension Request Proposals are eligible for a one-time extension request. Submit extension requests by Email as a Word or PDF attachment to: Michelle Steger (steger@slac.stanford.edu) Proposal Number: Date of Extension Request: Spokesperson: 1. PROGRESS: Provide a progress report describing work accomplished at SSRL on this proposal to date (1-2 pages) 2. NEW ELEMENTS: Describe any new elements that may add interest to extending the

  5. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Francois; Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu; Liu, Geoffrey

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  6. SU-E-P-07: Evaluation of Productivity Systems for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, C; Usynin, A [Thompson Cancer Survival Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Health systems throughout the United States are under increased financial pressure to reduce operating cost. As a result, productivity models developed by third-party consultants are being used to optimize staff to treatment volumes. The purpose of this study was to critically evaluate productivity systems for radiation oncology. Methods: Staffing efficiency was evaluated using multiple productivity models. The first model evaluated staffing levels using equal weighting of procedure codes and hours worked. A second productivity model was developed using hours worked by job class and relative value units for each procedure code. A third model was developed using the measured procedure times extracted from the electronic medical record, which tracks the wait and treatment times for each patient for each treatment fraction. A MatLab program was developed to query and analyze the daily treatment data. A model was then created to determine any theoretical gains in treatment productivity. Results: Productivity was evaluated for six radiation therapy departments operating nine linear accelerators delivering over 40,000 treatment fractions per year. Third party productivity models that do not take into consideration the unique nature of radiation therapy can be counterproductive. For example, other outpatient departments can compress their daily schedule to decrease the worked hours. This approach was tested using the treatment schedule evaluation tool developed as part of this study. It was determined that the maximum possible savings for treatment schedule compression was $32,000 per year per linac. All annual cost savings would be lost if only two patients per year choose to be treated elsewhere because of limited or restricted appointment times. Conclusion: The use of productivity models in radiation therapy can easily result in a loss of treatment revenue that is greater than any potential cost savings in reduced hours worked by staff.

  7. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Spanne, Per O.

    1994-01-01

    A method of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation, in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue.

  8. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

    1994-08-16

    A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

  9. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  10. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites ...

  12. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Mitra, Nandita; Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James; Rengan, Ramesh; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received {>=}50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received {<=}78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving {>=}1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of

  13. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  14. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  15. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, Hal O.; Martin, Donn C.; Lampton, Michael L.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

  16. RADIATION SHIELDING COMPOSITION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunegan, H.L.

    1963-01-29

    A light weight radiation shielding composition is described whose mechanical and radiological properties can be varied within wide limits. The composition of this shielding material consists of four basic ingredients: powder of either Pb or W, a plastic resin, a resin plasticizer, and a polymerization catalyst to promote an interaction of the plasticizer with the plastic resin. Air may be mixed into the above ingredients in order to control the density of the final composition. For equivalent gamma attenuation, the shielding composition weighs one-third to one-half as much as conventional Pb shielding. (AEC)

  17. RADIATION DETECTOR SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundlach, J.C.; Kelley, G.G.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to radiation detection devices and presents a unique detection system especialiy desirable for portable type instruments using a Geiger-Mueller for a high voltage battery, thereby reducing the size and weight of the instrument, by arranging a one-shot multivibrator to recharge a capacitance applying operating potential to tho Geiger-Mueller tube each time a nuclear particle is detected. When detection occurs, the multivibrator further delivers a pulse to an appropriate indicator doing away with the necessity for the pulse amplifier conventionally intermediate between the detector and indicator in pulse detection systems.

  18. Analysis of Contribution from Edge Radiation to Optical Diffraction Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Liu, P. Evtushenko, A. Freyberger, C. Liu, A.H. Lumpkin

    2009-05-01

    Beam size measurement with near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) has been carried out successfully at CEBAF. The ODR station is installed on the Hall-A beam line after eight bending magnets. The ODR images were affected by an unexpected radiation. Some calculations for analyzing the source of the radiation will be presented. Furthermore, two schemes will be proposed to alleviate the contamination.

  19. Proportional counter radiation camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  20. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard; Williams, Paul T; Phillips, Rick; Erickson, Marjorie A; Kirk, Mark T; Stevens, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

  1. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  2. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  3. Deterministic methods in radiation transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  5. CASL - Radiation Transport Methods Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Transport Methods Update The Radiation Transport Methods (RTM) focus area is responsible for the development of methods, algorithms, and implementations of radiation transport methods as they apply to the design and analysis of light water nuclear reactors. the fundamental areas of investigation in RTM include high-order deterministic transport low-order transport approximations multigroup cross section generation depletion as it applies to in-core neutronics and material coupling

  6. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer

  7. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  8. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder; Paul L.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  9. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  10. Presentation: Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources delivered by Patricia Dehmer, U.S. Department of Energy

  11. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority estimates that 15 to 30 percent of the heat is wasted by overheating of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a ...

  12. JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    JOINT EPADOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States JOINT EPADOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No ...

  13. RTOG 0211: A Phase 1/2 Study of Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Gefitinib for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Lautenschlaeger, Tim; Curran, Walter J.; Brachman, David G.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Choucair, Ali; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Christiansen, Jason; Gustavson, Mark; Molinaro, Annette; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of CaliforniaSan Diego, La Jolla, California ; Mischel, Paul; Dicker, Adam P.; and others

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety and efficacy of gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with radiation for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Methods and Materials: Between March 21, 2002, and May 3, 2004, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0211 enrolled 31 and 147 GBM patients in the phase 1 and 2 arms, respectively. Treatment consisted of daily oral gefinitnib started at the time of conventional cranial radiation therapy (RT) and continued post RT for 18 months or until progression. Tissue microarrays from 68 cases were analyzed for EGFR expression. Results: The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of gefitinib was determined to be 500 mg in patients on non-enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (non-EIAEDs). All patients in the phase 2 component were treated at a gefitinib dose of 500 mg; patients receiving EIADSs could be escalated to 750 mg. The most common side effects of gefitinib in combination with radiation were dermatologic and gastrointestinal. Median survival was 11.5 months for patients treated per protocol. There was no overall survival benefit for patients treated with gefitinib + RT when compared with a historical cohort of patients treated with RT alone, matched by RTOG recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class distribution. Younger age was significantly associated with better outcome. Per protocol stratification, EGFR expression was not found to be of prognostic value for gefitinib + RT-treated patients. Conclusions: The addition of gefitinib to RT is well tolerated. Median survival of RTOG 0211 patients treated with RT with concurrent and adjuvant gefitinib was similar to that in a historical control cohort treated with radiation alone.

  14. Pulmonary Artery Invasion, High-Dose Radiation, and Overall Survival in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Wei-Li; Quint, Leslie; Xue, Jian-Xin; Matuszak, Martha; Ten Haken, Randall; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose radiation to the pulmonary artery (PA) affects overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Patients with medically inoperable/unresectable NSCLC treated with definitive radiation therapy in prospective studies were eligible for this study. Pulmonary artery involvement was defined on the basis of pretreatment chest CT and positron emission tomography/CT fusion. Pulmonary artery was contoured according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1106 atlas, and dose-volume histograms were generated. Results: A total of 100 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year for surviving patients were enrolled: 82.0% underwent concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Radiation dose ranged from 60 to 85.5 Gy in 30-37 fractions. Patients with PA invasion of grade ≤2, 3, 4, and 5 had 1-year OS and median survival of 67% and 25.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.7-35.1), 62% and 22.2 months (95% CI 5.8-38.6), 90% and 35.8 months (95% CI 28.4-43.2), and 50% and 7.0 months, respectively (P=.601). Two of the 4 patients with grade 5 PA invasion died suddenly from massive hemorrhage at 3 and 4.5 months after completion of radiation therapy. Maximum and mean doses to PA were not significantly associated with OS. The V45, V50, V55, and V60 of PA were correlated significantly with a worse OS (P<.05). Patients with V45 >70% or V60 >37% had significantly worse OS (13.3 vs 37.9 months, P<.001, and 13.8 vs 37.9 months, P=.04, respectively). Conclusions: Grade 5 PA invasion and PA volume receiving more than 45-60 Gy may be associated with inferior OS in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

  15. Radiation imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Immel, David M.; Bobbit, III, John T.; Plummer, Jean R.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-03-22

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  16. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  17. TH-E-19A-01: Quality and Safety in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, E; Ezzell, G; Miller, B; Yorke, E

    2014-06-15

    Clinical radiotherapy data clearly demonstrate the link between the quality and safety of radiation treatments and the outcome for patients. The medical physicist plays an essential role in this process. To ensure the highest quality treatments, the medical physicist must understand and employ modern quality improvement techniques. This extends well beyond the duties traditionally associated with prescriptive QA measures. This session will review the current best practices for improving quality and safety in radiation therapy. General elements of quality management will be reviewed including: what makes a good quality management structure, the use of prospective risk analysis such as FMEA, and the use of incident learning. All of these practices are recommended in society-level documents and are incorporated into the new Practice Accreditation program developed by ASTRO. To be effective, however, these techniques must be practical in a resource-limited environment. This session will therefore focus on practical tools such as the newly-released radiation oncology incident learning system, RO-ILS, supported by AAPM and ASTRO. With these general constructs in mind, a case study will be presented of quality management in an SBRT service. An example FMEA risk assessment will be presented along with incident learning examples including root cause analysis. As the physicist's role as “quality officer” continues to evolve it will be essential to understand and employ the most effective techniques for quality improvement. This session will provide a concrete overview of the fundamentals in quality and safety. Learning Objectives: Recognize the essential elements of a good quality management system in radiotherapy. Understand the value of incident learning and the AAPM/ASTRO ROILS incident learning system. Appreciate failure mode and effects analysis as a risk assessment tool and its use in resource-limited environments. Understand the fundamental principles of good

  18. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parodi, Katia

    2015-12-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  19. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  20. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedel, Richard A.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Clonts, Lloyd G.; Cooper, Ronald G.

    2012-02-14

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  1. Radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

  2. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  3. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  4. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  5. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  6. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huddart, Robert A.; Hall, Emma; Hussain, Syed A.; Jenkins, Peter; Rawlings, Christine; Tremlett, Jean; Crundwell, Malcolm; Adab, Fawzi A.; Sheehan, Denise; Syndikus, Isabel; Hendron, Carey; Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel; James, Nicholas D.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 2 factorial design. The primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT ? sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval ?7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (?12.8%, 14.6%) in the per-protocol population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  7. Oak Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS), ORAU Director Oak Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency ...

  8. STANFORD SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LIGHTSOURCE The Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STANFORD SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LIGHTSOURCE The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory produces extremely bright X-rays used to study our ...

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-027 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  10. AUDIT REPORT Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility OAI-M-16-10 May 2016 U.S. ... Audit Report on the "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility" ...

  11. Support - Facilities - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    During experiments at the Radiation Effects Facility users are assisted by the experienced ... shops are available to the users of the Radiation Effects Facility for design, ...

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-037 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  13. Surface Radiation Budget from ARM Satellite Retrievals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Radiation Budget from ARM Satellite Retrievals P. Minnis, D. P. Kratz, and T. P. ... Hampton, Virginia Introduction Since the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ...

  14. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accident Registries The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) maintains a number of radiation ...

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  16. Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation Detection Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL ...

  17. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Treatment Medications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment Medications The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) is a valuable resource in the use of drug therapies to treat radiation exposure. REACTS ...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-15-069 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation ...

  20. ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rapidly estimate internal and external radiation dose magnitudes that can be used to help ... (PDF) Health Concerns Related to Radiation Exposure of the Female Nuclear Medicine ...

  1. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource: SPEAR3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In 1990, the machine was dedicatedto synchrotron radiation research. Two particular SPEAR ... SPEAR also produces intense beam of synchrotron radiation -- ultraviolet and x-ray photons ...

  2. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2014.

  3. DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http:energy.govehssoccupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii MATTHEW B....

  4. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Preparedeness Conference | How ORISE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Emergency Preparedness Conference White House thanks ORISE for assisting CDC in hosting radiation emergency preparedness conference How ORISE is Making a Difference The...

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2009 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2009.

  6. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1996 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1996.

  7. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2010 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2010.

  8. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2003 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2003 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2003.

  9. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1995 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1995 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1995.

  10. 10 CFR 835- Occupational Radiation Protection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

  11. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1998 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1998 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at DOE facilities during the calendar year 1998.

  12. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Apparatus, systems, and methods for...

  13. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting You are accessing a document from...

  14. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

  15. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of ...

  16. Hybrid Radiator Cooling System | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiator Cooling System Technology available for licensing: Hybrid radiator cooling system uses conventional finned air cooling under most driving conditions that would be...

  17. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search DOE Data Explorer Search Results Page 1 of 70 Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" 697 results for: "atmospheric radiation ...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research ...

  19. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. ... Our result can find applications in radiative thermal management. Authors: Ding, Ding 1 ...

  20. Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

  1. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Other Related Sites DOE - Main Home Page - the home page for ...

  2. Radiation-thermoacoustic microscopy of condensed media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyamshev, L.M.; Chelnokov, B.I.

    1984-07-01

    Possibilities are discussed for the application of scanning radiation-thermoacoustic microscopy, using different types of radiation, for microstructure analysis. (AIP)

  3. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  4. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    employees during 1985. May 19, 2006 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor...

  5. WE-B-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Planning II: Cloud Computing in RT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K; Kagadis, G; Xing, L; McNutt, T

    2014-06-15

    As defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Despite the omnipresent role of computers in radiotherapy, cloud computing has yet to achieve widespread adoption in clinical or research applications, though the transition to such on-demand access is underway. As this transition proceeds, new opportunities for aggregate studies and efficient use of computational resources are set against new challenges in patient privacy protection, data integrity, and management of clinical informatics systems. In this Session, current and future applications of cloud computing and distributed computational resources will be discussed in the context of medical imaging, radiotherapy research, and clinical radiation oncology applications. Learning Objectives: Understand basic concepts of cloud computing. Understand how cloud computing could be used for medical imaging applications. Understand how cloud computing could be employed for radiotherapy research.4. Understand how clinical radiotherapy software applications would function in the cloud.

  6. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  7. Multiple-mode radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claus, Liam D.; Derzon, Mark S.; Kay, Randolph R.; Bauer, Todd; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Henry, Michael David

    2015-08-25

    An apparatus for detecting radiation is provided. In embodiments, at least one sensor medium is provided, of a kind that interacts with radiation to generate photons and/or charge carriers. The apparatus also includes at least one electrode arrangement configured to collect radiation-generated charge from a sensor medium that has been provided. The apparatus also includes at least one photodetector configured to produce an electrical output in response to photons generated by radiation in such a sensor medium, and an electronic circuit configured to produce an output that is jointly responsive to the collected charge and to the photodetector output. At least one such electrode arrangement, at least one such photodetector, and at least one such sensor medium are combined to form an integral unit.

  8. Radiative capture reactions in astrophysics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brune, Carl R.; Davids, Barry

    2015-08-07

    Here, the radiative capture reactions of greatest importance in nuclear astrophysics are identified and placed in their stellar contexts. Recent experimental efforts to estimate their thermally averaged rates are surveyed.

  9. RADIATION FACILITY FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1961-12-12

    A radiation facility is designed for irradiating samples in close proximity to the core of a nuclear reactor. The facility comprises essentially a tubular member extending through the biological shield of the reactor and containing a manipulatable rod having the sample carrier at its inner end, the carrier being longitudinally movable from a position in close proximity to the reactor core to a position between the inner and outer faces of the shield. Shield plugs are provided within the tubular member to prevent direct radiation from the core emanating therethrough. In this device, samples may be inserted or removed during normal operation of the reactor without exposing personnel to direct radiation from the reactor core. A storage chamber is also provided within the radiation facility to contain an irradiated sample during the period of time required to reduce the radioactivity enough to permit removal of the sample for external handling. (AEC)

  10. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  11. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  12. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a ...

  13. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detector’s coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  14. Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    overview Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility was established in 1990 to improve global climate models by increasing understanding of clouds and radiative feedbacks. Through the ARM Facility, DOE funded the development of highly instrumented research sites at strategic locations around the world: the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA).

  15. Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment Water sampling and analysis at Idaho National Lab Water sampling and analysis at Idaho National Lab Idaho National Lab(INL) in partnership with the US Geological Service(USGS) sample, collect and analyze data in order to ensure that exposure to the public and the environment within and around the INL Complex are below the required authorized limits set by DOE. Read more

  16. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Radiation-Solid Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences...

  17. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L.

    1987-01-01

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  18. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1985-03-29

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  19. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

  20. International Conference Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI `94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report contains abstracts for the international conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  1. Simplified field-in-field technique for a large-scale implementation in breast radiation treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier-Bidoz, Nathalie; Kirova, Youlia M.; Campana, Francois; Dendale, Remi; Fourquet, Alain

    2012-07-01

    We wanted to evaluate a simplified 'field-in-field' technique (SFF) that was implemented in our department of Radiation Oncology for breast treatment. This study evaluated 15 consecutive patients treated with a simplified field in field technique after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer. Radiotherapy consisted of whole-breast irradiation to the total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions, and a boost of 16 Gy in 8 fractions to the tumor bed. We compared dosimetric outcomes of SFF to state-of-the-art electronic surface compensation (ESC) with dynamic leaves. An analysis of early skin toxicity of a population of 15 patients was performed. The median volume receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose was 763 mL (range, 347-1472) for SFF vs. 779 mL (range, 349-1494) for ESC. The median residual 107% isodose was 0.1 mL (range, 0-63) for SFF and 1.9 mL (range, 0-57) for ESC. Monitor units were on average 25% higher in ESC plans compared with SFF. No patient treated with SFF had acute side effects superior to grade 1-NCI scale. SFF created homogenous 3D dose distributions equivalent to electronic surface compensation with dynamic leaves. It allowed the integration of a forward planned concomitant tumor bed boost as an additional multileaf collimator subfield of the tangential fields. Compared with electronic surface compensation with dynamic leaves, shorter treatment times allowed better radiation protection to the patient. Low-grade acute toxicity evaluated weekly during treatment and 2 months after treatment completion justified the pursuit of this technique for all breast patients in our department.

  2. Valproic Acid Use During Radiation Therapy for Glioblastoma Associated With Improved Survival

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Christopher A.; Bishop, Andrew J.; Chang, Maria; Beal, Kathryn; Chan, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Valproic acid (VA) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor taken by patients with glioblastoma (GB) to manage seizures, and it can modulate the biologic effects of radiation therapy (RT). We investigated whether VA use during RT for GB was associated with overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 544 adults with GB were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses were performed to determine the association of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RTOG RPA) class, seizure history, and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) and AED use during RT with OS. Results: Seizures before the end of RT were noted in 217 (40%) patients, and 403 (74%) were taking an AED during RT; 29 (7%) were taking VA. Median OS in patients taking VA was 16.9 months (vs 13.6 months taking another AED, P=.16). Among patients taking an AED during RT, OS was associated with VA (P=.047; hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-1.07), and RTOG RPA class (P<.0001; HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.37-1.61). Of the 5 most common AEDs, only VA was associated with OS. Median OS of patients receiving VA and TMZ during RT was 23.9 months (vs 15.2 months for patients taking another AED, P=.26). When the analysis was restricted to patients who received concurrent TMZ, VA use was marginally associated with OS (P=.057; HR, 0.54; 95% CI, −0.09 to 1.17), independently of RTOG RPA class and seizure history. Conclusions: VA use during RT for GB was associated with improved OS, independently of RTOG RPA, seizure history, and concurrent TMZ use. Further studies of treatment that combines HDAC inhibitors and RT are warranted.

  3. ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring System (REMS) ORISE maintains large database of radition exposure records for the U.S. Department of Energy ORISE staff monitoring radiation data for DOE Rule 10 CFR 835 establishes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) occupational protection rule and requires assessment and recording of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or contamination. The Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) database is the radiation exposure data repository for all

  4. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E.

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  5. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  6. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  7. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  8. Imaging radiation detector with gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1982-07-21

    A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

  9. Imaging radiation detector with gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1984-01-01

    A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

  10. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  11. JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States | Department of Energy JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States March 18, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - The United States Government has an extensive network of radiation monitors around the country and no radiation levels of concern have been

  12. Enhanced radiation detectors using luminescent materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vardeny, Zeev V.; Jeglinski, Stefan A.; Lane, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    A radiation detecting device comprising a radiation sensing element, and a layer of luminescent material to expand the range of wavelengths over which the sensing element can efficiently detect radiation. The luminescent material being selected to absorb radiation at selected wavelengths, causing the luminescent material to luminesce, and the luminescent radiation being detected by the sensing element. Radiation sensing elements include photodiodes (singly and in arrays), CCD arrays, IR detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Luminescent materials include polymers, oligomers, copolymers and porphyrines, Luminescent layers include thin films, thicker layers, and liquid polymers.

  13. Gamma Radiation & X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations differ only in the amount of energy they have. Gamma rays and X-rays are the most energetic of these. 2. Gamma radiation is able to travel many meters in air and many centimeters in human tissue. It readily penetrates most materials and is sometimes called "penetrating radiation." 3. X-rays are like gamma rays.

  14. Solar Radiation Empirical Quality Assessment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-03-01

    The SERIQC1 subroutine performs quality assessment of one, two, or three-component solar radiation data (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) obtained from one-minute to one-hour integrations. Included in the package is the QCFIT tool to derive expected values from historical data, and the SERIQC1 subroutine to assess the quality of measurement data.

  15. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  16. Radiation augmentation energy storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christe, K.O.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a method of converting radiation energy into chemical energy to produce a high-performance propellant. It comprises: photolytically converting oxygen to ozone; storing and stabilizing the ozone in liquid oxygen to form an ozone/liquid oxygen solution; and combusting the ozone/liquid oxygen solution with hydrogen.

  17. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  18. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  19. Precision Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Poor Performing Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westover, Kenneth D.; Loo, Billy W.; Gerber, David E.; Iyengar, Puneeth; Choy, Hak; Diehn, Maximilian; Hughes, Randy; Schiller, Joan; Dowell, Jonathan; Wardak, Zabi; Sher, David; Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin; Corona, Irma; Sharma, Akanksha; Wadsworth, Margaret E.; Timmerman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Treatment regimens for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) give suboptimal clinical outcomes. Technological advancements such as radiation therapy, the backbone of most treatment regimens, may enable more potent and effective therapies. The objective of this study was to escalate radiation therapy to a tumoricidal hypofractionated dose without exceeding the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage II to IV or recurrent NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or greater and not candidates for surgical resection, stereotactic radiation, or concurrent chemoradiation were eligible. Highly conformal radiation therapy was given to treat intrathoracic disease in 15 fractions to a total of 50, 55, or 60 Gy. Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled: 15 at the 50-Gy, 21 at the 55-Gy, and 19 at the 60-Gy dose levels. A 90-day follow-up was completed in each group without exceeding the MTD. With a median follow-up of 12.5 months, there were 93 grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), including 39 deaths, although most AEs were considered related to factors other than radiation therapy. One patient from the 55- and 60-Gy dose groups developed grade ≥3 esophagitis, and 5, 4, and 4 patients in the respective dose groups experienced grade ≥3 dyspnea, but only 2 of these AEs were considered likely related to therapy. There was no association between fraction size and toxicity (P=.24). The median overall survival was 6 months with no significant differences between dose levels (P=.59). Conclusions: Precision hypofractionated radiation therapy consisting of 60 Gy in 15 fractions for locally advanced NSCLC is generally well tolerated. This treatment regimen could provide patients with poor performance status a potent alternative to chemoradiation. This study has implications for the cost effectiveness of lung cancer therapy. Additional studies of long

  20. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for

  1. ORISE: Understanding Radiation Video Series from REAC/TS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Radiation Video Series Basic radiation concepts explained by REACTS staff To help health officials and the public better understand radiation and radioactive ...

  2. Fast All-sky Radiation Models for Solar applications (FARMS)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Fast All-sky Radiation Models for Solar applications ... Radiative transfer (RT) models simulating broadband solar radiation have been widely used ...

  3. Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 January 29, 2015 OE-3 2015-01: DOE Occupational Radiation...

  4. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents Radiation Monitoring...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radiation Monitoring Subgroup TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents Radiation Monitoring Subgroup Radiation Monitoring Subgroup PDF icon Draft Work Plan - February 4,...

  5. ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Title: ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar ...

  6. Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros Radiation amplitude zeros...

  7. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  8. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1988 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Twenty-first Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1988.

  9. United States Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Office...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Office of Radiation Programs Technical Note Las Vegas Facility ORPLV-78-3 P.O. Box 15027 October 1978 Las Vegas NV 89114 &EPA Levels and ...

  10. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  11. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1976 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ninth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1976.

  12. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1986 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Nineteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1986.

  13. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1984.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Undulator Radiation at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu, Geoffrey Krafft, Guimei Wang

    2010-05-01

    The performance of undulator radiation (UR) at CEBAF with a 3.5 m helical undulator is evaluated and compared with APS undulator-A radiation in terms of brilliance, peak brilliance, spectral flux, flux density and intensity distribution.

  15. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1985 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eighteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1985.

  16. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1975 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Eighth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for ERDA & ERDA Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and its contractor employees during 1975.

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1981 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fourteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1981.

  18. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1983 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sixteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1983.

  19. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1979 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Twelfth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1979.

  20. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1980 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Thirteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1980.

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1982 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fifteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1982.

  2. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1987 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Twentieth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1987.

  3. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  4. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1978 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eleventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1978.

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1977 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1977.

  6. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, N.O.

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB, and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) Beginning in January 2006, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) began supporting RADAGAST to provide the first well-sampled direct esti- mates of the energy balance across the atmosphere. The experiment is part of an ongoing international study of the West African monsoon system and Saharan dust storms. Stationed outside the Niger Meteo- rological Office at the Niamey International Airport, the AMF is located

  8. CRAD, Environmental Radiation Protection- December 7, 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Environmental Radiation Protection, Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry (HSS CRAD 64-36, Rev. 0)

  9. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  10. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification December 17, 2015 Monitoring records are required to be reported to the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiation Records Repository by March 31 under DOE Order 231.1B and in accordance with the REMS Reporting Guide. These records form the basis for the analysis presented in the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure annual report. In July of 2007,

  11. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  12. How much radiation is too much?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How much radiation is too much? How much radiation is too much? Federal government standards limit the dose that the public may receive from Laboratory operations. August 1, 2013 For an individual living near LANL in 2012, the average radiation exposure from all sources was estimated at approximately 751 mrem. One-tenth of one percent can be attributed to LANL sources. For an individual living near LANL in 2012, the average radiation exposure from all sources was estimated at approximately 751

  13. Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... GE DETECTORS; STIRLING CYCLE; ENERGY SYSTEMS; GE SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; MECHANICS; RADIATION DETECTORS; SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS; THERMODYNAMIC ...

  14. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  15. Seeding Coherent Radiation Sources with Sawtooth Modulation ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HARMONICS; INSTABILITY; MODULATION; PERFORMANCE; PHASE SPACE; POLARIZATION; RADIATION SOURCES; SATURATION; SEEDS; WAVE FORMS; WAVELENGTHS Accelerators,ACCPHY, SYNCHRAD, XFEL

  16. Optimization of radiation protection: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.R.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    This document provides a bibliography of radiation protection optimization documents. Abstracts, an author index, and a subject index are provided.

  17. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  18. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  19. Plasma Panel Based Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Dr. Peter S.; Varner Jr, Robert L; Ball, Robert; Beene, James R; Ben Moshe, M.; Benhammou, Yan; Chapman, J. Wehrley; Etzion, E; Ferretti, Claudio; Bentefour, E; Levin, Daniel S.; Moshe, M.; Silver, Yiftah; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels (PDPs). It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in PDPs, it uses non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (< 50 m RMS) and low cost. In this paper we report here on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including detection of alphas, heavy-ions at low to medium energy, thermal neutrons and X-rays.

  20. Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujioka, J. Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Malomed, B. A.

    2014-09-01

    It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy.

  1. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to "room temperature", and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  2. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-03-23

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to room temperature'' and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  3. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Hughes, Robert C.; Kepler, R. Glen; Kurtz, Steven R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  4. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  5. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form #: Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers mitigate the radiological hazards introduced by the proposed work? Yes No (b) Can the closed state of the beam line injection stoppers be assured during the proposed work (ie., work does NOT involve injection stoppers or associated HPS)? Yes No If the answers to both questions are yes, the work can be performed safely

  6. RADIATION DOSIMETER AND DOSIMETRIC METHODS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taplin, G.V.

    1958-10-28

    The determination of ionizing radiation by means of single fluid phase chemical dosimeters of the colorimetric type is presented. A single fluid composition is used consisting of a chlorinated hydrocarbon, an acidimetric dye, a normalizer and water. Suitable chlorinated hydrocarbons are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, trichlorethane, ethylene dichioride and tetracbloroethylene. Suitable acidimetric indicator dyes are phenol red, bromcresol purple, and creosol red. Suitable normallzers are resorcinol, geraniol, meta cresol, alpha -tocopberol, and alpha -naphthol.

  7. Posters Radiation Singularities, Multiple Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Radiation Singularities, Multiple Scattering and Diffusion in Multifractal Clouds P. Silas, G. Brösamlen, and S. Lovejoy Department of Physics McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada C. Naud and D. Schertzer Université Pierre and Marie Curie Paris, France B. Watson Department of Physics St. Lawrence University Canton, New York Diffusion on One-Dimensional Multifractals (P. Silas, S. Lovejoy, D. Schertzer) Many geophysical and atmospheric fields exhibit multifractal characteristics

  8. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  9. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Kimbrough, Joseph R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO.sub.2 insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron's generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO.sub.2 layer.

  10. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Kimbrough, J.R.

    1996-11-19

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO{sub 2} insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron`s generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO{sub 2} layer. 7 figs.

  11. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Can Be Used Safely to Boost Residual Disease in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feddock, Jonathan; Arnold, Susanne M.; Department of Medical Oncology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky ; Shelton, Brent J.; Sinha, Partha; Conrad, Gary; Chen, Li; Rinehart, John; McGarry, Ronald C.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a prospective, single-institution study evaluating the feasibility of conventional chemoradiation (CRT) followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a means of dose escalation for patients with stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with residual disease. Methods and Materials: Patients without metastatic disease and with radiologic evidence of limited residual disease (?5 cm) within the site of the primary tumor and good or complete nodal responses after standard CRT to a target dose of 60 Gy were considered eligible. The SBRT boost was done to achieve a total combined dose biological equivalent dose >100 Gy to the residual primary tumor, consisting of 10 Gy 2 fractions (20 Gy total) for peripheral tumors, and 6.5 Gy 3 fractions (19.5 Gy total) for medial tumors using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0813 definitions. The primary endpoint was the development of grade ?3 radiation pneumonitis (RP). Results: After a median follow-up of 13 months, 4 patients developed acute grade 3 RP, and 1 (2.9%) developed late and persistent grade 3 RP. No patients developed grade 4 or 5 RP. Mean lung dose, V2.5, V5, V10, and V20 values were calculated for the SBRT boost, and none were found to significantly predict for RP. Only advancing age (P=.0147), previous smoking status (P=.0505), and high CRT mean lung dose (P=.0295) were significantly associated with RP development. At the time of analysis, the actuarial local control rate at the primary tumor site was 82.9%, with only 6 patients demonstrating recurrence. Conclusions: Linear accelerator-based SBRT for dose escalation of limited residual NSCLC after definitive CRT was feasible and did not increase the risk for toxicity above that for standard radiation therapy.

  12. Impact of Pretreatment Combined {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Staging on Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Sweet Ping; David, Steven; Alamgeer, Muhammad; Ganju, Vinod

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on radiation therapy treatment decisions in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LABC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 and no contraindication to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant radiation therapy were enrolled on a prospective trial. All patients had pretreatment conventional imaging (CI) performed, including bilateral breast mammography and ultrasound, bone scan, and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis scans performed. Informed consent was obtained before enrolment. Pretreatment whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed on all patients, and results were compared with CI findings. Results: A total of 154 patients with LABC with no clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastases on CI were enrolled. Median age was 49 years (range, 26-70 years). Imaging with PET/CT detected distant metastatic disease and/or locoregional disease not visualized on CI in 32 patients (20.8%). Distant metastatic disease was detected in 17 patients (11.0%): 6 had bony metastases, 5 had intrathoracic metastases (pulmonary/mediastinal), 2 had distant nodal metastases, 2 had liver metastases, 1 had pulmonary and bony metastases, and 1 had mediastinal and distant nodal metastases. Of the remaining 139 patients, nodal disease outside conventional radiation therapy fields was detected on PET/CT in 15 patients (10.8%), with involvement of ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in 13 and ipsilateral level 5 cervical nodes in 2. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT provides superior diagnostic and staging information in patients with LABC compared with CI, which has significant therapeutic implications with respect to radiation therapy management. Imaging with PET/CT should be considered in all patients undergoing primary

  13. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  14. radiation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    27, 2015

    A U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) helicopter may be seen flying at low altitudes around...

  15. radiation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, United Kingdom, on the growing...

  16. Calibration method for video and radiation imagers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Mark F.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F.; Goddard, Jr., James S.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2011-07-05

    The relationship between the high energy radiation imager pixel (HERIP) coordinate and real-world x-coordinate is determined by a least square fit between the HERIP x-coordinate and the measured real-world x-coordinates of calibration markers that emit high energy radiation imager and reflect visible light. Upon calibration, a high energy radiation imager pixel position may be determined based on a real-world coordinate of a moving vehicle. Further, a scale parameter for said high energy radiation imager may be determined based on the real-world coordinate. The scale parameter depends on the y-coordinate of the moving vehicle as provided by a visible light camera. The high energy radiation imager may be employed to detect radiation from moving vehicles in multiple lanes, which correspondingly have different distances to the high energy radiation imager.

  17. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Training for Iraq, South Africa and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Training REACTS Provides International Radiation Emergency Medical Response ... REACTS has conducted radiation emergency medical response training in Iraq, Kuwait, ...

  18. A Basic Overview of the Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Occupational Radiation Exposure: Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting Outreach & Awareness Series ...

  19. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Radiation-Solid Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home About Us Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor &...

  20. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  1. Radiation effects in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B.; Yazzie, A.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T.; Leavitt, C.P.

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  2. Muddy Water? Variation in Reporting Receipt of Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy by Population-Based Tumor Registries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Williams, Melanie; Jiang, Jing; Niu, Jiangong; MacKinnon, Jill; Anderson, Patricia; Wohler, Brad; Sinclair, Amber H.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Schymura, Maria J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate, in the setting of breast cancer, the accuracy of registry radiation therapy (RT) coding compared with the gold standard of Medicare claims. Methods and Materials: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare data, we identified 73,077 patients aged ≥66 years diagnosed with breast cancer in the period 2001-2007. Underascertainment (1 - sensitivity), sensitivity, specificity, κ, and χ{sup 2} were calculated for RT receipt determined by registry data versus claims. Multivariate logistic regression characterized patient, treatment, and geographic factors associated with underascertainment of RT. Findings in the SEER–Medicare registries were compared with three non-SEER registries (Florida, New York, and Texas). Results: In the SEER–Medicare registries, 41.6% (n=30,386) of patients received RT according to registry coding, versus 49.3% (n=36,047) according to Medicare claims (P<.001). Underascertainment of RT was more likely if patients resided in a newer SEER registry (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-1.80; P<.001), rural county (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48; P<.001), or if RT was delayed (OR 1.006/day, 95% CI 1.006-1.007; P<.001). Underascertainment of RT receipt in SEER registries was 18.7% (95% CI 18.6-18.8%), compared with 44.3% (95% CI 44.0-44.5%) in non-SEER registries. Conclusions: Population-based tumor registries are highly variable in ascertainment of RT receipt and should be augmented with other data sources when evaluating quality of breast cancer care. Future work should identify opportunities for the radiation oncology community to partner with registries to improve accuracy of treatment data.

  3. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy.

  4. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.

    1992-08-11

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy. 4 figs.

  5. Direct detector for terahertz radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C.; Lee, Mark; Shaner, Eric A.; Allen, S. James

    2008-09-02

    A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

  6. Uzbekistan Radiation Portal Monnitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J; Knapp, R; Loshak, A; Yuldashev, B; Petrenko, V

    2005-06-10

    The work proposed in this presentation builds on the foundation set by the DTRA funded demonstration project begun in 2000 and completed in December of 2003. This previous work consisted of two phases whose overall objective was to install portal radiation monitors at four select ports-of-entry in Uzbekistan (Tashkent International Airport, Gisht-Kuprik (Kazakhstan border), Alat (Turkmenistan border), and Termez (Afghanistan border)) in order to demonstrate their effectiveness in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objectives also included developing and demonstrating capabilities in the design, installation, operation, training, and maintenance of a radiation portal monitoring system. The system and demonstration project has proved successful in many ways. An effective working relationship among the Uzbekistan Customs Services, Uzbekistan Border Guards, and Uzbekistan Institute of Nuclear Physics has been developed. There has been unprecedented openness with the sharing of portal monitor data with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The system has proved to be effective, with detection of illicit trafficking, and, at Alat, an arrest of three persons illegally transporting radioactive materials into Turkmenistan. The demonstration project has made Uzbekistan a model nonproliferation state in Central Asia and, with an expanded program, places them in a position to seal a likely transit route for illicit nuclear materials. These results will be described. In addition, this work is currently being expanded to include additional ports-of-entry in Uzbekistan. The process for deciding on which additional ports-of-entry to equip will also be described.

  7. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

  8. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, R.A.

    1994-12-13

    A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  10. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  11. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E.; Dimitriou, Thespis; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Papazoglou, Dimitrios; Pappa, Aglaia; Pistevou, Kyriaki

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2{sub [4h]}) and 24 hours (SF2{sub [24h]}) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2{sub (4h)} was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)} (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio{sub (4h)}/γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)}) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Single Fraction of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Single Fraction of External Beam Radiation Therapy for Palliation of Vertebral Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hayeon; Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been proposed for the palliation of painful vertebral bone metastases because higher radiation doses may result in superior and more durable pain control. A phase III clinical trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631) comparing single fraction SBRT with single fraction external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in palliative treatment of painful vertebral bone metastases is now ongoing. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare these strategies. Methods and Materials: A Markov model, using a 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon, was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of SBRT (16 or 18 Gy in 1 fraction) with that of 8 Gy in 1 fraction of EBRT. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and EBRT were captured in the model. Costs were based on Medicare reimbursement in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for uncertainty, 1-way, 2-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: Base case pain relief after the treatment was assumed as 20% higher in SBRT. Base case treatment costs for SBRT and EBRT were $9000 and $1087, respectively. In the base case analysis, SBRT resulted in an ICER of $124,552 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of the utility of unrelieved pain; the utility of relieved pain after initial treatment and median survival were also sensitive to variation. If median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. Conclusion: SBRT for palliation of vertebral bone metastases is not cost-effective compared with EBRT at a $100,000 per QALY gained WTP threshold. However, if median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT costs ≤$100

  13. Radiation Detector & Imaging | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Detector & Imaging At Jefferson Lab, scientists, engineers and technicians in the Radiation Detector & Imaging Group adapt cutting-edge nuclear physics research detector technology to develop application-specific, radioisotope imaging systems. Technology has been developed for a variety of bio-medical applications such as medical-oriented clinical and preclinical research as well as for plant biology research. Jefferson Lab's Radiation Detector and Imaging Group Members of

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Research Foundations: Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects and High Energy Density Science Radiation Effects and High Energy Density Science Rings of Saturn, Sandia's workhorse pulsed-power machine. The Radiation Effects and High Energy Density Science Research Foundation seeks to advance science and engineering in the areas of radiation effects sciences, high energy density science, and pulsed-power science and technology to address critical national security issues. Why our work matters We address several issues key to nuclear security and

  15. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) Upwelling shortwave (reflected) Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  16. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accident Registries The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) maintains a number of radiation accident registries that provide medical professionals with up-to-date radiation accident information. Information for these accident registries is gathered from many sources, including the World Health Organization, International Atomic Energy Agency, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state radiological health

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility

  18. Continuous Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC) * Sponsored by ARM and endorsed by GEWEX Radiation Panel * Aims to become the standard for documenting the performance of SW and LW RT codes in Large-Scale Models * Goal is to have RT codes of IPCC models report performance against the CIRC cases * Phase I to be launched in the following weeks: http://www.circ-project.org Differences from previous intercomparisons: * Observation-tested LBL calculations to used as radiative benchmarks * Benchmark results

  19. Solar Radiation Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar radiation can be captured and turned into useful forms of energy, such as heat and electricity, using a variety of technologies. However, the technical feasibility and ...

  20. SRNL Deploys Innovative Radiation Mapping Device

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), EM’s national lab, has made strides with remote technology designed to reduce worker exposure while measuring radiation in contaminated areas.

  1. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  2. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  3. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reich, Frederich R.; Schwankoff, Albert R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

  4. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shulte, J.W.; Suttle, J.F.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to a method and device for determining quantities of gamma radiation and x radiation by exposing to such radiation a mature of a purified halogenated hydrocarbon chosen from the class consisting of chloroform, bromoform, tetrachloroethane and 1,1,2trichloroethane, and a minor quantity of a sensitizer chosen from the class consisting of oxygen, benzoyl peroxide, sodium peroxide, and nitrobenzene, the proportion of the sensitizer being at least about 10/sup -5/ moles per cubic centimeter of halogenated hydrocarbon, the total amount of sensitizer depending upon the range of radiation to be measured, and chemically measuring the amount of decomposition generated by the irradiation of the sensitized halogenated hydrocarbon.

  5. 2011 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Summary poster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ORAU

    2012-12-12

    This poster graphically presents data pertaining to occupational radiation exposure in terms of total effective dose (TED), primarily, but also collective dose and average measureable dose.

  6. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest ...

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations ... are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest ...

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER ...

  10. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  11. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  12. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  13. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection of electromagnetic ...

  14. Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... with difluence and sinking motion during cyclogenesis over ... How is the greater baroclinicity generated? Radiative ... The similar time structure of the water averages between the ...

  15. ARM - PI Product - Radiative Flux Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsRadiative Flux Analysis ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Radiative Flux Analysis The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and

  16. Accelerators for Testing Radiation Tolerances of Electronics...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Accelerated beams test semiconductor devices for tolerances to space radiation. ... The ability to test in air makes it possible to quickly change components and to easily ...

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science ...

  18. Apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a micromechanical sensor Title: Apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation using electron photoemission in a micromechanical sensor A micromechanical ...

  19. radiation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, NNSA, Argentina Transition Radiation...

  20. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring ...

  1. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANATOMY; DOSIMETRY; EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY; HAZARDS; NEOPLASMS; NMR ...

  2. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2005-05-03

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  3. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  4. Transport Test Problems for Radiation Detection Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2012-09-30

    This is the final report and deliverable for the project. It is a list of the details of the test cases for radiation detection scenarios.

  5. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ... and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives. less December 2015 , ...

  6. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurement" 50 results for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" Full Text and Citations Filters Filter Search Results Everything (Citations and Full Text) (50 results) ...

  7. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide December 17, 2015 Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System ...

  8. Synchrotron Radiation (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synchrotron Radiation Authors: Wootton, Kent ; SLAC Publication Date: 2016-02-08 OSTI Identifier: 1237936 Report Number(s): ...

  9. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  10. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2007-12-18

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  11. Impedance scaling and synchrotron radiation intercept (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SUPER COLLIDER; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; TWO-DIMENSIONAL ... Particle Accelerators-- Auxiliaries & Components Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  12. Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX Chuck Long Jay Mace Intent * Provide downwelling broadband radiation measurements at Thunderhead * Physically small footprint portable system * Designed to provide inputs necessary for Radiative Flux Analysis Basic RFA System COPS Hornisgrinde Deployment 1200m elevation System Components * Eppley ventilated PSP * Eppley ventilated PIR * Delta-T SPN-1 * Vaisala HMP-50 T/RH probe * Campbell CR23X datalogger SPN-1

  13. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Fairfax, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Lenard, Roger (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  14. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  15. Alpha-beta radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, D.M.; Simmons, K.L.; Froelich, T.J.; Carter, G.L.

    1998-08-18

    The invention is based in part on the discovery that a plastic housing that is lightweight is surprisingly efficient inasmuch as background signals from any gamma radiation are significantly reduced by using a plastic housing instead of a metal housing. A further aspect of the present invention is the profile of the housing as a bi-linear approximation to a parabola resulting in full optical response from any location on the scintillation material to the photomultiplier tube. A yet further aspect of the present invention is that the survey probe is resistant to magnetic fields. A yet further aspect of the present invention is the use of a snap-fit retaining bracket that overcomes the need for multiple screws. 16 figs.

  16. Alpha-beta radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Dale M.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Froelich, Thomas J.; Carter, Gregory L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is based in part on the discovery that a plastic housing that is lightweight is surprisingly efficient inasmuch as background signals from any gamma radiation are significantly reduced by using a plastic housing instead of a metal housing. A further aspect of the present invention is the profile of the housing as a bi-linear approximation to a parabola resulting in full optical response from any location on the scintillation material to the photomultiplier tube. A yet further aspect of the present invention is that the survey probe is resistant to magnetic fields. A yet further aspect of the present invention is the use of a snap-fit retaining bracket that overcomes the need for multiple screws.

  17. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2012-03-29

    The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit the minimum

  18. Spallation radiation effects in materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, L.K.; Farrell, K.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1996-06-01

    Spallation refers to the process whereby particles (chiefly neutrons) are ejected from nuclei upon bombardment by high-energy protons. Spallation neutron sources (SNS`s) use these neutrons for neutron scattering and diffraction research, and SNS`s are proposed as the basis for systems for tritium production and transmutation of nuclear waste. Materials in SNS`s are exposed to the incident proton beam (energies typically about 1000 MeV) and to the spallation neutrons (spectrum of energies extending up to about 1000 MeV). By contrast the fission neutrons in nuclear reactors have an average energy of only about 2 MeV, and the neutrons in fusion reactors would have energies below about 14 MeV. Furthermore, the protons and neutrons in SNS`s for scattering and diffraction research are pulsed at frequencies of about 10 to 60 Hz, from which significant changes in the kinetics of point and extended defects may be expected. In addition, much higher transmutation rates occur in SNS-irradiated materials, On the whole, then, significant differences in microstructural development and macroscopic properties may result upon exposure in SNS systems, as compared with fission and fusion irradiations. In a more general sense, subjecting materials to new radiation environments has almost routinely led to new discoveries. To the extent that data are avaiable, however, the spallation environment appears to increase the degree of damage without introducing totally new effects. The first part of this presentation is an overview of radiation effects in materials, outlining essential concepts and property changes and their physical bases. This background is followed by a description of SNS irradiation environments and the effects on materials of exposure to these environments. A special discussion is given of the selection of target (e.g., liquid mercury), container (e.g., austenitic stainless steel or ferritic/martensitic steel), and structural materials in SNS systems.

  19. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  20. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulte, J.W.; Suttle, J.F.

    1960-10-11

    A precise dosimeter for and x radiations is designed in which a reproducible response to radiation is achieved by controlling the amount of sensitizer. The sensitizer is present in a halogenated hydrocarbon system and is a leuco base of certain dyestuffs. This patent is related to U. S. Patent No. 2,824,234. (D.L.C.)

  1. Method and means for radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shulte, J. W.; Suttle, J. F.

    1960-10-18

    A precise dosimeter for and x radiations is designed in which a reproducible response to radiation is achieved by controlling the amount of sensitizer. The sensitizer is present in a halogenated hydrocarbon system and is a leuco base of certain dyestuffs. This patent is related to U. S. Patent No. 2,824,234. (D.L.C.)

  2. Study of material properties using channeling radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantell, R.H.; Kephart, J.O.; Klein, R.K.; Park, H.; Berman, B.L.; Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    A possible application for channeling radiation is for investigating the properties of crystals in which the channeling occurs. In this paper we present some general considerations concerning channeling radiation as a measurement technique, and then we proceed to describe several specific examples.

  3. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength.

  4. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-12-21

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

  5. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  6. Radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  7. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2013 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 3 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2013 Report The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2013. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public in controlled areas that are monitored for exposure to radiation. The 105 DOE organizations submitting radiation

  8. Code of Federal Regulations OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Code of Federal Regulations OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities. Code of Federal Regulations OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION (329.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Subpart A -

  9. A Program for Calculating Radiation Dose Rates.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1986-01-27

    Version 00 SMART calculates radiation dose rate at the center of the outer cask surface. It can be applied to determine the radiation dose rate on each cask if source conditions, characteristic function, and material conditions in the bottle regions are given. MANYCASK calculates radiation dose rate distribution in a space surrounded by many casks. If the dose rate on each cask surface can be measured, MANYCASK can be applied to predict dose spatial dosemore » rate distribution for any case of cask configuration.« less

  10. Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edward A.

    1998-11-17

    An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

  11. Three-axis asymmetric radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martini, Mario Pierangelo (Oak Ridge, TN); Gedcke, Dale A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raudorf, Thomas W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sangsingkeow, Pat (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A three-axis radiation detection system whose inner and outer electrodes are shaped and positioned so that the shortest path between any point on the inner electrode and the outer electrode is a different length whereby the rise time of a pulse derived from a detected radiation event can uniquely define the azimuthal and radial position of that event, and the outer electrode is divided into a plurality of segments in the longitudinal axial direction for locating the axial location of a radiation detection event occurring in the diode.

  12. Radiative Decays Involving Light Scalar Mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deirdre Black; Masayasu Harada; Joseph Schechter

    2002-09-01

    We present a vector dominance model to describe radiative decays involving the light scalar mesons. Assuming that the light scalar mesons form a nonet this model gives relations among various decay amplitudes of the form S--> gamma gamma, V-->Sgamma and S--> Vgamma, where S and V denote scalar and vector mesons. By comparing with experimental radiative decay rates, including those recently measured for phi--> PP'gamma, we obtain various predictions. We discuss briefly ongoing extensions of the present work in an attempt to describe the radiative phi decay measurements in detail.

  13. (Basic radiation protection criteria). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ney, W.R.

    1982-12-03

    Progress in the following areas directly related to nuclear waste management is summarized: (1) a radiation protection system based on risk per rad of dose; (2) assessment of the accumulation and biological significance of industrial waste discharges and estimation of concentrations present in the environment; (3) assessment of exposure resulting from nuclear power; (4) internal emitter standards; (5) human radiation exposure experience; (6) the identification of national needs related to the estimation of exposure of the public from ionizing radiation; and (7) acceptable risk for management of radioactive waste. (ACR)

  14. Radiation stability of graphene under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sunil, E-mail: kumar.sunil092@gmail.com; Tripathi, Ambuj; Khan, Saif A.; Pannu, Compesh; Avasthi, Devesh K. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-09-29

    In this letter, we report radiation stability of graphene under extreme condition of high energy density generated by 150?MeV Au ion irradiation. The experiment reveals that graphene is radiation resistant for irradiation at 10{sup 14?}ions/cm{sup 2} of 150?MeV Au ions. It is significant to note that annealing effects are observed at lower fluences whereas defect production occurs at higher fluences but significant crystallinity is retained. Our results demonstrate applicability of graphene based devices in radiation environment and space applications.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Accretion Including Radiation Transport |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Snapshot of the global structure of a radiation-dominated accretion flow around a black hole computed using the Athena++ code Snapshot of the global structure of a radiation-dominated accretion flow around a black hole computed using the Athena++ code. Left half of the image shows the density (in units of 0.01g/cm^3), and the right half shows the radiation energy density (in units of the energy density for a 10^7 degree black body). Coordinate axes are

  16. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  17. Methods of in vivo radiation measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Dennis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelsey, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Lane, Richard (Galveston, TX); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Snelling, Jay B. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements relay on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity with operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  18. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H. E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  19. Solar Radiation Data from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) Online Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The WRDC, located at the Main Geophysical Observatory in St. Petersburg, Russia, serves as a central depository for solar radiation data collected at over 1000 measurement sites throughout the world. The WRDC was established in accordance with Resolution 31 of WMO Executive Committee XVIII in 1964. The WRDC centrally collects, archives and published radiometric data from the world to ensure the availability of these data for research by the international scientific community. The WRDC archive contains the following measurements (not all observations are made at all sites): • Global solar radiation • Diffuse solar radiation • Downward atmospheric radiation • Sunshine duration • Direct solar radiation (hourly and instantaneous) • Net total radiation • Net terrestrial surface radiation (upward) • Terrestrial surface radiation • Reflected solar radiation • Spectral radiation components (instantaneous fluxes) At present, this online archive contains a subset of the data stored at the WRDC. As new measurements are received and processed, they are added to the archive. The archive currently contains all available data from 1964-1993.[From ôBackground on the WRDCö at http://wrdc-mgo.nrel.gov/html/about.html

  20. Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in ...

  1. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reporting Guide. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII information (11.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Radiation Exposure Monitoring ...

  2. ORISE: The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness: Medical Management Proceedings of the Fifth International REACTS Symposium on the Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident ...

  3. A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Laboratory Accreditation Program and DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. Title 10, Code of ...

  4. Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE ...

  5. FAQS Reference Guide -Radiation Protection | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Radiation Protection FAQS Reference Guide -Radiation Protection This reference guide has been developed to address the competency statements in the December 2003 edition of ...

  6. Optimizing Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment at the Department of Energy Optimizing Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment at the Department of ...

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality at the SGP Extended Facilities Y. Shi and C. N. ... Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program operates ...

  8. Radiation Detection Equipment Up and Running in Slovenia | National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Detection Equipment Up and Running in Slovenia November 13, 2006 New Monitors ... Administration (NNSA) announced that radiation detection equipment to screen for ...

  9. DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy Resources with Additional Information Planned radiation treatment Peregrine calculation from Mission Possible: DOE ...

  10. ORISE Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REACTS gives consultation, advice, and education on medical management of radiation ... Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres in the U.S. for radiation emergency response. ...

  11. Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations ...

  12. Fiber-Optic Environmental Radiation Dosimeter - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Fiber-Optic Environmental Radiation Dosimeter Radiation DetectorSensor Naval ...

  13. ORISE: How the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How ORISE is Making a Difference Radiation Emergency AssistanceTraining Site providing expert medical training and support for radiation emergencies How ORISE is Making a ...

  14. Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in Climate Models: Comparison of Clear-Sky Calculations with Observations from the Spectral Radiation Experiment and the ...

  15. Letter on Low-Level Radiation Research | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Level Radiation Research Letter on Low-Level Radiation Research The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) transmitted a letter to the Department regarding its perspective ...

  16. Modeling heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR This ... IOPscience Modeling Heat Conduction and Radiation Transport with the Diffusion Equation in ...

  17. Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility March 2013 Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility March 2013 Work ...

  18. Updated Radiation Exhibit Unveiled at Math and Science Center...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Updated Radiation Exhibit Unveiled at Math and Science Center in Grand Junction, Colorado Updated Radiation Exhibit Unveiled at Math and Science Center in Grand Junction, Colorado ...

  19. Validation of the ARchived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget at SGP T. P. Charlock National ... System (CERES) Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) product (Charlock et al. ...

  20. 20 Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at NREL Tom ... * Continuous measurements of key solar radiation resources * Calibrations of instruments ...