National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radiation observation experiment

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - The ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Observations in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment Campaign Data Sets IOP Participant Data Source Description Final Data Tooman WSI Order Data Westwater ftirraob...

  2. Preliminary analysis of ground-based microwave and infrared radiance observations during the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, E.R.; Han, Y.; Churnside, J.H.; Snider, J.B.

    1995-04-01

    During Phase Two of the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment (PROBE) held in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) operated both microwave and infrared radiometers. Phase Two lasted from January 6 to February 28, 1993. The dramatic differences in the water vapor environment between the tropics and mid-latitudes were illustrated by Westwater et al. (1994) who presented PROBE data as well as additional data that were taken during the 1991 First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) 11 experiment in Coffeyville, Kansas. We present an analysis of microwave data and a preliminary analysis of infrared data obtained during PROBE.

  3. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R.

    1995-04-01

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  4. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus in the pilot radiation observation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.; Patterson, G.R.

    1996-04-01

    The development of a sensitive filter radiometer for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been reported. The aim was to develop a reliable and fast instrument that could be used alongside a lidar to obtain near realtime optical properties of clouds, particularly high ice clouds, as they drifted over an ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site allowing calculation of the radiation divergence in the atmosphere over the site. Obtaining cloud optical properties by the lidar/radiometer, or LIRAD, method was described by Platt et al.; the latter paper also describes a year`s data on mid-latitude cirrus. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus (i.e., cirrus within a few degrees of the equator) have hardly been studied at all. The same is true of tropical cirrus, although a few observations have been reported by Davis and Platt et al.This paper describes obersvations performed on cirrus clouds, analysis methods used, and results.

  5. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    West Antarctic Radiation Experiment of the most advanced atmospheric research ... From the fall of 2015 to early 2017, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West ...

  6. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  7. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

  8. Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 January 29, 2015 OE-3 2015-01: DOE Occupational Radiation...

  9. Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility's ... Program through its Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility. 2. Data Cube ...

  10. Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else Gwyn Williams ... experiment that generated nearly 20 watts of terahertz radiation - a world record. ...

  11. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment Science Objective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment Science Objective The overarching objective of this field campaign is to make observations of the surface broadband radiative fluxes in combination with other measurements useful in characterizing cloud and aerosol properties. In addition to having large uncertainties, satellite data sets for the Southern Ocean are incomplete because they are not continuous, rarely sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems. This is

  12. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER ...

  13. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ``false negative or false positive`` indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments.

  14. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan D Lubin J Verlinde DH ... DOESC-ARM-15-040 ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan D Lubin J ...

  15. Estimation of solar radiation from Australian meteorological observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, W.W. )

    1991-01-01

    A carefully prepared set of Australian radiation and meteorological data was used to develop a system for estimating hourly or instantaneous broad direct, diffuse and global radiation from meteorological observations. For clear sky conditions relationships developed elsewhere were adapted to Australian data. For cloudy conditions the clouds were divided into two groups, high clouds and opaque (middle and low) clouds, and corrections were made to compensate for the bias due to reporting practices for almost clear and almost overcast skies. Careful consideration was given to the decrease of visible sky toward the horizon caused by the vertical extent of opaque clouds. Equations relating cloud and other meteorological observations to the direct and diffuse radiation contained four unknown quantities, functions of cloud amount and of solar elevation, which were estimated from the data. These were proportions of incident solar radiation passed on as direct and as diffuse radiation by high clouds, and as diffuse radiation by opaque clouds. When the resulting relationships were used to estimate global, direct and diffuse radiation on a horizontal surface, the results were good, especially for global radiation. Some discrepancies between estimates and measurements of diffuse and direct radiation were probably due to erroneously high measurements of diffuse radiation.

  16. Channeling Radiation Experiment at Fermilab ASTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalcea, D.; Edstrom, D. R.; Piot, P.; Rush, W.; Sen, T.

    2015-06-01

    Electron beams with moderate energy ranging from 4 to 50 MeV can be used to produce x-rays through the Channeling Radiation (CR) mechanism. Typically, the xray spectrum from these sources extends up to 140 keV and this range covers the demand for most practical applications. The parameters of the electron beam determine the spectral brilliance of the x-ray source. The electron beam produced at the Fermilab new facility Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) meets the requirements to assemble an experimental high brilliance CR xray source. In the first stage of the experiment the energy of the beam is 20 MeV and due to the very low emittance ($\\approx 100$ nm ) at low bunch charge (20 pC) the expected average brilliance of the x-ray source is about $10^9$ photons/[s- $(mm-mrad)^2$-0.1% BW]. In the second stage of the experiment the beam energy will be increased to 50 MeV and consequently the average brilliance will increase by a factor of five. Also, the x-ray spectrum will extend from about 30 keV to 140 keV

  17. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both

  18. Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides an overview summary of radiation doses from occupational exposures at the Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration for the year 2013.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped

  20. Interim report of the Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-21

    The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was created by President Clinton to advise the Human Radiation Interagency Working Group on the ethical and scientific criteria applicable to human radiation experiments carried out or sponsored by the U.S. Government. The Committee seeks to answer several fundamental question: What ethics criteria should be used to evaluate human radiation experiments? What was the Federal Government`s role in human radiation experiments? What are the criteria for determining appropriate Federal responses where wrongs or harms have occurred? What lessons learned from studying past and present research standards and practices should be applied to the future? The Committee has been gathering vast amounts of information and working to render it orderly and accessible. In the next six months, the Committee will continue with the tasks of data gathering and organizing. The focus of the work, however, will be developing criteria for judging historical and contemporary experiments, policies, and procedures, as well as criteria for remedies that may be appropriate where harms or wrongs have ocurred. Based on findings, the Committee will make specific recommendations regarding policies for the future.

  1. Radiation damage in silicon trackers at the Tevatron experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; /Madrid, CIEMAT

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the studies performed on the radiation damage affecting the silicon detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments is presented. These detectors have been exposed to a much larger radiation dose (and operating for a longer time) than originally planned and therefore these studies are fundamental to assess the status and future of the sensors. Results are summarized with special emphasis on the techniques used and their complementarity to achieve a complete picture of the effect of the radiation on the sensors and their performance for physics analysis.

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MICRE) govCampaignsMacquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Campaign Links Science Plan Backgrounder Baseline Instruments and Data Plots Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) 2016.03.01 - 2018.03.31 Lead Scientist : Roger Marchand Abstract Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model

  3. Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CARLSBAD, N.M., May 18, 2011 – New Mexico State University's Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth's surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project's first two years of experimentation.

  4. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  5. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82 Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan RT Marchand SP Alexander A Protat December 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  6. Los Alamos Science: Number 23, 1995. Radiation protection and the human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, N.G.

    1995-12-31

    There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the ionizing radiation that surrounds and penetrates us all. Dispel a few of these by taking a leisurely tour of radiation and its properties, of the natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation, and of the way doses are calculated. By damaging DNA and inducing genetic mutations, ionizing radiation can potentially initiate a cell on the road to cancer. The authors review what is currently known about regulation of cellular reproduction, DNA damage and repair, cellular defense mechanisms, and the specific cancer-causing genes that are susceptible to ionizing radiation. A rapid survey of the data on radiation effects in humans shows that high radiation doses increase the risk of cancer, whereas the effects of low doses are very difficult to detect. The hypothetical risks at low doses, which are estimated from the atomic-bomb survivors, are compared to the low-dose data so that the reader can assess the present level of uncertainty. As part of the openness initiative, ten individuals who have worked with plutonium during various periods in the Laboratory`s history were asked to share their experiences including their accidental intakes. The history and prognosis of people who have had plutonium exposures is discussed by the Laboratory`s leading epidemiologist.

  7. Observed Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources A. M. Vogelmann Center for Atmospheric Sciences and Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, California Introduction The modeling of radiative forcing, and aerosol radiative forcing in particular, is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change (Hansen et al. 1998). Addressing this uncertainty first requires an accurate

  8. The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects. ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ...

  9. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    When the Advisory Committee began work in April 1994 we were charged with determining whether the radiation experiments design and administration adequately met the ethical and scientific standards, including standards of informed consent, that prevailed at the time of the experiments and that exist today and also to determine the ethical and scientific standards and criteria by which it shall evaluate human radiation experiments. Although this charge seems straightforward, it is in fact difficult to determine what the appropriate standards should be for evaluating the conduct and policies of thirty or fifty years ago. First, we needed to determine the extent to which the standards of that time are similar to the standards of today. To the extent that there were differences we needed to determine the relative roles of each in making moral evaluations. In Chapter 1 we report what we have been able to reconstruct about government rules and policies in the 1940s and 1950s regarding human experiments. We focus primarily on the Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of Defense. In Chapter 2 we turn from a consideration of government standards to an exploration of the norms and practices of physicians and medical scientists who conducted research with human subjects during this period. Using the results of our Ethics Oral History Project, and other sources, we also examine how scientists of the time viewed their moral responsibilities to human subjects as well as how this translated into the manner in which they conducted their research.

  10. Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else Gwyn Williams Gwyn Williams, JLab's FEL Basic Research Program manager, led a multi-lab experiment that generated nearly 20 watts of terahertz radiation - a world record. Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else January 27, 2003 An experiment conducted by the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else; breakthrough

  11. Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-05-19

    The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

  12. Evaluation of commercial ADC radiation tolerance for accelerator experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.; Chen, H.; Kierstead, J.; Takai, H.; Rescia, S.; Hu, X.; Xu, H.; Mead, J.; Lanni, F.; Minelli, M.

    2015-08-17

    Electronic components used in high energy physics experiments are subjected to a radiation background composed of high energy hadrons, mesons and photons. These particles can induce permanent and transient effects that affect the normal device operation. Ionizing dose and displacement damage can cause chronic damage which disable the device permanently. Transient effects or single event effects are in general recoverable with time intervals that depend on the nature of the failure. The magnitude of these effects is technology dependent with feature size being one of the key parameters. Analog to digital converters are components that are frequently used in detector front end electronics, generally placed as close as possible to the sensing elements to maximize signal fidelity. We report on radiation effects tests conducted on 17 commercially available analog to digital converters and extensive single event effect measurements on specific twelve and fourteen bit ADCs that presented high tolerance to ionizing dose. We discuss mitigation strategies for single event effects (SEE) for their use in the large hadron collider environment.

  13. Evaluation of commercial ADC radiation tolerance for accelerator experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, K.; Chen, H.; Kierstead, J.; Takai, H.; Rescia, S.; Hu, X.; Xu, H.; Mead, J.; Lanni, F.; Minelli, M.

    2015-08-17

    Electronic components used in high energy physics experiments are subjected to a radiation background composed of high energy hadrons, mesons and photons. These particles can induce permanent and transient effects that affect the normal device operation. Ionizing dose and displacement damage can cause chronic damage which disable the device permanently. Transient effects or single event effects are in general recoverable with time intervals that depend on the nature of the failure. The magnitude of these effects is technology dependent with feature size being one of the key parameters. Analog to digital converters are components that are frequently used in detectormore » front end electronics, generally placed as close as possible to the sensing elements to maximize signal fidelity. We report on radiation effects tests conducted on 17 commercially available analog to digital converters and extensive single event effect measurements on specific twelve and fourteen bit ADCs that presented high tolerance to ionizing dose. We discuss mitigation strategies for single event effects (SEE) for their use in the large hadron collider environment.« less

  14. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  15. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchand, RT; Protat, A; Alexander, SP

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  16. Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H.-S. Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Levy, M. C.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Turnbull, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Froula, D. H.; Rosenberg, M.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Koenig, M.; Kugland, N. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Tzeferacos, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without pre-existing magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagnetic in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ∼1% [C. M. Huntington et al., “Observation of magnetic field generation via the weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows,” Nat. Phys. 11, 173–176 (2015)]. These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.

  17. Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies G. M. McFarquhar and T. Nousiainen Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois M. S. Timlin, S. F. Iacobellis, and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Cloud radiative feedback is the most important effect determining climate response to human activity. Ice clouds reflect solar radiation and

  18. Electroweak Radiative Corrections to the Parity-violating Asymmetry for SLAC Experiment E158

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zykunov, Vladimir A.; /Gomel State Tech. U.

    2012-04-04

    Electroweak radiative corrections to observable quantities of Moeller scattering of polarized particles are calculated. We emphasize the contribution induced by infrared divergent parts of cross section. The covariant method is used to remove infrared divergences, so that our results do not involve any unphysical parameters. When applied to the kinematics of SLAC E158 experiment, these corrections reduce the parity violating asymmetry by about -6.5% at E = 48 GeV and y = 0.5, and kinematically weighted 'hard' bremsstrahlung effect for SLAC E158 is {approx} 1%.

  19. Clear Skies A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models-an Update R. G. Ellingson and F. Baer Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Introduction to compare calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data. The differences we find will lead to the development of new models to be tested with new data. Similarly. our GCM studies will use existing GCMs to study the radiation

  20. Radiative Heating Profiles in the Convective Tropics: A Comparison of Observations and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, Jim H.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2005-01-10

    Radiative heating is one of the principal drivers of tropical circulation. While we have good knowledge of radiative fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere and at specific surface sites, observations of atmospheric profiles of radiative heating, particular in cloudy conditions, have been largely unavailable. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has begun a program to compute radiative heating profiles routinely at its observational sites at Nauru and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, using observed and retrieved inputs of water vapor and condensed water phase, particle size, and mass. The accuracy of these profiles can be assessed by comparing the calculated TOA and surface fluxes with observations. We have computed radiative heating profiles every 20 minutes for several months at each of these two sites in the 1999-2000 time period, which represent a unique dataset for model comparison. Here, we compare this dataset to model output from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) analysis, the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0) and the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework (MMF). These three models, all run using observed SST for this comparison, provide an interesting range of resolution from the 4 km cloud resolving model in the MMF to the approximately 280 km grid-scale of the CAM and a contrast between forecasting and climate models. In general, the model results fail to capture the structure of the observed heating in the upper troposphere because of their failure to simulate cirrus and stratiform cloud adequately.

  1. Observations of the impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the atmospheric radiation balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slingo, A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Allan, R. P.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Robinson, G. J.; Barnard, James C.; Miller, Mark; Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. E.; Dewitte, S.

    2006-12-01

    Saharan dust storms transport large quantities of material across the African continent and beyond, causing widespread disruption and hazards to health. The dust may be deposited into the Atlantic Ocean, where it provides an important source of nutrients1, and may be carried as far as the West Indies. Such events may also influence the growth of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Satellite observations have enabled estimates to be made of the effect of the dust on the radiation budget seen from space, but only limited in situ observations have hitherto been made at the surface. Here we present the first simultaneous and continuous observations of the effect of a major dust storm in March 2006 on the radiation budget both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface. We combine data from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) broadband radiometer and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat-8 weather satellite with remote sensing and in situ measurements from a new Mobile Facility located in Niamey, Niger (13{sup o} 29'N, 2{sup o} 10'E), operated by the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. We show that the dust produced major perturbations to the radiation budget seen from space and from the surface. By combining the two datasets, we estimate the impact on the radiation budget of the atmosphere itself. Using independent data from the Mobile Facility, we derive the optical properties of the dust and input these and other information into radiation codes to simulate the radiative fluxes. Comparisons with the observed fluxes provides a stringent test of the ability of the codes to represent the radiative properties of this important component of the global aerosol burden.

  2. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  3. Conversion of short optical pulses to terahertz radiation in a nonlinear medium: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinov'ev, N. N.; Nikoghosyan, A. S.; Dudley, R. A.; Chamberlain, J. M.

    2007-12-15

    We report on the frequency and time domain analysis of electromagnetic terahertz radiation generated by nonlinear conversion of short optical pulses crossing boundaries of nonlinear material. Analysis and comparison with experiment have unequivocally established that the nature of collinear radiation at terahertz frequencies relates to the phenomenon of transition radiation produced by the instantaneous creation (at the input interface) and extinction (at the output interface) of the moving polarization charge formed by the nonlinear coupling of the pump electromagnetic fields. The mechanism is analogous to the phenomena of transition radiation of moving free charges, in particular, to the radiation mechanism discussed in the Tamm problem.

  4. Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H. -S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lamb, D. Q.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M.; Ross, J. S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Turnbull, D. P.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weber, S. V.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2015-05-13

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without preexisting magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagnetic in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ~1% These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.

  5. Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilitiesa)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, H. -S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lamb, D. Q.; et al

    2015-05-13

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without preexisting magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagneticmorein nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ~1% These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.less

  6. Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, H. -S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lamb, D. Q.; et al

    2015-05-13

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without preexisting magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagneticmore » in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ~1% These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.« less

  7. Human radiation experiments associated with the US Department of Energy and its predecessors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This document contains a listing, description, and selected references for documented human radiation experiments sponsored, supported, or performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors, including the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the Off ice of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). The list represents work completed by DOE`s Off ice of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) through June 1995. The experiment list is available on the Internet via a Home Page on the World Wide Web (http://www.ohre.doe.gov). The Home Page also includes the full text of Human Radiation Experiments. The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and the Records (DOE/EH-0445), published in February 1995, to which this publication is a supplement. This list includes experiments released at Secretary O`Leary`s June 1994 press conference, as well as additional studies identified during the 12 months that followed. Cross-references are provided for experiments originally released at the press conference; for experiments released as part of The DOE Roadmap; and for experiments published in the 1986 congressional report entitled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US Citizens. An appendix of radiation terms is also provided.

  8. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Gero, P. Johnathan; Torn, Margaret S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2015-02-25

    The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing1, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth’s radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m-2 (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations—the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska—are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra3 together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations4. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m-2 per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m-2 per decade and ±0.07 W m-2 per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1–0.2 W m-2. This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation5, 6, 7. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.

  9. The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feingold, Graham; McComiskey, Allison

    2013-09-25

    Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.

  10. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  11. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  12. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, D; Bromwich, DH; Russell, LM; Verlinde, J; Vogelmann, AM

    2015-10-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and this warming is closely connected with global sea level rise. The discovery of rapid climate change on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) has challenged previous explanations of Antarctic climate change that focused on strengthening of circumpolar westerlies in response to the positive polarity trend in the Southern Annular Mode. West Antarctic warming does not yet have a comprehensive explanation: dynamical mechanisms may vary from one season to the next, and these mechanisms very likely involve complex teleconnections with subtropical and tropical latitudes. The prime motivation for this proposal is that there has been no substantial atmospheric science or climatological field work on West Antarctica since the 1957 International Geophysical Year and that research continued for only a few years. Direct meteorological information on the WAIS has been limited to a few automatic weather stations for several decades, yet satellite imagery and meteorological reanalyses indicate that West Antarctica is highly susceptible to advection of warm and moist maritime air with related cloud cover, depending on the location and strength of low pressure cells in the Amundsen, Ross, and Bellingshausen Seas. There is a need to quantify the role of these changing air masses on the surface energy balance, including all surface energy components and cloud-radiative forcing. More generally, global climate model simulations are known to perform poorly over the Antarctic and Southern Oceans, and the marked scarcity of cloud information at southern high latitudes has so far inhibited significant progress. Fortunately, McMurdo Station, where the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility’s (ARM’s) most advanced cloud and aerosol instrumentation is situated, has a meteorological relationship with the WAIS via circulation patterns in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. We can therefore gather sophisticated data with cloud

  13. Radiative reverse shock laser experiments relevant to accretion processes in cataclysmic variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Sweeney, R.; Grosskopf, M.; Klein, S.; Gillespie, R.; Keiter, P. A.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.

    2013-05-15

    We discuss the production of radiative reverse shocks in experiments at the Omega-60 laser facility. The ability of this high-intensity laser to impart large energy densities on micron-thin foils makes it feasible to create supersonic plasma flows. Obtaining a radiative reverse shock in the laboratory requires a sufficiently fast flow (∼100 km/s) of a material whose opacity is large enough to produce energetically significant emission from experimentally achievable shocked layers. The reverse shock forms in the flow once it is impeded. This paper presents the first radiographic data of normal incidence, reverse shockwaves. These experiments are primarily motivated by the contribution of radiative reverse shock waves to the evolving dynamics of the cataclysmic variable (CV) system in which they reside. We show similarity properties to suggest that the experimental production of radiative reserve shocks in the laboratory may be scalable to such astrophysical systems.

  14. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Huntington, C. M.; Kaczala, D. N.; Klein, S.; Sweeney, R.; Young, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Villette, B.; Plewa, T. E-mail: rpdrake@umich.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments that explore the hydrodynamic and radiative properties of a reverse shock relevant to a cataclysmic variable system. A reverse shock is a shock wave that develops when a freely flowing, supersonic plasma is impeded. In our experiments, performed on the Omega Laser Facility, a laser pulse is used to accelerate plasma ejecta into a vacuum. This flow is directed into an Al plate in front of which a shock forms in the rebounding plasma. The plasma flow is moving fast enough that it is shocked to high enough temperatures that radiative cooling affects the shock structure. These are the first experiments to produce a radiative reverse shock wave.

  15. Estimation of total cloud cover from solar radiation observations at Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Han, Boping

    2010-03-15

    The DYRESM-CAEDYM model is a valuable tool for simulating water temperature for biochemical studies in aquatic ecosystem. The model requires inputs of surface short-wave radiation and long-wave radiation or total cloud cover fraction (TC). Long-wave radiation is often not measured directly so a method to determine TC from commonly measured short-wave solar irradiance (E{sub 0}) and theoretical short-wave solar irradiance under a clear sky (E{sub c}) has broad application. A more than 17-year (15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009) hourly solar irradiance data set was used to estimate the peak solar irradiance for each ordinal date over one year, which was assumed to be representative of solar irradiance in the absence of cloud. Comparison between these daily observed values and the modelled clear-sky solar radiation over one year was in close agreement (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.995 and root mean squared error, RMSE = 12.54 W m{sup -2}). The downloaded hourly cloudiness measurements from 15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009 was used to calculate the daily values for this period and then the calculated daily values over the 17 years were used to calculate the average values for each ordinal date over one year. A regression equation between (1 - E{sub 0}/E{sub c}) and TC produced a correlation coefficient value of 0.99 (p > 0.01, n = 71). The validation of this cloud cover estimation model was conducted with observed short-wave solar radiation and TC at two sites. Values of TC derived from the model at the Lake Rotorua site gave a reasonable prediction of the observed values (RMSE = 0.10, r = 0.86, p > 0.01, n = 61). The model was also tested at Queenstown (South Island of New Zealand) and it provided satisfactory results compared to the measurements (RMSE = 0.16, r = 0.67, p > 0.01, n = 61). Therefore the model's good performance and broad applicability will contribute to the DYRESM-CAEDYM accuracy of water temperature simulation when long-wave radiation

  16. Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Scott W.; Houze, R.; Kumar, Anil; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-06

    Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six different microphysical schemes. The radar data provide the statistical distribution of the radar reflectivity values as a function of height and anvil thickness. These statistics are compared to the statistics of the modeled anvil cloud reflectivity at all altitudes. Requiring the model to be statistically accurate at all altitudes is a stringent test of the model performance. The typical vertical profile of radiative heating in the anvil clouds is computed from the radar observations. Variability of anvil structures from the different microphysical schemes provides an estimate of the inherent uncertainty in anvil radiative heating profiles. All schemes underestimate the optical thickness of thin anvils and cirrus, resulting in a bias of excessive net anvil heating in all of the simulations.

  17. Observation of hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated plasma in a small hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Jiang, Shaoen Ding, Yongkun; Song, Tianming; Yang, Jiamin Zhu, Tuo; Lin, Zhiwei; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Haiying; Yu, Ruizhen; Liu, Shenye; Hu, Guangyue; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2015-07-15

    In the hohlraum used in laser indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments, hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated high-Z plasma have a great effect on laser injection efficiency, radiation uniformity, and diagnosis of hohlraum radiation field from diagnostic windows (DW). To study plasma filling in the DWs, a laser-irradiated Ti disk was used to generate 2–5 keV narrow energy band X-ray as the intense backlighter source, and laser-produced X-ray in a hohlraum with low-Z foam tamper was used to heat a small hole surrounded by gold wall with 150 μm in diameter and 100 μm deep. The hydrodynamic movement of the gold plasma in the small hole was measured by an X-ray framing camera and the results are analyzed. Quantitative measurement of the plasma areal density distribution and evolution in the small hole can be used to assess the effect of plasma filling on the diagnosis from the DWs.

  18. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  19. Observation of early shell-dopant mix in OMEGA direct-drive implosions and comparisons with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgaertel, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Tregillis, I. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Obrey, K. D.; Batha, S.; Johns, H.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T.

    2014-05-15

    Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved x-ray image data from direct-drive implosions on OMEGA were interpreted with the aid of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Neither clean calculations nor those using a turbulent mix model can explain fully the observed migration of shell-dopant material (titanium) into the core. Shell-dopant migration was observed via time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, and spatially and spectrally resolved x-ray images of capsule implosions and resultant dopant emissions. The titanium emission was centrally peaked in narrowband x-ray images. In post-processed clean simulations, the peak titanium emission forms in a ring in self-emission images as the capsule implodes. Post-processed simulations with mix reproduce trends in time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, as well having centrally peaked Ti emission in synthetic multiple monochromatic imager. However, mix simulations still do not transport Ti to the core as is observed in the experiment. This suggests that phenomena in addition to the turbulent mix must be responsible for the transport of Ti. Simple diffusion estimates are unable to explain the early Ti mix into the core. Mechanisms suggested for further study are capsule surface roughness, illumination non-uniformity, and shock entrainment.

  20. Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in Climate Models: Comparison of Clear-Sky Calculations with Observations from the Spectral Radiation Experiment and the ...

  1. Executive summary and guide to final report: Advisory committee on human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    On January 15, 1994, President Clinton appointed the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to investigate reports of possibly unethical experiments funded by the government decades ago. The Committee was directed to uncover the history of human radiation experiments during the period 1944 through 1974 and to examine cases in which the government had intentionally released radiation into the environment for research purposes. The Committee was further charged with identifying the ethical and scientific standards for evaluating these events, and with making recommendations to ensure that whatever wrongdoing may have ocurred in the past cannot be repeated. The Committee undertook three projects: A review of how each agency of the federal government that currently conducts or funds research involving human subjects regulates this activity or oversees it; An examination of the documents and consent forms of research projects that are today sponsored by the federal government in order to develop insight into the current status of protections for the rights and interests of human subjects; and, Interviews of nearly 1,900 patients receiving out-patient medical care in private hospitals and federal facilities throughout the country. This booklet provides an overview of the Final Report, summarizing each chapter.

  2. Human radiation experiments: The Department of Energy roadmap to the story and the records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The role of the US Government in conducting or sponsoring human radiation experiments has become the subject of public debate. Questions have been raised about the purpose, extent, and health consequences of these studies, and about how subjects were selected. The extent to which subjects provided informed consent is also under scrutiny. To respond to these questions, the Clinton administration has directed the US Department of Energy (DOE), along with other Federal agencies, to retrieve and inventory all records that document human radiation experiments. Many such records are now publicly available and will permit an open accounting and understanding of what took place. This report summarizes the Department`s ongoing search for records about human radiation experiments. It is also a roadmap to the large universe of pertinent DOE information. DOE is working to instill greater openness--consistent with national security and other appropriate considerations--throughout its operations. A key aspect of this effort is opening DOE`s historical records to independent research and analysis.

  3. Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J.

    2009-09-14

    The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is marginally damped but will become destabilized by the magnetorotational instability with a modest increase in rotation rate.

  4. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xin -Hu; Ye, Yun -Xiu; Chen, Jian -Ping; Lu, Hai -Jiang; Zhu, Peng -Jia; Jiang, Feng -Jian

    2015-07-17

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed for $^{12}C$ elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio $\\frac{\\Delta p}{p}$ and $^{12}C$ elastic cross section are compared without and with radiation energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for $^{12}C$ elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.

  5. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Xin -Hu; Ye, Yun -Xiu; Chen, Jian -Ping; Lu, Hai -Jiang; Zhu, Peng -Jia; Jiang, Feng -Jian

    2015-07-17

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed formore » $$^{12}C$$ elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio $$\\frac{\\Delta p}{p}$$ and $$^{12}C$$ elastic cross section are compared without and with radiation energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for $$^{12}C$$ elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.« less

  6. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  7. Radiative observables for linearized gravity on asymptotically flat spacetimes and their boundary induced states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benini, Marco Dappiaggi, Claudio; Murro, Simone

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the quantization of linearized gravity on globally hyperbolic, asymptotically flat, vacuum spacetimes, and the construction of distinguished states which are both of Hadamard form and invariant under the action of all bulk isometries. The procedure, we follow, consists of looking for a realization of the observables of the theory as a sub-algebra of an auxiliary, non-dynamical algebra constructed on future null infinity ??. The applicability of this scheme is tantamount to proving that a solution of the equations of motion for linearized gravity can be extended smoothly to ??. This has been claimed to be possible provided that a suitable gauge fixing condition, first written by Geroch and Xanthopoulos [Asymptotic simplicity is stable, J. Math. Phys. 19, 714 (1978)], is imposed. We review its definition critically, showing that there exists a previously unnoticed obstruction in its implementation leading us to introducing the concept of radiative observables. These constitute an algebra for which a Hadamard state induced from null infinity and invariant under the action of all spacetime isometries exists and it is explicitly constructed.

  8. Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2013-06-11

    Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

  9. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  10. Evaluation of Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Sa...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Satellite and Cloud Radar Y. Luo and S. K. Krueger University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Introduction Because of both the various effects clouds exert on the earth-atmospheric system and the cloud feedback, correct representations of clouds in numerical models are critical for accurate climate modeling and weather forecast. Unfortunately, determination of clouds and their radiative

  11. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.

  12. What is behind small deviations of quantum mechanics theory from experiments? Observer's mathematics point of view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khots, Boris; Khots, Dmitriy

    2014-12-10

    Certain results that have been predicted by Quantum Mechanics (QM) theory are not always supported by experiments. This defines a deep crisis in contemporary physics and, in particular, quantum mechanics. We believe that, in fact, the mathematical apparatus employed within today's physics is a possible reason. In particular, we consider the concept of infinity that exists in today's mathematics as the root cause of this problem. We have created Observer's Mathematics that offers an alternative to contemporary mathematics. This paper is an attempt to relay how Observer's Mathematics may explain some of the contradictions in QM theory results. We consider the Hamiltonian Mechanics, Newton equation, Schrodinger equation, two slit interference, wave-particle duality for single photons, uncertainty principle, Dirac equations for free electron in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics (see www.mathrelativity.com). Certain results and communications pertaining to solution of these problems are provided.

  13. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  14. Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Min; Kollias, Pavlos; Feng, Zhe; Zhang, Chidong; Long, Charles N.; Kalesse, Heike; Chandra, Arunchandra; Kumar, Vickal; Protat, Alain

    2014-11-01

    The motivation for this research is to develop a precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method using cloud radar-only measurements for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) long-term cloud observation analysis, which are crucial and unique for studying cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes. Based on simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign, a new cloud radar-only based precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method has been developed and evaluated. The resulting precipitation classification is equivalent to those collocated SMART-R and S-PolKa observations. Both cloud and precipitation radars detected about 5% precipitation occurrence during this period. The convective (stratiform) precipitation fraction is about 18% (82%). The 2-day collocated disdrometer observations show an increased number concentration of large raindrops in convective rain compared to dominant concentration of small raindrops in stratiform rain. The composite distributions of KAZR reflectivity and Doppler velocity also show two distinct structures for convective and stratiform rain. These indicate that the method produces physically consistent results for two types of rain. The cloud radar-only rainfall estimation is developed based on the gradient of accumulative radar reflectivity below 1 km, near-surface Ze, and collocated surface rainfall (R) measurement. The parameterization is compared with the Z-R exponential relation. The relative difference between estimated and surface measured rainfall rate shows that the two-parameter relation can improve rainfall estimation.

  15. Observing Muon Neutrino to Electron Neutrino Oscillations in the NOνA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations offers an insight on new physics beyond the Standard Model. The three mixing angles (θ12, θ13 and θ23) and the two mass splittings (Δm2 and Αm2 ) have been measured by different neutrino oscillation experiments. Some other parameters including the mass ordering of different neutrino mass eigenstates and the CP violation phase are still unknown. NOνA is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment, using neutrinos from the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The experiment is equipped with two functionally identical detectors about 810 kilometers apart and 14 mrad off the beam axis. In this configuration, the muon neutrinos from the NuMI beam reach the disappearance maximum in the far detector and a small fraction of that oscillates into electron neutrinos. The sensitivity to the mass ordering and CP viola- tion phase determination is greately enhanced. This thesis presents the νeappearance analysis using the neutrino data collected with the NOνA experiment between February 2014 and May 2015, which corresponds to 3.45 ×1020 protons-on-target (POT). The νe appearance analysis is performed by comparing the observed νe CC-like events to the estimated background at the far detector. The total background is predicted to be 0.95 events with 0.89 originated from beam events and 0.06 from cosmic ray events. The beam background is obtained by extrapolating near detector data through different oscillation channels, while the cosmic ray background is calculated based on out-of-time NuMI trigger data. A total of 6 electron neutrino candidates are observed in the end at the far detector which represents 3.3 σ excess over the predicted background. The NOνA result disfavors inverted mass hierarchy for δcp ϵ [0, 0.6π] at 90% C.L.

  16. X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, Jr., C. G.; Yeoman, M. F.; Fisher, J. H.; Seiler, S. W.; Hinshelwood, D.; Compton, S.; Holdener, F. R.; Kemp, G. E.; Newlander, C. D.; et al

    2016-08-10

    Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the NIF’s diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy. Built in calorimeters give in situ measurements of the x-ray environment along the sample lines of sight.more » We discuss the measured accuracy of sample responses, as well as planned modifications to the XTRRA cassette.« less

  17. Network-Centric Maritime Radiation Awareness and Interdiction Experiments: C2 Experimentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordetsky, A; Dougan, A D; Nekoogar, F

    2006-08-07

    The paper addresses technological and operational challenges of developing a global plug-and-play Maritime Domain Security testbed for the Global War on Terrorism mission. This joint NPS-LLNL project is based on the NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT) composed of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to air, surface, ground, and underwater unmanned vehicles. This long-haul network is combined with ultra-wideband (UWB) communications systems for wireless communications in harsh radio propagation channels. LLNL's UWB communication prototypes are designed to overcome shortcomings of the present narrowband communications systems in heavy metallic and constricted corridors inside ships. In the center of our discussion are networking solutions for the Maritime Interdiction Operation (MIO) Experiments in which geographically distributed command centers and subject matter experts collaborate with the Boarding Party in real time to facilitate situational understanding and course of action selection. The most recent experiment conducted via the testbed extension to the Alameda Island exercised several key technologies aimed at improving MIO. These technologies included UWB communications from within the ship to Boarding Party leader sending data files and pictures, advanced radiation detection equipment for search and identification, biometric equipment to record and send fingerprint files to facilitate rapid positive identification of crew members, and the latest updates of the NPS Tactical Network Topology facilitating reachback to LLNL, Biometric Fusion Center, USCG, and DTRA experts.

  18. CMOS Imaging Detectors as X-ray Detectors for Synchrotron Radiation Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; Inoue, Katsuaki

    2004-05-12

    CMOS imagers are matrix-addressed photodiode arrays, which have been utilized in devices such as commercially available digital cameras. The pixel size of CMOS imagers is usually larger than that of CCD and smaller than that of TFT, giving them a unique position. Although CMOS x-ray imaging devices have already become commercially available, they have not been used as an x-ray area detector in synchrotron radiation experiments. We tested performance of a CMOS detector from Rad-icon (Shad-o-Box1024) in medical imaging, small-angle scattering, and protein crystallography experiments. It has pixels of 0.048 mm square, read-out time of 0.45 sec, 12-bit ADC, and requires a frame grabber for image acquisition. The detection area is 5-cm square. It uses a Kodak Min-R scintillator screen as a phosphor. The sensitivity to x-rays with an energy less than 15 keV was low because of the thick window materials. Since the readout noise is high, the dynamic range is limited to 2000. The biggest advantages of this detector are cost-effectiveness (about 10,000 US dollars) and compactness (thickness < 3 cm, weight < 2 kg)

  19. AMIE (ARM MJO Investigation Experiment): Observations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation for Modeling Studies Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C; Del Genio, A; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Klein, S; Leung, L Ruby; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Wu, X; Xie, S

    2010-03-22

    Deep convection in the tropics plays an important role in driving global circulations and the transport of energy from the tropics to the mid-latitudes. Understanding the mechanisms that control tropical convection is a key to improving climate modeling simulations of the global energy balance. One of the dominant sources of tropical convective variability is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which has a period of approximately 30–60 days. There is no agreed-upon explanation for the underlying physics that maintain the MJO. Many climate models do not show well-defined MJO signals, and those that do have problems accurately simulating the amplitude, propagation speed, and/or seasonality of the MJO signal. Therefore, the MJO is a very important modeling target for the ARM modeling community geared specifically toward improving climate models. The ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) period coincides with a large international MJO initiation field campaign called CINDY2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) that will take place in and around the Indian Ocean from October 2011 to January 2012. AMIE, in conjunction with CINDY2011 efforts, will provide an unprecedented data set that will allow investigation of the evolution of convection within the framework of the MJO. AMIE observations will also complement the long-term MJO statistics produced using ARM Manus data and will allow testing of several of the current hypotheses related to the MJO phenomenon. Taking advantage of the expected deployment of a C-POL scanning precipitation radar and an ECOR surface flux tower at the ARM Manus site, we propose to increase the number of sonde launches to eight per day starting in about mid-October of the field experiment year, which is climatologically a period of generally suppressed conditions at Manus and just prior to the climatologically strongest MJO period. The field experiment will last until the end of the MJO

  20. Experimental demonstration of early time, hohlraum radiation symmetry tuning for indirect drive ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J.; Thomas, C.; Sorce, C.; Glenn, S.; Landen, O. L.; Kline, J.

    2011-09-15

    Early time radiation symmetry at the capsule for indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] will be inferred from the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern of a high-Z sphere replacing the ignition capsule. This technique was tested on the OMEGA laser facility [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, T. Boehly et al., Laser Part. Beams 11, 317 (1991)] in near full ignition scale vacuum hohlraums using an equivalent experimental setup to the one planned for NIF. Two laser cones entering each laser entrance hole heat the hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 100 eV, mimicking the NIF ignition pulse foot drive. The experiments have demonstrated accuracies of {+-}1.5% ({+-}2%) in inferred P{sub 2}/P{sub 0} (P{sub 4}/P{sub 0}) Legendre mode incident flux asymmetry and consistency between 900 eV and 1200 eV re-emission patterns. We have also demonstrated the expected tuning capability of P{sub 2}/P{sub 0}, from positive (pole hot) to negative (waist hot), decreasing linearly with the inner/outer beams power fraction. P{sub 4}/P{sub 0} on the other hand shows very little variation with power fraction. We developed a simple analytical viewfactor model that is in good agreement with both measured P{sub 2}/P{sub 0} and P{sub 4}/P{sub 0} and their dependence on inner beam power fraction.

  1. Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Velocity-Independent Electron Transport in the Reversed Field Pinch R. O'Connell, * D. J. Den Hartog, C. B. Forest, J. K. Anderson, T. M. Biewer, † B. E. Chapman, D. Craig, G. Fiksel, S. C. Prager, J. S. Sarff, and S. D. Terry ‡ Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA R.W. Harvey CompX, San Diego, California, USA (Received 16 December 2002; published 24 July 2003) Confinement of runaway electrons has been observed for the first time in a reversed

  2. Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observations of Multiple Magnetic Islands in the Core of a Reversed Field Pinch P. Franz, 1,2 L. Marrelli, 1,2 P. Piovesan, 1,2 B. E. Chapman, 3 P. Martin, 1,2 I. Predebon, 1,2 G. Spizzo, 1 R. B. White, 4 and C. Xiao 3,5 1 Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova, Italy * 2 Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, UdR Padova, Italy 3 Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 4

  3. Building public trust: Actions to respond to the report of the Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    Democratic government requires trust: people need to know and believe that the government is telling the truth. Without information about what the government is doing and why, citizens cannot exercise democratic control over government institutions. During his first year in office, President Clinton became concerned about reports that the government had conducted unethical secret human radiation experiments during the Cold War. To address this issue, in January 1994, President Clinton established the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), chaired by bioethicist Dr. Ruth Faden of Johns Hopkins University. The President also directed all Federal agencies to search for records related to human subjects radiation research and provide them to the Advisory Committee. This report presents the Administration`s actions to respond to the ACHRE`s findings and recommendations.

  4. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH:USING ARM OBSERVATIONS & ADVANCED STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE CAM3 CLOUDS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STOCHASTIC CLOUD-RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerville, Richard

    2013-08-22

    The long-range goal of several past and current projects in our DOE-supported research has been the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global models. The main objective of the present project being reported on here has been to develop and apply advanced statistical techniques, including Bayesian posterior estimates, to diagnose and evaluate features of both observed and simulated clouds. The research carried out under this project has been novel in two important ways. The first is that it is a key step in the development of practical stochastic cloud-radiation parameterizations, a new category of parameterizations that offers great promise for overcoming many shortcomings of conventional schemes. The second is that this work has brought powerful new tools to bear on the problem, because it has been a collaboration between a meteorologist with long experience in ARM research (Somerville) and a mathematician who is an expert on a class of advanced statistical techniques that are well-suited for diagnosing model cloud simulations using ARM observations (Shen).

  5. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee`s final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE`s two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information.

  6. Computed Tomography Number Changes Observed During Computed Tomography–Guided Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Mei; Yang, Cungeng; Chen, Xiaojian; Xu, Shouping; Moraru, Ion; Lang, Jinyi; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X. Allen

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate CT number (CTN) changes in gross tumor volume (GTV) and organ at risk (OAR) according to daily diagnostic-quality CT acquired during CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography scans acquired using a CT-on-rails during daily CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for 15 patients with stage II to IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were analyzed. The GTV, parotid glands, spinal cord, and nonspecified tissue were generated on each selected daily CT. The changes in CTN distributions and the mean and mode values were collected. Pearson analysis was used to assess the correlation between the CTN change, organ volume reduction, and delivered radiation dose. Results: Volume and CTN changes for GTV and parotid glands can be observed during radiation therapy delivery for HNC. The mean (±SD) CTNs in GTV and ipsi- and contralateral parotid glands were reduced by 6 ± 10, 8 ± 7, and 11 ± 10 Hounsfield units, respectively, for all patients studied. The mean CTN changes in both spinal cord and nonspecified tissue were almost invisible (<2 Hounsfield units). For 2 patients studied, the absolute mean CTN changes in GTV and parotid glands were strongly correlated with the dose delivered (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). For the correlation between CTN reductions and delivered isodose bins for parotid glands, the Pearson coefficient varied from −0.98 (P<.001) in regions with low-dose bins to 0.96 (P<.001) in high-dose bins and were patient specific. Conclusions: The CTN can be reduced in tumor and parotid glands during the course of radiation therapy for HNC. There was a fair correlation between CTN reduction and radiation doses for a subset of patients, whereas the correlation between CTN reductions and volume reductions in GTV and parotid glands were weak. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism for the radiation-induced CTN changes.

  7. Best Practices for Operando Battery Experiments: Influences of X-ray Experiment Design on Observed Electrochemical Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkiewicz, O. J.; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2015-06-04

    Dynamic properties and multiscale complexities governing electrochemical energy storage in batteries are most ideally interrogated under simulated operating conditions within an electrochemical cell. We assess how electrochemical reactivity can be impacted by experiment design, including the X-ray measurements or by common features or adaptations of electrochemical cells that enable X-ray measurements.

  8. Experimental observation of ion beams in the Madison Helicon eXperiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiebold, Matt; Sung, Yung-Ta; Scharer, John E.

    2011-06-15

    Argon ion beams up to E{sub b} = 165 eV at P{sub rf} = 500 W are observed in the Madison Helicon eXperiment (MadHeX) helicon source with a magnetic nozzle. A two-grid retarding potential analyzer (RPA) is used to measure the ion energy distribution, and emissive and rf-filtered Langmuir probes measure the plasma potential, electron density, and temperature. The supersonic ion beam (M = v{sub i}/c{sub s} up to 5) forms over tens of Debye lengths and extends spatially for a few ion-neutral charge-exchange mean free paths. The parametric variation of the ion beam energy is explored, including flow rate, rf power, and magnetic field dependence. The beam energy is equal to the difference in plasma potentials in the Pyrex chamber and the grounded expansion chamber. The plasma potential in the expansion chamber remains near the predicted eV{sub p} {approx} 5kT{sub e} for argon, but the upstream potential is much higher, likely due to wall charging, resulting in accelerated ion beam energies E{sub b} = e[V{sub beam} - V{sub plasma}] > 10kT{sub e}.

  9. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  10. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.; Filippi, Andrea R.; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A.; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  11. Electroweak radiative corrections for polarized Møller scattering at the future 11 GeV JLab experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aleksejevs, Aleksandrs; Barkanova, Svetlana; Ilyichev, Alexander; Zykunov, Vladimir

    2010-11-01

    We perform updated and detailed calculations of the complete NLO set of electroweak radiative corrections to parity violating e- e- --> e- e- (gamma) scattering asymmetries at energies relevant for the ultra-precise Moller experiment coming soon at JLab. Our numerical results are presented for a range of experimental cuts and relative importance of various contributions is analyzed. We also provide very compact expressions analytically free from non-physical parameters and show them to be valid for fast yet accurate estimations.

  12. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  13. Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Hailong; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Xie, Shaocheng

    2012-02-17

    Cloud Fraction (CF) is the dominant modulator of radiative fluxes. In this study, we evaluate CF simulations in the IPCC AR4 GCMs against ARM ground measurements, with a focus on the vertical structure, total amount of cloud and its effect on cloud shortwave transmissivity, for both inter-model deviation and model-measurement discrepancy. Our intercomparisons of three CF or sky-cover related dataset reveal that the relative differences are usually less than 10% (5%) for multi-year monthly (annual) mean values, while daily differences are quite significant. The results also show that the model-observation and the inter-model deviations have a similar magnitude for the total CF (TCF) and the normalized cloud effect, and they are twice as large as the surface downward solar radiation and cloud transmissivity. This implies that the other cloud properties, such as cloud optical depth and height, have a similar magnitude of disparity to TCF among the GCMs, and suggests that a better agreement among the GCMs in solar radiative fluxes could be the result of compensating errors in either cloud vertical structure, cloud optical depth or cloud fraction. Similar deviation pattern between inter-model and model-measurement suggests that the climate models tend to generate larger bias against observations for those variables with larger inter-model deviation. The simulated TCF from IPCC AR4 GCMs are very scattered through all seasons over three ARM sites: Southern Great Plains (SGP), Manus, Papua New Guinea and North Slope of Alaska (NSA). The GCMs perform better at SGP than at Manus and NSA in simulating the seasonal variation and probability distribution of TCF; however, the TCF in these models is remarkably underpredicted and cloud transmissivity is less susceptible to the change of TCF than the observed at SGP. Much larger inter-model deviation and model bias are found over NSA than the other sites in estimating the TCF, cloud transmissivity and cloud-radiation interaction

  14. What is the probability that direct detection experiments have observed dark matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas E-mail: schwetz@fysik.su.se

    2014-12-01

    In Dark Matter direct detection we are facing the situation of some experiments reporting positive signals which are in conflict with limits from other experiments. Such conclusions are subject to large uncertainties introduced by the poorly known local Dark Matter distribution. We present a method to calculate an upper bound on the joint probability of obtaining the outcome of two potentially conflicting experiments under the assumption that the Dark Matter hypothesis is correct, but completely independent of assumptions about the Dark Matter distribution. In this way we can quantify the compatibility of two experiments in an astrophysics independent way. We illustrate our method by testing the compatibility of the hints reported by DAMA and CDMS-Si with the limits from the LUX and SuperCDMS experiments. The method does not require Monte Carlo simulations but is mostly based on using Poisson statistics. In order to deal with signals of few events we introduce the so-called ''signal length'' to take into account energy information. The signal length method provides a simple way to calculate the probability to obtain a given experimental outcome under a specified Dark Matter and background hypothesis.

  15. Improved radiative corrections to (e,e{sup '}p) experiments: Explicit treatment of kinematical corrections in multiphoton bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissbach, Florian; Hencken, Kai; Kiselev, Daniela; Trautmann, Dirk

    2009-08-15

    Radiative processes lead to important corrections to (e,e{sup '}p) experiments. While radiative corrections can be calculated exactly in QED and to a good accuracy also including hadronic corrections, these corrections cannot be included into data analyses to arbitrary orders exactly. Nevertheless consideration of multiphoton bremsstrahlung above the low-energy cutoff is important for many (e,e{sup '}p) experiments. To date, higher-order bremsstrahlung effects concerning electron scattering experiments have been implemented approximately by employing the soft-photon approximation (SPA). In this paper we propose a novel approach to multiphoton emission which partially removes the SPA from (e,e{sup '}p) experiments. In this combined approach one hard photon is treated exactly; and additional (softer) bremsstrahlung photons are taken into account resorting to the soft-photon approximation. This partial removal of the soft-photon approximation is shown to be relevant for the missing-energy distribution for several kinematic settings at MAMI and TJNAF energies.

  16. First observations of proton induced power MOSFET burnout in space: The CRUX experiment on APEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolphsen, J.W.; Barth, J.L.

    1996-12-01

    Ground testing has shown that power MOSFETs are susceptible to burnout when irradiated with heavy ions and protons. Satellite data from the Cosmic Ray Upset Experiment (CRUX) demonstrate that single event burnouts (SEBs) on 100-volt and 200-volt power MOSFETs can and do occur in space. Few SEBs occurred on the 100-volt devices, all at L{sup 1} > 3. The 200-volt devices experience many SEBs at L < 3 when drain-to-source voltage (V{sub D-S}) was greater than 85% of maximum rated voltage. CRUX flight lot devices were ground tested with protons. The SEB rates calculated with the cross-sections from the ground tests show close agreement with the measured rates.

  17. The radiated energy budget of chromospheric plasma in a major solar flare deduced from multi-wavelength observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.; Kerr, Graham S.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Dennis, Brian R.; Allred, Joel C.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Ireland, Jack

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 10{sup 31} erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ∼3 × 10{sup 30} erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  18. Observational constraints of stellar collapse: Diagnostic probes of nature's extreme matter experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryer, Chris L. Even, Wesley; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Wong, Tsing-Wai; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138

    2014-04-15

    Supernovae are Nature's high-energy, high density laboratory experiments, reaching densities in excess of nuclear densities and temperatures above 10MeV. Astronomers have built up a suite of diagnostics to study these supernovae. If we can utilize these diagnostics, and tie them together with a theoretical understanding of supernova physics, we can use these cosmic explosions to study the nature of matter at these extreme densities and temperatures. Capitalizing on these diagnostics will require understanding a wide range of additional physics. Here we review the diagnostics and the physics neeeded to use them to learn about the supernova engine, and ultimate nuclear physics.

  19. A way forward in the study of the symmetry energy: experiment, theory, and observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Charles; Brown, E F.; Kim, Y.; Lynch, W G.; Michaels, Robert; Ono, A.; Piekarewicz, Jorge; Tsang, M B.; Wolter, H H.

    2014-07-01

    The symmetry energy describes how the energy of nuclear matter rises as one goes away from equal numbers of neutrons and protons. This is very important to describe neutron rich matter in astrophysics. This article reviews our knowledge of the symmetry energy from theoretical calculations, nuclear structure measurements, heavy ion collisions, and astronomical observations. We then present a roadmap to make progress in areas of relevance to the symmetry energy that promotes collaboration between astrophysics and the nuclear physics communities.

  20. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) remote clouds sensing (RCS) intensive observation period (IOP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melfi, S.H.; Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D.

    1996-04-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  2. Radiation chemical effects in experiments to study the reaction of glass in an environment of gamma-irradiated air, groundwater, and tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1986-05-02

    The results of experiments performed by John K. Bates et al. on the reaction of nuclear waste glass with a gamma-irradiated 90{sup 0}C aqueous solution were analyzed using theory developed from past research in radiation chemistry. The aqueous solution they used is similar to what would be expected in a water-saturated environment in a nuclear waste repository in tuff. The purpose of our study was to develop an understanding of the radiation-chemical processes that occurred in the Bates et al. experiments so the results could be applied to the design and performance analysis of a proposed repository in unsaturated tuff in Nevada. For the Bates et al. experiments at the highest dose (269 Mrad), which originally contained about 16 ml of "equilibrated" water taken from Nevada Test Site Well J-13 and 5.4 ml of air, we predicted that water decomposition to H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} would produce a pressure increase of at least 1.0 MPa at 20{sup 0}C. We also predicted that nitrogen fixation from the air would occur, producing an increase of 1.6 x 10{sup -4} M in total fixed nitrogen concentration in solution. In addition, an equimolar production of H{sup +} would occur, which would be buffered by the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} in the water. The fixed nitrogen in solution was predicted to be present as NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} with the ratio influenced by the presence of materials catalytic to the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. We found reasonable agreement between our predictions and the observations of Bates et al., where comparisons were possible. We apply the results to the proposed Nevada repository to the degree possible, given the different expected conditions.

  3. Observation of Electron Neutrino Appearance in the NuMI Beam with the NOvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niner, Evan David

    2015-01-01

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two functionally identical detectors separated by 810 kilometers at locations 14 milliradians off-axis from the NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab. At these locations the beam energy peaks at 2 GeV. This baseline is the longest in the world for an accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment, which enhances the sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering. The experiment studies oscillations of the muon neutrino and anti-neutrino beam that is produced. Both detectors completed commissioning in the summer of 2014 and continue to collect data. One of the primary physics goals of the experiment is the measurement of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam which yields measurements of the oscillation parameters sin213, δ , and the neutrino mass ordering within the standard model of neutrino oscillations. This thesis presents the analysis of data collected between February 2014 and May 2015, corresponding to 3.52 X 1020 protons-on-target. In this first analysis NOvA recorded 6 electron neutrino candidates, which is a 3.3σ observation of electron neutrino appearance. The T2K experiment performs the same measurement on a baseline of 295 kilometers and has a 1 σ preference for the normal mass ordering over the inverted ordering over the phase space of the CP violating parameter δ, which is also weakly seen in the NOvA result. By the summer of 2016 NOvA will triple its statistics due to increased beam power and a completed detector. If electron neutrinos continue to be observed at the current rate NOvA will be able to establish a mass ordering preference at a similar confidence level to T2K.

  4. Evaluation of the Reanalysis Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Products from NCEP, ECMWF, GSFC, and JMA Using Satellite and Surface Observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Guoxin; Yao, Yunjun; Jiang, Bo; Cheng, Jie

    2016-03-10

    Solar radiation incident at the Earth’s surface (Rs) is an essential component of the total energy exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Reanalysis data have been widely used, but a comprehensive validation using surface measurements is still highly needed. In this study, we evaluated the Rs estimates from six current representative global reanalyses (NCEP–NCAR, NCEP-DOE; CFSR; ERA-Interim; MERRA; and JRA-55) using surface measurements from different observation networks [GEBA; BSRN; GC-NET; Buoy; and CMA] (674 sites in total) and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) EBAF product from 2001 to 2009. The global mean biases between the reanalysis Rs andmore » surface measurements at all sites ranged from 11.25 W/m2 to 49.80 W/m2. Comparing with the CERES-EBAF Rs product, all the reanalyses overestimate Rs, except for ERA-Interim, with the biases ranging from 2.98 W/m2 to 21.97 W/m2 over the globe. It was also found that the biases of cloud fraction (CF) in the reanalyses caused the overestimation of Rs. Lastly, ffter removing the averaged bias of CERES-EBAF, weighted by the area of the latitudinal band, a global annual mean Rs values of 184.6 W/m2, 180.0 W/m2, and 182.9 W/m2 were obtained over land, ocean, and the globe, respectively.« less

  5. Observation of coherently enhanced tunable narrow-band terahertz transition radiation from a relativistic sub-picosecond electron bunch train

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y. -E; Maxwell, T. J.; Ruan, J.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Rihaoui, M. M.; Thurman-Keup, R.

    2011-06-27

    We experimentally demonstrate the production of narrow-band (?f/f ~ =20% at f ~ = 0.5 THz) THz transition radiation with tunable frequency over [0.37, 0.86] THz. The radiation is produced as a train of sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches transits at the vacuum-aluminum interface of an aluminum converter screen. We also show a possible application of modulated beams to extend the dynamical range of a popular bunch length diagnostic technique based on the spectral analysis of coherent radiation.

  6. The shock/shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; et al

    2015-04-17

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 μm/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (~ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment tomore » the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.« less

  7. The shock/shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R.

    2015-04-17

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 μm/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (~ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment to the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.

  8. The shock/shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R.

    2015-04-17

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 ?m/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (~ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment to the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.

  9. Reinterpretation of the 6300-{angstrom} airglow enhancements observed in ionosphere heating experiments based on analysis of Platteville, Colorado, data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantas, G.P.; Carlson, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    Airglow enhancement observations have been considered as supporting evidence of electron accerleration in ionosphere heating experiments by high-power HF waves. Here the authors analyze some of the 6300-{angstrom} airglow data from the Platteville, Colorado, heating experiments of 1970, employing new electron impact excitation rates for the O({sup 1}D) state and empirical, but in accord with experimental and theoretical constraints, plasma heating rates and show that these airglow enhancements should be attributed to excitation by thermal electrons. An important aspect of the present analysis is the excellent agreement of the observed and the calculated airglow enhancements over several complete transmitter on/off cycles of several minutes duration and an increasing airglow trend of 1 hour duration. The fact that the OI red line may be thermally excited and the scarcity of observations of simultaneous OI red and green line enhancements imply that electron acceleration, even to a few eV, may require very special experimental and ionospheric conditions that are not very often realized. 50 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  11. Multi-satellite simultaneous observations of magnetopause and atmospheric losses of radiation belt electrons during an intense solar wind dynamic pressure pulse

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiang, Zheng; Ni, Binbin; Zhou, Chen; Zou, Zhengyang; Gu, Xudong; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Xianguo; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Shenyi; Li, Xinlin; et al

    2016-05-03

    Radiation belt electron flux dropouts are a kind of drastic variation in the Earth's magnetosphere, understanding of which is of both scientific and societal importance. We report multi-satellite simultaneous observations of magnetopause and atmospheric losses of radiation belt electrons during an event of intense solar wind dynamic pressure pulse, using electron flux data from a group of 14 satellites. Moreover, when the pulse occurred, magnetopause and atmospheric loss could take effect concurrently contributing to the electron flux dropout. Losses through the magnetopause were observed to be efficient and significant at L ≳ 5, owing to the magnetopause intrusion into Lmore » ~6 and outward radial diffusion associated with sharp negative gradient in electron phase space density. Losses to the atmosphere were directly identified from the precipitating electron flux observations, for which pitch angle scattering by plasma waves could be mainly responsible. While the convection and substorm injections strongly enhanced the energetic electron fluxes up to hundreds of keV, they could delay other than avoid the occurrence of electron flux dropout at these energies. Finally, we demonstrate that the pulse-time radiation belt electron flux dropout depends strongly on the specific interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions and that losses through the magnetopause and to the atmosphere and enhancements of substorm injection play an essential role in combination, which should be incorporated as a whole into future simulations for comprehending the nature of radiation belt electron flux dropouts.« less

  12. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar

  13. Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Chuen-Meei; Pleim, Jonathan; Mathur, Rohit; Hogrefe, Christian; Long, Charles N.; Xing, Jia; Roselle, Shawn; Wei, Chao

    2014-02-14

    Long term datasets of total (all-sky) and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction (cloudiness) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed together with aerosol concentration from several networks (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) in the United States (US). Seven states with varying climatology are selected to better understand the effect of aerosols and clouds on SW radiation. This analysis aims to test the hypothesis that the reductions in anthropogenic aerosol burden resulting from substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides over the past 15 years across the US has caused an increase in surface SW radiation. We show that the total and clear-sky downwelling SW radiation from seven sites have increasing trends except Penn State which shows no tendency in clear-sky SW radiation. After investigating several confounding factors, the causes can be due to the geography of the site, aerosol distribution, heavy air traffic and increasing cloudiness. Moreover, we assess the relationship between total column AOD with surface aerosol concentration to test our hypothesis. In our findings, the trends of clear-sky SW radiation, AOD, and aerosol concentration from the sites in eastern US agree well with our hypothesis. However, the sites in western US demonstrate increasing AOD associated with mostly increasing trends in surface aerosol concentration. At these sites, the changes in aerosol burden and/or direct aerosol effects alone cannot explain the observed changes in SW radiation, but other factors need to be considered such as cloudiness, aerosol vertical profiles and elevated plumes.

  14. THE PHOTOSPHERIC RADIATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: INTERPRETING FOUR OBSERVED CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Yizhong; Wei Daming; Zhang Fuwen [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang Binbin, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: bbzhang@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We show that the empirical E{sub p}-L, {Gamma}-L, E{sub p}-{Gamma}, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}}-E{sub p} correlations (where L is the time-averaged luminosity of the prompt emission, E{sub p} is the spectral peak energy, {Gamma} is the bulk Lorentz factor, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}} is the emission efficiency of gamma-ray bursts, GRBs) are well consistent with the relations between the analogous parameters predicted in the photospheric radiation model of the prompt emission of GRBs. The time-resolved thermal radiation of GRB 090902B does follow the E{sub p}-L and {Gamma}-L correlations. A reliable interpretation of the four correlations in alternative models is still lacking. These may point toward a photospheric origin of prompt emission of some GRBs.

  15. Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiments - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  16. Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MiniBooNE Experiment September, 2002 SeptemMyungkee Sung (LSU/MiniBooNE) 4th International Workshop on the Identification of Dark Matter Cosmologically Interesting Region; Hot Dark Matter? LSND Signal at High ∆m 2 KARMEN II narrowed the signal region MiniBooNE will fully address this signal. Neutrino Osillation at High ∆m 2 LSND: Searching for ν µ →ν e ν µ - From µ + decay at rest with endpoint energy 53 MeV L = 30m, L/E ~ 1m/MeV, 167 tons of Mineral Oil Look for ν e Appearance: ν

  17. Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martn-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muoz; Pea-Garay, C., E-mail: gomez@mail.cern.ch, E-mail: jmalbos@ific.uv.es, E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia Calle Catedrtico Jos Beltrn, 2, 46090 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with ?m{sub ?} = (0.320.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m{sub ??} involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (??0?) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ??0? experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kgyear, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ??0? events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 tonyear, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely.

  18. The Impact of New Technologies on Radiation Oncology Events and Trends in the Past Decade: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Pastrana, Gerri; Amols, Howard I.; Killen, Aileen; Alektiar, Kaled

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To review the type and frequency of patient events from external-beam radiotherapy over a time period sufficiently long to encompass significant technology changes. Methods and Materials: Ten years of quality assurance records from January 2001 through December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the frequency of events affecting patient treatment from four radiation oncology process steps: simulation, treatment planning, data entry/transfer, and treatment delivery. Patient events were obtained from manual records and, from May 2007 onward, from an institution-wide database and reporting system. Events were classified according to process step of origination and segregated according to the most frequently observed event types. Events from the institution-wide database were evaluated to determine time trends. Results: The overall event rate was 0.93% per course of treatment, with a downward trend over time led by a decrease in treatment delivery events. The frequency of certain event types, particularly in planning and treatment delivery, changed significantly over the course of the study, reflecting technologic and process changes. Treatments involving some form of manual intervention carried an event risk four times higher than those relying heavily on computer-aided design and delivery. Conclusions: Although the overall event rate was low, areas for improvement were identified, including manual calculations and data entry, late-day treatments, and staff overreliance on computer systems. Reducing the incidence of pretreatment events is of particular importance because these were more likely to occur several times before detection and were associated with larger dosimetric impact. Further improvements in quality assurance systems and reporting are imperative, given the advent of electronic charting, increasing reliance on computer systems, and the potentially severe consequences that can arise from mistakes involving complex intensity

  19. Dosimetry experiments at the MEDUSA Facility (Little Mountain).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Schwank, James Ralph

    2010-10-01

    A series of experiments on the MEDUSA linear accelerator radiation test facility were performed to evaluate the difference in dose measured using different methods. Significant differences in dosimeter-measured radiation dose were observed for the different dosimeter types for the same radiation environments, and the results are compared and discussed in this report.

  20. Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Neil B.; Stein, Nicholas F.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M.; Goodman, Karyn; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves

  1. Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Scott; Schlichting, Soeren; Gavin, Sean

    2011-08-15

    Correlations of azimuthal angles observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have gained great attention due to the prospect of identifying fluctuations of parity-odd regions in the field sector of QCD. Whereas the observable of interest related to parity fluctuations involves subtracting opposite-sign from same-sign correlations, the STAR collaboration reported the same-sign and opposite-sign correlations separately. It is shown here how momentum conservation combined with collective elliptic flow contributes significantly to this class of correlations, although not to the difference between the opposite- and same-sign observables. The effects are modeled with a crude simulation of a pion gas. Although the simulation reproduces the scale of the correlation, the centrality dependence is found to be sufficiently different in character to suggest additional considerations beyond those present in the pion gas simulation presented here.

  2. A comparison of radiometric fluxes influenced by parameterization cirrus clouds with observed fluxes at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P.; George, A.T.

    1996-04-01

    The data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Southern Great plains Site (SCP) is a valuable resource. We have developed an operational data processing and analysis methodology that allows us to examine continuously the influence of clouds on the radiation field and to test new and existing cloud and radiation parameterizations.

  3. Predictors of Rectal Tolerance Observed in a Dose-Escalated Phase 1-2 Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.W. Nathan; Cho, L. Chinsoo; Straka, Christopher; Christie, Alana; Lotan, Yair; Pistenmaa, David; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Nanda, Akash; Kueplian, Patrick; Brindle, Jeffrey; Cooley, Susan; Perkins, Alida; Raben, David; Xie, Xian-Jin; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To convey the occurrence of isolated cases of severe rectal toxicity at the highest dose level tested in 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer; and to rationally test potential causal mechanisms to guide future studies and experiments to aid in mitigating or altogether avoiding such severe bowel injury. Methods and Materials: Clinical and treatment planning data were analyzed from 91 patients enrolled from 2006 to 2011 on a dose-escalation (45, 47.5, and 50 Gy in 5 fractions) phase 1/2 clinical study of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: At the highest dose level, 6.6% of patients treated (6 of 91) developed high-grade rectal toxicity, 5 of whom required colostomy. Grade 3+ delayed rectal toxicity was strongly correlated with volume of rectal wall receiving 50 Gy >3 cm{sup 3} (P<.0001), and treatment of >35% circumference of rectal wall to 39 Gy (P=.003). Grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was significantly correlated with treatment of >50% circumference of rectal wall to 24 Gy (P=.010). Conclusion: Caution is advised when considering high-dose SBRT for treatment of tumors near bowel structures, including prostate cancer. Threshold dose constraints developed from physiologic principles are defined, and if respected can minimize risk of severe rectal toxicity.

  4. Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations During the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, J. H. Churnside, and J. B. Snider National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction During Phase Two of the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment (PROBE) held in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea (Renné et al. 1994), the National Oceanic

  5. Session Papers Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Session Papers Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations During the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, J. H. Churnside, and J. B. Snider National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction During Phase Two of the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment (PROBE) held in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea (Renné et al. 1994), the National

  6. Observations Derived From the Characterization of Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated as Part of the RERTR-6 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. D. Keiser, Jr.; A. B. Robinson; M. R. Finlay

    2007-09-01

    Evaluation of the PIE results of the monolithic plates that were irradiated as part of the RERTR-6 experiment has continued. Specifically, comparisons have been made between the microstructures of the fuel plates before and after irradiation. Using the results from the rigorous characterization that was performed on the as-fabricated plates using scanning electron microscopy, it is possible to improve understanding of how monolithic fuel plates perform when they are irradiated. This paper will discuss the changes that occur, if any, in the microstructure of a monolithic fuel plate that is fabricated using techniques like what were employed for fabricating RERTR-6 fuel plates. In addition, the performance of fuel/cladding interaction layers that were present in the fuel plates due to the fabrication process will be discussed, particularly in the context of swelling of these layers and how these layers exhibit different behaviors depending on whether the fuel alloy in the fuel plate is U-7Mo or U-10Mo.

  7. Cold fusion observed with ordinary water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes a cold fusion electrolysis experiment using ordinary water. A Ge(Li) detector is used to observe signals up to {approx}130 keV; these signals show the occurrence of fusion reactions in ordinary water. The mechanism for the emission of radiation is discussed by the Nattoh model.

  8. Interference phenomena observed during cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper the interference phenomena of waves observed during a cold fusion experiment are described. Nuclear emissions have successfully recorded two different interference phenomena of waves from an electrolyzing cell. It is inferred that the waves might be gravitational and antigravitational waves, which can be expected to be radiated from gravity decays of quad-neutrons.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  10. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  11. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  12. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  13. The Role of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Meningeal HemangiopericytomaExperience From the SEER Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stessin, Alexander M.; Sison, Cristina; Nieto, Jaime; Raifu, Muri; Li, Baoqing

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) on cause-specific survival in patients with meningeal hemangiopericytomas. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1990-2008 was queried for cases of surgically resected central nervous system hemangiopericytoma. Patient demographics, tumor location, and extent of resection were included in the analysis as covariates. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to analyze cause-specific survival. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine which factors were associated with cause-specific survival. Results: The mean follow-up time is 7.9 years (95 months). There were 76 patients included in the analysis, of these, 38 (50%) underwent gross total resection (GTR), whereas the other half underwent subtotal resection (STR). Postoperative RT was administered to 42% (16/38) of the patients in the GTR group and 50% (19/38) in the STR group. The 1-year, 10-year, and 20-year cause-specific survival rates were 99%, 75%, and 43%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, postoperative RT was associated with significantly better survival (HR = 0.269, 95% CI 0.084-0.862; P=.027), in particular for patients who underwent STR (HR = 0.088, 95% CI: 0.015-0.528; P<.008). Conclusions: In the absence of large prospective trials, the current clinical decision-making of hemangiopericytoma is mostly based on retrospective data. We recommend that postoperative RT be considered after subtotal resection for patients who could tolerate it. Based on the current literature, the practical approach is to deliver limited field RT to doses of 50-60 Gy while respecting the normal tissue tolerance. Further investigations are clearly needed to determine the optimal therapeutic strategy.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: Observation and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. R.; Schaffner, D. A.; Weck, P. J.

    2015-05-15

    We provide a tutorial on the paradigms and tools of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The principal paradigm is that of a turbulent cascade from large scales to small, resulting in power law behavior for the frequency power spectrum for magnetic fluctuations E{sub B}(f). We will describe five useful statistical tools for MHD turbulence in the time domain: the temporal autocorrelation function, the frequency power spectrum, the probability distribution function of temporal increments, the temporal structure function, and the permutation entropy. Each of these tools will be illustrated with an example taken from MHD fluctuations in the solar wind. A single dataset from the Wind satellite will be used to illustrate all five temporal statistical tools.

  15. Radiation stability of graphene under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sunil, E-mail: kumar.sunil092@gmail.com; Tripathi, Ambuj; Khan, Saif A.; Pannu, Compesh; Avasthi, Devesh K. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-09-29

    In this letter, we report radiation stability of graphene under extreme condition of high energy density generated by 150?MeV Au ion irradiation. The experiment reveals that graphene is radiation resistant for irradiation at 10{sup 14?}ions/cm{sup 2} of 150?MeV Au ions. It is significant to note that annealing effects are observed at lower fluences whereas defect production occurs at higher fluences but significant crystallinity is retained. Our results demonstrate applicability of graphene based devices in radiation environment and space applications.

  16. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Stentz, Natalie Clark; Woodward, Wendy A.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. Results: A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; P<.001), had a PhD (33% vs 19.3%, respectively; P=.033), were married (99% vs 43%, respectively; P<.001), and had a partner who did not work (24.7% vs 1.9%, respectively; <.001). There were no differences in the number of manuscripts published or the number of residents who expressed likelihood of pursing an academic career by parental status. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; P<.001) and reported that their partner performed a greater percentage of childcare duties (70% [IQR: 60%-80%] vs 35% [IQR: 20%-50%], respectively; P<.001). Conclusions: Pregnancy and parenthood are common during residency. Female residents are frequently responsible for more childcare duties than males

  17. SU-E-I-31: Differences Observed in Radiation Doses Across 2 Similar CT Scanners From Adult Brain-Neck CT Angiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K; McMillan, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the difference in radiation doses from adult Brain-Neck CT angiography (CTA) between two CT scanners. Methods: We collected CT dose index data (CTDIvol, DLP) from adult Brain-Neck CTA performed with two CT scanners (Sensation 64 (S64) and Definition AS (AS), Siemens Healthcare) performed at two of our facilities from Jan 1st to Dec 31th, 2014. X-ray dose management software (Radmetrics, Bayer Healthcare) was used to mine these data. All exams were performed with Tube Current Modulation (Care Dose 4D), tube voltage of 120 kVp, quality reference mAs of 300, beam collimation of 64*0.6 mm. The rotation time was set to 0.5 sec for S64 and 1.0 sec for AS. We also scanned an anthropomorphic skull and chest phantom under routine Brain-Neck CTA protocol with the two scanners and extracted the tube current values from the raw projection data. Results: The mean CTDIvol and DLP in Brain-Neck CTA was 72 mGy and 2554 mGy*cm for AS, which was substantially larger than the mean values of 46 mGy and 1699 mGy*cm for S64. The maximum tube current was 583 mA for most cases on the S64 while the maximum was 666 mA for AS even though the rotation time set for AS was 1.0 sec. Measurements obtained with the anthropomorphic phantom showed that the tube current reached 583 mA at the shoulder region for S64 while it reached to 666 mA for AS. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that substantially different CT doses can Result from Brain-Neck CTA protocols even when similar scanners and similar settings are used. Though both scanners have a similar maximum mA rating, differences in mA were observed through the shoulders, resulting in substantially different CTDIvol values.

  18. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.

  19. Long-lived frequency shifts observed in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment following microwave irradiation of a nitroxide spin probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Lei; Longenecker, Jonilyn G.; Moore, Eric W.; Marohn, John A.

    2013-04-01

    We introduce a spin-modulation protocol for force-gradient detection of magnetic resonance that enables the real-time readout of longitudinal magnetization in an electron spin resonance experiment involving fast-relaxing spins. We applied this method to observe a prompt change in longitudinal magnetization following the microwave irradiation of a nitroxide-doped perdeuterated polystyrene film having an electron spin-lattice relaxation time of T{sub 1}{approx}1ms. The protocol allowed us to discover a large, long-lived cantilever frequency shift. Based on its magnitude, lifetime, and field dependence, we tentatively attribute this persistent signal to deuteron spin magnetization created via transfer of polarization from nitroxide spins.

  20. Additional development of remote sensing techniques for observing morphology, microphysics, and radiative properties of clouds and tests using a new, robust CO{sub 2} lidar. Annual progress report, August 15, 1994--August 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhard, W.L.; Intrieri, J.M.; Brewer, W.A.

    1996-04-01

    The bulk morphology and microphysical characteristics of a cloud are both important in determining the cloud`s effect on radiative transfer. A better understanding of all these properties, and the links among them, are needed for developing adequate parameterizations of these components in climate models. The objective of this project is to develop remote sensing techniques for observing key cloud properties, including the linkages. The research has technique development and instrument development prongs.

  1. Symptomatic Outcomes in Relation to Tumor Expansion After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: Single-Institutional Long-Term Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoyama, Hidefumi; Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata ; Onodera, Shunsuke; Takeichi, Norihito; Onimaru, Rikiya; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: The effect of transient tumor expansion after conventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) on the symptomatic outcomes is not well-known. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 201 consecutive patients who received SRT for vestibular schwannoma. A conventional fractionation schedule was applied in 194 patients (97%), and 142 (71%) received a total dose of 50 Gy. The median follow-up time was 72 months. Results: The maximum diameter was 9 mm or less in 13 patients, 10-19 mm in 79 patients, 20-29 mm in 87 patients, and 30 mm or greater in 22 patients. At presentation, tumor size of 20 mm or greater was significantly associated with loss of serviceable hearing and trigeminal neuropathy. After SRT, tumor expansion was observed in 42 patients (21%). By tumor size, tumor expansion was observed in 0%, 11.4%, 25.6%, and 50% of patients with tumors of 9 mm or less, 10-19 mm, 20-29 mm, and 30 mm or greater, respectively, in diameter. The tumor expansion was significantly associated with an increased risk of hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement (P=.004), loss of serviceable hearing (P=.0064), and worsening of facial (P<.0001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) functions. Spontaneous tumor shrinkage was observed in 29 of those 42 patients, mostly within 2 years after the expansion, and the majority of the worsened symptoms except for hearing resolved once the tumor had shrunk. As a result, salvage surgical resection for symptomatic relief was required in only 5% of patients. Conclusions: Fractionated SRT could be safely applied even for medium- to large-sized ({>=}20 mm) tumors. However, greater knowledge of the risks and consequences, including transient symptomatic worsening, and the time span of expansion will be required for the follow-up of patients after SRT to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

  2. GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

    2010-06-17

    This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

  3. Radiative widths of resonances (experiments)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidal, G.

    1988-07-01

    After a hiatus of several years, this conference brings us considerable new data on resonance production in photon photon interactions. I will first discuss the contributions concerning the tensor, pseudoscalar and scalar mesons, then review the current status of the (c/ovr string/c /eta//sub c/) and finally summarize the exciting new results concerning the spin 1 mesons. 40 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Support - Facilities - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    During experiments at the Radiation Effects Facility users are assisted by the experienced ... shops are available to the users of the Radiation Effects Facility for design, ...

  5. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  6. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  7. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerator and Experimental Schedule Beam Time Request Form Experiment Scheduling and General Information Radiation Budget Form (pdf) Interactive beam request form (for contact...

  8. Observations of gamma radiation between 0. 4 MeV and 7 MeV at balloon altitudes using a Compton telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockwood, J.A.; Webber, W.R.; Friling, L.A.; Macri, J.; Hsieh, L.

    1981-09-15

    Results are presented from a balloon flight at Palestine, Texas, in 1978 to measure the atmospheric and diffuse ..gamma..-ray flux in the energy range 0.4--7.0 MeV. The observations were made with a Compton telescope which included pulse-shape discrimination of the first scattering detector and a time-of-flight system between the first and second detector elements. The total downward ..gamma..-ray flux at 3.7 g cm/sup -2/ is given by the spectrum 3.1 x 10/sup -2/ x E/sup -1.74/ (photons cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ MeV/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/) for 0.5observations.

  9. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houze, Jr., Robert A.

    2013-11-13

    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  10. Beta Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells ...

  11. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  12. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Lanea M.M.; Sopka, Dennis M.; Li Tianyu; Klayton, Tracy; Li Jinsheng; Anderson, Penny R.; Bleicher, Richard J.; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Freedman, Gary M.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered 'excellent', 33% 'good', and <1.5% 'fair/poor'. For physician-reported cosmesis, boost doses {>=}16 Gy, breast size >900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a 'fair/poor' cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with 'fair/poor' physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported 'excellent', 'good', and 'fair/poor' cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with 'fair/poor' outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose {>=}16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy. Conclusions: Whole-breast IMRT is associated with very low rates of local recurrence at 5 years, 83

  13. Low Dose Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or

  14. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  15. The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) intensive observation period (IOP)-4 and simulations of land use pattern effect on the LLJ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Raman, S.

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) is an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation. It transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of weather over the Great Plains of the central United States. The LLJ is generally recognized as a complex response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the diurnal cycle of thermal forcing. Early studies have attributed the Great Plains LLJ to the diurnal oscillations of frictional effect, buoyancy over sloping terrain, and the blocking effects of the Rocky Mountains. Recent investigations show that the speed of the LLJ is also affected by the soil type and soil moisture. Some studies also suggest that synoptic patterns may play an important role in the development of the LLJ. Land surface heterogeneties significantly affect mesoscale circulations by generating strong contrasts in surface thermal fluxes. Thus one would expect that the land use pattern should have effects on the LLJ`s development and structure. In this study, we try to determine the relative roles of the synoptic forcing, planetary boundary layers (PBL) processes, and the land use pattern in the formation of the LLJ using the observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Intensive Operation Period (IOP)-4 and numerical sensitivity tests.

  16. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  17. The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Andrew; Haywood, J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Schmidt, Hauke; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-11

    We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1% per annum increase in CO2 concentra- tions as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on a rapid rate of global-mean warming following termination, accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and in plant net primary productivity, and decreases in sea-ice cover. While there is a considerable degree of consensus for the geographical distribution of warming, there is much less of an agreement regarding the patterns of change in the other quantities.

  18. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD

  19. Multi-Institutional Experience of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Black vs White Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Carl; Bai, Harrison; Neboori, Hanmanth; Takita, Cristiane; Motwani, Sabin; Wright, Jean L.; Hobeika, Georges; Haffty, Bruce G.; Jones, Tiffanie; Goyal, Sharad; Moran, Meena S.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Given the paucity of data on racial disparities in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the data from a multi-institutional cohort of DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed to determine whether racial disparities or differences exist. Methods and Materials: A total of 533 white and 76 black DCIS patients from 3 university-based cancer centers were uniformly treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT. All patient data were collected and analyzed as a function of race. Results: The median follow-up was 5.2 years. No significant racial differences were seen in tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, necrosis, or grade (all P>.05). Of the treatment parameters, the RT dose delivered, boost, positive margin rates, frequency of hormone receptor status assessment, and receipt of hormonal therapy for the 2 cohorts did not significantly differ (all P>.05). The local relapse-free survival was similar at 5 years (96.1% and 98.1%, P=.399) and 10 years (92.8% vs 95.8%, P=.360), with no significant overall survival difference at 10 years (94.0% vs 88.9%, P=.290) between the white and black patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, race was not an independent predictor of local relapse-free survival or overall survival when accounting for age, grade, and margin status. Conclusion: In our large cohort of DCIS patients uniformly treated at 3 institutions with breast conservation without any apparent differences in treatment delivery parameters, we demonstrated that the clinical and pathologic features and local survival outcomes did not differ as a function of race. Our results suggest that when black patients with DCIS are appropriately selected for breast conservation and receive adjuvant RT without racial disparities in the treatment parameters, differences in the outcomes as a function of race do not exist.

  20. Field observations and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, Joh B

    2010-01-01

    This presentation outlines observations and lessons learned from the Megaports program. It provides: (1) details of field and technical observations collected during LANL field activities at ports around the world and details of observations collected during radiation detections system testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) provides suggestions for improvement and efficiency; and (3) discusses possible program execution changes for more effective operations.

  1. Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) with the intent of helping to address ... of UASs in a manner useful to NASA for assessing the relative merits of different UASs. ...

  2. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping

  3. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Home MSDS Search MSDS Help Safety Training and Tests Contact Links LSU Campus Safety Glossary Radiation Safety Manual Radiation Safety Test NOTE: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ONLY! **Please allow two weeks for your badge to be processed.** Regulations and Hierarchy The CAMD Safety Officer reports to two separate individuals regarding safety. These are the Radiation Safety Officer for the University, and the Campus Safety Officer in all other matters. Thus safety

  4. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  5. ARM - Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links RHUBC Home NSA Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Experiment Planning RHUBC Proposal Abstract Full Proposal (pdf, 420kb) Science Plan (pdf) Operations Plan (pdf, 144kb) Instruments Contacts News ARM Press Release (Feb. 26, 2007) Images flickr_dots Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) Now available: RHUBC-II website Between February and March 2007 at the ACRF North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, high-spectral-resolution observations were collected by two

  6. Scaling of magneto-quantum-radiative hydrodynamic equations: from laser-produced plasmas to astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, J. E.; Gregori, G.; Reville, B.

    2014-11-01

    We introduce the equations of magneto-quantum-radiative hydrodynamics. By rewriting them in a dimensionless form, we obtain a set of parameters that describe scale-dependent ratios of characteristic hydrodynamic quantities. We discuss how these dimensionless parameters relate to the scaling between astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments.

  7. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  8. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  9. Definition of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of ...

  10. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  11. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  12. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  13. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; ... 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; MAN; RADIOBIOLOGY; US DOD; HISTORICAL ASPECTS; ETHICAL ASPECTS; ...

  14. Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) is a physical optics computer code for calculation of detailed characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) generated by relativistic electrons in magnetic fields of arbitrary configuration and for simulation of the radiation wavefront propagation through optical systems of beamlines. Frequency-domain near-field methods are used for the SR calculation, and the Fourier-optics based approach is generally used for the wavefront propagation simulation. The code enables both fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation simulations inmore » steady-state and in frequency-/time-dependent regimes. With these features, the code has already proven its utility for a large number of applications in infrared, UV, soft and hard X-ray spectral range, in such important areas as analysis of spectral performances of new synchrotron radiation sources, optimization of user beamlines, development of new optical elements, source and beamline diagnostics, and even complete simulation of SR based experiments. Besides the SR applications, the code can be efficiently used for various simulations involving conventional lasers and other sources. SRW versions interfaced to Python and to IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics), as well as cross-platform library with C API, are available.« less

  15. Dynamics of Molecular Clouds: Observations, Simulations, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulations, and NIF Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamics of Molecular Clouds: Observations, Simulations, and NIF Experiments You are ...

  16. Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    One solution is the incorporation of collocated acoustic monitoring that can provide ... The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment (NAME) took place at the Atmospheric Radiation ...

  17. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  18. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  19. The GLUEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.R. Shepherd

    2009-12-01

    The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

  20. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  1. New photodisintegration threshold observable in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.A. Wulf; R.S. Canon; Sally J. Gaff; J.H. Kelley; R.M. Prior; E.C. Schreiber; M. Spraker; D.R. Tilley; H.R. Weller; M. Viviani; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; Rocco Schiavilla

    2000-02-01

    Measurements of the cross section, vector, and tensor analyzing powers, and linear gamma-ray polarization in the radiative capture reactions D(p,y){sup 3} He and p(d,y){sup 3}He at c.m. energies in the range 0-53 keV allow the determination of the reduced matrix elements (RMEs) relevant for these transitions. From these RMEs the value of the integral which determines the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule for He is obtained in the threshold region, corresponding to two-body breakup, and compared with the results of an ab initio microscopic three-body model calculation.The theoretical predictions for the value of this integral based on a ''nucleons-only'' assumption are an order of magnitude smaller than experiment. The discrepancy is reduced to about a factor of 2 when two-body currents are taken into account. This factor of 2 is due to an almost exact cancellation between the dominant E1 RMEs in the theoretical calculation. The excess E1 strength observed experimentally could provide useful insights into the nuclear interaction at low energies.

  2. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  3. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  4. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  5. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  6. Neutrino Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory A.W.P. Poon 1 Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D 2 O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar ν e flux and the total flux of all active neutrino

  7. radiation.p65

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that ...

  8. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Protection and Safety Training (3 hrs) Instructors: John Seaman and Neil Miller ... with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. ...

  9. Multiwell experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Hart, C.M.; Branagan, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Multiwell Experiment is a research-oriented field laboratory. Its overall objectives are to characterize lenticular, low-permeability gas reservoirs and to develop technology for their production. This field laboratory has been established at a site in the east-central Piceance basin, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. Field work began in late 1981 and is scheduled through mid-1988. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. Accomplishments of the past year are listed. 4 refs.

  10. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contacts Hirohito Ogasawara, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Dennis Nordlund, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Anders Nilsson, Stanford Synchrotron ...

  11. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation ...

  12. STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE ON FILLED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MODELING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE ON FILLED ELASTOMERS - RECENT INSIGHTS FROM EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING ...

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - RAdiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    could not be obtained. A fundamental problem with all airborne experiments is the limited spatial and temporal sampling of the variability of the radiative fluxes, because of the...

  14. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  15. Micro-Bubble Experiments at the Van de Graaff Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wardle, Kent E.; Quigley, K. J.; Gromov, Roman; Youker, A. J.; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Bailey, James; Stepinski, D. C.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    2015-02-01

    In order to test and verify the experimental designs at the linear accelerator (LINAC), several micro-scale bubble ("micro-bubble") experiments were conducted with the 3-MeV Van de Graaff (VDG) electron accelerator. The experimental setups included a square quartz tube, sodium bisulfate solution with different concentrations, cooling coils, gas chromatography (GC) system, raster magnets, and two high-resolution cameras that were controlled by a LabVIEW program. Different beam currents were applied in the VDG irradiation. Bubble generation (radiolysis), thermal expansion, thermal convection, and radiation damage were observed in the experiments. Photographs, videos, and gas formation (O2 + H2) data were collected. The micro-bubble experiments at VDG indicate that the design of the full-scale bubble experiments at the LINAC is reasonable.

  16. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  17. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earths radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  18. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment In northeastern India, the fertile land around the Ganges River supports several hundred million people. This river, the largest in India, is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Through an intergovernmental agreement with India, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed its portable laboratory, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), to Nainital, India, in June 2011. During

  19. Betatron radiation from a beam driven plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litos, M.; Corde, S.

    2012-12-21

    Photons produced by the betatron oscillation of electrons in a beam-driven plasma wake provide a uniquely intense and high-energy source of hard X-rays and gamma rays. This betatron radiation is interesting not only for its high intensity and spectral characteristics, but also because it can be used as a diagnostic for beam matching into the plasma, which is critical for maximizing the energy extraction efficiency of a plasma accelerator stage. At SLAC, gamma ray detection devices have been installed at the dump area of the FACET beamline where the betatron radiation from the plasma source used in the E200 plasma wakefield acceleration experiment may be observed. The ultra-dense, high-energy beam at FACET (2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} electrons, 20 Multiplication-Sign 20{mu}m{sup 2} spot, 20 - 100{mu}m length, 20GeV energy) when sent into a plasma source with a nominal density of {approx} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} will generate synchrotron-like spectra with critical energies well into the tens of MeV. The intensity of the radiation can be increased by introducing a radial offset to the centroid of the witness bunch, which may be achieved at FACET through the use of a transverse deflecting RF cavity. The E200 gamma ray detector has two main components: a 30 Multiplication-Sign 35cm{sup 2} phosphorescent screen for observing the transverse extent of the radiation, and a sampling electromagnetic calorimeter outfitted with photodiodes for measuring the on-axis spectrum. To estimate the spectrum, the observed intensity patterns across the calorimeter are fit with a Gaussian-integrated synchrotron spectrum and compared to simulations. Results and observations from the first FACET user run (April-June 2012) are presented.

  20. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon: Sounding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon: Sounding Enhancement Field Campaign ... The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate ...

  1. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  2. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W.; Hegland, Joel E.; Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  3. Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Accomplishments of the Instantaneous Radiative Flux (IRF) Working Group August 2006 AERI Observations at Southern Great Plains Improve Infrared Radiative Transfer Models Turner et al., JAS, 2004 * AERI observations used to evaluate clear sky IR radiative transfer models * Long-term comparisons have improved - Spectral line database parameters - Water vapor continuum absorption models * Reduced errors in computation of downwelling radiative IR flux by approx 4; current uncertainty is on

  4. Continuous Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC) * Sponsored by ARM and endorsed by GEWEX Radiation Panel * Aims to become the standard for documenting the performance of SW and LW RT codes in Large-Scale Models * Goal is to have RT codes of IPCC models report performance against the CIRC cases * Phase I to be launched in the following weeks: http://www.circ-project.org Differences from previous intercomparisons: * Observation-tested LBL calculations to used as radiative benchmarks * Benchmark results

  5. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  6. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  7. New particle observations in SELEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2004-12-01

    Particle observations in data from SELEX, the charm hadro-production experiment (E781) at Fermilab are reviewed. These include observations of the doubly charmed baryon {Xi}{sub cc}{sup +}(3520) and the charmed strange meson D{sub sJ}{sup +}(2632).

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiment Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report Every 30-90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall.

  9. Focusing monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suortti, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Bent crystals are introduced as monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation. The reflectivity of the crystal can be calculated reliably from a model where the bent crystal is approximated by a stack of lamellas, which have a gradually changing angle of reflection. The reflectivity curves of a 4 mm thick, asymmetrically cut ({chi}=9.5{degree}) Si(220) crystal are measured using 150 keV radiation and varying the bending radius from 25 to 140 m. The width of the reflectivity curve is up to 50 times the Darwin width of the reflection, and the maximum reflectivity exceeds 80%. The crystal is used as a monochromator in Compton scattering measurements. The source is on the focusing circle, so that the resolution is limited essentially by the detector/analyzer. A wide bandpass, sharply focused beam is attained when the source is outside the focusing circle in the transmission geometry. In a test experiment. 10{sup 12} photons on an area of 2 mm{sup 2} was observed. The energy band was about 4 keV centered at 40 keV. A powder diffraction pattern of a few reflections of interest was recorded by an intrinsic Ge detector, and this demonstrated that a structural transition can be followed at intervals of a few milliseconds.

  10. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sheep Cortical Bone Using Synchrotron Radiation Transmission X-ray Microscopy", PLoS ONE ... Garry R. Brock, Cornell University Joy C. Andrews, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation ...

  11. Radiation Effects Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Reasearch Facility Geomechanics and ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Radiation Effects Sciences Home...

  12. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E.

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  13. Measurements of the radiation environment on the APEX satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Watson, C.J.; Peerless, C.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiment was built to accompany the CRUX (Cosmic Ray Upset) experiment on the USAF APEX satellite, launched in August 1994. Results of measurements of the space radiation environment are presented here while a companion paper presents CRUX measurements of upsets correlated with proton flux.

  14. Radiation Tolerance of 65nm CMOS Transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krohn, M.; Bentele, B.; Christian, D. C.; Cumalat, J. P.; Deptuch, G.; Fahim, F.; Hoff, J.; Shenai, A.; Wagner, S. R.

    2015-12-11

    We report on the effects of ionizing radiation on 65 nm CMOS transistors held at approximately -20C during irradiation. The pattern of damage observed after a total dose of 1 Grad is similar to damage reported in room temperature exposures, but we observe less damage than was observed at room temperature.

  15. Radiation Tolerance of 65nm CMOS Transistors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krohn, M.; Bentele, B.; Christian, D. C.; Cumalat, J. P.; Deptuch, G.; Fahim, F.; Hoff, J.; Shenai, A.; Wagner, S. R.

    2015-12-11

    We report on the effects of ionizing radiation on 65 nm CMOS transistors held at approximately -20°C during irradiation. The pattern of damage observed after a total dose of 1 Grad is similar to damage reported in room temperature exposures, but we observe less damage than was observed at room temperature.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB, and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) Beginning in January 2006, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) began supporting RADAGAST to provide the first well-sampled direct esti- mates of the energy balance across the atmosphere. The experiment is part of an ongoing international study of the West African monsoon system and Saharan dust storms. Stationed outside the Niger Meteo- rological Office at the Niamey International Airport, the AMF is located

  17. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Frisch, P.; Gruntman, M.; Mueller, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  18. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the AprilMay 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  19. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene Print An international team of scientists performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments at ALS Beamline 7.0.1...

  20. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon: Sounding Enhancement Field Campaign ... The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate ...

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 1999 ARM Facilities Newsletter is published by Argonne National Laboratory, a multiprogram laboratory operated by The University of Chicago under contract W-31-109-Eng-38 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Technical Contact: Douglas L. Sisterson Editor: Donna J. Holdridge What's New The month of March will be busy at the ARM SGP CART site. Several Intensive Observation Period (IOP) experiments will be taking place concurrently. These include the Spring Single-Column Model (SCM) IOP on

  2. Experiments ✚ Simulations = Better Nuclear Power Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiments + Simulations = Better Nuclear Power Research Experiments ✚ Simulations = Better Nuclear Power Research Atomic Level Simulations Enhance Characterization of Radiation Damage July 31, 2015 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Radiation Damage PNNL In a study featured on the cover of a Journal of Materials Research focus issue, an international research collaboration used molecular dynamics simulations run at NERSC to identify atomic-level details of early-stage

  3. Wireless radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Kress, Reid L.

    2016-08-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  4. Soliton molecules: Experiments and optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2014-10-06

    Stable compound states of several fiber-optic solitons have recently been demonstrated. In the first experiment their shape was approximated, for want of a better description, by a sum of Gaussians. Here we discuss an optimization strategy which helps to find preferable shapes so that the generation of radiative background is reduced.

  5. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  6. Ignition Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ignition experiments Ignition Experiments The goal of many NIF experiments is to create a self-sustaining "burn" of fusion fuel (the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium) that produces as much or more energy than the energy required to initiate the fusion reaction-an event called ignition. In moving closer to achieving ignition, NIF researchers are fulfilling the vision of early laser pioneers who conceived of using the x rays generated by a powerful, brief laser pulse to fuse

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and flight patterns used. Steering Committee: Andrew Vogelmann, Greg McFarquhar, John Ogren, Dave Turner, Jennifer Comstock, Graham Feingold, and Chuck Long Other Contacts...

  8. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the ...

  9. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  10. (Basic radiation protection criteria). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ney, W.R.

    1982-12-03

    Progress in the following areas directly related to nuclear waste management is summarized: (1) a radiation protection system based on risk per rad of dose; (2) assessment of the accumulation and biological significance of industrial waste discharges and estimation of concentrations present in the environment; (3) assessment of exposure resulting from nuclear power; (4) internal emitter standards; (5) human radiation exposure experience; (6) the identification of national needs related to the estimation of exposure of the public from ionizing radiation; and (7) acceptable risk for management of radioactive waste. (ACR)

  11. 2010 CRITICALITY ACCIDENT ALARM SYSTEM BENCHMARK EXPERIMENTS AT THE CEA VALDUC SILENE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Piot, Jerome; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Masse, Veronique; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Lenain, Richard; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Several experiments were performed at the CEA Valduc SILENE reactor facility, which are intended to be published as evaluated benchmark experiments in the ICSBEP Handbook. These evaluated benchmarks will be useful for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data, particularly those that are used in the analysis of CAASs. During these experiments SILENE was operated in pulsed mode in order to be representative of a criticality accident, which is rare among shielding benchmarks. Measurements of the neutron flux were made with neutron activation foils and measurements of photon doses were made with TLDs. Also unique to these experiments was the presence of several detectors used in actual CAASs, which allowed for the observation of their behavior during an actual critical pulse. This paper presents the preliminary measurement data currently available from these experiments. Also presented are comparisons of preliminary computational results with Scale and TRIPOLI-4 to the preliminary measurement data.

  12. Radiation Safety Poster | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster

  13. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  14. NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface ...

  15. Collisional-Radiative Modeling for Radiation Hydrodynamics (Book...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: Modern Methods in Collisional-Radiative Modelling of Plasmas, Collisional-Radiative Modeling for Radiation Hydrodynamics, Springer International Publishing, unknown, ...

  16. Comments/Observations: R. Tayloe, Nuint'09

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Path forward: theory vs experiment needs, QE discussion input Comments/Observations: R. Tayloe, Nuint'09 Path forward: theory vs experiment needs, QE discussion input Comments/Observations: - Desperately seeking: model-independent cross section measurements - M A , what the ...? - κ , RFG-blasphemy? R. Tayloe, Nuint'09 - IMHO, best approach to providing xsections needed for oscillations is to develop a solid understanding of theory - Requires, from experiments, unbiased, model-independent

  17. Mixture Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  18. Radiation.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation is a natural part of our everyday environment. Cosmic rays showering the Earth ... and radon gas seeping up from the soil are only two examples of natural radiation. ...

  19. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan -

  1. Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.

  2. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH ...

  3. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  4. Solar Radiation Data from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) Online Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The WRDC, located at the Main Geophysical Observatory in St. Petersburg, Russia, serves as a central depository for solar radiation data collected at over 1000 measurement sites throughout the world. The WRDC was established in accordance with Resolution 31 of WMO Executive Committee XVIII in 1964. The WRDC centrally collects, archives and published radiometric data from the world to ensure the availability of these data for research by the international scientific community. The WRDC archive contains the following measurements (not all observations are made at all sites): • Global solar radiation • Diffuse solar radiation • Downward atmospheric radiation • Sunshine duration • Direct solar radiation (hourly and instantaneous) • Net total radiation • Net terrestrial surface radiation (upward) • Terrestrial surface radiation • Reflected solar radiation • Spectral radiation components (instantaneous fluxes) At present, this online archive contains a subset of the data stored at the WRDC. As new measurements are received and processed, they are added to the archive. The archive currently contains all available data from 1964-1993.[From ôBackground on the WRDCö at http://wrdc-mgo.nrel.gov/html/about.html

  5. Observation of tilting activities in translated field reversed configuration plasma using computer tomography at two different cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Okada, Shigefumi

    2007-11-15

    Tilting activities of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma were observed in translation experiments using computer tomography (CT) at two different cross sections in the FRC injection experiment (FIX) machine [S. Okada et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 677 (2007)]. In these experiments, two sets of CT devices were installed at the upstream and downstream sides of the confinement chamber of the FIX. Each CT device was composed of three arrays of detectors sensitive to the near-infrared radiation. The peak of the reconstructed emission profile at one side was displaced from the center of the cross section of the chamber. On the other hand, the reconstructed profile at the other side was located around the center. This result suggests that the FRC plasma was tilting in the axial direction. The occurrence of the observed tilting activities had almost no effect on the lifetime of the FRC plasma.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists

  7. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H. E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  8. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  9. RADIATION WAVE DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wouters, L.F.

    1958-10-28

    The detection of the shape and amplitude of a radiation wave is discussed, particularly an apparatus for automatically indicating at spaced lntervals of time the radiation intensity at a flxed point as a measure of a radiation wave passing the point. The apparatus utilizes a number of photomultiplier tubes surrounding a scintillation type detector, For obtainlng time spaced signals proportional to radiation at predetermined intervals the photolnultiplier tubes are actuated ln sequence following detector incidence of a predetermined radiation level by electronic means. The time spaced signals so produced are then separately amplified and relayed to recording means.

  10. PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1961-12-26

    A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)