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1

Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Transmission of Solar Radiation by Clouds over Snow and Ice Surfaces. Part II: Cloud Optical Depth and Shortwave Radiative Forcing from Pyranometer Measurements in the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Downward solar irradiance at the sea surface, measured on several voyages of an icebreaker in the Southern Ocean, is used to infer transmittance of solar radiation by clouds. Together with surface albedo estimated from coincident hourly sea ice ...

Melanie F. Fitzpatrick; Stephen G. Warren

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Measuring Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration...

4

Surface Solar Radiation Flux and Cloud Radiative Forcing for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP): A Satellite, Surface Observations, and Radiative Transfer Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents surface solar radiation flux and cloud radiative forcing results obtained by using a combination of satellite and surface observations interpreted by means of a simple plane-parallel radiative transfer model called 2001. This ...

Catherine Gautier; Martin Landsfeld

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Estimating Clear-Sky Regional Surface Fluxes in the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site with Ground Measurements and Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors compared methods for estimating surface fluxes under clear-sky conditions over a large heterogeneous area from a limited number of ground measurements and from satellite observations using data obtained from the southern Great Plains ...

W. Gao; R. L. Coulter; B. M. Lesht; J. Qiu; M. L. Wesely

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Temporal Variations of Land Surface Microwave Emissivities over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface microwave emissivities are important geophysical parameters for atmospheric, hydrological, and biospheric studies. This study estimates land surface microwave emissivity using an atmospheric microwave radiative transfer model and a ...

Bing Lin; Patrick Minnis

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

8

METHOD FOR MEASURING RADIATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring an unknown integrated quantity of radiation with a condenser ionization chamber is described. The chamber is initially charged to a predetermined voltage by a voltage source. The chamber is then removed from the source and exposed to an unknown quantity of radiation for a period of time. The quantity of radiation to which the chamber was exposed is then measured by detecting the magnitude of the pulse of current necessary to recharge the chamber of its initial value through a suitable impedance. The current pulse is amplified and measured directly by a suitable pulse height analyzing system. (AEC)

Roesch, W.C.; McCall, R.C.

1961-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

9

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

10

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

11

Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility was established in 1990 to improve...

12

ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTSEDASSNDCLASS1 : Model Output Loc. Time Ser. (MOLTS): EDAS

13

Origins of the solar radiation biases over the Southern Ocean in CFMIP2 models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current climate models generally reflect too little solar radiation over the Southern Ocean, which may be the leading cause of the prevalent sea-surface temperature biases in climate models. We study the role of clouds the radiation biases in ...

A. Bodas-Salcedo; K. D. Williams; M. A. Ringer; I. Beau; J. N. S. Cole; J.-L. Dufresne; T. Koshiro; B. Stevens; Z. Wang; T. Yokohata

14

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from thea suitable site for solar radiation measurements. A requestused to estimate the solar radiation per unit wavelength at

Grether, D.F.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

backscattered radiation backscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System MPL : Micropulse Lidar NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer

16

A 3-Year Climatology of Cloud and Radiative Properties Derived from GOES-8 Data Over the Southern Great Plains  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3-Year Climatology of Cloud and Radiative Properties 3-Year Climatology of Cloud and Radiative Properties Derived from GOES-8 Data Over the Southern Great Plains M. M. Khaiyer, A. D. Rapp, D. R. Doelling, and M. L. Nordeen Analytical Service and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis, W. L. Smith, Jr., and L. Nguyen Atmospheric Sciences Division National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction While the various instruments maintained at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) provide detailed cloud and radiation measurements for a small area, satellite cloud property retrievals provide a means of examining the large-scale properties of the surrounding region over an extended period of time. Seasonal and inter-annual

17

An Integrated Surface Radiation Measurement System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated surface radiation measurement system has been developed to measure the surface radiation exchange flux. The system employs upward- and downward-looking Eppley pyrgeometers and pyranometers to separately measure four components: ...

A. C. Delany; S. R. Semmer

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season Title Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-50880 Year of Publication 2003 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., Tihomir Novakov, and Peter V. Hobbs Journal Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres Keywords black carbon, evolved gas analysis, light absorption, organic carbon, positive sampling artifact, SAFARI Abstract Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, and black carbon contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the total carbon collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not organic carbon concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol co-albedo (1 - single scattering albedo), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60% larger using corrected organic carbon concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60% more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The black carbon to (corrected) organic carbon mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18±0.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25±0.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three-quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other sources (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

19

Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

Roberts, N.O.

1950-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Shortwave Radiation Budget of the Southern Hemisphere Using ISCCP C2 and NCEPNCAR Climatological Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal shortwave radiation budget at the surface of the Southern Hemisphere was estimated, for 10 latitudinal zones, using a radiative transfer model with long-term mean monthly climatological data from the International Satellite Cloud ...

N. Hatzianastassiou; I. Vardavas

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel \\v Cerenkov Radiator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel \\v Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the $B$-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8~MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3\\% and 0.001 at 90\\% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed.

S. K. Sahu et al

1996-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

22

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induced Precipitation Study The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile Facility...

23

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2010 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of...

24

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1-June 30, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work...

25

Solar radiation flux and insolation data for southern Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Weather data pertinent to the development of solar energy heating in the Northern Intermountain region were desired for the purpose of assessing the usefulness and potential economics of utilizing solar energy in the region. The data reported herein are for several southern Idaho stations and for Salt Lake City, and are considered to be representative of the area from the eastern slopes of the Cascades to the western slopes of the northern Rockies. While existing data are not highly accurate and are derived from widely separated stations, approximate estimates may be made for the solar flux in the area. Methods for acquiring more detailed data in specific locations are described in this report. (auth)

Buchenauer, C.J.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from the sun, while for pyrheliometry and solar collectionlens and a sun- shade to prevent direct solar radiation fromby the solar disc and a circle 30 from the sun's center.

Hunt, A.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Method for radiation detection and measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

Miller, S.D.

1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

28

Method for radiation detection and measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

primary radiation flux measurements at the SGP extended facilities are obtained from the Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS). In this study, we examine the radiation...

30

The Impact of Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing on Surface Insolation and Spring Snowmelt in the Southern Sierra Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the regional impact of the atmospheric aerosols on the surface energy and water cycle in the southern Sierra Nevada characterized by extreme variations in terrain elevation, the authors examine the aerosol radiative forcing on ...

Jinwon Kim; Yu Gu; K. N. Liou

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists study clouds and their influence on the sun's radiant energy, which heats our planet. Above is one of the purchases: the Vaisala Present Weather Detector. It optically measures visibility, present weather, precipitation intensity, and precipitation type. It provides a measure of current weather conditions by combining measurements from three

32

Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

33

Methods of in vivo radiation measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements relay on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity with operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

Huffman, Dennis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelsey, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Lane, Richard (Galveston, TX); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Snelling, Jay B. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Character of Solar and Circumsolar Radiation. Proceedings ~all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from thethat attenuate the solar radiation available to terres-

Grether, Donald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Southern Great Plains  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govSitesSouthern Great Plains govSitesSouthern Great Plains SGP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility Geographic Information ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Southern Great Plains SGP Central Facility, Lamont, OK 36° 36' 18.0" N, 97° 29' 6.0" W Altitude: 320 meters The Southern Great Plains (SGP) site was the first field measurement site established by DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Scientists are using the information obtained from the SGP to improve cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance of atmospheric general circulation models used for climate research.

37

THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.

Grether, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Estimation and Model Validation of Surface Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing Using TOGA COARE Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled OceanAtmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) radiation measurements in the western Pacific warm pool are used to estimate surface solar radiation budgets and to validate radiation model ...

Ming-Dah Chou; Wenzhong Zhao

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Posters Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Measured  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Posters Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Measured by Combined Lidar, Radar, and Infrared Radiometer W. L. Eberhard and J. M. Intrieri National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. P. Chan and G. Feingold Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Boulder, Colorado also an order of magnitude smaller. These features make simple approximations in scattering calculations adequate for some applications, e.g., Eberhard (1993a). They also provide some unique capabilities, especially the technique described below for measuring drop sizes. One of the four IDP tasks is to characterize cloud signatures obtained by CO 2 lidar. For instance, our earlier work discovered that depolarization from ice particles was almost

40

Cirrus Cloud Microphysical Property Retrieval Using Lidar and Radar Measurements. Part II: Midlatitude Cirrus Microphysical and Radiative Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lidarradar algorithm described in Part I of this set of papers is applied to 1000 h of Raman lidar and millimeter wave cloud radar (MMCR) data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Southern Great Plains Clouds and ...

Zhien Wang; Kenneth Sassen

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the climate impacts of aerosol in California.

Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

total direct solar (from the disk of the sun) radiation.by the direct solar (coming from the disk of the sun) plussolar radiation (that originating from the disk of the sun)

Grether, Donald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

Ackerman, T

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

Gary Hodges; Tom Stoffel; Mark Kutchenreiter; Bev Kay; Aron Habte; Michael Ritsche; Victor Morris; Mary Anderberg

45

Temperature Measurements in Radiative Shock Experiments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??At signifcantly large pressures, shock waves can be driven that are so energetic that radiation starts to play an important role in the dynamics of (more)

Visco, Anthony John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Synchrotron Radiation Measurements at the CERN LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CERN LHC is equipped with two systems (one for each beam) designed to image the synchrotron radiation emitted by protons and heavy ions. After their commissioning in 2009, the detectors were extensively used and studied during the 2010 run. This allowed preliminary limits in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and resolution to be established. The upgrade to an intensified video camera capable of gating down to 25ns permitted the acquisition of single bunch profiles even with an LHC proton pilot bunch (~5e9 protons) at 450 GeV or a single lead ion bunch (~1e8 ions) from about 2 TeV. Plans for the optimization and upgrade of the system will be discussed. For the last few months, part of the extracted light is deviated to the novel Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM), consisting of an avalanche photo-diode detector providing a resolution better that 100 ps. The LDM system description will be complemented with the promissing first measurement results.

Roncarolo, F; Boccardi, A; Bravin, E; Guerrero, A; Jeff, A; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Fisher, AS

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar and circumsolar radiation vs angular distance from the center of the sun)solar radiation (that originating from the disk of the sun)solar constant of 1367 W/m and then corrected for the actual earth-sun

Grether, D.F.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Method for increased sensitivity of radiation detection and measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. Reduced background is accomplished by more thorough annealing and enhanced radiation induced luminescence is obtained by treating the crystalline material to coalesce primary damage centers into secondary damage centers.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A CCD Spectroradiometer for Ultraviolet Actinic Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new spectroradiometer for spectral measurements of ultraviolet (UV) atmospheric radiation (290400 nm) using a charge coupled device (CCD) as a detector is introduced. The instrument development is motivated by the need for measurements with (a)...

Evelyn Jkel; Manfred Wendisch; Mario Blumthaler; Rainer Schmitt; Ann R. Webb

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Style Guide Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility March 2013 Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility March 2013 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research March 2013 ii Contents 1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Acronyms and Abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 1 2.1 Usage ............................................................................................................................................ 1

51

Calibration of solar radiation measuring instruments. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review of solar radiation measurement of instruments and some types of errors is given; and procedures for calibrating solar radiation measuring instruments are detailed. An appendix contains a description of various agencies who perform calibration of solar instruments and a description of the methods they used at the time this report was prepared. (WHK)

Bahm, R J; Nakos, J C

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

The Effect of Directional Radiation Models on the Interpretation of Earth Radiation Budget Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parameter estimation technique is presented to estimate the radiative flux density distribution over the earn from a set of radiometer measurements at satellite altitude. The technique analyzes measurements from a wide field of view, horizon to ...

Richard N. Green

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Radiative Measurements of Pressure Modulator Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure modulator is extensively used in atmospheric measurements but is not well characterized in terms of its spectroscopic operation. A series of measurements on a carbon monoxide radiometer is described and comparisons are made with ...

J. R. Drummond; A. Ashton

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud Radars: Operational Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past decade, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has supported the development of several millimeter-wavelength radars for the study of clouds. This effort has culminated in ...

Eugene E. Clothiaux; Kenneth P. Moran; Brooks E. Martner; Thomas P. Ackerman; Gerald G. Mace; Taneil Uttal; James H. Mather; Kevin B. Widener; Mark A. Miller; Daniel J. Rodriguez

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are compared with calculations made with a state-of-the art radiative transfer model (Modtran). The model is driven by measurements that give an as accurate as possible...

56

Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

57

Measurements of sky luminance, sky illuminance, and horizontal solar radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents initial findings of a sky measurement program currently in progress at the National Bureau of Standards. Measurements are reported on sky luminance and illuminance and how they relate to horizontal solar radiation and sun position. Correlations are presented relating horizontal illuminance to horizontal solar radiation, and zenith luminance to solar altitude. These empirical models are particularly suitable for use in daylighting energy studies since they are based on existing solar data currently available on standard weather tapes.

Treado, S.; Gillette, G.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia S. M. Sakerin, F. V. Dorofeev, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, V. V. Polkin, V. P. Shmargunov, S. A. Terpugova, S. A. Turchinovich, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The instrumentation complex is described, which has been prepared for radiative experiments in the region of Tomsk (West Siberia). The complex consists of three groups of devices to measure (a) the characteristics of the total downward radiation; (b) the most variable components of the atmospheric transparency directly affecting the income of radiation (aerosol optical depth [AOD], total content of water vapor, ozone, etc.); and (c) aerosol and meteorological parameters of the near-ground layer of the

59

Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thunderhead Radiation Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX Chuck Long Jay Mace Intent * Provide downwelling broadband radiation measurements at Thunderhead * Physically small footprint portable system * Designed to provide inputs necessary for Radiative Flux Analysis Basic RFA System COPS Hornisgrinde Deployment 1200m elevation System Components * Eppley ventilated PSP * Eppley ventilated PIR * Delta-T SPN-1 * Vaisala HMP-50 T/RH probe * Campbell CR23X datalogger SPN-1 Radiometer * Uses 7 thermopile detectors and a patented shading pattern * Measures Total and Diffuse SW with no moving parts * Includes internal heaters Relative accuracy StDev = 13.6 Winter Mountain Deployment Frost/Snow Mitigation * NSA Heated Ventilator Evaluation IOP - Testing various configurations and

60

Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Comparison of Meteorological Measurements from Sparse and Dense Surface Observation Networks in the U.S. Southern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity across Kansas (KS) and Oklahoma (OK) for sparse and dense networks by comparing data from (1) the Surface Meteorological Observing System (SMOS) installations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM; Peppler et al. 2008) Programs Southern Great Plains site and (2) the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM; McPherson et al. 2007). Given the wealth of observations available from these networks, this study provided the unique opportunity to determine, within a quantifiable statistical limit, an optimal distance between stations deployed for observation of the climatological values of temperature and relative humidity. Average distances between a given station and its closest neighboring station for the ARM SMOS (~ 70 km) and the OKM (~ 30 km; Brotzge and Richardson 2003) networks provided an excellent framework for comparisons of sparse and dense observations (Figure 1). This study further lays groundwork for a future investigation to determine the necessary spacing between observations for initialization of gridded numerical models.

JW Monroe; MT Ritsche; M Franklin; KE Kehoe

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

62

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earths surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earths energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Atmospheric Profiles at the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their Relevance to Air Shower Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focussing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

B. Keilhauer; J. Bluemer; R. Engel; D. Gora; P. Homola; H. Klages; J. Pekala; M. Risse; M. Unger; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

64

Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

The Surface Downwelling Solar Radiation Surplus over the Southern Ocean in the Met Office Model: The Role of Midlatitude Cyclone Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors study the role of clouds in the persistent bias of surface downwelling shortwave radiation (SDSR) in the Southern Ocean in the atmosphere-only version of the Met Office model. The reduction of this bias in the atmosphere-only version ...

A. Bodas-Salcedo; K. D. Williams; P. R. Field; A. P. Lock

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

67

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

Filippetto, D; Zolotorev, Max Samuil; Stupakov, G V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Measurement of the radiative transport properties of reticulated alumina foams  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method for determining radiative transport properties of reticulated materials. The method has both experimental and analytical components. A polar nephelometer is used to measure the scattering profile of a sample of the reticulated material. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment are then combined with the experimental results to give the scatter albedo and extinction coefficient. This paper presents the results of using this method to determine the radiative transport properties of four different porosities (10, 20, 30, 65 pores per inch) of cylindrical reticulated alumina samples ranging in thickness form 0.5 inches to 2. 5 inches.

Hale, M.J.; Bohn, M.S.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Probing Radiation Damage in Plutonium Alloys with Multiple Measurement Techniques  

SciTech Connect

A material subjected to radiation damage will usually experience changes in its physical properties. Measuring these changes in the physical properties provides a basis to study radiation damage in a material which is important for a variety of real world applications from reactor materials to semiconducting devices. When investigating radiation damage, the relative sensitivity of any given property can vary considerably based on the concentration and type of damage present as well as external parameters such as the temperature and starting material composition. By measuring multiple physical properties, these differing sensitivities can be leveraged to provide greater insight into the different aspects of radiation damage accumulation, thereby providing a broader understanding of the mechanisms involved. In this report, self-damage from {alpha}-particle decay in Pu is investigated by measuring two different properties: magnetic susceptibility and resistivity. The results suggest that while the first annealing stage obeys second order chemical kinetics, the primary mechanism is not the recombination of vacancy-interstitial close pairs.

McCall, S K; Fluss, M J; Chung, B W

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

70

Infrared Radiative Properties Of the Maritime Antarctic Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The longwave radiation environment of the Antarctic Peninsula and Southern Ocean has been investigated using radiometric Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements of atmospheric emission in conjunction with detailed radiative transfer ...

Dan Lubin

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Target Strength of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca): Measurement and Modeling  

SciTech Connect

A major criterion for tidal power licensing in Washingtons Puget Sound is the management of the risk of injury to killer whales due to collision with moving turbine blades. An active monitoring system is being proposed for killer whale detection, tracking, and alerting that links to and triggers temporary turbine shutdown when there is risk of collision. Target strength (TS) modeling of the killer whale is critical to the design and application of any active monitoring system. A 1996 study performed a high-resolution measurement of acoustic reflectivity as a function of frequency of a female bottlenose dolphin (2.2 m length) at broadside aspect and TS as a function of incident angle at 67 kHz frequency. Assuming that killer whales share similar morphology structure with the bottlenose dolphin, we extrapolated the TS of an adult killer whale 7.5 m in length at 67 kHz frequency with -8 dB at broadside aspect and -28 dB at tail side. The backscattering data from three Southern Resident killer whales were analyzed to obtain the TS measurement. These data were collected at Lime Kiln State Park using a split-beam system deployed from a boat. The TS of the killer whale at higher frequency (200 kHz) was estimated based on a three-layer model for plane wave reflection from the lung of the whale. The TS data of killer whales were in good agreement with our model. In this paper, we also discuss and explain possible causes for measurement estimation error.

Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Moore, Brian

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

72

Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, and black carbon contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the total carbon collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not organic carbon concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol co-albedo (1 - single scattering albedo), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60 percent larger using corrected organic carbon concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60 percent more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The black carbon to (corrected) organic carbon mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18/2610.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25/2610.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three-quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other sources (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Magi, Brian

2002-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

73

RADIATIVE PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF OXY-FUEL FLAMES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the DOE Existing Plants, Emissions and Capture (EPEC) program, oxy-combustion is being investigated as a method to simplify carbon capture and reduce the parasitic energy penalties associated with separating CO2 from a dilute flue gas. Gas-phase radiation heat transfer in boilers becomes significant when shifting from air-firing to oxycombustion, and must be accurately represented in models. Currently, radiative property data are not widely available in the literature for conditions appropriate to this environment. In order to facilitate the development and validation of accurate oxy-combustion models, NETL conducted a series of studies to measure radiation properties of oxy-fuel flames at adiabatic flame temperatures of 1750 - 1950K, and product molar concentrations ranging from 95% CO2 to 100% steam, determined by equilibrium calculations. Transmission coefficients were measured as a function of wavelength using a mid-IR imaging spectrometer and a blackbody radiation source. Additionally, flame temperatures were calculated using data collected within CO2 and H2O absorption bands. Experimental results were compared to two statistical narrowband models and experimental data from literature sources. These comparisons showed good overall agreement, although differences between the models and experimental results were noted, particularly for the R branch of the 2.7 ?m H2O band.

Clinton R. Bedick; Stephen K. Beer; Kent H. Casleton; Benjamin T. Chorpening; David W. Shaw; M. Joseph Yip

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Programs Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

75

Plasma ion temperature measurements via charge-exchange recombination radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Spatially and temporally resolved plasma ion temperatures can be determined by measuring the Doppler-broadened line profiles of transitions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions between fast hydrogen atoms and fully ionized low-Z ions. Plasma rotation velocity profiles can also be obtained. A sample result from the PDX tokamak using He/sup +/ radiation is presented, and expected line intensities for model cases for PDX and TFTR are calculated.

Fonck, R.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Post, D.E.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Plasma ion temperature measurements via charge exchange recombination radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Spatially and temporally resolved plasma ion temperatures can be determined by measuring the Doppler-broadened line profiles of transitions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions between fast hydrogen atoms and fully ionized low-Z ions. Plasma rotation velocity profiles can also be obtained. A sample result from the PDX tokamak using He/sup +/ radiation is presented, and expected line intensities for model cases for PDX and TFTR are calculated.

Fonck, R.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Post, D.E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC; Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /INFN, Rome; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

78

Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).  

SciTech Connect

We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E. [ITT Exelis Mission Systems, Colorado Springs, CO

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.  

SciTech Connect

We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

Preston, Eric F. (ITT Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO); Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur (ITT Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A Comparison Between Modeled and Measured Clear-Sky Radiative Shortwave Fluxes in Arctic Environments, with Special Emphasis on Diffuse Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the SBDART radiative transfer model to predict clear-sky diffuse and direct normal broadband shortwave irradiances is investigated. Model calculations of these quantities are compared with data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programs Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. The model tends to consistently underestimate the direct normal irradiances at both sites by about 1%. In regards to clear-sky diffuse irradiance, the model overestimates this quantity at the SGP site in a manner similar to what has been observed in other studies (Halthore and Schwartz, 2000). The difference between the diffuse SBDART calculations and Halthore and Schwartzs MODTRAN calculations is very small, thus demonstrating that SBDART performs similarly to MODTRAN. SBDART is then applied to the NSA site, and here it is found that the discrepancy between the model calculations and corrected diffuse measurements (corrected for daytime offsets, Dutton et al., 2001) is 0.4 W/m2 when averaged over the 12 cases considered here. Two cases of diffuse measurements from a shaded black and white pyranometer are also compared with the calculations and the discrepancy is again minimal. Thus, it appears as if the diffuse discrepancy that exists at the SGP site does not exist at the NSA sites. We cannot yet explain why the model predicts diffuse radiation well at one site but not at the other.

Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Donna M.

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Modeling and experimental measurements of residual stress using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

This work was an extension of recent LLNL-related efforts to determine the most effective method for determining residual stress in metal components by non-destructive techniques. These activities have included neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and ultrasonics. In 1988, we recognized that the newly installed UC/LLNL beam line at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) could be applied to determining lattice strains in a fashion helpful to our overall research goals. Pioneering work using synchrotron radiation for stress measurements had been reported in Japan. Benefits of a synchrotron source to our studies include a highly intense and monochromatic beam, with variable energies (allowing significant sample penetration) and very low beam divergence. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Shackelford, J.F.

1989-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

83

Field Comparisons of Direct and Component Measurements of Net Radiation under Clear Skies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of net radiation are basic to all studies of the surface energy budget. In preparation for an energy budget experiment significant differences were found between direct and component measurement of net radiation, which ...

Claude E. Duchon; Gregory E. Wilk

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropical Warm Pool Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped with sophisticated instruments for measuring cloud and other atmospheric properties to provide a long-term record of continuous observational data. Measurements obtained from the other experiment components (explained below) will complement this dataset to provide a detailed description of the tropical atmosphere.

85

ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD  

SciTech Connect

Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

Kurzeja, R.

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

86

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

87

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

88

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

89

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic Background and Design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, is a major new program of atmospheric measurement and modeling. The program is intended to improve the understanding of processes that affect ...

Gerald M. Stokes; Stephen E. Schwartz

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Data systems for science integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was developed by the US Department of Energy to support the goals and mission of the US Global Change Research Program. The purpose of the ARM program is to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCMs) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. Three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments to collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCMs. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in early 1996 in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). Approximately 1.5 GB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the CART sites, and external data sources to the ARM Experiment Center (EC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experimental Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis and delivery of ARM data. Data from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems and from external data sources are transferred to the Experiment Center. The EC processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while maintaining a three-month running archive of data.

Gracio, D.K.; Hatfield, L.D.; Yates, K.R.; Voyles, J.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tichler, J.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cederwall, R.T.; Laufersweiler, M.J.; Leach, M.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Singley, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Multiyear Summertime Observations of Daytime Fair-Weather Cumuli at the ARM Southern Great Plains Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long data record (14 yr) of ground-based observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is analyzed to document the macroscopic and dynamical properties of daytime fair-weather cumulus clouds ...

Arunchandra S. Chandra; Pavlos Kollias; Bruce A. Albrecht

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Tonehole radiation directivity: A comparison of theory to measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements have been conducted in an anechoic chamber for comparison to current linear acoustic theory for radiation directivity from a cylindrical pipe with toneholes. Time-delay spectrometry using an exponentially swept sine signal was employed to determine impulse responses at points external to the experimental air column. This technique is effective in clearly isolating nonlinear artifacts from the desired linear system response along the time axis, allowing the use of a strong driving signal without fear of nonlinear distortion. The experimental air column was positioned through a wall conduit into the anechoic chamber such that the driver and pipe input were located outside the chamber while the open pipe end and toneholes were inside the chamber, effectively isolating the source from the pickup. Measured results are compared to both frequency-domain, transmissionnetwork simulations, as well as time-domain, digital waveguide calculations. 1

Gary P. Scavone; Matti Karjalainen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Application of a Bayesian Wind Profile Retrieval Technique to Radar Data Collected in the Alpine Southern Upslope Region and Comparison with Upstream Wind Profiler Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new operational technique to retrieve the horizontal wind profile from Doppler radar measurements is used to carry out a statistical comparison of upslope and upstream wind profiles in the southern flank of the European Alps. The ...

P. Tabary; M. Petitdidier

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison wit microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM site  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor plays an important role in weather in climate; it is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is studying the column abundance and distribution of water vapor with altitude. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is mainly for measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and spectral extinction by aerosol, it can also measure total column water vapor. This paper reports a preliminary investigation of MFRSR`s capabilities for total column water vapor under cloudless conditions.

Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Assessment of the ECMWF Model Cloudiness and Surface Radiation Fields at the ARM SGP Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cloud and radiation fields produced by the operational ECMWF forecasts are assessed using observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site over the AprilMay 1999 period. Over the first 36 ...

Jean-Jacques Morcrette

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Measure of Diffusion Model Error for Thermal Radiation Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The diffusion approximation to the equation of transfer (Boltzmann transport equation) is usually applied to media where scattering dominates the interactions. Diffusion approximation helps in significant savings in terms of code complexity and computational time. However, this approximation often has significant error. Error due to the inherent nature of a physics model is called model error. Information about the model error associated with the diffusion approximation is clearly desirable. An indirect measure of model error is a quantity that is related in some way to the error but not equal to the error. In general, indirect measures of error are expected to be less costly than direct measures. Perhaps the most well-known indirect measure of the diffusion model error is the variable-Eddington tensor. This tensor provides a great deal of information about the angular dependence of the angular intensity solution, but it is not always simple to interpret. We define a new indirect measure of the diffusion model error called the diffusion model error source (DME source). When this DME source is added to the diffusion equation, the transport solution for the angular-integrated intensity is obtained. In contrast to the variable-Eddington tensor, our DME source is a scalar that is conceptually easy to interpret. In addition to defining the DME source analytically, we show how to generate this source numerically relative to the Sn radiative transfer equations with linear-discontinuous spatial discretization. This numerical source is computationally tested and shown to reproduce the Sn solution for a number of problems. Our radiative transfer model solves a coupled, time dependent, multi-frequency, 1-D slab equation and material heat transfer equation. We then use diffusion approximation to solve the same problem. The difference due to this approximation can be modelled by a diffusion source. The diffusion source is defined as an amount of inhomogeneous source that, when added to a diffusion calculation, gives a solution for the angle-integrated intensity that is equal to the transport solution.

Kumar, Akansha

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

DOE/ER-0441 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Plan - February 1990  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan ARM Program Plan Forward In 1978 the Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Dioxide Research Program to address climate change from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over the years the Program has studied the many facets of the issue, from the carbon cycle, the climate diagnostics, the vegetative effects, to the societal impacts. The Program is presently the Department's principal entry in the U.S. Global Change Research Program coordinated by the Committee on Earth Sciences (CES) of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The recent heightened concern about global warming from an enhanced greenhouse effect has prompted the Department to accelerate the research to improve predictions of climate change. The emphasis is on

98

Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Buckner, Mark A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

99

Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

Britton, Jr.; Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Buckner, Mark A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

100

TURACA New Instrument Package for Radiation Budget Measurements and Cloud Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric radiation flux measurements and the resulting surface radiation budget are important quantities for greenhouse effect and climate change investigations. Accurate net shortwave and longwave fluxes, in conjunction with numerical ...

C. Ruckstuhl; R. Philipona

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Optical Properties Estimated from Ground-Based Solar Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface direct radiative forcing and optical properties of aerosols have been analyzed from a ground-based solar radiation measurement, which was made under clear-sky conditions in Tsukuba, Japan, over two years from April 1997 to March 1999. ...

Tomoaki Nishizawa; Shoji Asano; Akihiro Uchiyama; Akihiro Yamazaki

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison with microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor plays a fundamental role in weather and climate. It is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is devoting a large fraction of its resources for the accurate characterization of the column abundance and the distribution of water vapor with altitude. Balloon sondes, microwave radiometers, and Raman lidars are the major instruments either currently in use or under consideration for these tasks. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is primarily intended for use in accurate measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and in the measurement of spectral extinction by aerosol, it has the potential to measure total column water vapor as well. In this paper the authors report on a preliminary investigation of the MFRSR`s capabilities with regard to accurate measurements of total column water vapor at times when there is a clear path to the sun, i.e., cloudless conditions.

Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE's Office of Science is responsible for the ARM Program. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (Specialized Interface) (Registration Required)

104

Comparison of meteorological measurements from sparse and dense surface observational networks in the U.S. southern Great Plains.  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity across Kansas (KS) and Oklahoma (OK) for sparse and dense networks by comparing data from (1) the Surface Meteorological Observing System (SMOS) installations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM; Peppler et al. 2007) Program's Southern Great Plains site and (2) the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM; McPherson et al. 2007). Given the wealth of observations available from these networks, this study provided the unique opportunity to determine, within a quantifiable statistical limit, an optimal distance between stations deployed for observation of the climatological values of temperature and relative humidity. Average distances between a given station and its closest neighboring station for the ARM SMOS ({approx} 70 km) and the OKM ({approx} 30 km; Brotzge and Richardson 2003) networks provided an excellent framework for comparisons of sparse and dense observations (Figure 1). This study further lays groundwork for a future investigation to determine the necessary spacing between observations for initialization of gridded numerical models. The spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity was examined over KS and OK by comparing observations between station pairs located in three primary domains: (1) a sparse domain in KS, consisting only of ARM SMOS stations; (2) a dense domain centered in northern OK, consisting of both ARM SMOS and OKM stations; and (3) a dense domain centered in central OK, also consisting of both ARM SMOS and OKM stations (Figure 2). In addition, the ARM SMOS stations in OK were utilized to create two secondary sparse domains. Before the observations were compared, quality control (QC) beyond the standard ARM range test was added through implementation of tighter range tests specified by data quality objectives (DQOs). Furthermore, instances of poor-quality data were removed from the data set on the basis of ARM data quality reports (DQRs). Finally, to account for spatial differences in terrain, temperature observations were corrected to mean sea level by using a standard lapse rate of 6.5 C km{sup -1} and the elevation of each observing station. For the comparison, a central station was chosen in each domain. Observations during the time period 2004-2006 from each of the other stations within a respective domain were compared to those from this central station. The Pearson correlation coefficient ({rho}) and root-mean-square difference (RMSD) were the statistics used to quantify the relationship between station pairs. For each domain, the {rho} and RMSD values were plotted against the distance separating each station pair, and a least-squares (LS) regression line was fitted to the values. The regression slopes and intercepts were compared between the various domains. The results of this analysis demonstrated positive correlations between all individual station pairs for both temperature and relative humidity. In addition, the {rho} and RMSD values for both temperature and relative humidity exhibited, in general, a linear relationship with distance from a central station. The calculated slope and intercept values were comparable across most domains, and spatial differences in temperature were smaller than those for relative humidity. The findings suggest that although the sparse networks studied might provide an accurate spatial representation for climatological values of temperature and relative humidity over the specific distances between stations, the relative importance of the temperature and relative humidity observations is a critical consideration in network design.

Monroe, J. W.; Ritsche, M. T.; Franklin, M.; Kehoe, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; Univ.of Oklahoma

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

105

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.  

SciTech Connect

Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. According to the EPA, the burning of fossil fuels for cars and trucks, the heating of homes and businesses, and the operation of power plants account for approximately 98% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. The increase of greenhouse gases will, theoretically, enhance the greenhouse effect by trapping more of the heat energy emitted by Earth's surface, thus increasing the surface temperatures on a global scale. Scientists expect that the global average surface temperature could rise 1-4.5 F in the next 50 years and as much as 10 F in the next century. Global warming could potentially have harmful effects on human health, water resources, forests, agriculture, wildlife, and coastal areas. A few degrees of warming might lead to more frequent and severe heat waves, worsened air pollution with adverse effects on human respiratory health, and wider spread of tropical disease such as malaria. The world's hydrologic cycle might be affected by an increase in evaporation and, thus, in precipitation. An increase in evaporation will increase atmospheric water vapor, a significant natural greenhouse gas. The increase in water vapor might further enhance the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect. This is known as a positive feedback. The increase in water vapor could also change the amount of clouds present in the atmosphere, which could reduce temperatures in a negative feedback. Many interrelated factors affect the global climate and are responsible for climate change. Predicting the outcome of the interactions among the many factors is not easy, but it must be addressed. The ARM Program is taking a lead in this effort by collecting vast amounts of data whose analysis will improve our forecasting models for both daily weather and long-term climate. For more information on the ARM Program, please visit our web site at www.arm.gov.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

106

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. According to the EPA, the burning of fossil fuels for cars and trucks, the heating of homes and businesses, and the operation of power plants account for approximately 98% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. The increase of greenhouse gases will, theoretically, enhance the greenhouse effect by trapping more of the heat energy emitted by Earth's surface, thus increasing the surface temperatures on a global scale. Scientists expect that the global average surface temperature could rise 1-4.5 F in the next 50 years and as much as 10 F in the next century. Global warming could potentially have harmful effects on human health, water resources, forests, agriculture, wildlife, and coastal areas. A few degrees of warming might lead to more frequent and severe heat waves, worsened air pollution with adverse effects on human respiratory health, and wider spread of tropical disease such as malaria. The world's hydrologic cycle might be affected by an increase in evaporation and, thus, in precipitation. An increase in evaporation will increase atmospheric water vapor, a significant natural greenhouse gas. The increase in water vapor might further enhance the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect. This is known as a positive feedback. The increase in water vapor could also change the amount of clouds present in the atmosphere, which could reduce temperatures in a negative feedback. Many interrelated factors affect the global climate and are responsible for climate change. Predicting the outcome of the interactions among the many factors is not easy, but it must be addressed. The ARM Program is taking a lead in this effort by collecting vast amounts of data whose analysis will improve our forecasting models for both daily weather and long-term climate. For more information on the ARM Program, please visit our web site at www.arm.gov.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

107

Estimation of Daytime Net Radiation from Shortwave Radiation Measurements and Meteorological Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in surface net radiation Rn control the earths climate, the hydrological cycle, and plant photosynthesis. However, Rn is not readily available. This study develops a method to estimate surface daytime Rn from solar shortwave radiation ...

Kaicun Wang; Shunlin Liang

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

The Diurnal Cycle of Outgoing Longwave Radiation from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diurnal cycle of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the earth is analyzed by decomposing satellite observations into a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). The observations are from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ...

G. Louis Smith; David A. Rutan

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Importance of Accurate Liquid Water Path for Estimation of Solar Radiation in Warm Boundary Layer Clouds: An Observational Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 1-yr observational study of overcast boundary layer stratus at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains site illustrates that surface radiation has a higher sensitivity to cloud liquid water ...

Manajit Sengupta; Eugene E. Clothiaux; Thomas P. Ackerman; Seiji Kato; Qilong Min

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II: Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between ...

Xiquan Dong; Baike Xi; Patrick Minnis

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Multi-year, Summertime Observations of Daytime Fair-Weather Cumuli at the ARM Southern Great Plains facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long data record (14-year) of ground-based observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is analyzed to document the macroscopic and dynamical properties of daytime fair-weather cumulus ...

Arunchandra S. Chandra; P. Kollias; B. A. Albrecht

112

On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

an angular correction is needed. Such a correction of MFRSR data is performed for direct solar radiation, whereas uncertainty exists concerning the diffuse irradiance, whose...

113

In situ measurement of lattice strain using synchrotron radiation and a conical slit system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An experiment utilizing synchrotron radiation to measure lattice strain components from an aluminum-lithium sample during tensile loading is presented in detail. The conical slit system (more)

Obstalecki, Mark

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

The need of coupled differential and integral spectral radiation measurements  

SciTech Connect

The criticality safety community has historically directed a significant amount of effort toward attempting to quantify the integral behavior of fissioning systems via critical and subcritical experimental measurements. Some typical integral characteristics include critical masses, geometries, or concentrations for particular fissile isotopes in different chemical forms. While information such as this can be invaluable for determining criticality safety operating limits and for benchmarking computational methods, it is only a part of what is necessary for analyzing criticality accident alarm detectors. These analyses also require determination of the differential behavior of the leakage radiation (neutron and/or photon) emanating from the source, and an integral estimate of the corresponding detector dose response. This paper addresses part of the work done at the Savannah River Technology Center to validate version 4.2 of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP for application to criticality detector response analysis. Additionally, the paper discusses some observations about existing experimental data which can be used for code validation, as well as the need for further experiments.

Zino, J.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Shortwave, Clear-sky Diffuse Irradiance in the 350 to 1050 nm Range: Comparison of Models with RSS Measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site in September/October 2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave, Clear-Sky Diffuse Irradiance in the Shortwave, Clear-Sky Diffuse Irradiance in the 350 to 1050 nm Range: Comparison of Models with RSS Measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site in September/October 2001 J. J. Michalsky, P. W. Kiedron, Q.-L. Min, and L. C. Harrison Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York J. J. Michalsky Surface Radiation Research Branch Air Resources Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado Abstract A rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) operating in the spectral range between 350 to 1050 nm obtained measurements of direct and diffuse components of spectral irradiance during the first diffuse irradiance IOP in the autumn of 2001. Independent measurements of the primary inputs to spectral

116

Saharan Dust Aerosol Radiative Forcing Measured from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses data collected from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments to determine Saharan dust broadband shortwave aerosol radiative forcing over ...

F. Li; A. M. Vogelmann; V. Ramanathan

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Determination of the Scaled Optical Thickness of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the scaled optical thickness of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. The procedure compares measurements of the reflection function with asymptotic expressions for the reflection function of ...

Michael D. King

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Multiwavelength Scanning Radiometer for Airborne Measurements of Scattered Radiation within Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-wavelength scanning radiometer has been developed for measuring the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer. The purpose of the instrument is to provide measurements from which the single scattering albedo of ...

Michael D. King; Maxwell G. Strange; Peter Leone; Lamdin R. Blaine

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Accuracy of Humidity Measurement on Ships: Consideration of Solar Radiation Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of heating due to solar radiation on measurements of humidity obtained from ships is examined. Variations in wet- and dry-bulb temperature measured on each side of a research ship are shown to correlate with solar radiation. However, ...

Elizabeth C. Kent; Peter K. Taylor

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Radiation Measurements 42 (2007) 10291032 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for internalized DU exposure. The purpose of the current study was to measure the induction of mutagenic damageRadiation Measurements 42 (2007) 1029­1032 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas Observation of radiation demonstrated that DU exposure in vitro to immortalized human osteoblast cells (HOS) is both neoplastically

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

Jones, Donald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parker, DeRay (Idaho Falls, ID); Boren, Paul R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Regional Energy Baselines and Measurement and Verification Protocols: Subtask 3.1 for the Southern Energy Efficiency Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) was established to substantially increase the deployment of high-performance beyond-code buildings across the southern region of the U.S. It is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program, and administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The goal of the first 18-month phase was to address efficiency goals of states, utilities, and various energy-efficiency programs. In order to achieve this goal, the project efforts included defining the baseline energy patterns within the project region, as well as the measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for use in determining the efficiency improvements SEEC, state and USDOE efforts with respect to that baseline. This work is defined under the SEEC Subtask 3.1 Define Regional Baselines and Measurement & Verification Protocols. This report presents preliminary deliverables of this subtask developed and documented by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) for use by the SEEC member state region. The primary goal of this subtask is to provide the state energy offices with a comparison tool of energy use either by total or per-capita. This tool is expected to allow the state energy offices to compare their energy use pattern against other states and the national average energy use by end-use sector. In addition, they can use this tool for a comparison of energy use within their states by end-use and by fuel-source. Another goal of this subtask is to demonstrate the usability of public-available data such as the U.S. Department of Energys Energy Information Agency (DOE EIA) data sets and the U.S. Census Bureau data sets. This approach has been successfully demonstrated by ESL as part of the Comptroller of Public Accounts and the State Energy Conservation Office report on Texas Energy Future. Limited preliminary analysis of the data was made since it was not a project goal. The data provides the basis by which extensive state by state analysis can begin. In addition, the recommended measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for an individual building or facility, ASHRAE/CIBSE/USGBC Performance Measurement Protocols (PMP) for Commercial Buildings, can be used as a bottom-up approach for energy efficiency improvements of buildings within the SEEC 12-state region.

Kim, Hyojin; Haberl, Jeff S.; Verdict, Malcolm

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Parametric Channeling Radiation and its Application to the Measurement of Electron Beam Energy  

SciTech Connect

We have proposed a method for observing parametric channeling radiation (PCR) and of applying it to the measurement of electron beam energy. The PCR process occurs if the energy of the channeling radiation coincides with the energy of the parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The PCR process can be regarded as the diffraction of 'virtual channeling radiation'. We developed a scheme for beam energy measurement and designed an experimental setup. We also estimated the beam parameters, and calculated the angular distributions of PXR and PCR. These considerations indicate that the observation of PCR is promising.

Takabayashi, Y. [SAGA Light Source, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

124

Evaluation of solar radiation measurement systems: EPRI/NREL final test report. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation resource data are needed by electric utilities to evaluate the potential of renewable energy options like photovoltaics in their service territory. In this final test report, we document a cooperative project of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to compare available measurement system options for performing solar radiation resource assessments. We present the detailed results of a 6-month field comparison of thermopile-based pyranometer and pyrheliometer solar irradiance measurement systems with two different implementations of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) concept installed at NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado.

Stoffel, T.; Riordan, C.; Bigger, J.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Evaluation of solar radiation measurement systems: EPRI/NREL final test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation resource data are needed by electric utilities to evaluate the potential of renewable energy options like photovoltaics in their service territory. In this final test report, we document a cooperative project of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to compare available measurement system options for performing solar radiation resource assessments. We present the detailed results of a 6-month field comparison of thermopile-based pyranometer and pyrheliometer solar irradiance measurement systems with two different implementations of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) concept installed at NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado.

Stoffel, T.; Riordan, C.; Bigger, J.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

NEW 145 MHz SOURCE MEASUREMENTS BY PAPER IN THE SOUTHERN SKY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present observations from the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) in South Africa, observed in 2010 May and September. Using two nights of drift scanning with PAPER's 60{sup 0} FWHM beam we have made a map covering the entire sky below +10{sup 0} declination with an effective center frequency of 145 MHz, a 70 MHz bandwidth, and a resolution of 26'. A 4800 deg{sup 2} region of this large map with the lowest Galactic emission reaches an rms of 0.7 Jy. We establish an absolute flux scale using sources from the 160 MHz Culgoora catalog. Using the 408 MHz Molonglo Reference Catalog (MRC) as a finding survey, we identify counterparts to 480 sources in our maps and compare our fluxes to the MRC and to 332 sources in the Culgoora catalog. For both catalogs, the ratio of PAPER to catalog flux averages to 1, with a standard deviation of 50%. This measured variation is consistent with comparisons between independent catalogs observed at different bands. The PAPER data represent new 145 MHz flux measurements for a large number of sources in the band expected to encompass cosmic reionization and represents a significant step toward establishing a model for removing foregrounds to the reionization signal.

Jacobs, Daniel C.; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Parsons, Aaron R.; Pober, Jonathan C. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United Kingdom); Bradley, Richard F.; Parashare, Chaitali R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Gugliucci, Nicole E. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Manley, Jason R.; Van der Merwe, Carel, E-mail: jacobsda@sas.upenn.edu [Karoo Array Telescope, Capetown (South Africa)

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

127

AtmosphereLand Surface Interactions over the Southern Great Plains: Characterization from Pentad Analysis of DOE ARM Field Observations and NARR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site data are analyzed to provide insight into atmosphereland surface interactions generating summertime precipitation variability. Pentad-...

Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas; Sumant Nigam

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate (CSSEFARMBE)  

SciTech Connect

The Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project is working to improve the representation of the hydrological cycle in global climate models, critical information necessary for decision-makers to respond appropriately to predictions of future climate. In order to accomplish this objective, CSSEF is building testbeds to implement uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques to objectively calibrate and diagnose climate model parameterizations and predictions with respect to local, process-scale observations. In order to quantify the agreement between models and observations accurately, uncertainty estimates on these observations are needed. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program takes atmospheric and climate related measurements at three permanent locations worldwide. The ARM VAP called the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) [Xie et al., 2010] collects a subset of ARM observations, performs quality control checks, averages them to one hour temporal resolution, and puts them in a standard format for ease of use by climate modelers. ARMBE has been widely used by the climate modeling community as a summary product of many of the ARM observations. However, the ARMBE product does not include uncertainty estimates on the data values. Thus, to meet the objectives of the CSSEF project and enable better use of this data with UQ techniques, we created the CSSEFARMBE data set. Only a subset of the variables contained in ARMBE is included in CSSEFARMBE. Currently only surface meteorological observations are included, though this may be expanded to include other variables in the future. The CSSEFARMBE VAP is produced for all extended facilities at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site that contain surface meteorological equipment. This extension of the ARMBE data set to multiple facilities at SGP allows for better comparison between model grid boxes and the ARM point observations. In the future, CSSEFARMBE may also be created for other ARM sites. As each site has slightly different instrumentation, this will require additional development to understand the uncertainty characterization associated with instrumentation at those sites. The uncertainty assignment process is implemented into the ARM programs new Integrated Software Development Environment (ISDE) so that many of the key steps can be used in the future to screen data based on ARM Data Quality Reports (DQRs), propagate uncertainties when transforming data from one time scale into another, and convert names and units into NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) standards. These processes are described in more detail in the following sections.

Riihimaki, Laura D.; Gaustad, Krista L.; McFarlane, Sally A.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

129

First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

Blackmore, V; Doucas, G; Kimmitt, M F; Molloy, S; Ottewell, B; Perry, C; Woods, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

The Arm Mobile Facility and Its First International Deployment: Measuring Radiative Flux Divergence in West Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was recently developed to enable collection of detailed climate data in locations not currently sampled by ARM's five fixed sites. The AMF includes a comprehensive suite of active ...

Mark A. Miller; Anthony Slingo

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Signal Postprocessing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915-MHz Wind Profilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has recently initiated a new research avenue toward a better characterization of the transition from cloud to precipitation. Dual-wavelength techniques applied to millimeter-...

Frdric Tridon; Alessandro Battaglia; Pavlos Kollias; Edward Luke; Christopher R. Williams

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud Profiling Radars: An Evaluation of Signal Processing and Sampling Strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program operates millimeter-wavelength cloud radars (MMCRs) in several specific locations within different climatological regimes. These vertically pointing cloud ...

Pavlos Kollias; Bruce A. Albrecht; Eugene E. Clothiaux; Mark A. Miller; Karen L. Johnson; Kenneth P. Moran

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A New Shadow-Ring Device for Measuring Diffuse Solar Radiation at the Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new shadow-ring device for measuring diffuse solar radiation at the surface is presented. In this device the seasonal variation of shadow is followed by moving the detector horizontally. This unique characteristic facilitates its application ...

Amauri P. de Oliveira; Antonio J. Machado; Joo F. Escobedo

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Radiative and Backscattering Properties Using Combined Lidar and Infrared Radiometer (LIRAD) Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for retrieval of cirrus macrophysical and radiative properties using combined ruby lidar and infrared radiometer measurements is explained in detail. The retrieval algorithm includes estimation of a variable backscatter-to-extinction ...

Jennifer M. Comstock; Kenneth Sassen

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Field Experiment for Measurement of the Radiative Characteristics of a Hazy Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical two-and three-dimensional solutions to the radiative transfer equation have been applied to the earth-atmosphere system. A field experiment was conducted to test this theory. in the experiment the upward radiance was measured above ...

Y. J. Kaufman; T. W. Brakke; E. Eloranta

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Global, Seasonal Cloud Variations from Satellite Radiance Measurements. Part II. Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global, daily, visible and infrared radiance measurements from the NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer (SR) are analyzed for the months of January, April, July and October 1977 to infer cloud and surface radiative properties and their effects on the Earth ...

William B. Rossow; Andrew A. Lacis

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux by Actinometer and of Maximal Polarization of Sky Brightness in the Solar Almucantar A. Kh. Shukurov, K. A....

138

Error in Measurements of Incoming Shortwave Radiation Made from Ships and Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Errors in shortwave solar radiation measurements resulting from mean tils and rocking motions, as well as from the response time of the sensors, are determined experimentally. The magnitude of the mean tilt error can be large and lead to errors ...

M. A. MacWhorter; R. A. Weller

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation, increasing the near-surface temperature.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

140

Radiation Measurements 40 (2005) 560568 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Measurements 40 (2005) 560­568 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas Long-term measurements of radon progeny concentrations with solid-state nuclear track detectors K.N.Yua, , D. Nikezica,1 , F-term measurements of radon decay products with solid-state nuclear track detectors. We then propose a method

Yu, K.N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Posters Single-Column Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Sites: Model Development and Sensitivity Test Q. Xu and M. Dong Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman,...

142

Radiative Properties of Cirrus Clouds Derived from Surface Interferometric Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beam transmittance, emittance, reflectance, and outgoing radiance are inferred from interferometric measurements in the infrared window region for 14 temperate continental and 12 subtropical cirrus cloud cash observed during FIRE II at Parsons, ...

Gordon H. Beck; John M. Davis; S. K. Cox

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Air Temperature Measurement Errors in Naturally Ventilated Radiation Shields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two sources of systematic errors are considered for estimating air temperature. The first source is ambiguity of the definition of the standardized measurement height over vegetated surfaces of varying heights. Without such a standardization, ...

Reina Nakamura; L. Mahrt

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Graciosa Island, Azores  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

From May 2009 through December 2010, the ARM Mobile Facility is obtaining data from a location near the airport on Graciosa Island to support the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign. Led by principal investigator Robert Wood, scientists involved in the campaign will use data from the AMF to study processes controlling the radiative properties and microphysics of marine boundary layer clouds, a high priority science question. Marine boundary layer clouds are particularly important in the global climate system, not only as passive modulators of solar energy, but as interactive systems that influence and modulate sea surface temperature and the strength of the trade winds on seasonal-interannual timescales. Their microphysical properties are important, strongly sensitive to manmade aerosol, and poorly understood, especially over remote oceans. Data from the prolonged AMF deployment will result in the first climatology of detailed vertical structure of cloud and precipitation properties of low clouds at a remote subtropical marine site.[Copied and edited from http://www.arm.gov/sites/amf/grw/

Wood, Robert (PI)

145

Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This ...

D. D. Turner; J. E. M. Goldsmith

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due to the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors. In this paper a description of the NIST-traceable calibration facility is provided and preliminary results are presented that compare the MPA predicted beam to beam measurements from a precision normal incidence pyrheliometer and diffuse measurements from a precision shadow-band pyranometer respectively.

Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Radiation Measurements 36 (2003) 161164  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Radiation Measurements 36 (2003) 161­164 www 2003 Abstract Solid state nuclear track detectors are commonly used for measurements of concentrations been established a long time ago that the absorbed radon (222 Rn) dose in the human lung

Yu, K.N.

148

Comparison of Solar UVA and UVB Radiation Measured in Selangor, Malaysia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation data was measured at Physics Building, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (2 degree sign 55' N, 101 degree sign 46' E, 50m asl) by the Xplorer GLX Pasco that connected to UVA Light sensor. The measured solar UVA data were compared with the total daily solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation data recorded by the Malaysian Metrological Department at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia (3 degree sign 06' N, 101 degree sign 39' E, 50m asl) for 18 days in year 2007. The daily total average of UVA radiation received is (298{+-}105) kJm{sup -2} while the total daily maximum is (600{+-}56) kJm{sup -2}. From the analysis, it shows that the values of UVA radiation data were higher than UVB radiation data with the average ratio of 6.41% between 3-14%. A weak positive correlation was found (the correlation coefficient, r, is 0.22). The amount of UVA radiation that reached the earth surface is less dependence on UVB radiation and the factors were discussed.

Kamarudin, S. U.; Gopir, G.; Yatim, B. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Level 2, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanusi, H. [Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Level 2, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmud, P. S. Megat; Choo, P. Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

149

Aerosol Radiative Impact on Spectral Solar Flux at the Surface, Derived from Principal-Plane Sky Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of the spectral solar flux reaching the surface in cloud-free conditions are required to determine the aerosol radiative impact and to test aerosol models that are used to calculate radiative forcing of climate. Spectral ...

Y. J. Kaufman; D. Tanr; B. N. Holben; S. Mattoo; L. A. Remer; T. F. Eck; J. Vaughan; Bernadette Chatenet

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A New Measurement of the $?^0$ Radiative Decay Width  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High precision measurements of the differential cross sections for $\\pi^0$ photoproduction at forward angles for two nuclei, $^{12}$C and $^{208}$Pb, have been performed for incident photon energies of 4.9 - 5.5 GeV to extract the ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width. The experiment was done at Jefferson Lab using the Hall B photon tagger and a high-resolution multichannel calorimeter. The ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width was extracted by fitting the measured cross sections using recently updated theoretical models for the process. The resulting value for the decay width is $\\Gamma{(\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma)} = 7.82 \\pm 0.14 ~({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.17 ~({\\rm syst.}) ~{\\rm eV}$. With the 2.8% total uncertainty, this result is a factor of 2.5 more precise than the current PDG average of this fundamental quantity and it is consistent with current theoretical predictions.

I. Larin; D. McNulty; E. Clinton; P. Ambrozewicz; D. Lawrence; I. Nakagawa; Y. Prok; A. Teymurazyan; A. Ahmidouch; A. Asratyan; K. Baker; L. Benton; A. M. Bernstein; V. Burkert; P. Cole; P. Collins; D. Dale; S. Danagoulian; G. Davidenko; R. Demirchyan; A. Deur; A. Dolgolenko; G. Dzyubenko; R. Ent; A. Evdokimov; J. Feng; M. Gabrielyan; L. Gan; A. Gasparian; S. Gevorkyan; A. Glamazdin; V. Goryachev; V. Gyurjyan; K. Hardy; J. He; M. Ito; L. Jiang; D. Kashy; M. Khandaker; P. Kingsberry; A. Kolarkar; M. Konchatnyi; A. Korchin; W. Korsch; S. Kowalski; M. Kubantsev; V. Kubarovsky; X. Li; P. Martel; V. Matveev; B. Mecking; B. Milbrath; R. Minehart; R. Miskimen; V. Mochalov; S. Mtingwa; S. Overby; E. Pasyuk; M. Payen; R. Pedroni; B. Ritchie; T. E. Rodrigues; C. Salgado; A. Shahinyan; A. Sitnikov; D. Sober; S. Stepanyan; W. Stephens; J. Underwood; A. Vasiliev; V. Vishnyakov; M. Wood; S. Zhou

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

151

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

LR Roeder

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Comparison of Historical Satellite Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowland Radiometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-based solar radiation estimates have recently been incorporated into the 1990-2005 update to the 1961-1990 U.S. National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) also supplies satellite-based estimates of solar radiation. The usefulness of such data with respect to solar resources for site selection and designing solar energy conversion systems is often questioned. The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates. We compare the most recent shadowband radiometer MMDT with a complement of thermopile 'first class' solar radiometers at one site. Quantitative analysis shows that in most cases, the long-term average MMDT and measured data are comparable, within 10% of each other for global, and 20% for direct-radiation MMDT.

Myers, D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter  

SciTech Connect

Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

Chuyu Liu

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2010.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 x 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 x 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continued through this quarter, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) began deployment this quarter to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The experiment officially began November 15, but most of the instruments were up and running by November 1. Therefore, the OPSMAX time for the AMF2 was 1390.80 hours (.95 x 1464 hours) for November and December (61 days). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or datastream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous datastreams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Summary. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1-December 31, 2010, for the fixed sites. Because the AMFs operate episodically, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. This first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 possible hours for the fixed sites and the AMF1 and 1,464 possible hours for the AMF2. The average of the fixed sites exceeded our goal this quarter. The AMF1 has essentially completed its mission and is shutting down to pack up for its next deployment to India. Although all the raw data from the operational instruments are in the Archive for the AMF2, only the processed data are tabulated. Approximately half of the AMF2 instruments have data that was fully processed, resulting in the 46% of all possible data made available to users through the Archive for this first quarter. Typically, raw data is not made available to users unless specifically requested.

Sisterson, D. L.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

An improved multipyranometer array for the measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the development of an improved multipyranometer array (NDA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diff-use solar radiation. The NWA described in this thesis is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due to the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors, the development of an improved solution scheme for the calculation of the beam and diff-use solar radiation components, and the development of an empirical spectral correction for the photovoltaic-type sensors used in the NWA. In this thesis a description of the NIST-traceable calibration facility is provided and results are presented that compare the NWA predicted beam to beam measurements from a precision normal incidence pyrheliometer.

Munger, Bryce Kirtley

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the development of an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this thesis is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due to the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors, the development of an improved solution scheme for the calculation of the beam and diffuse solar radiation components, and the development of an empirical spectral correction for the photovoltaic-type sensors used in the MPA. In this thesis a description of the NIST-traceable calibration facility is provided and results are presented that compare the MPA predicted beam to beam measurements from a precision normal incidence pyrheliometer.

Munger, Bryce Kirtley

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A New Natural Gamma Radiation Measurement System for Marine Sediment and Rock Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are ...

Vasiliev, M A; Chubarian, G; Olsen, R; Bennight, C; Cobine, T; Fackler, D; Hastedt, M; Houpt, D; Mateo, Z; Vasilieva, Y B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Quality control of solar radiation data within the RMIB solar measurements network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessment of the solar resource is based upon measured data, where available. However, with any measurement there exist errors. Consequently, solar radiation data do not exhibit necessarily the same reliability and it often happens that users face time series of measurements containing questionable values though preliminary technical control has been done before the data release. To overcome such a situation, a major effort has been undertaken at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) to develop procedures and software for performing post-measurement quality control of solar data from the radiometric stations of our in situ solar monitoring network. Moreover, because solar energy applications usually need continuous time series of solar radiation data, additional procedures have also been established to fill missing values (data initially lacking or removed via quality checks). (author)

Journee, Michel; Bertrand, Cedric [Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Two-phase fluid density measurement with a two-beam radiation densitometer  

SciTech Connect

A densitometer consisting of two beams of radiation passing through a pipe is very useful for measuring the average density and the density distribution of inhomogeneous two-phase fluids in the pipe. The general technique is illustrated by an example. (auth)

Lassahn, G.D.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A PORTABLE DOSE RATE INSTRUMENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL BACK-GROUND RADIATION LEVELS  

SciTech Connect

An instrument of the ionization chamber type which is capable of measuring radiation dose rates down to and below those encountered in natural background was designed and constructed. It consists of a 40-liter ionization chamber coupled to a portable battery-powered electrometer. The chamber polarizing battery is a part of the chamber center electrode assembly and is located inside the chamber. (auth)

Rising, F.L.

1960-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

Low Frequency Measurement of the Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

We have made measurements of the cosmic background radiation spectrum at 5 wavelengths (0.33, 0.9, 3, 6.3, and 12 cm) using radiometers with wavelength-scaled corrugated horn antennas having very low sidelobes. A single large-mouth (0.7 m diameter) liquid-helium-cooled absolute reference load was used for all five radiometers. The results of the observations are consistent with previous measurements and represent a significant improvement in accuracy.

Smoot, G. F.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S. D.; Witebsky, C.; Mandolesi, N.; Partridge, R. B.; Sironi, G.; Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.

1983-06-00T23:59:59.000Z

163

Measurement of the surface wavelength distribution of narrow-band radiation by a colorimetric method  

SciTech Connect

A method is suggested for determining the wavelength of narrow-band light from a digital photograph of a radiating surface. The digital camera used should be appropriately calibrated. The accuracy of the wavelength measurement is better than 1 nm. The method was tested on the yellow doublet of mercury spectrum and on the adjacent continuum of the incandescent lamp radiation spectrum. By means of the method suggested the homogeneity of holographic sensor swelling was studied in stationary and transient cases. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Kraiskii, A V; Mironova, T V; Sultanov, T T [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

L- and M-shell absorption measurements of radiatively heated Fe plasma  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of iron-plasma absorption spectrum over 150-1200 eV photon energy range were reported at temperature T = (72 {+-} 4) eV. The electron temperature was diagnosed with the absorption spectrum of aluminum mixed with iron. The density was not diagnosed directly but obtained from a radiative hydrodynamic simulation with the Multi-1D code. The broad photon energy range enables simultaneous observation of the L-shell and M-shell transitions that dominate the radiation transport at this temperature. The spectrally resolved transmission data were compared to the detailed-configuration-accounting model calculations and reasonable agreement was found.

Zhang Jiyan; Li Hang; Zhao Yang; Xiong Gang; Yuan Zheng; Zhang Haiying; Yang Guohong; Yang Jiamin; Liu Shenye; Jiang Shaoen; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian [Research Center of Laser Fusion, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu Yan; Meng Xujun; Yan Jun [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Radiation and Dissipation of Internal Waves Generated by Geostrophic Motions Impinging on Small-Scale Topography: Application to the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent estimates from observations and inverse models indicate that turbulent mixing associated with internal wave breaking is enhanced above rough topography in the Southern Ocean. In most regions of the ocean, abyssal mixing has been primarily ...

Maxim Nikurashin; Raffaele Ferrari

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates from Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland area shores. Addendum 1  

SciTech Connect

Environmental radiation exposure rate measurements are taken on and around the Hanford Site for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. In 1992, environmental radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from shoreline and island areas ranging from Vernita, along the Hanford Reach, down to the Richland Pumphouse. Measurements were taken primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates as determined by examination of aerial photographs depicting radiation exposure measurements. Results from the 1992 survey indicated radiation exposure rates taken from the Hanford Reach area were elevated in comparison to the measurements taken from the Vernita area with ranges of 8 to 28 {mu}R/hr and 4 to 11 {mu}R/hr, respectively. In January 1994, additional shoreline radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from the Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland areas to determine the relationship of radiation exposure rates along the Richland area shores when compared to Vernita and Hanford Reach area exposure rates (measurements along the Richland area were not collected during the 1992 survey). This report discusses the 1994 results and is an addendum to the report that discussed the 1992 survey. An analysis of variance indicated a significant location interaction at a p-value of 0.0014. To determine differences between paried locations a post-hoc comparison of location means was performed on log transformed data using the Scheff{acute e}`s F-test. This test indicated a significant difference between Hanford Reach and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.075 /{mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.0014. No significant difference was found between Hanford Reach and Vernita area means: The mean difference was 0.031 {mu}R/hr and the p-value was 0.3138. No significant difference was found between Vernita and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.044 {mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.1155.

Cooper, A.T.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

Gutschick, Vincent P. (Los Alamos, NM); Barron, Michael H. (Los Alamos, NM); Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a mixed forest from tall tower mixing ratio measurements,vapor measurements from a tall tower, Journal of Geophysical

Riley, W. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

171

Posters Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data in Near Real-Time  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Posters Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data in Near Real-Time M. Splitt University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Recent work in this area by Charles Wade (1987) lays out the groundwork for monitoring data quality for projects with large networks of instruments such as the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Wade generated objectively analyzed fields of meteorological variables (temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind) and then compared the objectively analyzed value at the sensor location with the value produced by the sensor. Wade used a Barne's objective analysis scheme to produce objective data values for a given meteorological variable (q) in two- dimensional space. The objectively analyzed value should

172

Passive and Active Radiation Measurements Capability at the INL Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility is a Department of Energy facility located in the Idaho National Laboratorys (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex. It contains various nuclear and non-nuclear materials that are available to support many radiation measurement assessments. User-selected, single material, nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be readily utilized with ZPPR clamshell containers with almost no criticality concerns. If custom, multi-material configurations are desired, the ZPPR clamshell or an approved aluminum Inspection Object (IO) Box container may be utilized, yet each specific material configuration will require a criticality assessment. As an example of the specialized material configurations possible, the National Nuclear Security Agencys Office of Nuclear Verification (NNSA/NA 243) has sponsored the assembly of six material configurations. These are shown in the Appendixes and have been designated for semi-permanent storage that can be available to support various radiation measurement applications.

Robert Neibert; John Zabriskie; Collin Knight; James L. Jones

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Radiative Effects of Aerosols on Photochemical Smog: Measurements and Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. High concentrations of both ozone and aerosols are observed in the eastern United States during stagnant weather conditions associated with transport from the W or NW; they show similar spatial and temporal patterns. We discuss a causal mechanism that may contribute to this correlation - the radiative effects of aerosols on photolysis rates. We measured j(NO 2 ), the rate coefficient for nitrogen dioxide photolysis, and column aerosol optical depths at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD (39.01 ffi N and 76.87 ffi W) during the smog seasons of 1995 and 1997. Direct measurements and radiative transfer model calculations show that particles can reduce surface j(NO 2 ) by 5 - 60%, depending on solar zenith angle and aerosol loading. Although particle scattering by dense aerosol loading on smoggy days decreases near-surface photolysis rates, it increases the integrated boundary layer photolysis rates by up to 20% and leads to accelerated photochemical smog formation in ...

Kondragunta Dickerson Stenchikov; S. Kondragunta; R. R. Dickerson; G. Stenchikov; W. F. Ryan; B. Holben; R. W. Stewart

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

Filippetto, D.; /Frascati; Sannibale, F.; Zolotorev, Max Samuil; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

175

Transverse beam shape measurements of intense proton beams using optical transition radiation  

SciTech Connect

A number of particle physics experiments are being proposed as part of the Department of Energy HEP Intensity Frontier. Many of these experiments will utilize megawatt level proton beams onto targets to form secondary beams of muons, kaons and neutrinos. These experiments require transverse size measurements of the incident proton beam onto target for each beam spill. Because of the high power levels, most beam intercepting profiling techniques will not work at full beam intensity. The possibility of utilizing optical transition radiation (OTR) for high intensity proton beam profiling is discussed. In addition, previous measurements of OTR beam profiles from the NuMI beamline are presented.

Scarpine, Victor E.; /Fermilab

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility: Part I: Low-Level Cloud Macrophysical, Microphysical, and Radiative Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A record of single-layer and overcast low cloud (stratus) properties has been generated using approximately 4000 h of data collected from January 1997 to December 2002 at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central ...

Xiquan Dong; Patrick Minnis; Baike Xi

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1.4 mSv was measured, respectively. Using kilovoltage or megavoltage radiation to obtain cone beam computed tomography scans led to an additional dose of 8-46 mSv. For treatment verification images performed once per week using double exposure technique, an additional effective dose of up to 18 mSv was measured. Conclusions: Daily setup imaging using kilovoltage planar images or TomoTherapy megavoltage fan beam CT imaging can be used as a standard procedure in clinical routine. Daily kilovoltage and megavoltage cone beam computed tomography setup imaging should be applied on an individual or indication based protocol. Depending on the imaging scheme applied, image-guided radiation therapy can be administered without increasing the dose outside of the treated volume compared to therapies without image guidance.

Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057 (Switzerland) and Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal simulation. These uses require knowing the amount of solar radiation irradiating variously oriented walls and tilted roofs, which can be calculated from beam and diffuse radiation measured on a horizontal surface. It is possible to obtain such data using a multipyranometer array (MPA). However, the MPA is not as accurate as some other sensors and suffers from poor data reliability. This work improves the accuracy of the MPA and solves the problem of invalid data. Several schemes the removal of invalid data are tested. The location of the test equipment is changed to one with fewer obstructions. A Class A sensor is substituted for one of the photovoltaic sensors. Corrections are applied to the photovoltaic sensors. The need for changing sensor alignment is tested. As a result, accuracy has been significantly improved over previous work.

Klima, Peter Miloslaw

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

An Absolute Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Temperature at 10.7 GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A balloon-borne experiment has measured the absolute temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) at 10.7 GHz to be Tcmbr = 2.730 +- .014 K. The error is the quadratic sum of several systematic errors, with statistical error of less than 0.1 mK. The instrument comprises a cooled corrugated horn antenna coupled to a total-power radiometer. A cryogenic mechanical waveguide switch alternately connects the radiometer to the horn and to an internal reference load. The small measured temperature difference (load in conjunction with the use of a cold front end keeps systematic instrumental corrections small. Atmospheric and window emission are minimized by flying the instrument at 24 km altitude. A large outer ground screen and smaller inner screen shield the instrument from stray radiation from the ground and the balloon. In-flight tests constrain the magnitude of ground radiation contamination, and low level interference is monitored through observations in several narrow frequency bands.

S. T. Staggs; N. C. Jarosik; S. S. Meyer; D. T. Wilkinson

1996-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

180

Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Creation of a homogeneous plasma column by means of hohlraum radiation for ion-stopping measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we present the results of two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of a hohlraum target whose outgoing radiation is used to produce a homogeneously ionized carbon plasma for ion-beam stopping measurements. The cylindrical hohlraum with gold walls is heated by a frequency-doubled (\\lambda_l = 526.5 \\mu m) 1.4 ns long laser pulse with the total energy of E_l = 180 J. At the laser spot, the peak matter and radiation temperatures of, respectively, T ~ 380 eV and T_r ~ 120 eV are observed. X-rays from the hohlraum heat the attached carbon foam with a mean density of \\rho_C = 2 mg/cm^3 to a temperature of T ~ 25 eV. The simulation shows that the carbon ionization degree (Z ~ 3.75) and its column density stay relatively stable (within variations of about +-7%) long enough to conduct the ion-stopping measurements. Also, it is found that a special attention should be paid to the shock wave, emerging from the x-ray heated copper support plate, which at later times may significantly distort the ...

Faik, Steffen; Basko, Mikhail M; Maruhn, Joachim A; Rosmej, Olga; Rienecker, Tim; Novikov, Vladimir G; Grushin, Alexander S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

183

Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Ionizing Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

184

Wind Characteristics in Southern Wyoming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of wind from a network of surface anemometers and a 107 m tower have been analyzed for southern Wyoming where a project for large-scale generation of electricity from wind power is underway. Topographically forced channeling of ...

Brooks E. Martner; John D. Marwitz

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Relation between measurable and principal characteristics of radiation-induced shape-change of graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the basis of studies of radiation-induced shape-change of reactor graphite GR-280, through the series of measurements of samples with different orientation of cutting with respect to the direction of extrusion, a conclusion is made about the existence of polycrystal substructural elements - domains. Domains, like graphite as a whole, possess the property of transverse isotropy, but have different amplitudes of shape-change and random orientations of the axes of axial symmetry. The model of graphite, constructed on the basis of the concept of domains allowed to explain from a unified point of view most of existing experimental data. It is shown that the presence of the disoriented domain structure leads to the development of radiation-induced stresses and to the dependence of the shape-change on the size of graphite samples. We derive the relation between the shape-change of finite size samples and the actual shape-change of macro-graphite.

M. V. Arjakov; A. V. Subbotin; S. V. Panyukov; O. V. Ivanov; A. S. Pokrovskii; D. V. Kharkov

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

186

A MEASUREMENT OF ANISOTROPY IN THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION ON A LARGE ANGULAR SCALE AT 33 GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relative to the 3K Radiation D.l Pilot's Flight Operationsradiation in the , direction. i is the direction of Ihc antenna on ihc pilot'spilot's left, checking the sign conventions. Table IV.1 - Measurements of Anisotropy of 3K Radiation,

Gorenstein, M.V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Definition of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of...

188

How to Detect Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How...

189

Annual Forcing of the Surface Radiation Balance Diurnal Cycle Measured from a High Tower near Boulder, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation balance consisting of upward and downward components of solar and thermal infrared broadband irradiances is continuously measured from the top of a 300-m tower situated on the Colorado high plains. The data are representative of a ...

Ellsworth G. Dutton

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A Theory for the Retrievals of Virtual Temperature from Remote Measurements of Horizontal Winds and Thermal Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper develops a theory for the estimation of virtual temperature from remote measurements of (i) emitted thermal radiation by microwave and infrared radiometers and (ii) horizontal winds by Doppler radars (or lidars). The problem of ...

Tzvi Gal-Chen

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Estimations of Cloud Optical Thickness from Ground-Based Measurements of Incoming Solar Radiation in the Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for evaluation of cloud optical thickness (plant-parallel, homogeneous layer) from ground-based measurements of incoming solar irradiance using a simple radiation model is introduced. The sensitivities of downward and upward fluxes of ...

E. Leontyeva; K. Stamnes

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud Profiling Radars: Second-Generation Sampling Strategies, Processing, and Cloud Data Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program operates millimeter-wavelength cloud radars in several climatologically distinct regions. The digital signal processors for these radars were recently upgraded and ...

Pavlos Kollias; Mark A. Miller; Edward P. Luke; Karen L. Johnson; Eugene E. Clothiaux; Kenneth P. Moran; Kevin B. Widener; Bruce A. Albrecht

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Narrow- and Broad-Band Satellite Measurements of Shortwave Radiation: Conversion Simulations with a General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Oregon State University/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory general circulation model has been employed as a vehicle for suggesting and exploring various means of converting narrow-band measurements of reflected solar radiation from the ...

Robert D. Cess; Gerald L. Potter

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Precise Measurement of the e(+)e(-)->pi(+)pi(-)(gamma) Cross Section with the Initial State Radiation Method at BABAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e[superscript +]e[superscript -]??[superscript +]?[superscript -](?) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method ...

Cowan, Ray Franklin

195

Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part I: Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the optical thickness and effective particle radius of stratiform cloud layers from reflected solar radiation measurements. A detailed study is presented which shows that the cloud optical thickness (?c) and ...

Teruyuki Nakajima; Michael D. King

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

197

DOE/SC-ARM-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20 20 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

198

DOE/SC-ARM-12-021 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

199

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1September 30, 2012  

SciTech Connect

Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

Voyles, JW

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

200

DOE/SC-ARM-13-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Vertical Profiles of Aerosol and Radiation and the Influence of a Temperature Inversion: Measurements and Radiative Transfer Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of an airborne experiment performed near Mnchengladbach (Germany) in November 1993 are reported. Besides meteorological data, vertical profiles of aerosol properties (number concentration, size distribution) and radiation (...

M. Wendisch; S. Mertes; A. Ruggaber; T. Nakajima

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Radiation Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Radiation Physics Division, part of the Physical Measurement Laboratory ... the measurement standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

203

A Squall Line in Southern Germany: Kinematics and Precipitation Formation as Deduced by Advanced Polarimetric and Doppler Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiscale analysis of a squall line system is reported in this paper. It is shown that the squall line was initiated as part of a synoptic-scale frontal zone. The main emphasis then is on the polarimetric and Doppler radar measurements which ...

P. F. Meischner; V. N. Bringi; D. Heimann; H. Hller

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

First Measurement of the Inclusive Rate for the Radiative Penguin Decay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured the branching ratio for the inclusive radiative penguin process b ! sfl. We find BR(b ! sfl) = (2:32 \\Sigma 0:51 \\Sigma 0:29 \\Sigma 0:32) \\Theta 10 \\Gamma4 ; where the first error is statistical, the second error is the additive systematic error from uncertainty in yield, and the third error is the multiplicative systematic error from uncertainty in efficiency, which includes model dependence. Permanent address: University of Hawaii at Manoa 2 I. INTRODUCTION Last year CLEO observed [1] the decay B ! K (892)fl, thereby establishing the existence of the radiative penguin process b ! sfl. However, the fraction of the inclusive b ! sfl rate which hadronizes into B ! K (892)fl exhibits large model variation. The inclusive b ! sfl branching ratio is more reliably predicted [2], at (2.75 \\Sigma 0.80) \\Theta 10 \\Gamma4 for a top quark mass of 175 GeV. The branching ratio is sensitive to the existence of a charged Higgs [3], to anomalous WW fl couplings [4],...

Barish Chadha Chan; S. Chan; G. Eigen

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Modified Fowler-Milne method for the spectroscopic determination of thermal plasma temperature without the measurement of continuum radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique based on the Fowler-Milne method for the spectroscopic determination of thermal plasma temperatures without measuring continuum radiation is presented. This technique avoids the influence of continuum radiation with the combined line and continuum emission coefficients to derive the plasma temperatures. The amount of continuum emission coefficient is estimated by using an expression related to the Biberman factors. Parameters that affect the accuracy of the proposed technique and errors in the measured plasma temperatures are analyzed. It is shown that, by using the Ar I 696.5 nm line with a bandwidth of 3.27 nm without taking into account the continuum radiation, the plasma temperature measured will be lower on the order of up to 1000-3000 K for temperatures from 20 000 to 24 000 K. The theoretically predicted temperature errors are in good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed technique is reliable for plasma temperature measurement.

Ma Shuiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Plasma Research Laboratory, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Gao Hongming; Wu Lin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1December 31, 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

Voyles, JW

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

208

ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program: An Overview P. A. Crowley Environmental Sciences Division U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. J. Vitko, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94550 Introduction for leased UA V operation over the next year. Examples include, but are not limited to, the existing Gnat 750-45, with its 7-8 km ceiling, as well as the planned FY93 demonstration of two 20 km capable UA Vs-the Perseus- B and the Raptor. Thus the funding of some initial flights and the availability of leased UAVs will enable us to start up the ARM-UAV program. Additional funding will be required to continue this program. Interim Science Team This paper and the one that follows describe the start-up

209

Method and apparatus for the measurement of signals from radiation sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preferred embodiments of the present invention include a device for measuring an ionizing event in a radiation sensor. The device can include a charge amplifier and a timing shaper. The charge amplifier receives a cathode signal and is configured to output an amplified cathode signal. The timing shaper is operatively connected to the charge amplifier to receive the amplified cathode signal. The timing shaper is configured to generate a first pulse in response to a beginning of the ionizing event and a second pulse in response to an end of the ionizing event. The first and second pulses are associated with a depth of interaction of the ionizing event and are generated in response to a slope of the amplified cathode signal changing.

De Geronimo, Gianluigi

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

210

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1March 31, 2012  

SciTech Connect

Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

Voyles, JW

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

211

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1September 30, 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

Voyles, JW

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

212

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1March 31, 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

Sisterson, DL

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

213

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1June 30, 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

Voyles, JW

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

214

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

Sisterson, DL

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

215

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 - September 30, 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

DL Sisterson

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 September 30, 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

DL Sisterson

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Oritz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Marlow, William H. (College Station, TX)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The "Z" Pulsed Radiation Source: Recent Developments in Equation of State Measurement Capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia Z machine is a source of intense radiation which can be used to drive ablative shocks for equation of state studies. In developing the capability to diagnose these types of studies on Z, techniques commonly used in conventional impact generated experiments were leveraged. The primary diagnostic transferred was velocity interferome~, VLSAR, [1] which not only provides Hugoniot particle velocity measurements, but also indications of shock stability and wave attenuation. In addition to a VISAR capability on the Z machine, methods for measuring shock velocity have been developed. When these measured parameters are used in conjunction with the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions, [2] material response at high temperatures and pressures can be inferred. With sample sizes used on Z being much smaller than those fielded in typical impact experiments, temporal resolution and methods of interfacing the diagnostics with the targets had to be improved. In this paper, a "standard" equation of state experiment, associated diagnostics, and some recent results in aluminum and beryllium will be discussed.

Asay, J.R.; Chandler, G.; Clark, B.; Fleming, K.; Hall, C.A.; Holland, K.; Trott, W.M.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

219

The Angular Distribution of UV-B Sky Radiance under Cloudy Conditions: A Comparison of Measurements and Radiative Transfer Calculations Using a Fractal Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, global warming concerns have focused attention on cloud radiative forcing and its accurate encapsulation in radiative transfer measurement and modeling programs. At present, this process is constrained by the dynamic movement and ...

Christopher Kuchinke; Kurt Fienberg; Manuel Nunez

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Fluvial sedimentology and basin analyses of the Permian Fairchild and Buckley formations, Beardmore Glacier region, and the Weller Coal Measures, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The Beardmore Glacier region contains a 1-km-thick Permian fluvial sequence that was deposited in an elongate basin along the margin of the East Antarctica craton. Fluvial architecture, sandstone composition and paleocurrents within the basin record a change from an early Permian cratonic to a late Permian foreland basin. The Lower Permian Fairchild Formation consists entirely of overlapping channel-form sandstone bodies deposited by braided streams. Arkosic sandstone was deposited by SE flowing streams. Fairchild strata record slow subsidence within a broad cratonic basin. The Lower to Upper Permian Buckley Formation consists of an arkosic lower member and a volcaniclastic upper member. Paleocurrents which consist of transverse and longitudinal paleocurrents, suggest a cratonward migration of the basin axis through time. The Buckley Formation was deposited within a braided stream setting and is an important unit because it contains interstratified channel-sandstone sheets, shale and coal, along with evidence of channel-belt avulsions. Sandstone sheets predominate at the base of the formation, while flood-plain deposits thicken and increase in abundance upward. The interaction between fluvial processes and subsidence rates produced this alluvial stratigraphy. The Lower Permian Weller Coal Measures in southern Victoria Land were deposited within a narrow basin located cratonward of the foreland basin. Basin geometry and depositional patterns are similar to those of fault-bounded basins. Although basin formation is not constrained, deposition of the Weller was contemporaneous with the development of the foreland basin. This suggests a relationship between subsidence within the two basins.

Isbell, J.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Irradiators for measuring the biological effects of low dose-rate ionizing radiation fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biological response to ionizing radiation differs with radiation field. Particle type, energy spectrum, and dose-rate all affect biological response per unit dose. This thesis describes methods of spectral analysis, ...

Davidson, Matthew Allen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Radiative Heating Errors in Naturally Ventilated Air Temperature Measurements Made from Buoys*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiative heating errors in buoy-mounted, naturally ventilated air temperature sensors are examined. Data from sensors with multiplate radiation shields and collocated, fan-aspirated air temperature sensors from three buoy deployments ...

Steven P. Anderson; Mark F. Baumgartner

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 044023 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044023 A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements Yu Xie and Yangang Liu Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA E-mail: yxie@bnl.gov Received 27 June 2013 Accepted for publication 8 October 2013 Published 30 October 2013 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/044023 Abstract Surface-based measurements of shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes contain valuable information on cloud properties, but have not been fully used to infer those properties. Here a new analytical approach is presented that simultaneously infers cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based measurements of total and direct radiative fluxes. An inspection of the

224

Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

Myers, D. R.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

An optimized colony forming assay for low-dose-radiation cell survival measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable method to quantify the cell survival of low-dose irradiations. Two crucial factors were considered, the same number of cells plated in each flask and an appropriate interval between cell plating and irradiation. For the former, we optimized cell harvest with trypsin, diluted cells in one container, and directly seeded cells on the bottom of flasks in a low density before irradiation. Reproducible plating efficiency was obtained. For the latter, we plated cells on the bottom of flasks and then monitored the processing of attachment, cell cycle variations, and the plating efficiency after exposure to 20 cGy of X-rays. The results showed that a period of 4.5 h to 7.5 h after plating was suitable for further treatment. In order to confirm the reliability and feasibility of our method, we also measured the survival curves of these M059K and M059J glioma cell lines by following the optimized protocol and obtained consistent results reported by others with cell sorting system. In conclusion, we successfully developed a reliable and simple way to measure the survival fractions of human cells exposed to low dose irradiation, which might be helpful for the studies on low-dose radiation biology.

Zhu J.; Sutherland B.; Hu W.; Ding N.; Ye C.; Usikalu M.; Li S.; Hu B.; Zhou G.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARMs Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

TP Ackerman; AD Del Genio; RG Ellingson; RA Ferrare; SA Klein; GM McFarquhar; PJ Lamb; CN Long; J Verlinde

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

Measure of precursor electron density profiles of laser launched radiative shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied the dynamics of strong radiative shocks generated with the high-energy subnanosecond iodine laser at Prague Asterix Laser System facility

Busquet, Michel; Gonzlez, Matthias; Audit, Edouard; 10.1063/1.3330636

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Aerosol Optical Properties in the Iranian Region Obtained by Ground-Based Solar Radiation Measurements in the Summer Of 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiation measurements were made using sun photometers and pyranometers during 31 May-7 June 1991 at several places in Iran and during 12 June-17 September 1991 at a fixed place, Bushehr, Iran. In the first period the aerosol optical ...

Teruyuki Nakajima; Tadahiro Hayasaka; Akiko Higurashi; Gen Hashida; Naser Moharram-Nejad; Yahya Najafi; Hamzeh Valavi

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Determination of the Spectral Absorption of Solar Radiation by Marine Stratocumulus Clouds from Airborne Measurements within Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiwavelength scanning radiometer has been used to measure the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer at discrete wavelengths between 0.5 and 2.3 ?m. The relative angular distribution of the intensity field at ...

Michael D. King; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Factors Controlling the Vertical Extent of Fair-Weather Shallow Cumulus Clouds over Land: Investigation of Diurnal-Cycle Observations Collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Summertime observations for 13 yr at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site are used to study fair-weather shallow cumuli (ShCu). To roughly separate forced from active ShCu, days are categorized into thin- or thick- ...

Yunyan Zhang; Stephen A. Klein

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Deconvolution of Wide-Field-of-View Measurements of Reflected Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wide-field-of-view (WFOV) radiometers have been flown as part of the Earth Radiation Budget instrument on the Nimbus 6 and 7 spacecraft and as part of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments aboard the ERBE spacecraft and also ...

G. Louis Smith; David Rutan

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.; /Oxford U.; Kimmitt, M.F.; /Essex U.; Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

234

High Precision Long-Term Monitoring of Radiatively Active and Related Trace Gases at Surface Sites and from Aircraft in the Southern Hemisphere Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Routine high precision measurements of atmospheric CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O, and CO2 stable isotopes are conducted by CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia). Of particular relevance to global monitoring of ...

R. J. Francey; L. P. Steele; R. L. Langenfelds; B. C. Pak

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Lab-Based Measurement of Remediation Techniques for Radiation Portal Monitors (Initial Report)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) deployed by the Second Line of Defense (SLD) are known to be sensitive to the natural environmental radioactive background. There are several techniques used to mitigate the effects of background on the monitors, but since the installation environments can vary significantly from one another the need for a standardized, systematic, study of remediation techniques was proposed and carried out. This study is not meant to serve as the absolute last word on the subject. The data collected are, however, intelligible and useful. Some compromises were made, each of which will be described in detail. The hope of this initial report is to familiarize the SLD science teams with ORNL's effort to model the effect of various remediation techniques on simple, static backgrounds. This study provides a good start toward benchmarking the model, and each additional increment of data will serve to make the model more robust. The scope of this initial study is limited to a few basic cases. Its purpose is to prove the utility of lab-based study of remediation techniques and serve as a standard data set for future use. This importance of this first step of standardization will become obvious when science teams are working in parallel on issues of remediation; having a common starting point will do away with one category of difference, thereby making easier the task of determining the sources of disagreement. Further measurements will augment this data set, allowing for further constraint of the universe of possible situations. As will be discussed in the 'Going Forward' section, more data will be included in the final report of this work. Of particular interest will be the data taken with the official TSA lead collimators, which will provide more direct results for comparison with installation data.

Livesay, Jake [ORNL; Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

INVESTIGATING THE RELIABILITY OF CORONAL EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION DIAGNOSTICS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.

Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

237

Spectral Distribution of Solar Radiation on Clear Days: A Comparison Between Measurements and Model Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectral distribution of the direct solar and scattered sky radiation are computed and presented as functions of solar height and as integrated daily values for selected days of the year. The monochromatic fluxes are integrated over the ...

V. Hansen

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Can Top Of Atmosphere Radiation Measurements Constrain Climate Predictions? Part 1: Tuning.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perturbed physics configurations of the HadAM3 atmospheric model driven with observed sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice were tuned to outgoing radiation observations using a Gauss-Newton line-search optimisation algorithm to adjust the ...

Simon F. B. Tett; Michael J. Mineter; Coralia Cartis; Daniel J. Rowlands; Ping Liu

239

GCM Aerosol Radiative Effects Using Geographically Varying Aerosol Sizes Deduced from AERONET Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol optical properties, and hence the direct radiative effects, are largely determined by the assumed aerosol size distribution. In order to relax the fixed aerosol size constraint commonly used in general circulation models (GCMs), ...

Glen Lesins; Ulrike Lohmann

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Absorption of Solar Radiation by Stratocumulus Clouds: Aircraft Measurements and Theoretical Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft observations of shortwave radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds were carried out over the western North Pacific Ocean during January 1991. Two aircraft were equipped with a pair of pyranometers and near-infrared pyranometers. ...

Tadahiro Hayasaka; Nobuyuki Kikuchi; Masayuki Tanaka

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Observations of the Infrared Radiative Properties of the OceanImplications for the Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature via Satellite Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was used to measure the infrared radiative properties and the temperature of the Gulf of Mexico during a 5-day oceanographic cruise in January 1995. The ocean skin temperature was measured ...

William L. Smith; R. O. Knuteson; H. E. Revercomb; W. Feltz; N. R. Nalli; H. B. Howell; W. P. Menzel; Otis Brown; James Brown; Peter Minnett; Walter McKeown

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Estimation of Mixed-Phase Cloud Optical Depth and Position Using In Situ Radiation and Cloud Microphysical Measurements Obtained from a Tethered-Balloon Platform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microphysical and radiative measurements in boundary layer mixed-phase clouds (MPCs), consisting of ice crystals and liquid droplets, have been analyzed. These cloud measurements were collected during a MayJune 2008 tethered-balloon campaign in ...

M. Sikand; J. Koskulics; K. Stamnes; B. Hamre; J. J. Stamnes; R. P. Lawson

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches. 8 figs.

Nguyen, D.C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

244

Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A MEASUREMENT OF ANISOTROPY IN THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION ON A LARGE ANGULAR SCALE AT 33 GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

component, the cosmic blackbody radiation is isotropic to 1variation of the cosmic blackbody radiation Itself. c c Thisin the Cosmic Blackbody Radiation Appendix B - Radiometer

Gorenstein, M.V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of simplified procedures for a multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due several new features, including: the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors, and a routine that corrects the spectral response of photovoltaic-type sensors used in the MPA. An optimal solution procedure has also been developed that eliminates invalid data which are inherent in the simultaneous solution of the solar equations from the four MPA sensors. In this paper a description of the NIST-traceable calibration facility is provided and results are presented that compare the improved MPA-predicted beam to side-by-side measurements from a precision Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer (NIP).

Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

EGS4 calculations for a Cd-Zn-Te detector to measure synchrotron radiation at PEP-II  

SciTech Connect

Calculations have been performed with the EGS4 Code System for a CdZnTe semiconductor detector to be used in background studies of synchrotron radiation at PEP-II. The simulations take into account K-shell fluorescent-photon production in a CdZnTe mixture, electron-hole pair collection and electronic-noise broadening. The results are compared with measurements made with encapsulated {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 109}Cd sources.

Nelson, W.R. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Borak, T.; Malchow, R.; Toki, W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US); Kadyk, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (US)

1997-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

248

EGS4 CALCULATIONS FOR A Cd-Zn-Te DETECTOR TO? y MEASURE SYNCHROTRON RADIATION AT PEP-II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculations have been performed with the EGS4 Code System for a CdZnTe semiconductor detector to be used in background studies of synchrotron radiation at PEP-II. The simulations take into account K-shell uorescent-photon production in a CdZnTe mixture, electron-hole pair collection and electronic-noise broadening. The results are compared with measurements made with encapsulated 241 Am, 133 Ba and 109 Cd sources.

W. R. Nelson; T. Borak; R. Malchow; W. Toki; J. Kadyk

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Can Top-of-Atmosphere Radiation Measurements Constrain Climate Predictions? Part II: Climate Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large number of perturbed-physics simulations of version 3 of the Hadley Centre Atmosphere Model (HadAM3) were compared with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) estimates of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and reflected ...

Simon F. B. Tett; Daniel J. Rowlands; Michael J. Mineter; Coralia Cartis

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Systematic measurements of whole-body dose distributions for various treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Contemporary radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, could increase the radiation-induced malignancies because of the increased beam-on time, i.e., number of monitor units needed to deliver the same dose to the target and the larger volume irradiated with low doses. In this study, whole-body dose distributions from typical radiotherapy patient plans using different treatment techniques and therapy machines were measured using the same measurement setup and irradiation intention. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from 6 MV beams were compared in terms of treatment technique (3D-conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, helical TomoTherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, hard wedges, and flattening filter-free radiotherapy) and therapy machine (Elekta, Siemens and Varian linear accelerators, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy). Results: Close to the target, the doses from intensity-modulated treatments (including flattening filter-free) were below the dose from a static treatment plan, whereas the CyberKnife showed a larger dose by a factor of two. Far away from the treatment field, the dose from intensity-modulated treatments showed an increase in dose from stray radiation of about 50% compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. For the flattening filter-free photon beams, the dose from stray radiation far away from the target was slightly lower than the dose from a static treatment. The CyberKnife irradiation and the treatment using hard wedges increased the dose from stray radiation by nearly a factor of three compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that the dose outside of the treated volume is influenced by several sources. Therefore, when comparing different treatment techniques, the dose ratios vary with distance to the isocenter. The effective dose outside the treated volume of intensity-modulated treatments with or without flattening filter was 10%-30% larger when compared to 3D-conformal radiotherapy. This dose increase is much lower than the monitor unit scaled effective dose from a static treatment.

Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057 (Switzerland) and Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

El Nio and Outgoing Longwave Radiation: Observations from Nimbus-7 ERB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five years of broad-band earth radiation budget measurements taken by the Nimbus-7 ERB experiment have been archived. This period encompasses the 1982/83 El Nio/Southern Oscillation event, which reached a peak near the beginning of the fifth ...

Philip E. Ardanuy; H. Lee Kyle

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Measurements of cosmic radiation dose in subsonic commercial aircraft compared to the city-pair dose calculation  

SciTech Connect

The radiation dose received by passengers during flight on conventional jet aircraft was determined as a function of exposure to cosmic radiation, solar radiation, flight time, and flight path. The dosimetric measurements were made with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) and with emulsions of three types sealed in plastic packets. These packets were sent by air mail back and forth from Berkeley, California to five cities and a dose sufficiently above background for a satisfactory measurement was accumulated by the TLD's on one round trip and by the emulsions on three round trips. It was concluded that both experiments and theory show that the total doses received at present day conventional jet aircraft altitudes are considerably higher than those encountered in supersonic flights at much higher altitudes, even though the dose rate is lower at these lower altitudes, when the longer time of exposure at the lower altitudes is taken into consideration. Computer programs used in the dose calculations are included. (CH)

Wallace, R.

1973-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

253

ABSOLUTE BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE ALS BY INCOHERENTSYNCHROTRON RADIATION FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analysing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations ofthe radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of thespectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatialdistribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested asimple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolutemeasurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and theexperimental results are presented.

Sannibale, Fernando; Zolotorev, Max S.; Filippetto, Daniele; Stupakov, Gennady V.

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

254

A Variable Sky-View Platform for the Measurement of Ultraviolet Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the more difficult tasks confronting atmospheric researchers today is the acquisition of long-term radiometric measurements that encapsulate variability in the sky hemisphere as well as time. High quality spatial measurements would allow ...

Christopher Kuchinke; Manuel Nunez

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time ({approximately}1 {micro}s to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, {sup 137}Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired.

Famiano, M.A.

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

256

A Field Intercomparison Technique to Improve the Relative Accuracy of Longwave Radiation Measurements and an Evaluation of CASES-99 Pyrgeometer Data Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Techniques for improving the relative accuracy of longwave radiation measurements by a set of pyrgeometers [the Eppley Laboratory Precision Infrared Radiometer (Model PIR)] are presented using 10 PIRs from the 1999 Cooperative AtmosphereSurface ...

S. P. Burns; J. Sun; A. C. Delany; S. R. Semmer; S. P. Oncley; T. W. Horst

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Precise measurement of the e[superscript +]e[superscript -]??[superscript +]?[superscript -](?) cross section with the initial-state radiation method at BABAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e[superscript +]e[superscript -]??[superscript +]?[superscript -](?) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial-state radiation (ISR) method ...

Sciolla, Gabriella

258

Validation of aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles from routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy with which vertical profiles of aerosol extinction ?ep(?) can be retrieved from ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) routine measurements was assessed using data from two airborne field campaigns, the ARM Aerosol Intensive Operation Period (AIOP, May 2003), and the Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE, September 2005). This assessment pertains to the aerosol at its ambient concentration and thermodynamic state (i.e. ?ep(?) either free of or corrected for sampling artifacts) and includes the following ACRF routine methods: Raman Lidar, Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and in-situ aerosol profiles (IAP) with a small aircraft. Profiles of aerosol optical depth ?p(???, from which the profiles of ?ep(???are derived through vertical differentiation, were measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14); these data were used as truth in this evaluation. The ACRF IAP ?ep(550 nm) were lower by 16% (during AIOP) and higher by 10% (during ALIVE) when compared to AATS-14. The ACRF MPL ?ep(523 nm) were higher by 24% (AIOP) and 19%-21% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14 but the correlation improved significantly during ALIVE. In the AIOP a second MPL operated by NASA showed a smaller positive bias (13%) with respect to AATS-14. The ACRF Raman Lidar ?ep(355 nm) were higher by 54% (AIOP) and higher by 6% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14. The large bias in AIOP stemmed from a gradual loss of the sensitivity of the Raman Lidar starting about the end of 2001 going unnoticed until after AIOP. A major refurbishment and upgrade of the instrument and improvements to a data-processing algorithm led to the significant improvement and very small bias in ALIVE. Finally we find that during ALIVE the Raman Lidar water vapor densities ?w are higher by 8% when compared to AATS-14, whereas comparisons between AATS-14 and in-situ measured ?w aboard two different aircraft showed small negative biases (0 to -3%).

Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Ferrare, Richard; Clayton, Marian F.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.; Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P. B.; Gore, W.; Dominguez, Roseanne

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

Proxy Records of the Indonesian Low and the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) from Stable Isotope Measurements of Indonesian Reef Corals  

SciTech Connect

The Earth`s largest atmospheric convective center is the Indonesian Low. It generates the Australasian monsoon, drives the zonal tropospheric Walker Circulation, and is implicated in the genesis of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The long-term variability of the Indonesian Low is poorly characterized, yet such information is crucial for evaluating whether changes in the strength and frequency of ENSO events are a possible manifestation of global warming. Stable oxygen isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 18}O) in shallow-water reef coral skeletons track topical convective activity over hundreds of years because the input of isotopically-depleted rainwater dilutes seawater {delta}{sup 18}O. Corals also impose a temperature-dependent fractionation on {delta}{sup 18}O, but where annual rainfall is high and sea surface temperature (SST) variability is low the freshwater flux effect dominates.

Moore, M.D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Comparison between Model Simulations and Measurements of Hyperspectral Far- infrared Radiation from FIRST during the RHUBC-II Campaign  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface downward far-infrared (far-IR) spectra were collected from NASAs Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument from August to October 2009 at an altitude of 5.4 km near the summit of Cerro Toco, Chile. This region is known for its dry, cold, and dominantly clear atmosphere, which is optimal for studying the effects, that water vapor and cirrus clouds have on the far-IR. Comparisons with Line-By-Line Discrete Ordinants Radiative Transfer model, LBLDIS, show that FIRST observes the very fine spectral structure in the far-IR with differences as small as +/- 0.7% for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky simulations. Clear sky model analysis demonstrated the greatest sensitivity to atmospheric conditions is between 300 and 500 cm-1. The cloudy-sky simulations demonstrated that the far-IR radiation has minimal sensitivity to cloud particle effective radius, yet is very sensitive to cloud optical thickness at wavenumbers between 400 - 600 cm-1. In fact, cirrus optical thickness found to be inferred from the brightness temperature differences at 250 and 559.5 cm-1. Aerosols proved to reduce downwelling radiance by half that a clear-sky would emit, but had little effect on the total far-IR radiative forcing. Furthermore, these far-IR measurements open a new window to understanding the radiative impacts of various atmospheric constituents such as water vapor and clouds, and to understanding and modeling the Earths climate and energy budget.

Baugher, Elizabeth

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ABSOLUTE BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE ALS BY INCOHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE ALS BY INCOHERENT SYNCHROTRONAt the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeleythe technique at the ALS and the results were compared with

Sannibale, Fernando; Zolotorev, Max S.; Filippetto, Daniele; Stupakov, Gennady V.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Ionizing Radiation Division of the Physics Laboratory supports the ... meaningful, and compatible measurements of ionizing radiations (x rays ...

263

Solar Radiation Changes in the United States during the Twentieth Century: Evidence from Sunshine Duration Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in sunshine duration (SS) measured in the conterminous United States during the past century were used as a proxy to explore changes in shortwave forcing at the earths surface when and where accurate measurements of global irradiance (Eg)...

Gerald Stanhill; Shabtai Cohen

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero  

SciTech Connect

Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Nakashima, Eiji (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku (Japan))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Design of a New Recoil Separator for Measurements of Radiative Capture Reactions in Astrophysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rates of proton- and alpha-capture reactions on unstable proton-rich nuclei are needed to understand the energy generation and element synthesis occurring in novae, X-ray bursts, and other explosions. Direct measurements of the cross sections of some of these reactions are now possible with radioactive beams and a recoil separator. A new device for such measurements, the Separator for CApture Reactions [SECAR], is being designed for use at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The specifications and preliminary conceptual design will be discussed along with plans for the first set of measurements.

Berg, Georg P. A.; Couder, Manoel; Wiescher, Michael [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, 46556-5670 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) (United States); Blackmon, Jeff C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70803-4001 (United States); Greife, U. [Dept. of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Montes, F.; Schatz, Hendrik [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Michigan, 48824 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) (United States); Rehm, K. Ernst [Physics Division, Argonne National Lab, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) (United States); Smith, Michael S. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6354 (United States); Zeller, Al [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Michigan, 48824 (United States)

2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

266

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada Introduction A single-column model (SCM) is used to examine the sensitivity of basic quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes to various parameter- izations of clouds and cloud microphysics. The SCM was run at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites using forcing data derived from forecast products. The forecast

267

ARM - Field Campaign - Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsRoutine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) govCampaignsRoutine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) Campaign Links RACORO Website Related Campaigns Surface Radiation Comparison Transfer Measurements for RACORO 2009.01.20, Long, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Website : http://acrf-campaign.arm.gov/racoro/ Lead Scientist : Andrew Vogelmann For data sets, see below. Description The ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) supported the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign, led by principal investigator Andrew Vogelmann. During this long-term campaign, the AAF conducted routine flights at the ACRF Southern

268

Southern African Data Sets Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

eleven southern African data sets for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). These data sets, originally prepared in coordination with data investigators...

269

Accounting for the Solar Radiation Influence on Downward Longwave Irradiance Measurements by Pyrgeometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of broadband downward longwave (LW) irradiance are carried out at Lampedusa, Italy, in the Mediterranean, jointly with solar irradiance, since 2004 using shaded and unshaded Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometers (PIRs) and Kipp & ...

Daniela Meloni; Claudia Di Biagio; Alcide di Sarra; Francesco Monteleone; Giandomenico Pace; Damiano Massimiliano Sferlazzo

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Comparison of Spin-lattice Relaxation Measurements Made in the Presence of Strong Radiation Damping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of 1 H Spin-lattice Relaxation Times from VariousField Strength H Spin-lattice Relaxation Times, in seconds,Comparison of Spin-lattice Relaxation Measurements Made in

Taylor, Robert E; Peterson, Robert D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Solar and Thermal Radiation Errors on Upper-Air Radiosonde Temperature Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles are important for weather prediction, but climate change has increased the interest in upper-air observations asking for very high quality reference measurements. Here we show an experimental approach ...

R. Philipona; A. Kruchi; G. Romanens; G. Levrat; P. Ruppert; E. Brocard; P. Jeannet; D. Ruffieux; B. Calpini

272

Equations for Estimating the Similarity Parameter from Radiation Measurements within Weakly Absorbing Optically Thick Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Series expansions are derived for estimating the similarity parameter, which is a combination of the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor, from radiance measurement deep in the interior of a weary absorbing cloud. One expansion requires ...

T. Duracz; N. J. McCormick

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Solar and Thermal Radiation Errors on Upper-Air Radiosonde Temperature Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles are important for weather prediction, but climate change has increased the interest in upper-air observations asking for very high-quality reference measurements. This paper discusses an experimental ...

R. Philipona; A. Kruchi; G. Romanens; G. Levrat; P. Ruppert; E. Brocard; P. Jeannet; D. Ruffieux; B. Calpini

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

More Southern African Data Sets Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fifteen southern African data sets fifteen southern African data sets for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). These data sets, originally prepared in coordination with data investigators by the SAFARI 2000 Data Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, contain the results of fire-related measurements including field and laboratory measurements of burning biomass emissions, pre- and post-burning site and ash reflectance, estimates of regional fuel load and emissions, and historical fire occurrence. These data sets also contain the results of measurements and estimates of vegetation emissions of volatile organic compounds; flux measurements of carbon, heat, and water vapor along the Kalahari Transect and at fixed tower sites; and meteorological data from tower sites.

275

Bayesian Radiation Source Localization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Special Issue on the 16th Biennial Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division / Radiation Measurements and General Instrumentation

Kenneth D. Jarman; Erin A. Miller; Richard S. Wittman; Christopher J. Gesh

276

Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation  

SciTech Connect

Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and blue monochromatic radiative intensity images in the visible wavelength region, and the flame emissivity and the radiative properties of the particulate media in three pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces were got from the flame images. It was shown that as the load increased, the flame emissivity and the radiative properties increased too; these radiative parameters had the largest values near the burner zone, and decreased along the combustion process. Compared with the combustion medium with a low-volatile anthracite coal burning in a 670 t/h boiler, the emissivity and the absorption coefficient of the medium with a high-volatile bituminous coal burning in a 1025 t/h boiler were smaller near the outlet zone, but were larger near the burner zone of the furnace, due to the significant contribution of soot to the radiation. This work will be of practical importance in modeling and calculating the radiative heat transfer in combustion processes, and improving the technology for in situ, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale combustion processes in coal-fired furnaces of power plants. 18 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

CANADIAN EXPERIENCE IN THE MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINES AND MILLS  

SciTech Connect

Apparatases developed for field sampling and measurement of radon are described. A battery-operated air sampler for the collection of radon daughters is described along with a battery-operated, alpha scintillation detector for the measurement of radon daughter products. A method is presented for estimating rate of exposure to U from the excretion rate of U in urine, and evaluation of personnel exposed to U in mine and mill. The principles of airborne hazards control in Canadian mines are outlined and discussed in terms of ventilation, control of radon-laden water, and dust control. (W.L.H.)

Simpson, S.D.; Stewart, C.G.; Yourt, G.R.; Bloy, H.

1959-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Weight Measurements of High-Temperature Superconductors during Phase Transition in Stationary, Non-Stationary Condition and under ELF Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There have been a number of claims in the literature about gravity shielding effects of superconductors and more recently on the weight reduction of superconductors passing through their critical temperature. We report several experiments to test the weight of superconductors under various conditions. First, we report tests on the weight of YBCO and BSCCO high temperature superconductors passing through their critical temperature. No anomaly was found within the equipment accuracy ruling out claimed anomalies by Rounds and Reiss. Our experiments extend the accuracy of previous measurements by two orders of magnitude. In addition, for the first time, the weight of a rotating YBCO superconductor was measured. Also in this case, no weight anomaly could be seen within the accuracy of the equipment used. In addition, also weight measurements of a BSCCO superconductor subjected to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) radiation have been done to test a claim of weight reduction under these conditions by De Aquino, and again, no unusual behavior was found. These measurements put new important boundaries on any inertial effect connected with superconductivity - and consequently on possible space related applications.

M. Tajmar; K. Hense; K. Marhold; C. J. de Matos

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Spectral Measurements of Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation in Southeast England  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectral measurements of the ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum have been made at Reading, southeast England (51.5N) since July 1989. The data presented here show the daily and annual variability of and within the ultraviolet-B wave band, ...

Ann R. Webb

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Dilepton radiation measured in PHENIX probing the strongly interacting matter created at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHENIX has measured $e^+e^-$ pairs from p+p and Au+Au collisions as function of mass and $p_T$. The data can be used to probe the properties of dense matter formed in Au+Au collision. The relation between electron pairs and virtual photons is discussed.

Y. Akiba; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2009-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

282

Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

SciTech Connect

This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

Guss, P. P.

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

283

Global ice cloud observations: radiative properties and statistics from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice clouds occur quite frequently, yet so much about these clouds is unknown. In recent years, numerous investigations and field campaigns have been focused on the study of ice clouds, all with the ultimate goal of gaining a better understanding of microphysical and optical properties, as well as determining the radiative impact. Perhaps one of the most recognized instruments used for such research is the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), carried aboard the NASA EOS satellites Terra and Aqua. The present research aims to support ongoing efforts in the field of ice cloud research by use of observations obtained from Terra and Aqua MODIS. First, a technique is developed to infer ice cloud optical depth from the MODIS cirrus reflectance parameter. This technique is based on a previous method developed by Meyer et al. (2004). The applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated with retrievals from level-2 and -3 MODIS data. The technique is also evaluated with the operational MODIS cloud retrieval product and a method based on airborne ice cloud observations. From this technique, an archive of daily optical depth retrievals is constructed. Using simple statistics, the global spatial and temporal distributions of ice clouds are determined. Research has found that Aqua MODIS observes more frequent ice clouds and larger optical depths and ice water paths than does Terra MODIS. Finally, an analysis of the time series of daily optical depth values revealed that ice clouds at high latitudes, which are most likely associated with synoptic scale weather sytems, persist long enough to move with the upper level winds. Tropical ice clouds, however, dissipate more rapidly, and are in all likelihood associated with deep convective cells.

Meyer, Kerry Glynne

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Radiation environment simulations at the Tevatron, studies of the beam profile and measurement of the Bc meson mass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The description of a computer simulation of the CDF detector at Fermilab and the adjacent accelerator parts is detailed, with MARS calculations of the radiation background in various elements of the model due to the collision of beams and machine-related losses. Three components of beam halo formation are simulated for the determination of the principal source of radiation background in CDF due to beam losses. The effect of a collimator as a protection for the detector is studied. The simulation results are compared with data taken by a CDF group. Studies of a 150 GeV Tevatron proton beam are performed to investigate the transverse diffusion growth and distribution. A technique of collimator scan is used to scrape the beam under various experimental conditions, and computer programs are written for the beam reconstruction. An average beam halo growth speed is given and the potential of beam tail reconstruction using the collimator scan is evaluated. A particle physics analysis is conducted in order to detect the B{sub c} {yields} J/{psi}{pi} decay signal with the CDF Run II detector in 360 pb{sup -1} of data. The cut variables and an optimization method to determine their values are presented along with a criterion for the detection threshold of the signal. The mass of the B{sub c} meson is measured with an evaluation of the significance of the signal.

Nicolas, Ludovic Y.; /Glasgow U.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Deployment of a Tethered-Balloon System for Microphysics and Radiative Measurements in Mixed-Phase Clouds at Ny-lesund and South Pole  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tethered-balloon system capable of making microphysical and radiative measurements in clouds is described and examples of measurements in boundary layer stratus clouds in the Arctic and at the South Pole are presented. A 43-m3 helium-filled ...

R. Paul Lawson; Knut Stamnes; Jakob Stamnes; Pat Zmarzly; Jeff Koskuliks; Chris Roden; Qixu Mo; Michael Carrithers; Geoffrey L. Bland

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Hailstorms in Southern Saskatchewan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article represents a first attempt at a climatological investigation of the hail problem in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Initial results from a 5-year study in southern Saskatchewan, carried out through a volunteer observing ...

Alec H. Paul

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Southern California Gas Co  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Southern California Gas Co ... 236,147,041 98,326,527 274,565,356 690,930 139,093,560 748,823,414 Lone Star Gas Co......

288

Southern California Children's Health Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To determine whether chronic respiratory effects are produced by air pollutants in Southern Californian children

Peters, John M.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

289

DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2) W. J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , Newand R. J. Berry, "Manual on Radiation Dosimetry" (New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (New

Perez-Mendez, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region J. Braun, T. Van Hove, S. Y. Ha, and C. Rocken GPS Science and Technology Program University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Abstract The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has a need for an improved capability to measure and characterize the four-dimensional distribution of water vapor within the atmosphere. Applications for this type of data include their use in radiation transfer studies, cloud-resolving and single-column models, and for the establishment of an extended time series of water vapor observations. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's (UCAR) GPS Science and Technology (GST) Program is working with ARM to leverage the substantial investment in

291

Simultaneous imaging electron- and ion-feature Thomson scattering measurements of radiatively heated Xe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uniform density and temperature Xe plasmas have been produced over >4 mm scale-lengths using x-rays generated in a cylindrical Pb cavity. The cavity is 750 {mu}m in depth and diameter, and is heated by a 300 J, 2 ns square, 1054 nm laser pulse focused to a spot size of 200 {mu}m at the cavity entrance. The plasma is characterized by simultaneous imaging Thomson scattering measurements from both the electron and ion scattering features. The electron feature measurement determines the spatial electron density and temperature profile, and using these parameters as constraints in the ion feature analysis allows an accurate determination of the charge state of the Xe ions. The Thomson scattering probe beam is 40 J, 200 ps, and 527 nm, and is focused to a 100 {mu}m spot size at the entrance of the Pb cavity. Each system has a spatial resolution of 25 {mu}m, a temporal resolution of 200 ps (as determined by the probe duration), and a spectral resolution of 2 nm for the electron feature system and 0.025 nm for the ion feature system. The experiment is performed in a Xe filled target chamber at a neutral pressure of 3-10 Torr, and the x-rays produced in the Pb ionize and heat the Xe to a charge state of 20{+-}4 at up to 200 eV electron temperatures.

Pollock, B. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Meinecke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of Oxford, Wellington Square, Oxford, OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Kuschel, S.; Ross, J. S.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Shaw, J. L. [University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Stoafer, C. [Columbia University, 116th Street and Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Tynan, G. R. [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Comparison of Radiation Budget at the TOA and Surface in the Antarctic from ERBE and Ground Surface Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface were compared at two Antarctic stations, Syowa and the South Pole, using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data and surface observations. Fluxes at both sites were plotted ...

Takashi Yamanouchi; Thomas P. Charlock

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Deformation of Olivine at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from In situ Measurements with Synchrotron Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report measurements of the deformation stress for San Carlos olivine at pressures of 3-5 GPa, temperatures of 25-1150 C, and strain rates of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. We determine a deformation stress of approximately 2.5 GPa that is relatively temperature and strain rate independent in the temperature range of 400-900 C. The deformation experiments have been carried out on a deformation DIA (D-DIA) apparatus, Sam85, at X17B2, NSLS. Powder samples are used in these experiments. Enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) (3-5% total quality of sample) is used as the buffer to control the activity of silica. Ni foil is used in some experiments to buffer the oxygen fugacity. Water content is confirmed by IR spectra of the recovered samples. Samples are compressed at room temperature and are then annealed at 1200 C for at least 2 h before deformation. The total (plastic and elastic) strains (macroscopic) are derived from the direct measurements of the images taken by X-ray radiograph technique. The differential stresses are derived from the diffraction determined elastic strains. In the regime of 25-400 C, there is a small decrease of stress at steady state as temperature increases; in the regime of 400 C to the 'transition temperature', the differential stress at steady state ({approx}2.5 GPa) is relatively insensitive to the changes of temperature and strain rate; however, it drastically decreases to about 1 GPa and becomes temperature-dependent above the transition temperature and thereafter. The transition temperature is near 900 C. Above the transition temperature, the flow agrees with power law creep measurements of previous investigations. The anisotropy of differential stress in individual planes indicates that the deformation of olivine at low temperature is dominated by [0 0 1](1 0 0). Accounting to a slower strain rate in the natural system, the transition temperature for the olivine in the slab is most likely in the range of 570-660 C.

H Long; D Weidner; L Li; J Chen; L Wang

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

The direct measurement of ablation pressure driven by 351-nm laser radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instantaneous scaling of ablation pressure to laser intensity is directly inferred for ramp compression of diamond targets irradiated by 351-nm light. Continuously increasing pressure profiles from 100 to 970 GPa are produced by direct-drive laser ablation at intensities up to 7 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. The free-surface velocity on the rear of the target is used to directly infer the instantaneous ablation-pressure profile at the front of the target. The laser intensity on target is determined by laser power measurements and fully characterized laser spots. The ablation pressure is found to depend on the laser intensity as P(GPa)=42({+-}3)[I(TW/cm{sup 2})]{sup 0.71({+-}0.01)}.

Fratanduono, D. E. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Celliers, P. M.; Eggert, J. H.; Smith, R. F.; Hicks, D. G.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Barrios, M. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Collisional and Radiative Effects in Transient sub-Doppler Hole Burning: Double Resonance Measurements in CN  

SciTech Connect

We report transient hole-burning and saturation recovery measurements in the CN radical with MHz frequency resolution and 20 ns time resolution. Narrow velocity groups of individual hyperfine levels of selected rotational states in CN (X{sup 2} {Sigma}{sup +}) are depleted and excited (A{sup 2}{pi}{sub i}) with a saturation laser and probed by a counterpropagating, frequency modulated probe beam. Recent work in our lab has used this method to measure and characterize the hyperfine splittings for a set of rotational, fine structure, and parity components of CN (A{sup 2}{pi}{sub i}, v=1). Extending this work, we report time and frequency dependence of the saturation signals following abrupt switching of the CW saturation beam on and off with an electro-optic amplitude modulator. Recovery of the unsaturated absorption following the turnoff of the saturation beam follows pressure-dependent kinetics, driven by collisions with the undissociated NCCN precursor with a rate coefficient of 2 x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} molec{sup -1}. Similar recovery kinetics are observed for two-level saturation resonances, where the signal observed is a combination of X- and A-state kinetics, as well as for three-level crossover resonances, which can be chosen to probe selectively the holefilling in the X state or the decay of velocity-selected A state radicals. The observed recovery rates are 8-10 times faster than the estimated rotationally inelastic contribution. The observed recovery rates are likely dominated by velocity-changing collisions in both X and A states, occurring with similar rates, despite the large difference in the properties of these electronic states. Transient signal risetimes following the turning on of the saturation pulse are consistent with the expected Rabi frequency. At lower pressures ({approx}50 mTorr) and higher beam power ({approx}200 mW), we can observe multiple Rabi cycles before collisions disrupt the coherent excitation and the transient signal reaches a steady state.

Hause,M.L.; Hall,G.; Sears, T.J.

2009-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

296

Hiroshima and Nagasaki initial radiations: delayed neutron contributions and comparison of calculated and measured cobalt activations  

SciTech Connect

Calculated estimates of neutron doses received by atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki have not included contributions from delayed neutrons emitted by fission products in the debris cloud, although the possibility of a significant contribution from this source has been suggested. In the present work, an established model accounting for gamma-ray kermas from these fission products is adapted to provide the desired neutron kerma estimates. Adaptations include use of explicit time dependence of neutron emitters, properly folded with the time-dependent phenomenology of the explosion itself, and detailed air-over-ground neutron transport with a source having an energy spectrum characteristic of these delayed neutrons. Results show that delayed neutrons are indeed negligible contributors to atomic-bomb survivor dosimetry, as well as to neutron activations at Hiroshima. About half the activation at Nagasaki, however, is due to the delayed component. Calculated activation of cobalt, a revision of previous estimates, is compared to measured values at Hiroshima and at Nagasaki. The causes of the substantial discrepancies are discussed and compared to previously reported discrepancies for sulfur activation. Additional investigation is recommended.

Loewe, W.E.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Measurement of the hydrogen recombination coefficient in the TEXT tokamak as a function of outgassing and power radiated during tokamak discharges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The global recombination rate coefficient k/sub r/ for hydrogen has been measured in the TEXT tokamak vacuum vessel for various surface conditions. An attempt was made to correlate the measured values of k/sub r/ with residual gas analyzer (RGA) data taken before each measurement of k/sub r/ and with the power radiated during tokamak discharges produced after each measurement of k/sub r/. The results show that k/sub r/ increases during a series of tokamak discharges, k/sub r/ is relatively insensitive to power radiated during tokamak discharges, and k/sub r/ increases with the RGA measurements of mass 28 and 40 but not with those of mass 18. In addition, it was found that the mass 18 (H/sub 2/O) signal decreases as glow discharge experiments with hydrogen were performed.

Langley, R.A.; Rowan, W.L.; Bravenec, R.V.; Nelin, K.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Measurement of the hydrogen recombination coefficient in the TEXT tokamak as a function of outgassing and power radiated during tokamak discharges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The global recombination rate coefficient k/sub r/ for hydrogen has been measured in the TEXT tokamak vacuum for various surface conditions. An attempt was made to correlate the measured values of k/sub r/ with RGA data taken prior to each k/sub r/ measurement and with the power radiated during tokamak discharges produced after each k/sub r/ measurement. The results show that: k/sub r/ increases during a series of tokamak discharges, k/sub r/ is relatively insensitive to power radiated during tokamak discharges, k/sub r/ increases with the RGA measurements of mass 28 and 40 but not with mass 18. In addition, it was found that the RGA mass 18 (H/sub 2/O) signal decreased as glow discharge experiments with hydrogen were performed.

Langley, R.A.; Rowan, W.L.; Bravinec, R.V.; Nelin, K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative Forcing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 2. The Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 2. The Vertical Redistribution of Radiant Energy by Clouds. Mace, Gerald University of Utah Benson, Sally University of Utah Kato, Seiji Hampton University/NASA Langley Research Center Documentation with data of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the surface and atmosphere represent a critical shortcoming in the set of observations that are needed to ascertain the validity of model simulations of the earth's climate. While clouds are known to cool the climate system from TOA radiation budget studies, the redistribution of energy between the surface and atmosphere and within the atmosphere by clouds has not been examined in detail. Using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP)

300

Spectral longwave emission in the tropics: FTIR measurements at the sea surface and comparison with fast radiation codes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Longwave emission by the tropical western Pacific atmosphere has been measured at the ocean surface by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer deployed aboard the research vessel John Vickers as part of the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment. The instrument operated throughout a Pacific Ocean crossing, beginning on 7 March 1993 in Honiara, Solomon Islands, and ending on 29 March 1993 in Los Angeles, and recorded longwave emission spectra under atmospheres associated with sea surface temperatures ranging from 291.0 to 302.8 K. Precipitable water vapor abundances ranged from 1.9 to 5.5 column centimeters. Measured emission spectra (downwelling zenith radiance) covered the middled infrared (5-20 {mu}m) with one inverse centimeter spectral resolution. FTIR measurements made under an entirely clear field of view are compared with spectra generated by LOWTRAN 7 and MODTRAN 2, as well as downwelling flux calculated by the NCAR COmmunity Climate Model (CCM-2) radiation code, using radiosonde profiles as input data for these calculations. In the spectral interval 800-1000 cm{sup -1}, these comparisons show a discrepance between FTIR data and MODTRAN 2 having an overall variability of 6-7 mW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} cm and a concave shape that may be related to the representation of water vapor continuum emission in MODTRAN 2. Another discrepancy appears in the spectral interval 1200-1300 cm{sup -1}, whether MODTRAN 2 appears to overestimate zenith radiance by 5 mW m{sup -2} sr-1 cm. These discrepancies appear consistently; however, they become only slightly larger at the highest water vapor abundances. Because these radiance discrepancies correspond to broadband (500-2000 cm{sup -1}) flux uncertainties of around 3 W m{sup -2}, there appear to be no serious inadequacies with the performance of MODTRAN 2 or LOWTRAN 7 at high atmospheric temperatures and water vapor abundances. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Lubin, D.; Cutchin, D.; Conant, W. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Grassl, H. [Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Schmid, U.; Biselli, W. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)] [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

More Southern African Data Sets Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for the wet season 2000, diffuse spectral irradiance for eight core sites in Southern Africa, daily rainfall estimates for Southern Africa, a global burned area map for Southern...

302

Deriving a Framework for Estimating Individual Tree Measurements with Lidar for Use in the TAMBEETLE Southern Pine Beetle Infestation Growth Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The overall goal of this study was to develop a framework for using airborne lidar to derive inputs for the SPB infestation growth model TAMBEETLE. The specific objectives were (1) to estimate individual tree characteristics of XY location, individual bole height (IBH), diameter at breast height (DBH), length of crown (CrHT), and age for use in TAMBEETLE; (2) to estimate individual tree age using lidar-estimated height and site index provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO); and (3) to compare TAMBEETLE simulation results using field measurements and lidarderived measurements as inputs. Diameter at breast height, individual bole height, and crown length were estimated using lidar with an error for mean measurements at plot level of 0.16cm, 0.19m, and 1.07m, respectively. These errors were within root mean square error (RMSE) for other studies at the study site. Age was estimated using the site index provided by SSURGO and the site index curves created for the study area with an RMSE of 4.8 years for mean plot age. Underestimation of tree height by lidar and error in the site index curve explained 91% of the error in mean plot age. TAMBEETLE was used to compare spot growth between a lidar-derived forest map and a forest map generated by TAMBEETLE, based on sample plot characteristics. The lidar-derived forest performed comparably to the TAMBEETLE generated forest. Using lidar to map forests can provide the large spatial extents of the TAMBEETLE generated forest while maintaining the spatially explicit forest characteristics, which were previously only available through field measurements.

Stukey, Jared D.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

304

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U U r r b b a a n n A A t t m m o o s s p p h h e e r r i i c c O O b b s s e e r r v v a a t t o o r r y y ( ( U U A A O O ) ) F F i i r r s s t t P P l l a a n n n n i i n n g g W W o o r r k k s s h h o o p p - - A A t t t t e e n n d d e e e e s s 2 2 7 7 - - 2 2 8 8 J J a a n n u u a a r r y y , , 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 ****************************************************************** Sean Ahearn Hunter College North Bldg., 10 th Floor New York City, NY sca@everest.hunter.cuny.edu (W) 212-772-5327 Robert Bornstein San Jose State University Dept. of Meteorology San Jose, CA 951920-0104 pblmodel@hotmail.com (W) 408-924-5205 (F) 408-924-5191 David Brown Argonne National Lab 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 dbrown@anl.gov (W) 608-442-1249 Michael Brown LANL, Drop Point 19S, SM-30 Bikini Atoll Road Group D4-MS F604 Los Alamos, NM 87545 mbrown@lanl.gov (W) 505- 667-1788

305

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) Pilot Experiment at NYC" - Michael Reynolds, BNL 17:30 "EML Pilot Studies for the Urban Atmospheric Observatory" - Hsi-Na (Sam) Lee, EML 17:40 "A...

306

Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program  

SciTech Connect

The Earths surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earths energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California Introduction During September to October 2000, a water vapor intensive operational period (WVIOP) was conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and

308

Projected Changes in Mean and Extreme Precipitation in Africa under Global Warming. Part I: Southern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates likely changes in mean and extreme precipitation over southern Africa in response to changes in radiative forcing using an ensemble of global climate models prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ...

M. E. Shongwe; G. J. van Oldenborgh; B. J. J. M. van den Hurk; B. de Boer; C. A. S. Coelho; M. K. van Aalst

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Intraseasonal Interactions between the Tropics and Extratropics in the Southern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanics of the interaction between tropical beating [estimated from outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)] and Southern Hemisphere (SH) subtropical and extratropical circulations on intraseasonal time scales are discussed. Base points are ...

Ernesto H. Berbery; Julia Nogus-Paegle

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Major Characteristics of Southern Ocean Cloud Regimes and Their Effects on the Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clouds over the Southern Ocean are often poorly represented by climate models, but they make a significant contribution to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance, particularly in the shortwave portion of the energy spectrum. This study ...

John M. Haynes; Christian Jakob; William B. Rossow; George Tselioudis; Josephine Brown

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Cirrus Cloud Radiative and Microphysical Properties from Ground Observations and In Situ Measurements during FIRE 1991 and Their Application to Exhibit Problems in Cirrus Solar Radiative Transfer Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements from the FIRE 1991 cirrus cloud field experiment in the central United States are presented and analyzed.

S. Kinne; T. P. Ackerman; M. Shiobara; A. Uchiyama; A. J. Heymsfield; L. Miloshevich; J. Wendell; E. Eloranta; C. Purgold; R. W. Bergstrom

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Southern Pine Electric Power Association - Residential Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southern Pine Electric Power Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Southern Pine Electric Power Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program <...

313

A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska Second Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the second quarter metrics are reported in Evaluation of Simulated Precipitation in CCSM3: Annual Cycle Performance Metrics at Watershed Scales. For ARM, the metrics will produce and make available new continuous time series of radiative fluxes based on one year of observations from Barrow, Alaska, during the International Polar Year and report on comparisons of observations with baseline simulations of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

S.A. McFarlane, Y. Shi, C.N. Long

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities NREL's solar radiation research staff provides expertise in renewable energy measurement and instrumentation. Major capabilities include solar resource measurement,...

315

An Assessment of the Southern Ocean Mixed Layer Heat Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mixed layer heat balance in the Southern Ocean is examined by combining remotely sensed measurements and in situ observations from 1 June 2002 to 31 May 2006, coinciding with the period during which Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-...

Shenfu Dong; Sarah T. Gille; Janet Sprintall

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

The Impact of Clouds on the Shortwave Radiation Budget of the Surface-Atmosphere System: Interfacing Measurements and Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two datasets have been combined to demonstrate how the availability of more comprehensive datasets could serve to elucidate the shortwave radiative impact of clouds on both the atmospheric column and the surface. These datasets consist of two ...

Robert D. Cess; Seth Nemesure; Ellsworth G. Dutton; John J. Deluisi; Gerald L. Potter; Jean-Jacques Morcrette

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Effects of a Spectral Surface Reflectance on Measurements of Backscattered Solar Radiation: Application to the MOPITT Methane Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of solar radiation emerging from the top of the atmosphere is strongly influenced by the reflectance of the underlying surface. For this reason, some information about the magnitude and the spectral variability of the surface ...

G. Pfister; J. C. Gille; D. Ziskin; G. Francis; D. P. Edwards; M. N. Deeter; E. Abbott

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

DOE/EA-1193: Environmental Assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Artic Ocean Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site (February 1997)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

u. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY u. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT - The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the ARM/CART program is to collect and analyze atmospheric data for the development and validation of global climate change models. The program involves construction of several small facilities and operation of sensing equipment. The EA analyzes the impacts on land use, tundra, air quality, cultura.l resources, socioeconomics, and wildlife. Separate studies (summarized in the EA) were also conducted to ensure that the operation of the facilities would not

319

Measurements of the parametric decay of CO/sub 2/ laser radiation into plasma waves at quarter critical density using ruby laser Thomson scattering  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of small-angle ruby laser Thomson scattering measurements of the parametric excitation of plasma waves by CO/sub 2/ laser radiation at quarter-critical density in a laser-heated gas target plasma. From supplementary data obtained from interferometry and large-angle ruby laser scattering we infer that the threshold conditions for a convective decay are satisfied.

Schuss, J.J.; Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement and Modeling Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP B. Schmid and J. Redemann Bay Area Environmental Research Institute National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California W. P. Arnott Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada A. Bucholtz and J. Reid Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California P. Colarco Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland D. Covert and R. Elleman University of Washington Seattle, Washington J. Eilers, P. Pilewskie, and A. Strawa National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames, Research Center Moffett Field, California R. A. Ferrare

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Measurements of Radiation Near An Atomic Spectral Line From the Interaction of a 30-GeV Electron Beam And a Long Plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions produced or initiated by a 30 GeV electron beam propagating through a {approx}1 m long heat pipe oven containing neutral and partially ionized vapor have been measured near atomic spectral lines in a beam-plasma wakefield experiment. The Cerenkov spatial profile has been studied as a function of oven temperature and pressure, observation wavelength, and ionizing laser intensity and delay. The Cerenkov peak angle is affected by the creation of plasma; estimates of plasma and neutral density have been extracted. Increases in visible background radiation consistent with increased plasma recombination emissions due to dissipation of wakefields were simultaneously measured.

Catravas, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.; /LBL, Berkeley; Assmann, R.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Whittum, D.; /SLAC; Blue, B.; Clayton, C.; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Wang, S.; /UCLA; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.

2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

322

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

323

Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Fujikoshi, Yasunori [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Schull, W.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

325

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:08 The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the...

326

Aboriginal Residential Structures in Southern Idaho  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structures in Southern Idaho T H O M A S J. G R E E N ,has been conducted in southern Idaho in the last 15 years,houses built in southern Idaho, compares these with other

Green, Thomas J

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Southern African Data Sets Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thirteen new Southern African data thirteen new Southern African data sets. Originally offered on the second CD-ROM volume prepared for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) by the Goddard Space Flight Center, these data sets contain meteorological, aerosol, atmospheric chemistry, and precipitation data. In addition, this data release includes a new data set that compares Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) and Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire data from the dry season 2001. The SAFARI 2000 project was conducted during 1999-2001 to develop a better understanding of the earth-atmosphere-human system in southern Africa. These data sets focus primarily on the 2000 dry season— and September— the southern African region, defined as latitude 5° N to 35° S and

328

Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project  

SciTech Connect

The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory-Department of Physics-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Pinese, Jose P. P. [Department of Geosciences-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols at the US Southern Great Plains Climate Study Site  

SciTech Connect

There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program, Southern Great Plains CART (Cloud and Radiation Testbed) site in northern Oklahoma. Research conducted at several laboratories has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We have developed and installed a ruggedized Raman lidar system that resides permanently at the CART site, and that is computer automated to eliminate the requirements for operator interaction. In addition to the design goal of profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar provides quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Blair, F.H.; Bisson, S.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Measurements of Some Aerosol Properties Relevant to Radiative Forcing on the East Coast of the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of aerosol light-scattering efficiencies are presented for a portion of the northeast Atlantic seaboard of the United State during July 1993. The measurements suggest a value for the sulfate light-scattering efficiency in ...

Dean A. Hegg; Peter V. Hobbs; Ronald J. Ferek; Alan P. Waggoner

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The Relative Importance of Clouds and Sea Ice for the Solar Energy Budget of the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of clouds and sea ice on the solar radiation budget are determined for the Southern Ocean around Antarctica between latitudes 50 and 80S. Distributions of cloud optical depth are used, together with distributions of surface albedo, ...

Melanie F. Fitzpatrick; Stephen G. Warren

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Southern California Edison Company | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southern California Edison Company Southern California Edison Company Section 216(h) of the Federal Power Act,("FPA") added by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 ("EPAct 2005"),...

333

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is...

334

Southern Energy Management | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Management Jump to: navigation, search Name Southern Energy Management Place Morrisville, NC Website http:www.southernenergymanag References Southern Energy Management1...

335

Broadband Albedo Observations in the Southern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series of daily broadband surface albedo for 1998 and 1999 have been analyzed from six locations in the network of 22 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program SolarInfrared Radiation Stations distributed from central Kansas to central ...

Claude E. Duchon; Kenneth G. Hamm

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II: Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper ...

Norman G. Loeb; Konstantin Loukachine; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Bruce A. Wielicki; David F. Young

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Portable instrument for inspecting irradiated nuclear-fuel assemblies in a water-filled storage pond by measurement of induced Cerenkov radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable instrument for measuring induced Cerenkov radiation associated with irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in a water-filled storage pond is disclosed. The instrument includes a photomultiplier tube and an image intensifier which are operable in parallel and simultaneously by means of a field lens assembly and an associated beam splitter. The image intensifier permits an operator to aim and focus the apparatus on a submerged fuel assembly. Once the instrument is aimed and focused, an illumination reading can be obtained with the photomultiplier tube. The instrument includes a lens cap with a carbon-14/phosphor light source for calibrating the apparatus in the field.

Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E.J.; Holt, D.M.; Stump, C.J. Jr.

1982-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

338

Deconvolution of Wide Field-of-View Radiometer Measurements of Earth-Emitted Radiation Part II: Analysis of First Year of Nimbus 6 ERB Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One year of longwave radiation data from July 1975 through June 1976 from the Nimbus 6 satellite Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment is analyzed by representing the longwave radiation field by a spherical harmonic expansion. The data are from ...

T. Dale Bess; Richard N. Green; G. Louis Smith

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

340

Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive EnvironmentsSignificant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Wavelike Southern Hemisphere Extratropical Teleconnections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical basis of intraseasonal oscillations of the Southern Hemisphere summer and winter seasons is studied with a combination of observed diagnostics and simplified prognostic models. High-frequency oscillations, zonal mean variations, and ...

Ernesto H. Berbery; Julia Nogus-Paegle; John D. Horel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Teleconnections in the Southern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Teleconnections are calculated from monthly mean anomalies of sea level pressure and 500 mb geopotential height for the Southern Hemisphere (1090S) for five-month winter and summer seasons. The monthly means were calculated from Australian ...

Kingtse C. Mo; Glenn H. White

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Two Southern California Trade Trails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be about TWO SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA TRADE TRAILS cranes. WhenHowe 1885 History of California, Vol. 11, 1801-1824 (TheCompany. J O U R N A L OF CALIFORNIA A N D GREAT BASIN

Johnston, Francis J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Spectral Longwave Emission in the Tropics: FTIR Measurement at the Sea Surface and Comparison with Fast Radiation Codes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Longwave emission by the tropical western Pacific atmosphere has been measured at the ocean surface by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer deployed aboard the research vessel John Vickers as part of the Central Equatorial ...

Dan Lubin; David Cutchin; William Conant; Hartmut Grassl; Ulrich Schmid; Werner Biselli

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the generation of monsoons. Because the dust can block incoming solar energy, and because solar energy drives weather and climate, scientists around the world are looking for ways...

346

Southern CA Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Southern CA Area Southern CA Area Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Clean Energy Clusters in the Southern CA Area 1.1 Products and Services in the Southern CA Area 1.2 Research and Development Institutions in the Southern CA Area 1.3 Networking Organizations in the Southern CA Area 1.4 Investors and Financial Organizations in the Southern CA Area 1.5 Policy Organizations in the Southern CA Area Clean Energy Clusters in the Southern CA Area Products and Services in the Southern CA Area Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":500,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026

347

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from...

348

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

349

Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 - Ionizing Radiation 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Radiation Decay chain Half-life Dose Radiation measurements Sources of radiation Average annual exposure Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation.pptx More Documents & Publications DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2007

350

NREL: Solar Radiation Research Home Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NREL's solar radiation research supports industry, government, and academia by providing solar radiation measurements, models, maps, and support services. These resources are used...

351

Measurement of the central ion and electron temperature of tokamak plasmas from the x-ray line radiation of high-Z impurity ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes measurements of the central ion and electron temperature of tokamak plasmas from the observation of the 1s - 2p resonance lines, and the associated dielectronic (1s/sup 2/nl - 1s2pnl, with n greater than or equal to 2) satellites, of helium-like iron (Fe XXV) and titanium (Ti XXI). The satellite to resonance line ratios are very sensitive to the electron temperature and are used as an electron temperature diagnostic. The ion temperature is deduced from the Doppler width of the 1s - 2p resonance lines. The measurements have been performed with high resolution Bragg crystal spectrometers on the PLT (Princeton Large Torus) and PDX (Poloidal Divertor Experiment) tokamaks. The details of the experimental arrangement and line evaluation are described, and the ion and electron temperature results are compared with those obtained from independent diagnostic techniques, such as the analysis of charge-exchange neutrals and measurements of the electron cyclotron radiation. The obtained experimental results permit a detailed comparison with theoretical predictions.

Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Goldman, M.; Hill, K.W.; Horton, R.; Roney, W.; Sauthoff, N.; Stodiek, W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Mechanisms of the meridional heat transport in the Southern Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atlas of the Southern Ocean, Natural Environment ResearchMHT. Keywords Southern Ocean . Meridional heat transport .1 Introduction The Southern Ocean (SO) circulation plays an

Volkov, Denis L.; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Lee, Tong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Electric Vehicle Manufacturing in Southern California: Current Developments, Future Prospects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Factors Affecting the Electric Vehicle Industry in SouthernProduction 3.4. An Electric Vehicle Industry for SouthernChapter Eight: The Electric Vehicle Industry In Southern

Scott, Allen J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Southern Company: DOE Smart Grid RFI Addressing Policy and Logistical...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southern Company: DOE Smart Grid RFI Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges Southern Company: DOE Smart Grid RFI Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges Southern Company:...

355

Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top-of-the-atmosphere radiance interpretation involve knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of ...

James R. Campbell; Dennis L. Hlavka; Ellsworth J. Welton; Connor J. Flynn; David D. Turner; James D. Spinhirne; V. Stanley Scott III; I. H. Hwang

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Measurement of 0.25{endash}3.2 GeV antiprotons in the cosmic radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The balloon-borne isotope matter-antimatter experiment (IMAX) was flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba Canada on 16{endash}17 July 1992. Using velocity and magnetic rigidity to determine mass, we have directly measured the abundances of cosmic ray antiprotons and protons in the energy range from 0.25 to 3.2 GeV. Both the absolute flux of antiprotons and the antiproton/proton ratio are consistent with recent theoretical work in which antiprotons are produced as secondary products of cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar medium. This consistency implies a lower limit to the antiproton lifetime of {approximately}10{sup 7} yr. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Mitchell, J.W.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.; Krizmanic, J.F.; Krombel, K.; Ormes, J.F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Labrador, A.W.; Davis, A.; Mewaldt, R.A.; Schindler, S.M.; Golden, R.L.; Stochaj, S.J.; Webber, W.R.; Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.; Simon, M.; Rasmussen, I.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)]|[New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States)]|[University of Siegen, Siegen, 57068 (Germany)]|[Danish Space Research Institute, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Implications of Respiratory Motion as Measured by Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Radiation Treatment Planning of Esophageal Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the respiratory motion of primary esophageal cancers and pathologic celiac-region lymph nodes using time-resolved four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT). Methods and Materials: Respiration-synchronized 4D CT scans were obtained to quantify the motion of primary tumors located in the proximal, mid-, or distal thoracic esophagus, as well as any involved celiac-region lymph nodes. Respiratory motion was measured in the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and left-right (LR) directions and was analyzed for correlation with anatomic location. Recommended margin expansions were determined for both primary and nodal targets. Results: Thirty patients underwent 4D CT scans at Massachusetts General Hospital for planned curative treatment of esophageal cancer. Measurements of respiratory tumor motion were obtained for 1 proximal, 4 mid-, and 25 distal esophageal tumors, as well as 12 involved celiac-region lymph nodes. The mean (SD) peak-to-peak displacements of all primary tumors in the SI, AP, and LR dimensions were 0.80 (0.45) cm, 0.28 (0.20) cm, and 0.22 (0.23) cm, respectively. Distal tumors were found to have significantly greater SI and AP motion than proximal or mid-esophageal tumors. The mean (SD) SI, AP, and LR peak-to-peak displacements of the celiac-region lymph nodes were 0.92 (0.56) cm, 0.46 (0.27) cm, and 0.19 (0.26) cm, respectively. Conclusions: Margins of 1.5 cm SI, 0.75 cm AP, and 0.75 cm LR would account for respiratory tumor motion of >95% of esophageal primary tumors in the dataset. All celiac-region lymph nodes would be adequately covered with SI, AP, and LR margins of 2.25 cm, 1.0 cm, and 0.75 cm, respectively.

Patel, Abhijit A.; Wolfgang, John A.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Hong, Theodore S.; Yock, Torunn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Choi, Noah C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: nchoi@partners.org

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

359

High wind evaluation in the Southern Ocean Xiaojun Yuan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 High wind evaluation in the Southern Ocean Xiaojun Yuan Lamont-Doherty of Earth Observatory based scatterometer instruments provide crucial surface wind measurements with high resolution over winds at high wind bands because these regions host the strongest wind fields at the ocean surface

Khatiwala, Samar

360

Southern Great Plains Newsletter  

SciTech Connect

This months issue contains the following articles: (1) Scientists convene at SGP site for complex convective cloud experiment; (2) VORTEX2 spins down; (3) Sunphotometer supports SPARTICUS (a Sun and Aureole Measurement imaging sunphotometer) campaign and satellite validation studies; and (4) Ceilometer represents first deployment of new ground-based instruments from Recovery Act.

J. Prell L. R. Roeder

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

362

TIME DELAY OF CASCADE RADIATION FOR TeV BLAZARS AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD  

SciTech Connect

Recent claims that the strength B{sub IGMF} of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is {approx}> 10{sup -15} G are based on upper limits to the expected cascade flux in the GeV band produced by blazar TeV photons absorbed by the extragalactic background light. This limit depends on an assumption that the mean blazar TeV flux remains constant on timescales {approx}> 2(B{sub IGMF}/10{sup -18}G){sup 2}/(E/10 GeV){sup 2} yr for an IGMF coherence length {approx}1 Mpc, where E is the measured photon energy. Restricting TeV activity of 1ES 0229+200 to {approx}3-4 years during which the source has been observed leads to a more robust lower limit of B{sub IGMF} {approx}> 10{sup -18} G, which can be larger by an order of magnitude if the intrinsic source flux above {approx}5-10 TeV from 1ES 0229+200 is strong.

Dermer, Charles D.; Razzaque, Soebur; Finke, Justin D. [Space Science Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Cavadini, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita dell'Insubria, via Valleggio 11, 22100, Como (Italy); Chiang, James [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lott, Benoit, E-mail: charles.dermer@nrl.navy.mil [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, Gradignan, 33175 (France)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Radiation Budgets in the Western Tropical Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The usefulness of the radiances measured by operational satellites in deriving radiation budgets is demonstrated by comparing the model calculations with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) fluxes. The radiation budgets in the atmosphere ...

Mino-Dah Chou

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The New Zealand Southern Alps Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Southern Alps Experiment is being mounted to study the influence of New Zealand's Southern Alps on local weather and climate. This paper describes these alpine influences and outlines proposed field and modeling experiments. Experiment goals ...

D. S. Wratt; R. N. Ridley; M. R. Sinclair; H. Larsen; S. M. Thompson; R. Henderson; G. L. Austin; S. G. Bradley; A. Auer; A. P. Sturman; I. Owens; B. Fitzharris; B. F. Ryan; J-F. Gayet

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Southern Iowa Bio Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search Name Southern Iowa Bio-Energy Place Leon, Iowa Zip 50144 Product Biodiesel producer based in Iowa References Southern Iowa Bio-Energy1 LinkedIn Connections...

366

Dynamics of the Southern Hemisphere Spiral Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of the Southern Hemisphere spiral jet is investigated using observations over a 40-yr period. It is found that between late March and early April, the upper-tropospheric westerly jet in the Southern Hemisphere undergoes a transition ...

Lindsey N. Williams; Sukyoung Lee; Seok-Woo Son

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Contaminant Transport in the Southern California Bight  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J.W. (Eds. ), Ecology of the Southern California Bight.University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 682-766.ocean eddies in the Southern California Bight. Journal of

Idica, Eileen Y.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

NEW Fe IX LINE IDENTIFICATIONS USING SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY/SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET MEASUREMENT OF EMITTED RADIATION AND HINODE/EIS JOINT OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIET SUN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we study joint observations of Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation of Fe IX lines emitted by the same level of the high energy configuration 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 5}4p. The intensity ratios of these lines are dependent on atomic physics parameters only and not on the physical parameters of the emitting plasma, so that they are excellent tools to verify the relative intensity calibration of high-resolution spectrometers that work in the 170-200 A and 700-850 A wavelength ranges. We carry out extensive atomic physics calculations to improve the accuracy of the predicted intensity ratio, and compare the results with simultaneous EIS-SUMER observations of an off-disk quiet Sun region. We were able to identify two ultraviolet lines in the SUMER spectrum that are emitted by the same level that emits one bright line in the EIS wavelength range. Comparison between predicted and measured intensity ratios, wavelengths and energy separation of Fe IX levels confirms the identifications we make. Blending and calibration uncertainties are discussed. The results of this work are important for cross-calibrating EIS and SUMER, as well as future instrumentation.

Landi, E.; Young, P. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

369

Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada July 13, 2010 - 5:17pm Addthis Sierra Geothermal discovered temperatures hot enough for large-scale geothermal energy production at one of its wells near Silver Peak, Nev. | Photo courtesy of Sierra Geothermal Sierra Geothermal discovered temperatures hot enough for large-scale geothermal energy production at one of its wells near Silver Peak, Nev. | Photo courtesy of Sierra Geothermal Paul Lester Communications Specialist for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy In May 2010, Sierra Geothermal determined temperature at the bottom of a well drilled at the company's Alum project near Silver Peak, Nev., was hot enough for commercial-sized geothermal energy production - measured as 147

370

Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada July 13, 2010 - 5:17pm Addthis Sierra Geothermal discovered temperatures hot enough for large-scale geothermal energy production at one of its wells near Silver Peak, Nev. | Photo courtesy of Sierra Geothermal Sierra Geothermal discovered temperatures hot enough for large-scale geothermal energy production at one of its wells near Silver Peak, Nev. | Photo courtesy of Sierra Geothermal Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy In May 2010, Sierra Geothermal determined temperature at the bottom of a well drilled at the company's Alum project near Silver Peak, Nev., was hot enough for commercial-sized geothermal energy production - measured as 147

371

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation-resistant Microorganisms. ... Elucidated radiation protection by intracellular halides. ...

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

NIST: Physical Measurement Laboratory - Research ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Fellowships: SURFing the Physical Measurement Laboratory ... Optical, Radiation, and Chemical Physics. ... involves PML's Quantum Physics Division. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

Bos, Adrie J. J. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)

2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

374

Beta Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

375

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program DOESC-ARM...

377

Evolution of the Southern Hemisphere Subpolar Middle Atmosphere during Summer and Autumn  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution of zonal wind and zonal wavenumber one (wave 1) in the Southern Hemisphere subpolar middle atmosphere is described for the period December 1978May 1979 using temperature and ozone measurements from the Limb Infrared Monitor of the ...

T. Miles; W. L. Grose; E. E. Remsberg; G. Lingenfelser

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

The Southern Oscillation. Part I: Global Associations with Pressure and Temperature in Northern Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the global correlations between a measure of the Southern Oscillation and sea level pressure and surface air temperature in the northern winter. The stability of these correlations were tested on the Northern Hemisphere for an 80-year ...

Harry van Loon; Roland A. Madden

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The Interannual Variability and Trend of Precipitable Water over Southern Greece  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The precipitable water (PW) content was estimated over southern Greece for three atmospheric layers, using 28-yr twice-daily radiosonde measurements of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure. Precipitable water demonstrates considerable ...

P. A. Kassomenos; G. R. McGregor

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Adsorption of Water Vapor by Bare Soil in an Olive Grove in Southern Spain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data for water vapor adsorption and evaporation are presented for a bare soil (sandy loam, clay content 15%) in a southern Spanish olive grove. Water losses and gains were measured using eight high-precision minilysimeters, placed around an olive ...

A. Verhoef; A. Diaz-Espejo; J. R. Knight; L. Villagarca; J. E. Fernndez

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The Role of Southern Ocean Surface Forcings and Mixing in the Global Conveyor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the renewed interest in the Southern Ocean, there are yet many unknowns because of the scarcity of measurements and the complexity of the thermohaline circulation. Hence the authors present here the analysis of the thermohaline ...

Daniele Iudicone; Gurvan Madec; Bruno Blanke; Sabrina Speich

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Radiation Measurements at the Campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Subsequent Nuclear Power Plant crisis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of "Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and "Human and Natural Sciences". Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak v...

Kobayashi, Tsuneo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Use of the ARM Measurement of Spectral Zenith Radiance For Better Understanding Of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the ?¢????solar-background?¢??? mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM?¢????s zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS?¢???? 1 Hz sampling to study the ?¢????twilight zone?¢??? around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM?¢????s 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM?¢????s operational data processing.

D. Jui-Yuan Chiu

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

384

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their interactions and coupling with the Earth's surface. BNL is actively...

385

RADIATION WAVE DETECTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

Wouters, L.F.

1960-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Geothermal resources of southern Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150 C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications. A majority of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. The largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grang View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107 C and an energy of 4.5 x 10 to the 20th power joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system was found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures was not found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90 and 150 C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain.

Mabey, D.R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Underwater radiated noise measurements of a noise?reduced research vessel: Comparison between a U.S. Navy noise range and a simple hydrophone mooring.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

[A feasibility study was undertaken to characterize underwater radiated noise for a new class of noise?reduced fisheries research vessels using a field?deployable hydrophone system. Recent studies have demonstrated that vessel?radiated noise can impact the behavior of fish

Alex De Robertis; Christopher D. Wilson; Peter H. Dahl

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Underwater radiated noise measurements of a noise-reduced research vessel: comparison between a US Navy noise range and a simple hydrophone mooring.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A feasibility study was undertaken to characterize underwater radiated noise for a new class of noise-reduced fisheries research vessels using a field-deployable hydrophone system. Recent studies have demonstrated that vessel-radiated noise can impact the behavior of fish

Alex De Robertis; Christopher Wilson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

390

The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on a new satellite sensor, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. GERB is designed to make the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. Measurements at high absolute ...

J. E. Harries; J. E. Russell; J. A. Hanafin; H. Brindley; J. Futyan; J. Rufus; S. Kellock; G. Matthews; R. Wrigley; A. Last; J. Mueller; R. Mossavati; J. Ashmall; E. Sawyer; D. Parker; M. Caldwell; P. M. Allan; A. Smith; M. J. Bates; B. Coan; B. C. Stewart; D. R. Lepine; L. A. Cornwall; D. R. Corney; M. J. Ricketts; D. Drummond; D. Smart; R. Cutler; S. Dewitte; N. Clerbaux; L. Gonzalez; A. Ipe; C. Bertrand; A. Joukoff; D. Crommelynck; N. Nelms; D. T. Llewellyn-Jones; G. Butcher; G. L. Smith; Z. P. Szewczyk; P. E. Mlynczak; A. Slingo; R. P. Allan; M. A. Ringer

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Monitoring Program has been measuring UV radiation since 1994. The initial network of 12 stations employed broadband meters to measure UVB irradiance and included ancillary ...

D. S. Bigelow; J. R. Slusser; A. F. Beaubien; J. H. Gibson

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

"Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

394

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

395

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

398

Radiation Physics Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Portal. Radiation Physics Portal. ... more. >> see all Radiation Physics programs and projects ... ...

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

399

Foundations for Statistical-Physical Precipitation Retrieval from Passive Microwave Satellite Measurements. Part I: Brightness-Temperature Properties of a Time-dependent Cloud-Radiation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cloud-radiation model is used to investigate the relationship between emerging microwave brightness temperatures (TB's) and vertically distributed mixtures of liquid and frozen hydrometeors as a means to establish the framework for a hybrid ...

Eric A. Smith; Harry J. Cooper; Xuwu Xiang; Alberto Mugnai; Gregory J. Tripoli

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

RADIATION COUNTER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

Goldsworthy, W.W.

1958-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Rural migration in southern Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Extended nuclear plant outages raise Southern California ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Although SoCal Citygate spot natural gas prices have increased slightly ... higher wholesale power prices in Southern California more likely are attributable to ...

403

New infrastructure boosts West Virginia, southern Pennsylvania ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A notable increase since early 2012 in natural gas production in West Virginia and nearby counties in southern Pennsylvania continued through July 2013.

404

Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coastal environment/basins/fallout/data/abundance/GEOREF. #233. YOUNG DR. Aerial fallout of DDT in Southern California.CALIFORNIA BIGHT/AERIAL FALLOUT/PollutionAbstracts. # 234.

Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Southern Solar Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Southern Solar Ltd Place Offham, East Sussex, United Kingdom Sector Solar Product Installer of PV and solar passive hot water systems in the UK. References...

406

More Southern African Data Sets Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

six data sets for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). These data sets, originally prepared in coordination with data investigators by the SAFARI 2000...

407

SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms  

SciTech Connect

The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energys Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-yr dataset from 1982 to 1998. The polar climate anomalies are correlated with the Southern ...

R. Kwok; J. C. Comiso

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Radiation Cataract  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation including patients undergoing diagnostic CT scans or radiotherapy, atomic bomb survivors, residents of radioactively contaminated buildings, victims of the...

410

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Data and Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data and Resources NREL solar radiation research information is available from the following sources. Measurement Measurement and Instrumentation Data Center (MIDC) Provides...

411

Microstructure of a Radiation Fog  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative humidity, temperature, droplet size distribution and transmittance of light at 632.8 nm were measured in a radiation fog. A new saturation hygrometer capable of measuring relative humidity between 95 and 105%, was used for the first ...

H. E. Gerber

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Isocurvature perturbations in extra radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent cosmological observations, including measurements of the CMB anisotropy and the primordial helium abundance, indicate the existence of an extra radiation component in the Universe beyond the standard three neutrino species. In this paper we explore the possibility that the extra radiation has isocurvatrue fluctuations. A general formalism to evaluate isocurvature perturbations in the extra radiation is provided in the mixed inflaton-curvaton system, where the extra radiation is produced by the decay of both scalar fields. We also derive constraints on the abundance of the extra radiation and the amount of its isocurvature perturbation. Current observational data favors the existence of an extra radiation component, but does not indicate its having isocurvature perturbation. These constraints are applied to some particle physics motivated models. If future observations detect isocurvature perturbations in the extra radiation, it will give us a hint to the origin of the extra radiation.

Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

An Improved Daylight Correction for IR Loss in ARM Diffuse SW Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Improved Daylight Correction for IR Loss An Improved Daylight Correction for IR Loss in ARM Diffuse SW Measurements C. N. Long, K. Younkin, and K. L. Gaustad Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington J. A. Augustine National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory Surface Radiation Research Branch Boulder, Colorado Introduction A paper by Cess et al. (2000) notes that some clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements they were using from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site exhibited less than Rayleigh magnitude. Remarking that this is a physical impossibility, the obvious conclusion forwarded by the authors was that there was some problem with the ARM SGP diffuse SW data. Shortly thereafter, the problem of infrared (IR) loss from thermopile-based single black detector

414

Chinese American Faculty Association of Southern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chinese American Faculty Association of Southern California CAFA Fall Picnic Date: October 27 Association of Southern California CAFA Fall Picnic at The Getty Center October 27, 2001 4:00- 7:00 p of Finance and Law California State University, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90032 #12;

Chang, Tu-nan

415

Signal Versus Noise in the Southern Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility of a simple index for monitoring the Southern Oscillation signal is explored in detail. Based upon sea level pressure data at the two stations Tahiti (T) and Darwin (D), an optimal index, in the sense that it combines the Southern ...

Kevin E. Trenberth

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

DOE Solar Decathlon: University of Southern California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southern California Southern California fluxHome solardecathlon.usc.edu For the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2013, the University of Southern California created fluxHome to celebrate the cultural and technological changes of the 21st century. The house combines a transformable envelope system with customizable components and smart-home technology to allow it to be configured in a multitude of lifestyle scenarios. By re-imagining the suburban tract home as a dynamic spatial environment, the house reflects the diverse lifestyles and ecologies known to Southern California. Design Philosophy In designing fluxHome, the University of Southern California team focused on developing a truly accessible model for energy-independent, low-cost housing that reflects the best qualities of indoor-outdoor living in

417

Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Behavior in Extreme Phases of SAM, ENSO, Sea Ice Extent, and Southern Australia Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The association between Southern Hemisphere cyclones and anticyclones and the El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO), southern annular mode (SAM), Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE), and rainfall in Perth and Melbourne is explored. Those cities are, ...

Alexandre Bernardes Pezza; Tom Durrant; Ian Simmonds; Ian Smith

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Remarks of President Barack Obama at Southern California Edison...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remarks of President Barack Obama at Southern California Edison Electric Vehicle Technical Center Remarks of President Barack Obama at Southern California Edison Electric Vehicle...

419

Remarks of President Barack Obama at Southern California Edison...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of President Barack Obama at Southern California Edison Electric Vehicle Technical Center Remarks of President Barack Obama at Southern California Edison Electric Vehicle Technical...

420

Southern Oregon University Highlighted by U.S. Energy Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southern Oregon University Highlighted by U.S. Energy Department for its Investment in Clean Energy Southern Oregon University Highlighted by U.S. Energy Department for its...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A new species of Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) from southern Bahia, Brazil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forests of Northeastern Brazil. Memoirs of the New Yorkin southern Bahia, Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 7:Atlantic Coastal Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. In: W. W.

Matos, Fernando B.; Smith, Alan R.; Labiak, Paulo H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder; Paul L. (Richland, WA)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

423

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

425

NIST: Physical Measurement Laboratory - William R. Ott  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... space experiments, from the first Skylab measurements of solar radiation to ... the Physics Laboratory's development of measurement methods and ...

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

426

An assessment of density-based fine-scale methods for estimating diapycnal diffusivity in the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fine-scale estimates of diapycnal diffusivity ? are computed from CTD and XCTD data sampled in Drake Passage and in the eastern Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean and are compared against microstructure measurements from the same times and ...

Marina Frants; Gillian M. Damerell; Sarah T. Gille; Karen J. Heywood; Jennifer MacKinnon; Janet Sprintall

427

Intraseasonal Forcing of Convection and Lightning Activity in the Southern Amazon as a Function of Cross-Equatorial Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on modulation of lightning and convective vertical structure in the southern Amazon as a function of the South American monsoon V index (VI). Four wet seasons (DecemberMarch 19982001) of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (...

Walter A. Petersen; Rong Fu; Mingxuan Chen; Richard Blakeslee

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Information << Timeline >> Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player July 31, 1942 The Army Corp of Engineers leases...

429

Evaluating WRF-Chem multi-scale model in simulating aerosol radiative properties over the tropics A case study over India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We utilized WRF-Chem multi-scale model to simulate the regional distribution of aerosols, optical properties and its effect on radiation over India for a winter month. The model is evaluated using measurements obtained from upper-air soundings, AERONET sun photometers, various satellite instruments, and pyranometers operated by the Indian Meteorological Department. The simulated downward shortwave flux was overestimated when the effect of aerosols on radiation and clouds was neglected. Downward shortwave radiation from a simulation that included aerosol-radiation interaction processes was 5 to 25 Wm{sup -2} closer to the observations, while a simulation that included aerosol-cloud interaction processes were another 1 to 20 Wm{sup -2} closer to the observations. For the few observations available, the model usually underestimated particulate concentration. This is likely due to turbulent mixing, transport errors and the lack of secondary organic aerosol treatment in the model. The model efficiently captured the broad regional hotspots such as high aerosol optical depth over Indo-Gangetic basin as well as the northwestern and southern part of India. The regional distribution of aerosol optical depth compares well with AVHRR aerosol optical depth and the TOMS aerosol index. The magnitude and wavelength-dependence of simulated aerosol optical depth was also similar to the AERONET observations across India. Differences in surface shortwave radiation between simulations that included and neglected aerosol-radiation interactions were as high as -25 Wm{sup -2}, while differences in surface shortwave radiation between simulations that included and neglect aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions were as high as -30 Wm{sup -2}. The spatial variations of these differences were also compared with AVHRR observation. This study suggests that the model is able to qualitatively simulate the impact of aerosols on radiation over India; however, additional measurements of particulate mass and composition are needed to fully evaluate whether the aerosol precursor emissions are adequate when simulating radiative forcing in the region.

Seethala, C.; Pandithurai, G.; Fast, Jerome D.; Polade, Suraj D.; Reddy, M. S.; Peckham, Steven E.

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

430

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

432

Cloud Identification for ERBE Radiative Flux Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Derivation of top of atmosphere radiative fluxes requires the use of measured satellite radiances and assumptions about the anisotropy of the Earth's radiation field. The primary modification of the Earth's anisotropy is caused by variations in ...

Bruce A. Wielicki; Richard N. Green

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Radiation Budget of the Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the relationship between precipitation and radiative heating on intraseasonal time scales in the Tropics using collocated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative flux measurements from special field program data [...

Jia-Lin Lin; Brian E. Mapes

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Incident Solar Radiation over Europe Estimated from METEOSAT Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily sums of the downward solar radiation, i.e., the global radiation, have been computed from imaging data of reflected solar and emitted infrared radiation which were measured from the geostationary satellites METEOSAT I and II during the ...

Werner Mser; Ehrhard Raschke

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations  

SciTech Connect

This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for best estimate evaluation of radiation fluxes at Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF). It uses the data available from the three co-located surface radiometer platforms at the SGP CF to automatically determine the best estimate of the irradiance measurements available. The Best Estimate Flux (BEFlux) value-added procedure (VAP) was previously named Best Estimate ShortWave (BESW) VAP, which included all of the broadband and spectral shortwave (SW) measurements for the SGP CF. In BESW, multiple measurements of the same quantities were handled simply by designating one as the primary measurement and using all others to merely fill in any gaps. Thus, this BESW is better termed most continuous, since no additional quality assessment was applied. We modified the algorithm in BESW to use the average of the closest two measurements as the best estimate when possible, if these measurements pass all quality assessment criteria. Furthermore, we included longwave (LW) fields in the best estimate evaluation to include all major components of the surface radiative energy budget, and renamed the VAP to Best Estimate Flux (BEFLUX1LONG).

Shi, Y; Long, CN

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Vortex Modes in Southern Lake Michigan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current velocities and water temperatures were observed in southern Lake Michigan with an array of AMF vector-averaging current meters during late spring, summer and fall 1976. Analyses of the recorded current data have revealed that persistent ...

James H. Saylor; Joseph C. K. Huang; Robert O. Reid

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Variability of Southern Ocean Jets Near Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of jets with topography in the Southern Ocean is investigated using 19 years of altimetry data. In particular, the jet jumping mode of variability, by which two or more jets passing close to the same topographic feature show ...

Christopher C. Chapman; Rosemary Morrow

438

On the Structure of the Southern Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A realistic oceanic general circulation model is forced with winds observed over the tropical Pacific between1967 and 1979. The structure of the simulated Southern Oscillation is strikingly different in the western andeastern sides of the basin, ...

Yi Chao; S. G. H. Philander

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Salinity Variations in the Southern California Current  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrographic observations southwestward of the Southern California Bight in the period 193799 show that temperature and salinity variations have very different interannual variability. Temperature varies within and above the thermocline and is ...

Niklas Schneider; Emanuele Di Lorenzo; Pearn P. Niiler

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

University of Southern California 2010 -2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of Southern California 2010 - 2011 Distinguished Lecturer Series Viterbi Keynote Thursday, March 3, 2011 Dr. Elwyn Berlekamp Professor Emeritus University of California, Berkeley of California, Berkeley Wednesday, April 6, 2011 "Markov, Wiener and Shannon: a Progression" Dr. Andrew Viterbi

Safonov, Michael G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Southern African Environmental Data, November 2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on CD-ROM The ORNL DAAC has released a CD-ROM volume containing recent and historical environmental data from SAFARI 2000, the Southern African Regional Science Initiative. SAFARI...

442

Southern California Edison Company (SCE?) appreciates this...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Comments RIN 1901-AB18Proposed Rulemaking Comments Comments of Southern California Edison Company Section 216(h) of the Federal Power Act,("FPA") added by the Energy Policy Act...

443

Climatic Trends in the Southern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of monthly mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature, and 500 mb and 300 mb geopotential heights and temperatures are used to study trends in the Southern Hemisphere from 195181.

Kingtse C. Mo; Harry Van Loon

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Southern Ocean Surface Characteristics from FGGE Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this analysis of satellite-tracked drifting surface buoys released in the Southern Ocean, buoy velocities are averaged along trajectories for 90 days to determine the mean circulation, and eddy kinetic energy is computed using perturbations ...

Mark Andrew Johnson

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Modal Evolution of the Southern Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The implementation of a progressive Fourier transform, applied to time series representative of the El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO), provides a visual review of the frequency modes that have dominated throughout the available time series ...

Gary B. Brassington

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

More Southern African Data Sets Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center, contain vegetation data and soil and plant C and N isotopes data for southern Africa; daily rainfall, leaf area, tree ring, FPAR, surface irradiance, and albedo data for...

447

El Nio/Southern Oscillation Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predictability time scales are estimated from annual time series of the El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). They we defined by the rate of divergence of initially close independent pieces of trajectories in phase space. Fitted stochastic ...

Klaus Fraedrich

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Interannual Variations in the Southern Hemisphere Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis has been made of variations in the atmospheric circulation with periods of more than 50 days occurring in the Southern Hemisphere between 1980 and 1986, using analyses produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts ...

John W. Kidson

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Aerosol Transport in the Southern Sierra Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol transport and meteorology were investigated during 10 days in August 1985, at three elevations in the southern Sierra. Ground weather station and pilot balloon data revealed the diurnal variation of the topographic winds to be remarkably ...

D. M. Ewell; R. G. Flocchini; L. O. Myrup; T. A. Cahill

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

El NinoSouthern Oscillation Impact Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon affects the atmosphere and ocean over much of the globe. The resultant atmospheric and oceanic anomalies can produce a variety of biological and societal impacts. Three examples of impacts that ...

Neville Nicholls

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Relationships between Indices of the Southern Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note documents two indices of the Southern Oscillation based on sea-surface temperature (SST) and rainfall, and compares their statistics with those of two pressure indices. The indices are almost equivalent on an annual basis, and the SST ...

Peter B. Wright

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Quantifying Southern Oscillation-Precipitation Relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of earlier studies has identified regions of the world in which precipitation appears to have a consistent relationship with the Southern Oscillation (SO). In this paper, the authors attempt to quantify this relationship based on shifts ...

Chester F. Ropelewski; Michael S. Halpert

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiolarians in the Gulf of California; Deep Sea DrillingSanta Cruz Island, California. Howell DG, AFFL: U.S. Geol.of southern California continental borderland [abstract]. in

Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Southern Baja California, March 2005 - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern Baja California, March 2005 3/15/05. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24.

455

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Califo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

456

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

457

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

458

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

459

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator February 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator February 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

460

Southern California Leading Economic IndicatorSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorSouthern California Leading Economic Indicator May 2010 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading Economic IndicatorSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorSouthern California Leading Economic Indicator May 2010 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation measurement southern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Califo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

462

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2010 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2010 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

463

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

464

ARM - Measurement - Microwave narrowband brightness temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A descriptive measure of radiation in terms of the temperature of a hypothetical black body emitting an identical amount of radiation in the same narrow bands of wavelengths....

465

ARM - Measurement - Longwave spectral brightness temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A descriptive measure of radiation in terms of the temperature of a hypothetical black body emitting an identical amount of radiation at the same spectrally resolved wavelengths....

466

ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiometer and Infrared Thermometer RAD : Radiation Measurements at AMF SIRS : Solar and Infrared Radiation Station External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for...

467

Optimal measurement of surface shortwave irradiance using current instrumentation -- the ARM experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shortwave (solar) measurements of surface irradiance for clear sky conditions disagree with a number of different models. Betts used the European Center for Medium-range Forecasts (ECMWF) shortwave model to calculate surface irradiance that were 5-10 percent higher than measurements. Wild used a different formulation of the ECMWF shortwave model, but found that the model overpredicted clear-sky shortwave and average of 3 percent. Ding and Wang used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and found that the GENESIS GCM shortwave model, likewise, overpredicted clear-sky irradiance by about 4 percent. To help resolve the measurement dilemma, reference instruments were deployed in April 1996 at the Southern Great Plains ARM site central facility very near the shortwave measurements. The rest of the paper describes the experiment undertaken to ascertain total horizontal shortwave irradiance at the surface, including a separation of the direct normal and diffuse horizontal components. Results and a discussion of same concludes the paper.

Michalsky, J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Rubes, M. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Stoffel, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wesley, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Splitt, M. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); DeLuisi, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Radiation Hydrodynamics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish hydrogen atoms from helium atoms, for instance. There are all just components of a mixed fluid in this case. So why do we have a special subject called ''radiation hydrodynamics'', when photons are just one of the many kinds of particles that comprise our fluid? The reason is that photons couple rather weakly to the atoms, ions and electrons, much more weakly than those particles couple with each other. Nor is the matter-radiation coupling negligible in many problems, since the star or nebula may be millions of mean free paths in extent. Radiation hydrodynamics exists as a discipline to treat those problems for which the energy and momentum coupling terms between matter and radiation are important, and for which, since the photon mean free path is neither extremely large nor extremely small compared with the size of the system, the radiation field is not very easy to calculate. In the theoretical development of this subject, many of the relations are presented in a form that is described as approximate, and perhaps accurate only to order of {nu}/c. This makes the discussion cumbersome. Why are we required to do this? It is because we are using Newtonian mechanics to treat our fluid, yet its photon component is intrinsically relativistic; the particles travel at the speed of light. There is a perfectly consistent relativistic kinetic theory, and a corresponding relativistic theory of fluid mechanics, which is perfectly suited to describing the photon gas. But it is cumbersome to use this for the fluid in general, and we prefer to avoid it for cases in which the flow velocity satisfies {nu} << c. The price we pay is to spend extra effort making sure that the source-sink terms relating to our relativistic gas component are included in the equations of motion in a form that preserves overall conservation of energy and momentum, something that would be automatic if the relativistic equations were used throughout.

Castor, J I

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

471

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

472

Procedure for Generating Data Quality Reports for SIRS Radiometric Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Procedure for Generating Data Quality Reports Procedure for Generating Data Quality Reports for SIRS Radiometric Measurements M. H. L. Anderberg, F. P. Rael, and T. L. Stoffell National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program needs high-quality broadband shortwave (SW) (solar) and longwave (LW) irradiance information for the development and validation of atmospheric circulation and climate models. To this end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performs a quality assessment of the data from 22 Solar Infrared Stations (SIRS) in the Southern Great Plains (SGP). Data quality reports (DQRs) are instrumental in passing the resultant information to the scientific community. The value of these reports depends on clear and consistent

473

Simultaneous Spectral Albedo Measurements Near the ARM SGP Central Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simultaneous Spectral Albedo Measurements Simultaneous Spectral Albedo Measurements Near the ARM SGP Central Facility J. J. Michalsky and Q.-L. Min Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York J. C. Barnard and R. T. Marchand Pacific Northwest National Laboratory P. Pilewskie National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California Introduction During ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment II (ARESE II) the Twin Otter aircraft made low-altitude (100-300-m) passes over the Central Facility (CF) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site as part of the flight pattern design for the experiment. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's Solar Spectral Flux

474

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

RADIATION DETECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

476

NIST Radiation thermometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation thermometry. Summary: ... Description: Radiation thermometers are calibrated using a range of variable-temperature blackbodies. ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

477

NIST Optical Radiation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Group. Welcome. The Optical Radiation Group maintains, improves, and disseminates the national scales ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

478

Earth Radiation Budget: Results of Outgoing Longwave Radiation from Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, and ERBS Satellites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eighteen months of wide field-of-view (WFOV) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft have been deconvolved to produce resolution-enhanced flux maps at the top ...

T. Dale Bess; G. Louis Smith

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Uncertainty Based on a Radiative Perturbation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To provide a lower bound for the uncertainty in measurement-based clear- and all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), a radiative perturbation analysis is performed for the ideal case in which the perturbations in global mean aerosol ...

Norman G. Loeb; Wenying Su

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

The $\\epem\\to?^+?^-?^+?^-$, $K^+K^-?^+?^-$, and $K^+K^- K^+K^- $ Cross Sections at Center-of-Mass Energies 0.5--4.5 \\gev Measured with Initial-State Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the process $e^+e^-\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma$, with a hard photon radiated from the initial state. About 60,000 fully reconstructed events have been selected from 89 $fb^{-1}$ of BaBar data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective \\epem center-of-mass energy, so that these data can be compared with the corresponding direct $e^+e^-$ measurements. From the $4\\pi$-mass spectrum, the cross section for the process $e^+e^-\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ is measured for center-of-mass energies from 0.6 to 4.5 $GeV/c^2$. The uncertainty in the cross section measurement is typically 5%. We also measure the cross sections for the final states $K^+ K^- \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^+ K^- K^+ K^-$. We observe the $J/\\psi$ in all three final states and measure the corresponding branching fractions. We search for X(3872) in $J/\\psi (\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-) \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and obtain an upper limit on the product of the $e^+e^-$ width of the X(3872) and the branching fraction for $X(3872) \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+\\pi^-$.

B. Aubert; BABAR Collaboration