Sample records for radiation measurement quality

  1. ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary; Stoffel, Tom; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Ritsche, Michael; Morris, Victor; Anderberg, Mary

    Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

  2. Solar Radiation Modeling and Measurements for Renewable Energy Applications: Data and Model Quality; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software and for outdoor pyranometer calibrations is outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data.

  3. Quality Control Quantification (QCQ): A Tool to Measure the Value of Quality Control Checks in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Eric C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Terezakis, Stephanie; Souranis, Annette; Harris, Kendra [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gay, Hiram; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To quantify the error-detection effectiveness of commonly used quality control (QC) measures. Methods: We analyzed incidents from 2007-2010 logged into a voluntary in-house, electronic incident learning systems at 2 academic radiation oncology clinics. None of the incidents resulted in patient harm. Each incident was graded for potential severity using the French Nuclear Safety Authority scoring scale; high potential severity incidents (score >3) were considered, along with a subset of 30 randomly chosen low severity incidents. Each report was evaluated to identify which of 15 common QC checks could have detected it. The effectiveness was calculated, defined as the percentage of incidents that each QC measure could detect, both for individual QC checks and for combinations of checks. Results: In total, 4407 incidents were reported, 292 of which had high-potential severity. High- and low-severity incidents were detectable by 4.0 {+-} 2.3 (mean {+-} SD) and 2.6 {+-} 1.4 QC checks, respectively (P<.001). All individual checks were less than 50% sensitive with the exception of pretreatment plan review by a physicist (63%). An effectiveness of 97% was achieved with 7 checks used in combination and was not further improved with more checks. The combination of checks with the highest effectiveness includes physics plan review, physician plan review, Electronic Portal Imaging Device-based in vivo portal dosimetry, radiation therapist timeout, weekly physics chart check, the use of checklists, port films, and source-to-skin distance checks. Some commonly used QC checks such as pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy QA do not substantially add to the ability to detect errors in these data. Conclusions: The effectiveness of QC measures in radiation oncology depends sensitively on which checks are used and in which combinations. A small percentage of errors cannot be detected by any of the standard formal QC checks currently in broad use, suggesting that further improvements are needed. These data require confirmation with a broader incident-reporting database.

  4. Automated systems for measuring dose and radiation quality as a function of time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braby, L.A.; Conroy, T.J.; Elegy, D.C.; Brackenbush, L.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Badhwar, G.D. [Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, modular, tissue equivalent proportional counter system has been developed for use in space. The data acquisition system consists of a microcomputer, multi channel analyzer, memory, and power converter on individual circuit cards which can be used in various combinations for specific measurement requirements. The system uses separate, interchangeable detectors, each with its preamplifier and shaping amplifier connected directly to the detector. The microprocessor provides the computing power of a personal computer, and utilizes an operating system which is compatible with a subset of MSDOS. Experiment procedures can be programmed in high level languages and down loaded to the microprocessor. A typical application, used to characterize the dose rates due to trapped radiations in space, monitors the dose rate and records energy deposition spectra frequently when the dose rate is high. The microprocessor also measures and records system operation characteristics such as MCA linearity, proportional counter gain, and power supply voltages on a periodic basis.

  5. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality at the SGP Extended Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARD ACCOUNTING SYSTEMMeso-ScalePPOSurface Radiation

  7. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  8. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  9. Quality Services: Radiation (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish standards for protection against ionizing radiation resulting from the disposal and discharge of radioactive material to the environment. The regulations apply to any...

  10. Has Hawking radiation been measured?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Unruh

    2014-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    It is argued that Hawking radiation has indeed been measured and shown to posses a thermal spectrum, as predicted. This contention is based on three separate legs. The first is that the essential physics of the Hawking process for black holes can be modelled in other physical systems. The second is the white hole horizons are the time inverse of black hole horizons, and thus the physics of both is the same. The third is that the quantum emission, which is the Hawking process, is completely determined by measurements of the classical parameters of a linear physical system. The experiment conducted in 2010 fulfills all of these requirements, and is thus a true measurement of Hawking radiation.

  11. Quality of work – concept and measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlm, Svenn-Ĺge; Nesheim, Torstein; Olsen, Karen M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we review some of the most essential literature on the concept and measurement of quality of work. We show that different academic fields have conceptualized quality of work in distinct ways however there has been a convergence...

  12. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

  13. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength.

  14. TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3°. An active solar guider keeps the tracking A fused silicathrough the solar disc are desired, the tracking accuracycircum- solar measurement is the accuracy of tracking the

  15. Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel Cerenkov Radiator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belle Preprint; Sahu Wang; M. Z. Wang; R. Suda; R. Enomoto; K. C. Peng; C. H. Wang; I. Adachi; M. Amami

    We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the B-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8 MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3% and 0.001 at 90% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed. 1 Introduction Silica aerogels(aerogels) are a colloidal form of glass, in which globules of silica are connected in three dimensional networks with siloxan bonds. They are solid, very light, transparent and their refractive index can be controlled in the production process. Many high energy and nuclear physics experiments have used aerogels instead of pressurized gas for their Cerenkov coun...

  16. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  17. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quality Measurements in Energy Efficient Buildings Craig D.Quality ~leasurements in Energy Efficient Buildings Craig D.Gregory W. Traynor Energy Efficient Buildings Program Energy

  18. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and regulators. The report will also serve to support activities to develop and share information among industry and regulatory participants about critical resources and practices. The toolkit has been developed by investigating the status of indices and definitions, surveying utility organizations on information sharing, and preparing summaries of reliability standards and monitoring requirements--the issues, needs, work under way, existing standards, practices and guidelines--for the following three classifications: (1) terms and definitions of reliability; (2) power quality standards, guidelines, and measurements; and (3) activities and organizations developing and sharing information on distribution reliability. As these synopses of reliability measurement practices are provided, it must be noted that an economic penalty may be associated with requiring too high a reliability level from the distribution system for all customers. It may be appropriate for the distribution system to supply only some base, generally accepted level of reliability. This base level would be adequate for the majority of customers. Users who need a higher level may find it economical to supply using distributed energy resources (DER) and other local solutions to reliability and power quality needs. Local solutions implemented by the customer may be the most cost-effective method for addressing the more stringent needs of a digital economy. These local solutions include energy storage, small distributed generators, and microgrids. This report also considers the market's role in addressing reliability issues and requirements. The customer's needs are discussed in view of issues such as power quality requirements of digital electronic equipment, the cost of outages, the cost of storage and new infrastructure, and natural gas prices. The market role in addressing these issues and requirements is explored. The economic considerations associated with the reliability issues are discussed, as well as the levels at which these economic decisions could be made. Finally, a discussion is provided of the role DER could play in addressing

  19. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  20. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,

  1. Methods of and apparatus for radiation measurement, and specifically for in vivo radiation measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1986-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements rely on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity which operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  2. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Donald

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total Energy System (proposed) Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Facility Quality Control,

  3. MEASUREMENT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION - STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    15, 1976. "Circumsolar Radiation Data for Central Receiverdata on the instantaneous values of circum- solar radiation andradiation over the course of a day, month or year; and 3) detailed data

  4. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Donald

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cloud transient studies); Sandia, Albuquerque (input to performance calculation program Helios); SERI (analysis of effect of circumsolar radiation

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  6. New Directions in Measurement for Software Quality Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suryn, Witold

    of statistical data. In total this provides a framework for quality control in software engineering that is freed1 New Directions in Measurement for Software Quality Control Paul Krause, Bernd Freimut and Witold Suryn Abstract--Assessing and controlling software quality is still an immature discipline. One

  7. Nanodosimetry-based quality factors for radiation protection Reinhard W. Schulte1,2,, Andrew J. Wroe2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanodosimetry-based quality factors for radiation protection in space Reinhard W. Schulte1,2,Ă with radiation of low ionization density. Currently, quality factors of radiation both on the ground and in space. This approach makes the determination of the average quality factor of a given radiation field a rather complex

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improving our understanding of how clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and the effects of these interactions on climate. Photo courtesy Argonne National...

  9. Measured radiation patterns of the scale model dipole tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Rongrong

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sound field of finite dipole acoustic transducers in a steel tool was investigated and their horizontal by measuring their vertical radiation patterns in water at two different frequencies. Measurements were also made ...

  10. Method for increased sensitivity of radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. Reduced background is accomplished by more thorough annealing and enhanced radiation induced luminescence is obtained by treating the crystalline material to coalesce primary damage centers into secondary damage centers.

  11. Measurement of steam quality in two-phase critical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, John William

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow orifice meter 4 Vapor-phase orifice meter 5 Steam quality adjustment valves 6 Critical flow test section 12 13 15 17 7 Two-phase mixture vent to atmosphere passage through test section 8 Fluke data logger 9 Condenser apparatus 18 21...-water 15 Steam quality as a function of vapor-phase Reynolds number for critical flow of steam-water . . . . . . . . , . . . . 48 16 Steam quality as a function of pressure measured upstream from critical flow orifice 17 Steam quality as a function...

  12. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  13. Medical imaging using ionizing radiation: Optimization of dose and image quality in fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Balter, Stephen [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Rauch, Phillip [Retired-Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)] [Retired-Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 Summer School of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) focused on optimization of the use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging. Day 2 of the Summer School was devoted to fluoroscopy and interventional radiology and featured seven lectures. These lectures have been distilled into a single review paper covering equipment specification and siting, equipment acceptance testing and quality control, fluoroscope configuration, radiation effects, dose estimation and measurement, and principles of flat panel computed tomography. This review focuses on modern fluoroscopic equipment and is comprised in large part of information not found in textbooks on the subject. While this review does discuss technical aspects of modern fluoroscopic equipment, it focuses mainly on the clinical use and support of such equipment, from initial installation through estimation of patient dose and management of radiation effects. This review will be of interest to those learning about fluoroscopy, to those wishing to update their knowledge of modern fluoroscopic equipment, to those wishing to deepen their knowledge of particular topics, such as flat panel computed tomography, and to those who support fluoroscopic equipment in the clinic.

  14. Field quality measurements of a 2-Tesla transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velev, G.V.; Foster, W.; Kashikhin, V.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; /Fermilab; Wake, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype 2-Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet for future hadron colliders was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, combined-function gradient-dipole magnet has a vertical pole aperture of 20 mm. To measure the magnetic field quality in such a small magnet aperture, a specialized rotating coil of 15.2 mm diameter, 0.69 m long was fabricated. Using this probe, a program of magnetic field quality measurements was successfully performed. Results of the measurements are presented and discussed.

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring spatial uniformity of radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Halden (Boulder, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for measuring the spatial uniformity of the intensity of a radiation beam from a radiation source based on a single sampling time and/or a single pulse of radiation. The measuring apparatus includes a plurality of radiation detectors positioned on planar mounting plate to form a radiation receiving area that has a shape and size approximating the size and shape of the cross section of the radiation beam. The detectors concurrently receive portions of the radiation beam and transmit electrical signals representative of the intensity of impinging radiation to a signal processor circuit connected to each of the detectors and adapted to concurrently receive the electrical signals from the detectors and process with a central processing unit (CPU) the signals to determine intensities of the radiation impinging at each detector location. The CPU displays the determined intensities and relative intensity values corresponding to each detector location to an operator of the measuring apparatus on an included data display device. Concurrent sampling of each detector is achieved by connecting to each detector a sample and hold circuit that is configured to track the signal and store it upon receipt of a "capture" signal. A switching device then selectively retrieves the signals and transmits the signals to the CPU through a single analog to digital (A/D) converter. The "capture" signal. is then removed from the sample-and-hold circuits. Alternatively, concurrent sampling is achieved by providing an A/D converter for each detector, each of which transmits a corresponding digital signal to the CPU. The sampling or reading of the detector signals can be controlled by the CPU or level-detection and timing circuit.

  16. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Tairan, E-mail: trfu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  18. Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  19. High pressure argon ionization chamber systems for the measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCampo, J A; Raft, P D

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure argon ionization chamber systems for the measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, December 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiometer Characterization System--The new Radiometer Characterization System (RCS) installed on the Guest Instrument Facility mezzanine at the SGP central facility will permit side-by-side evaluations of several new and modified broadband radiometers and comparisons with radiometers currently in use. If the new designs or modifications give substantially more accurate measurements, ARM scientists might elect to replace or modify the existing broadband radiometers. The RCS will also permit ARM scientists to determine whether the radiometers need cleaning more frequently than the current biweekly schedule, and an automatic radiometer washer will be evaluated for reliability and effectiveness in daily cleaning. A radiometer is an instrument used to measure radiant energy. ARM uses a pyranometer to measure the solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Clouds, water vapor, dust, and other aerosol particles can interfere with the transmission of solar radiation. The amount of radiant energy reaching the ground depends on the type and quantity of absorbers and reflectors between the sun and Earth's surface. A pyranometer can also measure solar radiation reflected from the surface. A pyranometer has a thermoelectric device (a wire-wound, plated thermopile) that produces an electric current proportional to the broadband shortwave solar radiation reaching a detector. The detector, which is painted black, is mounted in a precision-ground glass sphere for protection from the elements. The glass must be kept very clean, because dirt and dust scatter and absorb solar radiation and make the measurement incorrect. Accurate measurements of solar radiation are needed so that scientists can accurately replicate the interactions of solar radiation and clouds in global climate models--a major goal of the ARM program. TX-2002 AIRS Validation Campaign Winding Down--The TX-2002 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Validation Campaign ended on December 13, 2002. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted this intensive operations period, in which a high-altitude ER-2 aircraft made measurements over the CART site. These measurements are being compared to data from ground-based ARM instruments to validate measurements by the AIRS instrument aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite. (See June 2002 ARM Facility Newsletter for details on Aqua.)

  1. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

    2009-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  2. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory quality changes in Pico de gallo as affected by gamma radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Gerald Howard

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was undertaken to gain a greater understanding of the effects of gamma radiation and storage at 2'C on the microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of pico de gallo. Samples of pico de gallo were exposed to cobalt'o at a dose of I...

  3. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory quality changes in Pico de gallo as affected by gamma radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Gerald Howard

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was undertaken to gain a greater understanding of the effects of gamma radiation and storage at 2'C on the microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of pico de gallo. Samples of pico de gallo were exposed to cobalt'o at a dose of I...

  4. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, T.S. [Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Knapp, R.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  5. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    medium term operational solar radiation forecasts in the US.term forecasting of solar radiation: a statistical approachterm forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data.

  6. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E. [ITT Exelis Mission Systems, Colorado Springs, CO

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  7. Analysis of radiation measurement data of the BUSS cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tang, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) is a Type-B packaging developed for shipping nonfissile, special-form radioactive materials to facilities such as sewage, food, and medical-product irradiators. The primary purpose of the BUSS cask is to provide shielding and confinement, as well as impact, puncture, and thermal protection for its certified special-form contents under both normal transport and hypothetical accident conditions. A BUSS cask that contained 16 CsCl capsules (2.723 {times} 10{sup 4} TBq total activity) was recently subjected to radiation survey measurements at a Westinghouse Hanford facility, which provided data that could be used to validate computer codes. Two shielding analysis codes, MICROSHIELD (User`s Manual 1988) and SAS4 (Tan 1993), that are used at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the safety of packaging of radioactive materials during transportation, have been selected for analysis of radiation data obtained from the BUSS cask. MICROSHIELD, which performs only gamma radiation shielding calculation, is based on a point-kernel model with idealized geometry, whereas SAS4 is a control module in the SCALE code system (1995) that can perform three-dimensional Monte Carlo shielding calculation for photons and neutrons, with built-in procedures for cross-section data processing and automated variance reduction. The two codes differ in how they model the details of the physics of gamma photon attenuation in materials, and this difference is reflected in the associated engineering cost of the analysis. One purpose of the analysis presented in this paper, therefore, is to examine the effects of the major modeling assumptions in the two codes on calculated dose rates, and to use the measured dose rates for comparison. The focus in this paper is on analysis of radiation dose rates measured on the general body of the cask and away from penetrations.

  8. Retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jacqueline Anne

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented here retrieves the cloud optical thickness and particle effective size of cirrus clouds using surface radiation measurements obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) field campaign. The algorithm used...

  9. ISO/IEC91263 internal quality measures: are they still useful?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suryn, Witold

    ISO/IEC9126­3 internal quality measures: are they still useful? Witold Suryn Department of Software and relevance of internal quality measures presented and published in ISO/IEC 9126-3:2003 standard for software of ISO/IEC 9126-3 set of measures as well as to the existing quality model have been proposed. Key words

  10. 20 Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at NREL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    20 Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at NREL Tom to provide for: · Maximum annual solar access · Continuous measurements of key solar radiation resources · Calibrations of instruments used to measure solar radiation · Training of meteorological station operators

  11. Radiation Pattern Reconstruction Techniques for Antenna Measurement using Chebyshev Polynomials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou Du; Minwook Kwon; Dongsun Choi; Jinhwan Koh

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of antenna radiation pattern reconstruction using Chebyshev polynomials was presented in this paper. The analysis starts from the data measured in the frequency domain, and it corresponds to a direct propagating between two antennas and reflected propagating waves from the copper plate. The accuracy of this technique is evaluated at the frequency of 3.35GHz by the anechoic conditions. As a result, the Chebyshev method shows us a good performance in the E-plane in the range of -70{\\deg} ~0{\\deg}.

  12. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. JPEG Quality Transcoding using Neural Networks Trained with a Perceptual Error Measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazzaro, John

    JPEG Quality Transcoding using Neural Networks Trained with a Perceptual Error Measure John Lazzaro@cs.berkeley.edu Abstract A JPEG Quality Transcoder (JQT) converts a JPEG image file that was encoded with low image quality users direct control over the compression process, supporting trade- offs between image quality

  15. A measurement technique to determine the calibration accuracy of an electromagnetic tracking system to radiation isocenter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Gallagher, Ian; Masi, Kathryn J.; Lee, Choonik; Prisciandaro, Joann I.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Ritter, Timothy; Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To present and characterize a measurement technique to quantify the calibration accuracy of an electromagnetic tracking system to radiation isocenter.Methods: This technique was developed as a quality assurance method for electromagnetic tracking systems used in a multi-institutional clinical hypofractionated prostate study. In this technique, the electromagnetic tracking system is calibrated to isocenter with the manufacturers recommended technique, using laser-based alignment. A test patient is created with a transponder at isocenter whose position is measured electromagnetically. Four portal images of the transponder are taken with collimator rotations of 45° 135°, 225°, and 315°, at each of four gantry angles (0°, 90°, 180°, 270°) using a 3 × 6 cm{sup 2} radiation field. In each image, the center of the copper-wrapped iron core of the transponder is determined. All measurements are made relative to this transponder position to remove gantry and imager sag effects. For each of the 16 images, the 50% collimation edges are identified and used to find a ray representing the rotational axis of each collimation edge. The 16 collimator rotation rays from four gantry angles pass through and bound the radiation isocenter volume. The center of the bounded region, relative to the transponder, is calculated and then transformed to tracking system coordinates using the transponder position, allowing the tracking system's calibration offset from radiation isocenter to be found. All image analysis and calculations are automated with inhouse software for user-independent accuracy. Three different tracking systems at two different sites were evaluated for this study.Results: The magnitude of the calibration offset was always less than the manufacturer's stated accuracy of 0.2 cm using their standard clinical calibration procedure, and ranged from 0.014 to 0.175 cm. On three systems in clinical use, the magnitude of the offset was found to be 0.053 ± 0.036, 0.121 ± 0.023, and 0.093 ± 0.013 cm.Conclusions: The method presented here provides an independent technique to verify the calibration of an electromagnetic tracking system to radiation isocenter. The calibration accuracy of the system was better than the 0.2 cm accuracy stated by the manufacturer. However, it should not be assumed to be zero, especially for stereotactic radiation therapy treatments where planning target volume margins are very small.

  16. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Buckner, Mark A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  17. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr.; Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Buckner, Mark A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  18. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairchild, Alysa, E-mail: alysa.fairchild@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Straube, William [Advanced Technology Consortium, Imaged-Guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Followill, David [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  19. Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Oritz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Marlow, William H. (College Station, TX)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

  20. What Is a Good Linear Finite Element? Interpolation, Conditioning, Anisotropy, and Quality Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    -9875170, CMS-9980063, CCR-0204377, and EIA- 9802069, and in part by a gift from the Okawa Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6.3 A Brief Survey of Quality Measures

  1. alpha radiation measuring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Specific Measurement Categories

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The ARM Program gathers a wide variety of measurements from many different sources. Each day, the Data Archive stores and distributes large quantities of data collected from these sources. Scientists then use these data to research atmospheric radiation balance and cloud feedback processes, which are critical elements of global climate change. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by measurement categories into six "collections:" Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties, Radiometric, and Surface Properties. Clicking on one of the measurement categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Aerosols" is broken down into Microphysical and Chemical Properties (with 9 subsets) and Optical and Radiative Properties (with 7 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. air quality measuring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It has also been modified to model pollution in South Korea, Mexico Manohar, Rajit 72 Predicting Air Quality: Current Status...

  4. air quality measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It has also been modified to model pollution in South Korea, Mexico Manohar, Rajit 72 Predicting Air Quality: Current Status...

  5. Service Quality Measurements for IPv6 Inter-networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezaros, D.P.

    Pezaros,D.P. Hutchison,D. Garcia,F.J. Gardner,R.D. Sventek,J.S. Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Quality of Service IEEE

  6. actinide measurement quality: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. Brackett; A Rebecca M. Warner; B; Jennifer S. Bosco B 2005-01-01 332 Current World Enviroment Vol. 2(1), 61-66 (2007) Water quality criteria and Arpa river water of CiteSeer...

  7. Additional measurements of the radiation environment at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, D.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foil activation dosimetry experiments were conducted in a ''rabbit'' system at the completed Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF). The ''raffit'' system contains four tubes spaced radially outward 0.12, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.38 meters off beam centerline. Foils were irradiated for 3 to 62 hours to measure the neutron flux and energy spectrum radially from beam centerline, along the beamline, and the effect of the Isotope Production (IP) target loadings on the neutron flux in the neutron irradiation locations. Irradiations showed a decrease in the radial flux by a factor of 6 in 0.15 meters of iron outside the IP targets. An enchancement was seen in the 24-keV energy region outside 0.15 meters. There was little difference in the shape of the spectra outside the IP targets and the beam stop with the exception of the high energy tail (energies above 20 MeV). The decrease in the high energy tail outside the beam stop is due to the degradation of the energy of the proton beam in the IP targets. Irradiations outside the beam stop with zero and eight IP targets gave the same spectral shape with the exception of the high energy tail. The magnitude of the integral flux decreased by a factor of 2 when eight IP targets were present. Irradiations with five ''rabbits'' stacked on top of each other showed no difference in the integral flux below, on and above beam centerline.

  8. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  9. Radioanalytical Data Quality Objectives and Measurement Quality Objectives during a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. C. Nielsen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the early and intermediate phases of a nuclear or radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) collects environmental samples that are analyzed by organizations with radioanalytical capability. Resources dedicated to quality assurance (QA) activities must be sufficient to assure that appropriate radioanalytical measurement quality objectives (MQOs) and assessment data quality objectives (DQOs) are met. As the emergency stabilizes, QA activities will evolve commensurate with the need to reach appropriate DQOs. The MQOs represent a compromise between precise analytical determinations and the timeliness necessary for emergency response activities. Minimum detectable concentration (MDC), lower limit of detection, and critical level tests can all serve as measurements reflecting the MQOs. The relationship among protective action guides (PAGs), derived response levels (DRLs), and laboratory detection limits is described. The rationale used to determine the appropriate laboratory detection limit is described.

  10. Replanning During Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Improved Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Haihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Hu Wei, E-mail: huw@enzemed.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang Wei; Chen Peifang; Ding Weijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Luo Wei [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Anatomic and dosimetric changes have been reported during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of replanning on quality of life (QoL) and clinical outcomes during the course of IMRT for NPC patients. Methods and Materials: Between June 2007 and August 2011, 129 patients with NPC were enrolled. Forty-three patients received IMRT without replanning, while 86 patients received IMRT replanning after computed tomography (CT) images were retaken part way through therapy. Chinese versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and Head and Neck Quality of Life Questionnaire 35 were completed before treatment began and at the end of treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of treatment. Overall survival (OS) data were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: IMRT replanning had a profound impact on the QoL of NPC patients, as determined by statistically significant changes in global QoL and other QoL scales. Additionally, the clinical outcome comparison indicates that replanning during IMRT for NPC significantly improved 2-year local regional control (97.2% vs 92.4%, respectively, P=.040) but did not improve 2-year OS (89.8% vs 82.2%, respectively, P=.475). Conclusions: IMRT replanning improves QoL as well as local regional control in patients with NPC. Future research is needed to determine the criteria for replanning for NPC patients undergoing IMRT.

  11. Evaluation of solar radiation measurement systems: EPRI/NREL final test report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.; Riordan, C.; Bigger, J.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measured solar radiation resource data are needed by electric utilities to evaluate the potential of renewable energy options like photovoltaics in their service territory. In this final test report, we document a cooperative project of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to compare available measurement system options for performing solar radiation resource assessments. We present the detailed results of a 6-month field comparison of thermopile-based pyranometer and pyrheliometer solar irradiance measurement systems with two different implementations of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) concept installed at NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado.

  12. CRYOPUMP MEASUREMENTS RELATING TO SAFETY, PUMPING SPEED, AND RADIATION OUTGASSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, W.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast Gas Pulse Typical Data for Dynamic Pumping Speed Measurements with Deuterium Plan View of Reactor

  13. Comparison of fingerprint quality measures using an optical and a capacitive sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Comparison of fingerprint quality measures using an optical and a capacitive sensor Fernando Alonso of Cagliari images are expected to be different for optical and capacitive sensors. For example, the effect measure computation. In our opinion, some measures could be suitable for the optical sensor

  14. Radiated seismic energy from coda measurements and no scaling in apparent stress with seismic moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prieto, Germán A.

    Radiated seismic energy from coda measurements and no scaling in apparent stress with seismic March 2010; accepted 9 April 2010; published 31 August 2010. [1] The seismic coda consists of scattered of radiated wave energy. We apply an empirical Green's function (EGF) method to the seismic coda in order

  15. Characterization of ambient aerosol from measurements of cloud condensation nuclei during the 2003 Atmospheric Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of ambient aerosol from measurements of cloud condensation nuclei during the 2003 Atmospheric Radiation in aerosol radiative forcing is associated with the indirect effect, which results from the relationship would have two indirect effects on climate. Cloud albedo is greater for clouds with more numerous

  16. Scientific system for high-resolution measurement of the circumsolar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrott, Simeon, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Schmidt, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Hornung, Thorsten, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Nitz, Peter, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a camera based system for measurements of the circumsolar radiation with a high angular resolution of 0.1 mrad. Subsequent measurements may be taken at intervals as short as 15 s. In this publication we describe the optical system in detail and discuss some aspects of the measurement method. First results from two days of measurement at Freiburg i. Br., Germany, are presented and compared to data from literature. The good results encourage us to perform longer measurement campaigns in future to better understand the influence of circumsolar radiation on the power yield of concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  17. automating quality measurement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Web is taken as the test collection and a combination of crawler and text retrieval system is evaluated. The engines are compared on a range of measures derivable from binary...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Point Reyes National Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The ARM Program collaborated with the U.S. Office of Naval Research and DOE's Aerosol Science Program in the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) project. Their objectives were to collect data from cloud/aerosol interactions and to improve understanding of cloud organization that is often associated with patches of drizzle. Between March and September 2005, the AMF and at least two research aircraft were used to collect data.

  19. Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klima, Peter Miloslaw

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal...

  20. An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due...

  1. An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due...

  2. Radiation Measurements 43 (2008) S427S430 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    for retrospective radon progeny measurements in 17 dwellings based on implanted 210Po activities in glass objects; Radon progeny; 210Po; Glass objects 1. Introduction Methods for long-term passive radon measurementsRadiation Measurements 43 (2008) S427­S430 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas Retrospective radon

  3. Session Papers Quality Measurement Experiments Within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 September 2009Energy,ServicesServicesSession

  4. Nuclear Targets for a Precision Measurement of the Neutral Pion Radiative Width

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Martel; E. Clinton; R. McWilliams; D. Lawrence; R. Miskimen; A. Ahmidouch; P. Ambrozewicz; A. Asratyan; K. Baker; L. Benton; A. Bernstein; P. Cole; P. Collins; D. Dale; S. Danagoulian; G. Davidenko; R. Demirchyan; A. Deur; A. Dolgolenko; G. Dzyubenko; A. Evdokimov; J. Feng; M. Gabrielyan; L. Gan; A. Gasparian; O. Glamazdin; V. Goryachev; V. Gyurjyan; K. Hardy; M. Ito; M. Khandaker; P. Kingsberry; A. Kolarkar; M. Konchatnyi; O. Korchin; W. Korsch; S. Kowalski; M. Kubantsev; V. Kubarovsky; I. Larin; V. Matveev; D. McNulty; B. Milbrath; R. Minehart; V. Mochalov; S. Mtingwa; I. Nakagawa; S. Overby; E. Pasyuk; M. Payen; R. Pedroni; Y. Prok; B. Ritchie; C. Salgado; A. Sitnikov; D. Sober; W. Stephens; A. Teymurazyan; J. Underwood; A. Vasiliev; V. Verebryusov; V. Vishnyakov; M. Wood

    2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique is presented for precision measurements of the area densities, density * T, of approximately 5% radiation length carbon and 208Pb targets used in an experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to measure the neutral pion radiative width. The precision obtained in the area density for the carbon target is +/- 0.050%, and that obtained for the lead target through an x-ray attenuation technique is +/- 0.43%.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operates at non-permanent sites selected by the ARM Program. Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January 2006 the AMF deployed to Niamey, Niger, West Africa, at the Niger Meteorological Office at Niamey International Airport. This deployment was timed to coincide with the field phases and Special Observing Periods of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The ARM Program participated in this international effort as a field campaign called "Radiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST).The primary purpose of the Niger deployment was to combine an extended series of measurements from the AMF with those from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Instrument on the Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Niamey are available via a link from ARM's Niamey, Niger site information page. Other data can be found at the related websites mentioned above and in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. Radiation Measurements 43 (2008) S357S363 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    -term measurements of radon progeny concentrations with solid state nuclear track detectors. Radiat. Meas. 40, 560. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radon progeny; Equilibrium factor; Long due to radon progeny, but not the radon gas itself. Therefore, long-term measurements

  7. Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate (CSSEFARMBE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Gaustad, Krista L.; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project is working to improve the representation of the hydrological cycle in global climate models, critical information necessary for decision-makers to respond appropriately to predictions of future climate. In order to accomplish this objective, CSSEF is building testbeds to implement uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques to objectively calibrate and diagnose climate model parameterizations and predictions with respect to local, process-scale observations. In order to quantify the agreement between models and observations accurately, uncertainty estimates on these observations are needed. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program takes atmospheric and climate related measurements at three permanent locations worldwide. The ARM VAP called the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) [Xie et al., 2010] collects a subset of ARM observations, performs quality control checks, averages them to one hour temporal resolution, and puts them in a standard format for ease of use by climate modelers. ARMBE has been widely used by the climate modeling community as a summary product of many of the ARM observations. However, the ARMBE product does not include uncertainty estimates on the data values. Thus, to meet the objectives of the CSSEF project and enable better use of this data with UQ techniques, we created the CSSEFARMBE data set. Only a subset of the variables contained in ARMBE is included in CSSEFARMBE. Currently only surface meteorological observations are included, though this may be expanded to include other variables in the future. The CSSEFARMBE VAP is produced for all extended facilities at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site that contain surface meteorological equipment. This extension of the ARMBE data set to multiple facilities at SGP allows for better comparison between model grid boxes and the ARM point observations. In the future, CSSEFARMBE may also be created for other ARM sites. As each site has slightly different instrumentation, this will require additional development to understand the uncertainty characterization associated with instrumentation at those sites. The uncertainty assignment process is implemented into the ARM program’s new Integrated Software Development Environment (ISDE) so that many of the key steps can be used in the future to screen data based on ARM Data Quality Reports (DQRs), propagate uncertainties when transforming data from one time scale into another, and convert names and units into NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) standards. These processes are described in more detail in the following sections.

  8. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Yangang; Long, Charles N.; Min, Qilong

    2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on clouds and the surface radiation budget; here several different techniques for retrieving cloud fraction (Long2006, Min2008 and XL2013) and cloud albedo (Min2008, Liu2011 and XL2013) from ground-based shortwave broadband and spectral radiation measurements are examined, and sixteen years of retrievals collected at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are compared. The comparison shows overall good agreement between the retrievals of both cloud fraction and cloud albedo, with noted differences however. The Long2006 and Min2008 cloud fractions are greater on average than the XL2013 values. Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater for thin clouds but smaller for thick clouds, with the differences decreasing with increasing cloud fraction. Further analysis reveals that the approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately may suffer from mutual contamination of errors in retrieved cloud fraction and cloud albedo. Potential influences of cloud absorption, land-surface albedo, cloud structure, and measurement instruments are explored.

  9. Radiation environment along the INTEGRAL orbit measured with the IREM monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hajdas; P. Bühler; C. Eggel; P. Favre; A. Mchedlishvili; A. Zehnder

    2003-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The INTEGRAL Radiation Environment Monitor (IREM) is a payload supporting instrument on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The monitor continually measures electron and proton fluxes along the orbit and provides this information to the spacecraft on board data handler. The mission alert system broadcasts it to the payload instruments enabling them to react accordingly to the current radiation level. Additionally, the IREM conducts its autonomous research mapping the Earth radiation environment for the space weather program. Its scientific data are available for further analysis almost without delay.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Plots and Figures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ARM Program data is available in daily diagnostic plots that can be easily grouped into daily, weekly, monthly, and even yearly increments. By visualizing ARM data in thumbnail-sized data plots, users experience highly-browsable subsets of data available at the Data Archive including complimentary data products derived from data processed by ARM. These thumbnails allow users to quickly scan for a particular type of condition, like a clear day or a day with persistent cirrus. From a diagnostics perspective, the data plots assist in looking for missing data, for data exceeding a particular range, or for loading multiple variables (e.g., shortwave fluxes and precipitation), and to determine whether a certain science or data quality condition is associated with some other parameter (e.g., high wind or rain).[taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/data_plots.stm] Several interfaces and tools have been developed to make data plots easy to generate and manipulate. For example, the NCVWeb is an interactive NetCDF data plotting tool that ARM users can use to plot data as they order it or to plot regular standing data orders. It allows production of detailed tables, extraction of data, statistics output, comparison plotting, etc. without the need for separate visualization software. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data plots are free for viewing and downloading.

  11. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  12. Field comparisons of direct and component measurements of net radiation under clear skies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duchon, C.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Wilk, G.E. [National Weather Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate measurements of net radiation are basic to all studies of the surface energy budget. In preparation for an energy budget experiment significant differences were found between direct and component measurement of net radiation, which prompted this investigation of their cause. The instruments involved were an all-black single-dome Fritschen-type net pyrradiometer, two Eppley model 8-48 pyranometers, and an Eppley model PIR pyrgeometer. Each had recently been calibrated. The accuracy of the component instruments was considered first. Comparisons of about one hour on each of three nights between the pyrgeometer and five empirical formulas showed that the average departure over all formulas from the pyrgeometer average was {minus}1%. Other comparisons between the pyrgeometer and an infrared thermometer viewing the surface yielded similar results. Alternate shading and unshading of the pyrgeometer looking upward during daytime resulted in a formula that was used to correct the downward longwave radiation under clear skies. The correction is dependent on wind speed, in contrast to a recent paper showing negligible dependence, but is in accord with earlier findings. Based on manufacturer`s specifications, the pyranometer calibrations were considered to be within 2% of the World Radiation Reference. Thus a series of experiments was carried out using what were believed to be reasonably accurate component measurements of net radiation and measurements from the net pyrradiometer.

  13. A New Measurement of the $?^0$ Radiative Decay Width

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Larin; D. McNulty; E. Clinton; P. Ambrozewicz; D. Lawrence; I. Nakagawa; Y. Prok; A. Teymurazyan; A. Ahmidouch; A. Asratyan; K. Baker; L. Benton; A. M. Bernstein; V. Burkert; P. Cole; P. Collins; D. Dale; S. Danagoulian; G. Davidenko; R. Demirchyan; A. Deur; A. Dolgolenko; G. Dzyubenko; R. Ent; A. Evdokimov; J. Feng; M. Gabrielyan; L. Gan; A. Gasparian; S. Gevorkyan; A. Glamazdin; V. Goryachev; V. Gyurjyan; K. Hardy; J. He; M. Ito; L. Jiang; D. Kashy; M. Khandaker; P. Kingsberry; A. Kolarkar; M. Konchatnyi; A. Korchin; W. Korsch; S. Kowalski; M. Kubantsev; V. Kubarovsky; X. Li; P. Martel; V. Matveev; B. Mecking; B. Milbrath; R. Minehart; R. Miskimen; V. Mochalov; S. Mtingwa; S. Overby; E. Pasyuk; M. Payen; R. Pedroni; B. Ritchie; T. E. Rodrigues; C. Salgado; A. Shahinyan; A. Sitnikov; D. Sober; S. Stepanyan; W. Stephens; J. Underwood; A. Vasiliev; V. Vishnyakov; M. Wood; S. Zhou

    2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    High precision measurements of the differential cross sections for $\\pi^0$ photoproduction at forward angles for two nuclei, $^{12}$C and $^{208}$Pb, have been performed for incident photon energies of 4.9 - 5.5 GeV to extract the ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width. The experiment was done at Jefferson Lab using the Hall B photon tagger and a high-resolution multichannel calorimeter. The ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width was extracted by fitting the measured cross sections using recently updated theoretical models for the process. The resulting value for the decay width is $\\Gamma{(\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma)} = 7.82 \\pm 0.14 ~({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.17 ~({\\rm syst.}) ~{\\rm eV}$. With the 2.8% total uncertainty, this result is a factor of 2.5 more precise than the current PDG average of this fundamental quantity and it is consistent with current theoretical predictions.

  14. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

  15. Noninvasive measurement of micron electron beam size of high energy using diffraction radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Naumenko

    2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatments of the usage of optical diffraction radiation from the relativistic electrons moving though a conductive slit for the noninvasive transverse beam size measurement encounter hard limitation of the method sensitivity for the electron energy larger than 1 GeV. We consider in this article a possibility of application in a diffraction radiation technique the artificial phase shift, which can take place when transverse electron position varies. This allows us to realize the nonivasive measurements of transverse size of supper-relativistic electron beams with the small emittance.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.; Holdridge, D. J., ed.

    2000-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For improved safety in and around the ARM SGP CART site, the ARM Program recently purchased and installed an aircraft detection radar system at the central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma. The new system will enhance safety measures already in place at the central facility. The SGP CART site, especially the central facility, houses several instruments employing laser technology. These instruments are designed to be eye-safe and are not a hazard to personnel at the site or pilots of low-flying aircraft over the site. However, some of the specialized equipment brought to the central facility by visiting scientists during scheduled intensive observation periods (IOPs) might use higher-power laser beams that point skyward to make measurements of clouds or aerosols in the atmosphere. If these beams were to strike the eye of a person in an aircraft flying above the instrument, damage to the person's eyesight could result. During IOPs, CART site personnel have obtained Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval to temporarily close the airspace directly over the central facility and keep aircraft from flying into the path of the instrument's laser beam. Information about the blocked airspace is easily transmitted to commercial aircraft, but that does not guarantee that the airspace remains completely plane-free. For this reason, during IOPs in which non-eye-safe lasers were in use in the past, ARM technicians watched for low-flying aircraft in and around the airspace over the central facility. If the technicians spotted such an aircraft, they would manually trigger a safety shutter to block the laser beam's path skyward until the plane had cleared the area.

  17. The analysis and evaluation of ISO/IEC91263 internal quality measures applicability: state-of-the-art 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suryn, Witold

    The analysis and evaluation of ISO/IEC9126­3 internal quality measures applicability: state in ISO/IEC 9126-3:2003 standard for software quality measurement and evaluation. As a result, the recommendations for modifications to the current set of ISO/IEC 9126-3 set of measures as well as to the existing

  18. An Evaluation of Objective Quality Measures for Speech Intelligibility Cees H. Taal1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -coder, residual noise and speech distortion in a speech enhancement scheme or an intelligibility improvementAn Evaluation of Objective Quality Measures for Speech Intelligibility Prediction Cees H. Taal1 the intelligibility for a wide range of non-linearly processed speech signals and speech degraded by additive noise

  19. A Novel Scanning Imaging DOAS System for Measurements of Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Novel Scanning Imaging DOAS System for Measurements of Air Quality R. Graves, R.J. Leigh and P Centre for Earth Observation, Surrey SatelliteTechnology Ltd and The EnvironmentAgency. CityScan uses and radiometric calibrations. · It has been demonstrated that the CityScan spectrometer can be used for high

  20. S/w Quality Measurement/Improvement lecture 1 Software Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Jeff

    . Jeff Tian (tian@seas.smu.edu) Southern Methodist University Dallas, Texas, USA Contents · Software and Perspectives Nov. 15, 2000 Jeff Tian, CSE/SMU #12;S/w Quality Measurement/Improvement lecture 2 Overview/w reliability engineering at IBM (1992+) Leading to current research at SMU (1995+) · Ongoing Project at SMU

  1. Remote sensing of tropical tropopause layer radiation balance using A-train measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    the relevant horizontal and vertical information for assessing TTL solar heating and infrared cooling rates; accepted 8 August 2008; published 12 November 2008. [1] Determining the level of zero net radiative heating the distribution of cloud properties relevant to heating rate analysis. The ability of CloudSat measurements

  2. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. Continuous Profiles of Cloud Microphysical Properties for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M; Jensen, K

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to produce and refine a one-year continuous time series of cloud microphysical properties based on cloud radar measurements for each of the fixed ARM sites. To accomplish this metric, we used a combination of recently developed algorithms that interpret radar reflectivity profiles, lidar backscatter profiles, and microwave brightness temperatures into the context of the underlying cloud microphysical structure.

  5. Reduction of radiation dose to radiosensitive organs and its tradeoff with image quality in Computed Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Di

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    helical multislice computed tomography examination. MedicalRadiation Dose in X-Ray Computed Tomography. AAPM report NO.of X-ray equipment for computed tomography. (2002). American

  6. Direct vs. projective: measures of children's perceptions of the parent-child relationship as predictors of future relationship quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collie, Claire Futamase

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predictive validity of a projective measure of childrens perceptions of the parent-child relationship was compared with the predictive validity of more direct measures. The criterion variable was the quality of a newly formed relationship...

  7. L- and M-shell absorption measurements of radiatively heated Fe plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jiyan; Li Hang; Zhao Yang; Xiong Gang; Yuan Zheng; Zhang Haiying; Yang Guohong; Yang Jiamin; Liu Shenye; Jiang Shaoen; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian [Research Center of Laser Fusion, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu Yan; Meng Xujun; Yan Jun [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of iron-plasma absorption spectrum over 150-1200 eV photon energy range were reported at temperature T = (72 {+-} 4) eV. The electron temperature was diagnosed with the absorption spectrum of aluminum mixed with iron. The density was not diagnosed directly but obtained from a radiative hydrodynamic simulation with the Multi-1D code. The broad photon energy range enables simultaneous observation of the L-shell and M-shell transitions that dominate the radiation transport at this temperature. The spectrally resolved transmission data were compared to the detailed-configuration-accounting model calculations and reasonable agreement was found.

  8. Measuring Hawking Radiation of a Kerr-Newman Black Hole in a Superconducting Transmission Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. G. Lan; D. Y. Chen; L. F. Wei

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying a dimensional reduction technique and a coordinates transformation approach, we deduce the Kerr-Newman space-time into a Painlev\\'{e}-like form, and obtain its corresponding event horizon and the Hawking radiation temperature. We find that, the event horizon of a Kerr-Newman black hole can be simulated in a superconducting transmission line. Moreover, by running some numerical simulation, we confirm that the Hawking radiation of a Kerr-Newman Black Hole can be experimentally measured in a superconducting transmission line.

  9. TESLA-FEL 2004-01 Silica Aerogel Radiators for Bunch Length Measurements ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Bähr A; V. Djordjadze A; D. Lipka A; A. Onuchin B; F. Stephan A

    Cherenkov radiators based on Silica aerogel are used to measure the electron bunch length at the photo injector test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ). The energy range of those electrons is 4-5 MeV. In this paper the time resolution defined by the usage of aerogel is calculated analytically and Monte Carlo simulations are performed. It is shown that Silica aerogel gives the possibility to reach a time resolution of about 0.1 ps for high photon intensities and a time resolution of about 0.02 ps can be obtained for thin Silica aerogel radiators. Key words: silica aerogel, bunch length, time resolution, PITZ 1

  10. Measuring the entanglement of analogue Hawking radiation by the density-density correlation function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhauer, Jeff

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically study the entanglement of Hawking radiation emitted by an analogue black hole. We find that this entanglement can be measured by the experimentally accessible density-density correlation function, which only requires standard imaging techniques. It is seen that the high energy tail of the distribution of Hawking radiation should be entangled, whereas the low energy part is not. This confirms a previous numerical study. The full Peres-Horodecki criterion is considered, but a significant simplification is found in the stationary, homogeneous case. Our method applies to systems which are sufficiently cold that the thermal phonons can be neglected.

  11. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121

  12. Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 450–1000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280–450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

  13. Radiation measurements of uranium ingots from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B. R.; Liaw, J. R.; Krsul, J. R.; Maddison, D. W.; Jensen, B. A.

    2003-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation measurements and gamma spectroscopy analyses were made on numerous uranium ingots produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) spent nuclear fuel. The objective of these measurements was to provide background data for shielding concerns and potential process optimization. The uranium ingots resulted from the processing of both driver and blanket fuel by the electrometallurgical treatment process. The observed variation in the measurements was traced to the levels of certain fission product residues that remained in the uranium ingots produced during spent fuel treatment. A minor process change to hold the material at an elevated temperature for a specified length of time was found to significantly reduce concentrations of high-activity fission products and, thus the radiation field.

  14. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  15. Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a,*, Daniel J. Jacob a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a Accepted 23 May 2011 Keywords: Air quality Ozone Kalman filter Assimilation Remote sensing a b s t r a c satellite measurements of ozone in different spectral regions to constrain surface ozone concentrations

  16. Inyong Choi et al. Objective Quality Measurement in Multi-channel Audio Coding Systems OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT OF PERCEIVED AUDITORY QUALITY IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    introduced, efficient-compression coding technologies. An adequate predictive model for the perceived quality

  17. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured in atmospheric circulation, are discussed. Citation: Stanhill, G. (2011), The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881­2000, J. Geophys. Res., 116

  18. A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor V. Gorelov; for the ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, Vincent P. (Los Alamos, NM); Barron, Michael H. (Los Alamos, NM); Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  1. Spatially resolved measurement of high doses in microbeam radiation therapy using samarium doped fluorophosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Go; Morrell, Brian; Koughia, Cyril; Kasap, Safa [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Edgar, Andy; Varoy, Chris [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade (New Zealand); Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz [Canadian Light Source Inc., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 (Canada)

    2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of spatially resolved high doses in microbeam radiation therapy has always been a challenging task, where a combination of high dose response and high spatial resolution (microns) is required for synchrotron radiation peaked around 50 keV. The x-ray induced Sm{sup 3+}{yields} Sm{sup 2+} valence conversion in Sm{sup 3+} doped fluorophosphates glasses has been tested for use in x-ray dosimetry for microbeam radiation therapy. The conversion efficiency depends almost linearly on the dose of irradiation up to {approx}5 Gy and saturates at doses exceeding {approx}80 Gy. The conversion shows strong correlation with x-ray induced absorbance of the glass which is related to the formation of phosphorus-oxygen hole centers. When irradiated through a microslit collimator, a good spatial resolution and high ''peak-to-valley'' contrast have been observed by means of confocal photoluminescence microscopy.

  2. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Qi, X. Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  3. Quality of Supply in Energy Regulation Measurement,Assessment and Experience from Norway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Mueller, C; Wissner, M

      added,  i.e.  a  linear  correlation  is  seen  between  the  electricity  consumption of these sectors and economic output. This ratio therefore forms an  upper bound for the energy not supplied.    A  similar approach  for  the calculation of  the... in the perforrnace of the Norwegian electricity distribution utilities. Contact c.growitsch@wik.org Publication July 2009 Financial Support www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk Quality of Supply in Energy Regulation Measurement, Assessment...

  4. A Shallow Underground Laboratory for Low-Background Radiation Measurements and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Forrester, Joel B.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Overman, Nicole R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths worldwide houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This manuscript describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  5. Passive and Active Radiation Measurements Capability at the INL Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Neibert; John Zabriskie; Collin Knight; James L. Jones

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility is a Department of Energy facility located in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex. It contains various nuclear and non-nuclear materials that are available to support many radiation measurement assessments. User-selected, single material, nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be readily utilized with ZPPR clamshell containers with almost no criticality concerns. If custom, multi-material configurations are desired, the ZPPR clamshell or an approved aluminum Inspection Object (IO) Box container may be utilized, yet each specific material configuration will require a criticality assessment. As an example of the specialized material configurations possible, the National Nuclear Security Agency’s Office of Nuclear Verification (NNSA/NA 243) has sponsored the assembly of six material configurations. These are shown in the Appendixes and have been designated for semi-permanent storage that can be available to support various radiation measurement applications.

  6. An improved multipyranometer array for the measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, Bryce Kirtley

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN IMPROVED MULTIPYRANOMETER ARRAY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSE SOLAR RADIATION A Thesis by BRYCE KIRTLEY MUNGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulffllment of the requirements... Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Haberl (Co-Chair of ommittee) W. D. Turner (C -Chair of Committee) J. Trost (Member) Suhada...

  7. Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

    ESL-PA-13-11-02 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Improved Methodology to Measure Normal... Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array Juan-Carlos Baltazar*, Yifu Sun, Jeff Haberl Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77845, U.S.A. Abstract...

  8. Spectral Fluctuations of Incoherent Radiation And Measurement of Longitudinal Bunch Profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measurement of ultrashort beam current profile I{sub b}(t) is proposed that is based on detecting fluctuations of the spectral intensity P ({omega}) of single bunch incoherent radiation. We show that the variance of the Fourier transform of the spectrum is proportional to the convolution function of the beam current. After the convolution function is found, using phase retrieval technique one can restore the shape of the pulse in many practical cases.

  9. Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Vitko Jr. , Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudyet al. , Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observa-1999 Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:

  10. Transverse beam shape measurements of intense proton beams using optical transition radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpine, Victor E.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of particle physics experiments are being proposed as part of the Department of Energy HEP Intensity Frontier. Many of these experiments will utilize megawatt level proton beams onto targets to form secondary beams of muons, kaons and neutrinos. These experiments require transverse size measurements of the incident proton beam onto target for each beam spill. Because of the high power levels, most beam intercepting profiling techniques will not work at full beam intensity. The possibility of utilizing optical transition radiation (OTR) for high intensity proton beam profiling is discussed. In addition, previous measurements of OTR beam profiles from the NuMI beamline are presented.

  11. Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional models. One fruitful strategy for evaluating advances in parameterizations has turned out to be using short-range numerical weather prediction as a test-bed within which to implement and improve parameterizations for modeling and predicting climate variability. The global models we have used to date are the CAM atmospheric component of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CCSM climate model as well as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) numerical weather prediction model, thus allowing testing in both climate simulation and numerical weather prediction modes. We present detailed results of these tests, demonstrating the sensitivity of model performance to changes in parameterizations.

  12. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  13. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  14. Method of controlling coherent synchroton radiation-driven degradation of beam quality during bunch length compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R. (Newport News, VA); Tennant, Christopher D. (Williamsburg, VA)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of avoiding CSR induced beam quality defects in free electron laser operation by a) controlling the rate of compression and b) using a novel means of integrating the compression with the remainder of the transport system: both are accomplished by means of dispersion modulation. A large dispersion is created in the penultimate dipole magnet of the compression region leading to rapid compression; this large dispersion is demagnified and dispersion suppression performed in a final small dipole. As a result, the bunch is short for only a small angular extent of the transport, and the resulting CSR excitation is small.

  15. Measurements and modeling of soot formation and radiation in microgravity jet diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, J.C.; Tong, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Greenberg, P.S. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Microgravity Combustion Branch

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. On modeling, the authors have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed {beta}-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude-Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar flames and turbulent jet flames. Predicted soot volume fraction results also agree with the data for 1-g and 0-g laminar jet flames as well as 1-g turbulent jet flames.

  16. Time- and spectrally resolved measurements of laser-driven hohlraum radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hessling, T.; Blazevic, A.; Stoehlker, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frank, A.; Kraus, D.; Roth, M.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    At the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy-ion research combined experiments with heavy ions and laser-produced plasmas are investigated. As a preparation to utilize indirectly heated targets, where a converter hohlraum provides thermal radiation to create a more homogeneous plasma, this converter target has to be characterized. In this paper the latest results of these measurements are presented. Small spherical cavities with diameters between 600 and 750 {mu}m were heated with laser energies up to 30 J at 532-nm wavelength. Radiation temperatures could be determined by time-resolved as well as time-integrated diagnostics, and maximum values of up to 35 eV were achieved.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. Scientists are using the information obtained from the permanent SGP site to improve cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance of atmospheric general circulation models used for climate research. More than 30 instrument clusters have been placed around the SGP site. The locations for the instruments were chosen so that the measurements reflect conditions over the typical distribution of land uses within the site. The continuous observations at the SGP site are supplemented by intensive observation periods, when the frequency of measurements is increased and special measurements are added to address specific research questions. During such periods, 2 gigabytes or more of data (two billion bytes) are generated daily. SGP data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/ http. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Bilateral implant reconstruction does not affect the quality of postmastectomy radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Alice Y., E-mail: hoa1234@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Patel, Nisha [Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ohri, Nisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mehrara, Babak J.; Disa, Joseph J.; Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gelblum, Daphna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Ballangrud, Ase [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine if the presence of bilateral implants, in addition to other anatomic and treatment-related variables, affects coverage of the target volume and dose to the heart and lung in patients receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). A total of 197 consecutive women with breast cancer underwent mastectomy and immediate tissue expander (TE) placement, with or without exchange for a permanent implant (PI) before radiation therapy at our center. PMRT was delivered with 2 tangential beams + supraclavicular lymph node field (50 Gy). Patients were grouped by implant number: 51% unilateral (100) and 49% bilateral (97). The planning target volume (PTV) (defined as implant + chest wall + nodes), heart, and ipsilateral lung were contoured and the following parameters were abstracted from dose-volume histogram (DVH) data: PTV D{sub 95%} > 98%, Lung V{sub 20}Gy > 30%, and Heart V{sub 25}Gy > 5%. Univariate (UVA) and multivariate analyses (MVA) were performed to determine the association of variables with these parameters. The 2 groups were well balanced for implant type and volume, internal mammary node (IMN) treatment, and laterality. In the entire cohort, 90% had PTV D{sub 95%} > 98%, indicating excellent coverage of the chest wall. Of the patients, 27% had high lung doses (V{sub 20}Gy > 30%) and 16% had high heart doses (V{sub 25}Gy > 5%). No significant factors were associated with suboptimal PTV coverage. On MVA, IMN treatment was found to be highly associated with high lung and heart doses (both p < 0.0001), but implant number was not (p = 0.54). In patients with bilateral implants, IMN treatment was the only predictor of dose to the contralateral implant (p = 0.001). In conclusion, bilateral implants do not compromise coverage of the target volume or increase lung and heart dose in patients receiving PMRT. The most important predictor of high lung and heart doses in patients with implant-based reconstruction, whether unilateral or bilateral, is treatment of the IMNs. Refinement of radiation techniques in reconstructed patients who require comprehensive nodal irradiation is warranted.

  19. SU-E-P-09: Radiation Transmission Measurements and Evaluation of Diagnostic Lead-Based and Lead-Free Aprons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syh, J [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This study was conducted to ensure that various lead shield apron manufacturers provided accurate attenuation factors regardless of whether the apron was made of lead-based or lead-free equivalent material. Methods: A calibrated ionization survey meter was placed at chest height and 36 cm horizontally away from a solid water phantom on a simulator couch. Measurements were done with or without apron. Radiation field was set to 24cmx24cm with the phantom at 100cm source-to-surface distance. Irradiation time was set for 1 minute at voltages of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp. Current was set at 6mA. Results: Between 60 kVp and 120 kVp, the transmission through 0.50 mm of lead-based apron was between 1.0% and 6.5% with a mean value of 3.2% and a standard deviation (s.d.) of 1.4%. The transmissions through the 0.50 mm lead-free aprons were 1.0 % to 12.0% with a mean value of 6.1% and s.d. of 2.6%. At 120 kVp, the transmission value was 6.5% for 0.50 mm lead-based apron and 11.1% to 12.0% for 0.50 mm lead-free aprons. The radiation transmissions at 80 kVp, measured in two different 0.5 mm lead-free aprons, were 4.3% each. However, only 1.4% transmission was found through the lead-based apron. Overall, the radiation transmitted through the lead-based apron was 1/3 transmission of lead-free at 80kVp, and half value of lead-free aprons at 100 and 120 kVp. Conclusion: Even though lead-based and lead-free aprons all claimed to have the same lead equivalent thickness, the transmission might not be the same. The precaution was needed to exercise diligence in quality assurance program to assure adequate protection to staff who wear it during diagnostic procedures. The requirement for aprons not only should be in certain thickness to meet state regulation but also to keep reasonably achievable low exposure with the accurate labeling from manufacturers.

  20. Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development of simplified procedures for a multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA...

  1. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  2. Measurement and control of brake pedal feel quality in automobile manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerilles, Jeffrey T. (Jeffrey Thomas)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Customer perception of brake pedal feel quality, as related to the perception of the brake pedal feeling soft or mushy, depends on both the customer's subjective judgment of quality and the actual build quality of the brake ...

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. Measurement and simulation of the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation on the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovery linac electron beam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, C C.; Biedron, S G.; Edelen, A L.; Milton, S V.; Benson, S; Douglas, D; Li, R; Tennant, C D.; Carlsten, B E.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR free-electron laser driver, the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR recirculator. Here we examine the impact of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of bunch compression as well as the impact of CSR on the energy spectrum of the bunch. Simulation of beam dynamics in the machine, including the one-dimensional CSR model, shows very good agreement with themore »measured effect of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of compression. Finally, a well-defined structure is observed in the energy spectrum with a feature in the spectrum that varies as a function of the compression. This effect is examined in simulations, as well, and a simple explanation for the variation is proposed.« less

  9. Quality of Survival and Growth in Children and Young Adults in the PNET4 European Controlled Trial of Hyperfractionated Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Colin, E-mail: crk1@soton.ac.uk [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Bull, Kim [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Chevignard, Mathilde [Hôpitaux de Saint Maurice, Saint Maurice (France); Neurophysiology, University of Pierre et Marie-Curie Paris 6, Paris (France); Culliford, David [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dörr, Helmuth G. [Kinder- und Jugendklinik der Universität Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Doz, François [Institut Curie and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lannering, Birgitta [Department of Pediatrics, The Sahlgren Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Massimino, Maura [Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Navajas Gutiérrez, Aurora [Hospital Universitario Cruces, Baracaldo-Vizcaya (Spain); Rutkowski, Stefan [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Spoudeas, Helen A. [Center for Pediatric Endocrinology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Calaminus, Gabriele [Pediatric Oncology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare quality of survival in “standard-risk” medulloblastoma after hyperfractionated radiation therapy of the central nervous system with that after standard radiation therapy, combined with a chemotherapy regimen common to both treatment arms, in the PNET4 randomised controlled trial. Methods and Materials: Participants in the PNET4 trial and their parents/caregivers in 7 participating anonymized countries completed standardized questionnaires in their own language on executive function, health status, behavior, health-related quality of life, and medical, educational, employment, and social information. Pre- and postoperative neurologic status and serial heights and weights were also recorded. Results: Data were provided by 151 of 244 eligible survivors (62%) at a median age at assessment of 15.2 years and median interval from diagnosis of 5.8 years. Compared with standard radiation therapy, hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with lower (ie, better) z-scores for executive function in all participants (mean intergroup difference 0.48 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.81, P=.004), but health status, behavioral difficulties, and health-related quality of life z-scores were similar in the 2 treatment arms. Data on hearing impairment were equivocal. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was also associated with greater decrement in height z-scores (mean intergroup difference 0.43 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.76, P=.011). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with better executive function and worse growth but without accompanying change in health status, behavior, or quality of life.

  10. Measurement of the energy spectrum of underground muons at Gran Sasso with a transition radiation detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The MACRO Collaboration; M. Ambrosio et al

    1998-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured directly the residual energy of cosmic ray muons crossing the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. For this measurement we have used a transition radiation detector consisting of three identical modules, each of about 12 m^2 area, operating in the energy region from 100 GeV to 1 TeV. The results presented here were obtained with the first module collecting data for more than two years. The average single muon energy is found to be 320 +/- 4 (stat.) +/- 11 (syst.) GeV in the rock depth range 3000-6500 hg/cm^2. The results are in agreement with calculations of the energy loss of muons in the rock above the detector.

  11. Optically erasable samarium-doped fluorophosphate glasses for high-dose measurements in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell, B.; Okada, G.; Vahedi, S.; Koughia, C., E-mail: cyril.koughia@usask.ca; Kasap, S. O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada); Edgar, A.; Varoy, C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Belev, G.; Wysokinski, T.; Chapman, D. [Canadian Light Source, Inc., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada); Sammynaiken, R. [Saskatchewan Structural Sciences Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work has demonstrated that fluorophosphate (FP) glasses doped with trivalent samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) can be used as a dosimetric detector in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) to measure high radiation doses and large dose variations with a resolution in the micrometer range. The present work addresses the use of intense optical radiation at 405?nm to erase the recorded dose information in Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glass plates and examines the underlying physics. We have evaluated both the conversion and optical erasure of Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glasses using synchrotron-generated high-dose x-rays at the Canadian Light Source. The Sm-ion valency conversion is accompanied by the appearance of x-ray induced optical absorbance due to the trapping of holes and electrons into phosphorus-oxygen hole (POHC) and electron (POEC) capture centers. Nearly complete Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion (erasure) may be achieved by intense optical illumination. Combined analysis of absorbance and electron spin resonance measurements indicates that the optical illumination causes partial disappearance of the POHC and the appearance of new POEC. The suggested model for the observed phenomena is based on the release of electrons during the Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion process, the capture of these electrons by POHC (and hence their disappearance), or by PO groups, with the appearance of new and/or additional POEC. Optical erasure may be used as a practical means to erase the recorded data and permits the reuse of these Sm-doped FP glasses in monitoring dose in MRT.

  12. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alarcon, R; Benson, S V; Bertozzi, W; Boyce, J R; Cowan, R; Douglas, D; Evtushenko, P; Fisher, P; Ihloff, E; Kalantarians, N; Kelleher, A; Kossler, W J; Legg, R; Long, E; Milner, R G; Neil, G R; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Tennant, C; Tschalaer, C; Williams, G P; Zhang, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is ...

  13. Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habara, Hideaki; Ohta, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Kazuo A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Laser Institute of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kumar, G. Ravindra; Krishnamurthy, M.; Kahaly, Subhendu; Mondal, Sudipta; Bhuyan, Manoj Kumar; Rajeev, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400-005 (India); Zheng Jian [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct measurement of extremely high energy density electrons created in ultraintense laser-plasma interactions is crucial issue for fast ignition. Recently Cherenkov radiation has been studied to obtain the energy distribution of electrons because the emission angle depends on the electron energy. However in the previous studies [F. Brandl et al., Europhys. Lett. 61, 632 (2003); M. Manclossi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 125002 (2006)], the experimental configurations using a planar target raised issues of spatial overlapping among the light from the different energy electrons as well as from the other emissions, such as transition radiation. A novel prism shaped target is developed in which Cherenkov lights emitted from different energy electrons are spatially separated, realizing an absolute measurement of the energy spectrum by counting the light intensities in each observed position. The observed image clearly shows the horseshoe pattern as expected in fully three-dimensional ray-trace calculations, and the image is successfully converted into the electron spectrum inside the target. In addition, it is found from the blur of the outer edge of the Cherenkov pattern that the electrons have a small beam divergence. The calibrated energy spectrum well agrees with particle simulations.

  14. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

  15. MEASURING THE QUALITY OF AN E-GOVERNMENT FOLKSONOMY 0BHUDA. R. FARHAN AND MARK SANDERSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Mark

    . Keywords - Quality of folksonomy, E-government, Evaluation Criteria, research projects. 1BINTRODUCTION 2BWe

  16. Measuring quality in diabetes care: an expert-based statistical approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsimas, Dimitris J.

    We present a methodology for using health insurance claims data to monitor quality of care. The method uses a statistical model trained on the quality ratings of a medical expert. In a pilot study, the expert rated the ...

  17. SU-E-I-82: Improving CT Image Quality for Radiation Therapy Using Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms and Slightly Increasing Imaging Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noid, G; Chen, G; Tai, A; Li, X [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms are developed to improve CT image quality (IQ) by reducing noise without diminishing spatial resolution or contrast. For CT in radiation therapy (RT), slightly increasing imaging dose to improve IQ may be justified if it can substantially enhance structure delineation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the IQ enhancement as a result of increasing imaging doses and using IR algorithms. Methods: CT images were acquired for phantoms, built to evaluate IQ metrics including spatial resolution, contrast and noise, with a variety of imaging protocols using a CT scanner (Definition AS Open, Siemens) installed inside a Linac room. Representative patients were scanned once the protocols were optimized. Both phantom and patient scans were reconstructed using the Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) and the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) methods. IQ metrics of the obtained CTs were compared. Results: IR techniques are demonstrated to preserve spatial resolution as measured by the point spread function and reduce noise in comparison to traditional FBP. Driven by the reduction in noise, the contrast to noise ratio is doubled by adopting the highest SAFIRE strength. As expected, increasing imaging dose reduces noise for both SAFIRE and FBP reconstructions. The contrast to noise increases from 3 to 5 by increasing the dose by a factor of 4. Similar IQ improvement was observed on the CTs for selected patients with pancreas and prostrate cancers. Conclusion: The IR techniques produce a measurable enhancement to CT IQ by reducing the noise. Increasing imaging dose further reduces noise independent of the IR techniques. The improved CT enables more accurate delineation of tumors and/or organs at risk during RT planning and delivery guidance.

  18. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Svoukis; H. Tsertos

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

  19. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoukis, E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data then are sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by 1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and 2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - October 1 - December 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  10. Method and apparatus for the measurement of signals from radiation sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The preferred embodiments of the present invention include a device for measuring an ionizing event in a radiation sensor. The device can include a charge amplifier and a timing shaper. The charge amplifier receives a cathode signal and is configured to output an amplified cathode signal. The timing shaper is operatively connected to the charge amplifier to receive the amplified cathode signal. The timing shaper is configured to generate a first pulse in response to a beginning of the ionizing event and a second pulse in response to an end of the ionizing event. The first and second pulses are associated with a depth of interaction of the ionizing event and are generated in response to a slope of the amplified cathode signal changing.

  11. Lyman-{alpha} radiation of a metastable hydrogen beam to measure electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lejeune, A.; Cherigier-Kovacic, L.; Doveil, F.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between a metastable H(2s) atomic hydrogen beam and an external electric field leads to the emission of the Lyman-{alpha} line. It originates in the Stark mixing of the near-degenerate 2s{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 1/2} levels separated by the Lamb shift. The quenched radiation proportional to the square of the electric field amplitude is recovered in vacuum by using such an atomic probe beam. We observe the strong enhancement of the signal when the field is oscillating at the Lamb shift frequency. This technique is applied in a plasma, offering an alternative way to measure weak electric fields by direct and non-intrusive means.

  12. First measurement of low momentum dielectrons radiated off cold nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; D. Belver; A. Belyaev; J. C. Berger-Chen; A. Blanco; M. Böhmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Cabanelas; S. Chernenko; A. Dybczak; E. Epple; L. Fabbietti; O. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Fröhlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzón; R. Gernhäuser; K. Göbel; M. Golubeva; D. González-Díaz; F. Guber; M. Gumberidze; T. Heinz; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; A. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kämpfer; T. Karavicheva; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; G. Kornakov; R. Kotte; A. Krása; F. Krizek; R. Krücken; H. Kuc; W. Kühn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; V. Ladygin; R. Lalik; S. Lang; K. Lapidus; A. Lebedev; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; D. Mishra; C. Müntz; L. Naumann; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; A. Rustamov; A. Sadovsky; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; E. Schwab; J. Siebenson; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Ströbele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; P. Tlusty; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; H. Tsertos; T. Vasiliev; V. Wagner; M. Weber; C. Wendisch; J. Wüstenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. Zanevsky

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present data on dielectron emission in proton induced reactions on a Nb target at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy measured with HADES installed at GSI. The data represent the first high statistics measurement of proton-induced dielectron radiation from cold nuclear matter in a kinematic regime, where strong medium effects are expected. Combined with the good mass resolution of 2%, it is the first measurement sensitive to changes of the spectral functions of vector mesons, as predicted by models for hadrons at rest or small relative momenta. Comparing the e+e invariant mass spectra to elementary p+p data, we observe for e+e momenta Pee < 0.8 GeV/c a strong modification of the shape of the spectrum, which we attribute to an additional rho-like contribution and a decrease of omega yield. These opposite trends are tentatively interpreted as a strong coupling of the rho meson to baryonic resonances and an absorption of the omega meson, which are two aspects of in-medium modification of vector mesons.

  13. Synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectra of {sup 174}Yb measured with internal conversion electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Saito, Makina [Beamline Spectroscopy/Scattering Group, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14 Km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Iga, Fumitoshi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki, 310-8512 (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A detection system for synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to enhance the nuclear resonant scattering counting rate and thus increase the available nuclides. In the system, a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect the internal conversion (IC) electrons and fluorescent X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. As a feasibility study, the SR-based Mössbauer spectrum using the 76.5?keV level of {sup 174}Yb was observed without {sup 174}Yb enrichment of the samples. The counting rate was five times higher than that of our previous system, and the spectrum was obtained within 10 h. This result shows that nuclear resonance events can be more efficiently detected by counting IC electrons for nuclides with high IC coefficients. Furthermore, the windowless detection system enables us to place the sample closer to the APD elements and is advantageous for nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements. Therefore, this detection system can not only increase the number of nuclides accessible in SR-based Mössbauer spectroscopy but also allows the nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements of small single crystals or enzymes with dilute probe nuclides that are difficult to measure with the previous detection system.

  14. SU-E-J-47: Development of a High-Precision, Image-Guided Radiotherapy, Multi- Purpose Radiation Isocenter Quality-Assurance Calibration and Checking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C [UniversityFlorida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yan, G; Helmig, R; Lebron, S; Kahler, D [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To develop a system that can define the radiation isocenter and correlate this information with couch coordinates, laser alignment, optical distance indicator (ODI) settings, optical tracking system (OTS) calibrations, and mechanical isocenter walkout. Methods: Our team developed a multi-adapter, multi-purpose quality assurance (QA) and calibration device that uses an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and in-house image-processing software to define the radiation isocenter, thereby allowing linear accelerator (Linac) components to be verified and calibrated. Motivated by the concept that each Linac component related to patient setup for image-guided radiotherapy based on cone-beam CT should be calibrated with respect to the radiation isocenter, we designed multiple concentric adapters of various materials and shapes to meet the needs of MV and KV radiation isocenter definition, laser alignment, and OTS calibration. The phantom's ability to accurately define the radiation isocenter was validated on 4 Elekta Linacs using a commercial ball bearing (BB) phantom as a reference. Radiation isocenter walkout and the accuracy of couch coordinates, ODI, and OTS were then quantified with the device. Results: The device was able to define the radiation isocenter within 0.3 mm. Radiation isocenter walkout was within ±1 mm at 4 cardinal angles. By switching adapters, we identified that the accuracy of the couch position digital readout, ODI, OTS, and mechanical isocenter walkout was within sub-mm. Conclusion: This multi-adapter, multi-purpose isocenter phantom can be used to accurately define the radiation isocenter and represents a potential paradigm shift in Linac QA. Moreover, multiple concentric adapters allowed for sub-mm accuracy for the other relevant components. This intuitive and user-friendly design is currently patent pending.

  15. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEASURING DEMOCRACY Democratic Quality in Stable Democraciesto measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior

  16. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  17. Irradiators for measuring the biological effects of low dose-rate ionizing radiation fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Matthew Allen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological response to ionizing radiation differs with radiation field. Particle type, energy spectrum, and dose-rate all affect biological response per unit dose. This thesis describes methods of spectral analysis, ...

  18. A Measurement of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at 3.0 cm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, S.D.; Smoot, G.F.; De Amici, G.; Witebsky, C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Figure 2. Schematic of the 3.0 cm radiometer. HistogramRADIATION TEMPERATURE AT 3.0 cm S.D. Friedman, G.F. Smoot,Radiation Temperature at 3.0 cm Scott D . Friedman, George

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TP Ackerman; AD Del Genio; RG Ellingson; RA Ferrare; SA Klein; GM McFarquhar; PJ Lamb; CN Long; J Verlinde

    2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: • Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. • Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. • Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. • Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. • Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. • Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. • Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM’s Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  20. Customer satisfaction for beef: home-use tests and objective measures to evaluate three retail cuts at different quality levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neely, Tracey Renee

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , participated in a six-week home-use test of the three cuts and four quality grade levels completing a questionnaire for each steak evaluated. Trained sensory panel and Wamer-Bratzler shear force determination (WBS) provided objective measures for each subprimal...

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Consortium of Prospective Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Collins, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Fuller, Donald [Genesis Healthcare Partners, San Diego, California (United States); Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Katz, Alan [Flushing Radiation Oncology, Flushing, New York (United States)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the early and late health-related quality of life (QOL) outcomes among prostate cancer patients following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Patient self-reported QOL was prospectively measured among 864 patients from phase 2 clinical trials of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Data from the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals up to 6 years. SBRT delivered a median dose of 36.25 Gy in 4 or 5 fractions. A short course of androgen deprivation therapy was given to 14% of patients. Results: Median follow-up was 3 years and 194 patients remained evaluable at 5 years. A transient decline in the urinary and bowel domains was observed within the first 3 months after SBRT which returned to baseline status or better within 6 months and remained so beyond 5 years. The same pattern was observed among patients with good versus poor baseline function and was independent of the degree of early toxicities. Sexual QOL decline was predominantly observed within the first 9 months, a pattern not altered by the use of androgen deprivation therapy or patient age. Conclusion: Long-term outcome demonstrates that prostate SBRT is well tolerated and has little lasting impact on health-related QOL. A transient and modest decline in urinary and bowel QOL during the first few months after SBRT quickly recovers to baseline levels. With a large number of patients evaluable up to 5 years following SBRT, it is unlikely that unexpected late adverse effects will manifest themselves.

  2. RADIATION MEASUREMENTS BY BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY DURING THE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION INTERCOMPARISON STUDY, MAY-JUNE 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS, R.M.; BARTHOLOMEW, M.J.; MILLER, M.A.; SMITH, S.; EDWARDS, R.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The WHOI buoy radiometer intercomparison took place during May and June, 2000 at the WHOI facility. The WHOI IMET, JAMSTEC Triton, and NOAA TAO buoy systems were operated from a beach site and the Brookhaven National Laboratory set up two Portable Radiation Package systems (P01 and P02) alongside the WHOI instrumentation on the roof of the Clark Building, about 300 m away. The BNL instruments were named ''P01'' and ''P02'' and were identical. Buoy instruments were all leveled to {+-}1{degree} to horizontal. The purpose of the project was to compare the buoy systems with precision measurements so that any differences in data collection or processing would be evaluated. BNL was pleased to participate so the PRP system could be evaluated as a calibration tool. The Portable Radiation Package is an integral component of the BNL Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR) system. It is designed to make accurate downwelling radiation measurements, including the three solar irradiance components (direct normal, diffuse and global) at six narrowband channels, aerosol optical depth measurements, and broadband longwave and shortwave irradiance measurements.

  3. STANDARDS FOR MEASUREMENTS AND TESTING OF WIND TURBINE POWER QUALITY Poul Srensen, Ris National Laboratory, P.O.Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    STANDARDS FOR MEASUREMENTS AND TESTING OF WIND TURBINE POWER QUALITY Poul Sørensen, Risø National and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has

  4. ?{sup 2}{sub R}, a reciprocal-space measure of the quality of macromolecular electron-density maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reciprocal-space measure of the quality of macromolecular crystallographic phases based on the variance of the local roughness of the map is presented. It has previously been shown that the presence of distinct regions of solvent and protein in macromolecular crystals leads to a high value of the standard deviation of local r.m.s. electron density and that this can in turn be used as a reliable measure of the quality of macromolecular electron-density maps [Terwilliger & Berendzen (1999a ?). Acta Cryst. D55, 501–505]. Here, it is demonstrated that a similar measure, ?{sub R}{sup 2}, the variance of the local roughness of the electron density, can be calculated in reciprocal space. The formulation is suitable for rapid evaluation of macromolecular crystallographic phases, for phase improvement and for ab initio phasing procedures.

  5. Determination of neutral beam energy fractions from collisional radiative measurements on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D. M.; Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Munoz Burgos, J. M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-0117 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutral beams based on positive ion source technology are a key component of contemporary fusion research. An accurate assessment of the injected beam species mix is important for determining the actual plasma heating and momentum input as well as proper interpretation of beam-based diagnostics. On DIII-D, the main ion charge-exchange spectroscopy system is used to extract well-resolved intensity ratios of the Doppler-shifted D{sub {alpha}} emission from the full, half, and third energy beam components for a variety of beam operational parameters. In conjunction with accurate collisional-radiative modeling, these measurements indicate the assumed species mix and power fractions can vary significantly and should be regularly monitored and updated for the most accurate interpretation of plasma performance. In addition, if stable active control of the power fractions can be achieved through appropriate source tuning, the resulting control over the deposition profile can serve as an additional experimental knob for advanced tokamak studies, e.g., varying the off axis beam current drive without altering the beam trajectory.

  6. Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

  7. High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kozub, T. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Faust, I. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

  8. Relativistic Cyclotron Radiation Detection of Tritium Decay Electrons as a New Technique for Measuring the Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shape of the beta decay energy distribution is sensitive to the mass of the electron neutrino. Attempts to measure the endpoint shape of tritium decay have so far seen no distortion from the zero-mass form, thus placing an upper limit of m_nu_beta < 2.3 eV. Here we show that a new type of electron energy spectroscopy could improve future measurements of this spectrum and therefore of the neutrino mass. We propose to detect the coherent cyclotron radiation emitted by an energetic electron in a magnetic field. For mildly relativistic electrons, like those in tritium decay, the relativistic shift of the cyclotron frequency allows us to extract the electron energy from the emitted radiation. We present calculations for the energy resolution, noise limits, high-rate measurement capability, and systematic errors expected in such an experiment.

  9. Relativistic Cyclotron Radiation Detection of Tritium Decay Electrons as a New Technique for Measuring the Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Monreal; Joseph A. Formaggio

    2009-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The shape of the beta decay energy distribution is sensitive to the mass of the electron neutrino. Attempts to measure the endpoint shape of tritium decay have so far seen no distortion from the zero-mass form, thus placing an upper limit of m_nu_beta < 2.3 eV. Here we show that a new type of electron energy spectroscopy could improve future measurements of this spectrum and therefore of the neutrino mass. We propose to detect the coherent cyclotron radiation emitted by an energetic electron in a magnetic field. For mildly relativistic electrons, like those in tritium decay, the relativistic shift of the cyclotron frequency allows us to extract the electron energy from the emitted radiation. We present calculations for the energy resolution, noise limits, high-rate measurement capability, and systematic errors expected in such an experiment.

  10. Three lessons for educational quality in post-2015 goals and targets: Clarity, measurability and equity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Pauline

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    for Laboratorio Latinoamericano de Evaluación de la Calidad de la Educación (Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education); PASEC - Programme d’Analyse des Systčmes Educatifs de la CONFEMEN (Programme of Analysis of Education Systems...

  11. Importance of Measurement: The Impact of Power Quality in Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qazi, T.; Roy, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    focus on equipment performance optimisation, rather than on the quality of power which is essential for the operation of any electrical equipment. This paper analyses power factor and harmonics problem areas and offers practical approaches...

  12. INVESTIGATING THE RELIABILITY OF CORONAL EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION DIAGNOSTICS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  14. Measuring the quantum efficiency of single radiating dipoles using a scanning mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. C. Buchler; T. Kalkbrenner; C. Hettich; V. Sandoghdar

    2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using scanning probe techniques, we show the controlled manipulation of the radiation from single dipoles. In one experiment we study the modification of the fluorescence lifetime of a single molecular dipole in front of a movable silver mirror. A second experiment demonstrates the changing plasmon spectrum of a gold nanoparticle in front of a dielectric mirror. Comparison of our data with theoretical models allows determination of the quantum efficiency of each radiating dipole.

  15. Quality assurance for image-guided radiation therapy utilizing CT-based technologies: A report of the AAPM TG-179

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Balter, Peter A.; Dong Lei; Langen, Katja M.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Miften, Moyed; Moseley, Douglas J.; Pouliot, Jean; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Yoo, Sua [Task Group 179, Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida 32806 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero St., Suite H 1031, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Commercial CT-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems allow widespread management of geometric variations in patient setup and internal organ motion. This document provides consensus recommendations for quality assurance protocols that ensure patient safety and patient treatment fidelity for such systems. Methods: The AAPM TG-179 reviews clinical implementation and quality assurance aspects for commercially available CT-based IGRT, each with their unique capabilities and underlying physics. The systems described are kilovolt and megavolt cone-beam CT, fan-beam MVCT, and CT-on-rails. A summary of the literature describing current clinical usage is also provided. Results: This report proposes a generic quality assurance program for CT-based IGRT systems in an effort to provide a vendor-independent program for clinical users. Published data from long-term, repeated quality control tests form the basis of the proposed test frequencies and tolerances.Conclusion: A program for quality control of CT-based image-guidance systems has been produced, with focus on geometry, image quality, image dose, system operation, and safety. Agreement and clarification with respect to reports from the AAPM TG-101, TG-104, TG-142, and TG-148 has been addressed.

  16. Improvements in Near-Terminator and Nocturnal Cloud Masks using Satellite Imager Data over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trepte, Q.Z.; Minnis, P.; Heck, P.W.; Palikonda, R.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud detection using satellite measurements presents a big challenge near the terminator where the visible (VIS; 0.65 {micro}m) channel becomes less reliable and the reflected solar component of the solar infrared 3.9-{micro}m channel reaches very low signal-to-noise ratio levels. As a result, clouds are underestimated near the terminator and at night over land and ocean in previous Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program cloud retrievals using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data. Cloud detection near the terminator has always been a challenge. For example, comparisons between the CLAVR-x (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR]) cloud coverage and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) measurements north of 60{sup o}N indicate significant amounts of missing clouds from AVHRR because this part of the world was near the day/night terminator viewed by AVHRR. Comparisons between MODIS cloud products and GLAS at the same regions also shows the same difficulty in the MODIS cloud retrieval (Pavolonis and Heidinger 2005). Consistent detection of clouds at all times of day is needed to provide reliable cloud and radiation products for ARM and other research efforts involving the modeling of clouds and their interaction with the radiation budget. To minimize inconsistencies between daytime and nighttime retrievals, this paper develops an improved twilight and nighttime cloud mask using GOES-9, 10, and 12 imager data over the ARM sites and the continental United States (CONUS).

  17. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (NewSons, Inc. from "Radiation Detection and Measurement," G. F.

  18. Controlled manipulation of elastomers with radiation: Insights from multiquantum nuclear-magnetic-resonance data and mechanical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, A.; Weisgraber, T.; Dinh, L. N.; Gee, R. H.; Wilson, T.; Chinn, S.; Maxwell, R. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Filled and cross-linked elastomeric rubbers are versatile network materials with a multitude of applications ranging from artificial organs and biomedical devices to cushions, coatings, adhesives, interconnects, and seismic-isolation, thermal, and electrical barriers. External factors such as mechanical stress, temperature fluctuations, or radiation are known to create chemical changes in such materials that can directly affect the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the polymer between cross-links and alter the structural and mechanical properties. From a materials science point of view it is highly desirable to understand, affect, and manipulate such property changes in a controlled manner. Unfortunately, that has not yet been possible due to the lack of experimental characterization of such networks under controlled environments. In this work we expose a known rubber material to controlled dosages of {gamma} radiation and utilize a newly developed multiquantum nuclear-magnetic-resonance technique to characterize the MWD as a function of radiation. We show that such data along with mechanical stress-strain measurements are amenable to accurate analysis by simple network models and yield important insights into radiation-induced molecular-level processes.

  19. A study of acceleration noise as a measurement of the quality of freeway operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Conrad L

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IV EVALUATION OF ACCELERATION NOISE ON THE GULF FREEWAY Natural Acceleration Noise Analysis of Data ~ . . . , . . . i ~ ~ . ~ Discussion of Results Congestion , Formulation of Acceleration Noise Model Testing the Acceleration Noi, se Model A...A STUDY OF ACCELERATION NOISE AS A MEAS~ OF THE QUALITY OF FREEWAY OPERATION A Thesis CONRAD LOUIS DUDEK Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas Al&l University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  20. Radiated power measurement during the thermal quench phase of a density limit disruption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    , but is believed to conduct preferentially to the divertor plates.4,5 In future reactor-size tokamaks, where stored of highly radiating impurities usually a noble gas such as neon , either through a massive gas puff11 to affect the plasma after being triggered and are therefore not fast enough to mitigate the entire dis

  1. Interpolation of surface radiative temperature measured from polar orbiting satellites to a diurnal cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Menglin

    . Instruments on polar orbiting satellites, such as advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate. This approach is based on the surface energy balance with the soil heat flux being treated by a conventional in temperate and tropical regions, observed empirical relationships between solar radiative energy and skin

  2. Measurement and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Highwood, Ellie

    on Climate Change (IPCC), 2001]. Among the different aerosol types, mineral dust is one of the major to their scattering and absorbing properties that affect the solar radiation, they also perturb the terrestrial but they still represent one of the largest uncer- tainties in climate change studies [Intergovernmental Panel

  3. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  4. New and Improved Data Logging and Collection System for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western Pacific, and North Slope of Alaska Sky Radiation, Ground Radiation, and MET Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, M.T.; Holdridge, D.J.; Pearson, R.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Aging systems and technological advances mandated changes to the data collection systems at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites. Key reasons for the upgrade include the following: achieve consistency across all ACRF sites for easy data use and operational maintenance; minimize the need for a single mentor requiring specialized knowledge and training; provide local access to real-time data for operational support, intensive operational period (IOP) support, and public relations; eliminate problems with physical packaging (condensation, connectors, etc.); and increase flexibility in programming and control of the data logger.

  5. The non-equilibrium response of a superconductor to pair-breaking radiation measured over a broad frequency band

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Visser, P J; Guruswamy, T; Goldie, D J; Withington, S; Neto, A; Llombart, N; Baryshev, A M; Klapwijk, T M; Baselmans, J J A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the absorption of terahertz radiation in a BCS superconductor over a broad range of frequencies from 200 GHz to 1.1 THz, using a broadband antenna-lens system and a tantalum microwave resonator. From low frequencies, the response of the resonator rises rapidly to a maximum at the gap edge of the superconductor. From there on the response drops to half the maximum response at twice the pair-breaking energy. At higher frequencies, the response rises again due to trapping of pair-breaking phonons in the superconductor. In practice this is the first measurement of the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle creation efficiency due to pair-breaking in a superconductor. The efficiency, calculated from the different non-equilibrium quasiparticle distribution functions at each frequency, is in agreement with the measurements.

  6. Measurement and Analysis of Radio-frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Different Mobile Base Transceiver Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ushie, P O; Bolaji, Ayinmode; Osahun, O D

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs. The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of other factors, including wave interference from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is below the standard limit (4.5W/sqm for 900MHz and 9W/sqm for 18000MHz) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and other regulatory agencies.

  7. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Radiation Measurements 38 (2004) 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    commonly used for measurements of concentrations of radon gas and/or radon progeny. These measurements methodologies regard- ing short-lived radon progeny. There are a few di erent approaches to this problem, all

  8. A DSP based real time power quality measurement system with voltage distortion improvement capability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gou, Jian

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have been established to specify the limitation on the magnitudes of both harmonic currents and harmonic voltage distortion at different frequencies. Among these the "IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensation of Static Power... by the utility and by the electricity consumer has arrived. These measurements include: current and voltage harmonics, input power 1'actor, reactive power, real power, total harmonic distortion (THD), percentage load unbalance, etc. The measured data can...

  9. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)] [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  10. The radiation stability of glycine in solid CO2 - in situ laboratory measurements with applications to Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerakines, P A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection of biologically important, organic molecules on Mars is an important goal that may soon be reached. However, the current small number of organic detections at the Martian surface may be due to the harsh UV and radiation conditions there. It seems likely that a successful search will require probing the subsurface of Mars, where penetrating cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles dominate the radiation environment, with an influence that weakens with depth. Toward the goal of understanding the survival of organic molecules in cold radiation-rich environments on Mars, we present new kinetics data on the radiolytic destruction of glycine diluted in frozen carbon dioxide. Rate constants were measured in situ with infrared spectroscopy, without additional sample manipulation, for irradiations at 25, 50, and 75 K with 0.8-MeV protons. The resulting half-lives for glycine in CO2-ice are compared to previous results for glycine in H2O-ice and show that glycine in CO2-ice is much less stable in a radia...

  11. Area detector corrections for high quality synchrotron X-ray structure factor measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner L. B.; Parise J.; Benmore, C.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correction procedures for obtaining accurate X-ray structure factors from large area detectors are considered, including subpanel effects, over excited pixels and careful intensity corrections. Problems associated with data normalization, the use of a pixel response correction from a glass standard and minimization of systematic errors are also discussed. Data from glassy GeSe{sub 2} and liquid water measured with a Perkin Elmer amorphous-Silicon detector are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of these correction procedures. This requires reduction of systematic errors in the measured intensity to around the 0.1% level.

  12. Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, In Young

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

  13. QCD radiation in WH and WZ production and anomalous coupling measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Campanario; Robin Roth; Dieter Zeppenfeld

    2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study QCD radiation for the WH and WZ production processes at the LHC. We identify the regions sensitive to anomalous couplings, by considering jet observables, computed at NLO QCD with the use of the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Based on these observations, we propose the use of a dynamical jet veto. The dynamical jet veto avoids the problem of large logarithms depending on the veto scale, hence, providing more reliable predictions and simultaneously increasing the sensitivity to anomalous coupling searches, especially in the WZ production process.

  14. The Radiation Dose Measurement System for the BaBar Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Meyer, W.T.; /Iowa State U.; Stelzer, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Yi, Jong; /Manchester U.

    2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of 116 p-channel radiation sensitive MOSFET transistors (RadFETs) has been operational for the past 6 years at the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This system maps the integrated dose absorbed by different regions of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) during the running of the experiment. We report on the design and implementation of the system and finally, the performance of the monitoring system during the last 6 years of BaBar data-taking.

  15. Importance of Measurement: The Impact of Power Quality in Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qazi, T.; Roy, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To implement sustainable and green initiatives in a building it is vital to have a means of measuring and verifying its performance. This is done by the introduction of intelligent utility and energy metering to the facility that would become its...

  16. Terahertz Sensor for Non-Contact Thickness and Quality Measurement of Automobile Paints of Varying Complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Ke; Shen, Yao-Chun; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    to resolve coating layers down to a thickness of 18 $mu{hbox{m}}$ and was validated for both single- and multi-layer automobile paint samples. Results of the terahertz measurements were benchmarked against other techniques that are currently used for non...

  17. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Radiation Measurements 36 (2003) 161164

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    of radon gas and/or radon progeny. All these measurements depend critically on the thickness of the removed, there is no widely accepted methods for long-term passive measurements of radon progeny concentrations, despite methodologies regarding short-lived radon progeny has attracted much attention in the Ăżeld of radon dosimetry

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  19. Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The major responsibilities of the PI were identified as 1) the formulation of campaign plans, 2) the representation of AVP in various scientific communities inside and outside of ARM and the associated working groups, 3) the coordination and selection of the relative importance of the three different focus areas (routine observations, IOPs, instrument development program), 4) the examination and quality control of the data collected by AVP, and 5) providing field support for flight series. This report documents the accomplishments in each of these focus areas for the 3 years of funding for the grant that were provided.

  20. SU-E-I-89: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Pediatric Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 ± 0.182 to 0.420 ± 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 ± 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients.

  1. Radiative transfer effects on Doppler measurements as sources of surface effects in sunspot seismology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Rajaguru; K. Sankarasubramanian; R. Wachter; P. H. Scherrer

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the use of Doppler shifts of Zeeman sensitive spectral lines to observe wavesn in sunspots is subject to measurement specific phase shifts arising from, (i) altered height range of spectral line formation and the propagating character of p mode waves in penumbrae, and (ii) Zeeman broadening and splitting. We also show that these phase shifts depend on wave frequencies, strengths and line of sight inclination of magnetic field, and the polarization state used for Doppler measurements. We discuss how these phase shifts could contribute to local helioseismic measurements of 'surface effects' in sunspot seismology.

  2. Radiation Hard Hybrid Pixel Detectors, and a bbbar Cross Section Measurement at the CMS Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Jennifer Ann

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of heavy flavor quark production at hadron colliders provide a good test of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) theory. It is also essential to have a good understanding of the heavy quark production ...

  3. Radiation Measurements 40 (2005) 146159 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P. Buford

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    margins. Technological applications have expanded from biological filters, radon mapping, and dosimetry aerogels capable of measuring kinetic energies of hypervelocity interstellar and interplanetary dust grains; Thermochronology; Biological filters; Radon mapping; Dosimetry; Ion track microlithography; Ion track etching

  4. A study of acceleration noise as a measurement of the quality of freeway operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Conrad L

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is zero and the second term of Zquatlon (4) drops out, When the acceleration noise is measured on a long stretch of highway where T is very large~ the second, term is very small and. can be ignored. 13 Theref'ore f' or relatively long trips ~(nv Q n...'eet/second/second(ft/sec )& Equation (5) 2 becomes 1 2 T 1. 4' nv T where nv is in units of' miles/hour T is in units of' seconds nt is in units of' seconds The deviations of' the accelerations when a vehicle is stopped in traffic is zero, Since this type of situation would...

  5. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  6. Arctic-Winter Climatology and Radiative Effects of Clouds and Aerosols Based on Lidar and Radar Measurements at PEARL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eloranta, Edwin W.

    Arctic-Winter Climatology and Radiative Effects of Clouds and Aerosols Based on Lidar and Radar Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code. Results on the climatology and radiative effects of clouds, arctic regions are the site of interactions between aerosols, clouds, radiation and precipitations

  7. Radiation Measurements 42 (2007) 15871599 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Reuven

    measurements made during dating appli- cations. This may be carried out using the thermoluminescence (TL data of Wintle and Murray [1998. Towards the development of a preheat procedure for OSL dating of a short ther- mal treatment (such as 10 s at 260 C) is commonly employed during dating studies of quartz

  8. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  9. Radiation environment simulations at the Tevatron, studies of the beam profile and measurement of the Bc meson mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolas, Ludovic Y.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The description of a computer simulation of the CDF detector at Fermilab and the adjacent accelerator parts is detailed, with MARS calculations of the radiation background in various elements of the model due to the collision of beams and machine-related losses. Three components of beam halo formation are simulated for the determination of the principal source of radiation background in CDF due to beam losses. The effect of a collimator as a protection for the detector is studied. The simulation results are compared with data taken by a CDF group. Studies of a 150 GeV Tevatron proton beam are performed to investigate the transverse diffusion growth and distribution. A technique of collimator scan is used to scrape the beam under various experimental conditions, and computer programs are written for the beam reconstruction. An average beam halo growth speed is given and the potential of beam tail reconstruction using the collimator scan is evaluated. A particle physics analysis is conducted in order to detect the B{sub c} {yields} J/{psi}{pi} decay signal with the CDF Run II detector in 360 pb{sup -1} of data. The cut variables and an optimization method to determine their values are presented along with a criterion for the detection threshold of the signal. The mass of the B{sub c} meson is measured with an evaluation of the significance of the signal.

  10. SU-E-I-81: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Adult Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 ± 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 ± 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 ± 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0.

  11. Lyman-? radiation of a probing metastable hydrogen beam to measure electric fields in diluted fluids and plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doveil, F.; Lejeune, A.; Chérigier-Kovacic, L. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, FR-13397 Marseilles Cedex 20 (France)] [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, FR-13397 Marseilles Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between a metastable H(2s) atomic hydrogen beam and an external electric field leads to the emission of the Lyman-? line. It originates in the Stark mixing of the near-degenerate 2s{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 1/2} levels separated by the Lamb shift. The quenched radiation proportional to the square of the electric field amplitude is recovered in vacuum by using such an atomic probe beam. For larger electric field, saturation is observed and related to the beam finite transit time. We also observe the strong enhancement of the signal when the field is oscillating at the Lamb shift frequency. This technique is applied in a plasma, offering an alternative way to measure weak electric fields by direct and non-intrusive means.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Oliktok Point, Alaska (an AMF3 Deployment)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Located at the North Slope of Alaska on the coast of the Arctic Ocean, Oliktok Point is extremely isolated, accessible only by plane. From this remote spot researchers now have access to important data about Arctic climate processes at the intersection of land and sea ice. As of October 2013, Oliktok Point is the temporary home of ARM’s third and newest ARM Mobile Facility, or AMF3. The AMF3 is gathering data using about two dozen instruments that obtain continuous measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, energy, and other meteorological variables. Site operators will also fly manned and unmanned aircraft over sea ice, drop instrument probes and send up tethered balloons. The combination of atmospheric observations with measurements from both the ground and over the Arctic Ocean will give researchers a better sense of why the Arctic sea ice has been fluctuating in fairly dramatic fashion over recent years. AMF3 will be stationed at Oliktok Point.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  14. A concept for Z-dependent microbunching measurements with coherent X-ray transition radiation in a sase FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Fawley, W.M.; Rule, D.W.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model to Data from a SASE FEL at 540, 265, and 157 nm,”simulation of the x-ray SASE FEL showing the SASE radiationTRANSITION RADIATION IN A SASE FEL* A.H. Lumpkin # , W.M.

  15. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  17. Nuclear Reaction Cross-Section Measurements via Characterization of Soft Radiation Emitting Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kettern, K.; Spahn, I.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.; Coenen, H.H. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reaction cross-section measurements via the activation technique are generally made using high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry. However, in cases where the radioactive product decays exclusively by EC (without emitting a {gamma}-ray) resort has to be made to the rather subtle technique of x-ray spectrometry. Similarly for characterisation of pure {beta}- emitters, gas-flow proportional or liquid-scintillation counting is applied. In both cases the use of radiochemical methods is most essential. We studied the natTi(p,xn)49V and 85Rb(p,4n)82Sr reactions via x-ray spectrometry. In each case a clean radiochemical separation was performed and a thin source was prepared. The radioactivity of 49V was determined using the soft 4.5-keV k{alpha} x-rays and that of 82Sr via the 13.4-keV k{alpha} x-rays. In another study, the reactions natTi(p,x)45Ca, 89Y(n,p)89Sr, and natPb(p,x)204Tl were investigated. All the products are pure {beta}- emitters and therefore clean radiochemical separations were mandatory. The radioactivity of each of the three products was determined via low-level anticoincidence {beta}- counting. Furthermore, in the case of 45Ca, liquid-scintillation counting was also used. The results obtained using different techniques are compared.

  18. Results of a Quality Assurance Review of External Beam Radiation Therapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group's High-risk Neuroblastoma Trial: A SIOPEN Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaze, Mark N., E-mail: mark.gaze@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Dieckmann, Karin; Hoermann, Marcus [General Hospital Vienna, Medical University Vienna (Austria)] [General Hospital Vienna, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Gains, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Kevin P. [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)] [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ladenstein, Ruth [Children's Cancer Research Institute, St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna (Austria)] [Children's Cancer Research Institute, St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is important for local control in neuroblastoma. This study reviewed the compliance of plans with the radiation therapy guidelines of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group (SIOPEN) High-Risk Trial protocol. Methods and Materials: The SIOPEN trial central electronic database has sections to record diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy planning data. Individual centers may upload data remotely, but not all centers involved in the trial chose to use this system. A quality scoring system was devised based on how well the radiation therapy plan matched the protocol guidelines, to what extent deviations were justified, and whether adverse effects may result. Central review of radiation therapy planning was undertaken retrospectively in 100 patients for whom complete diagnostic and treatment sets were available. Data were reviewed and compared against protocol guidelines by an international team of radiation oncologists and radiologists. For each patient in the sample, the central review team assigned a quality assurance score. Results: It was found that in 48% of patients there was full compliance with protocol requirements. In 29%, there were deviations for justifiable reasons with no likely long-term adverse effects resulting. In 5%, deviations had occurred for justifiable reasons, but that might result in adverse effects. In 1%, there was a deviation with no discernible justification, which would not lead to long-term adverse events. In 17%, unjustified deviations were noted, with a risk of an adverse outcome resulting. Conclusions: Owing to concern over the proportion of patients in whom unjustified deviations were observed, a protocol amendment has been issued. This offers the opportunity for central review of radiation therapy plans before the start of treatment and the treating clinician a chance to modify plans.

  19. First measurements of electron temperature and density with divertor Thomson Scattering in radiative divertor discharges on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Nilson, D.G. [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have obtained the first measurements of n{sub e} and T{sub e} in the DIII-D divertor region with a multi-pulse (20 Hz) Divertor Thomson Scattering (DTS) system. Eight measurement locations are distributed vertically up to 21 cm above the divertor plate. Two-dimensional distributions have been obtained by sweeping the divertor plasma across the DTS measurement location. Several operating modes have been studied, including ohmic, L-mode, Elming H-mode, and Radiative Divertor operation with puffing of D{sub 2} and impurities. Mapping of the data to either the (L{sub pol}, {phi}) or (R, Z) planes with the EFIT equilibrium is used to analyze the 2D profiles. We find that in ELMing H-mode: n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and P{sub e} are relatively constant along field lines from the X-point to the divertor plate, especially near the separatrix field line. With D{sub 2} puffing, the DTS profiles indicate that T{sub e} in a large part of divertor region below the X-point is dramatically reduced from {approximately}30-40 eV in ELMing H-mode to 1-2 eV. This results in a fairly uniform low-T{sub e} divertor, with an increased electron density in the range of 2 to 4 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. Detailed comparisons of the spatial profiles of n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and electron pressure P{sub e}, are presented for several operating modes. In addition, these data are compared with initial calculations from the UEDGE fluid code.

  20. Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) procedures manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chieco, N.A.; Bogen, D.C.; Knutson, E.O. (eds.)

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 1 of this manual documents the procedures and existing technology that are currently used by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. A section devoted to quality assurance has been included. These procedures have been updated and revised and new procedures have been added. They include: sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications. 228 refs., 62 figs., 37 tabs. (FL)

  1. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications.

  2. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  3. A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska Second Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.A. McFarlane, Y. Shi, C.N. Long

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2009, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the second quarter metrics are reported in Evaluation of Simulated Precipitation in CCSM3: Annual Cycle Performance Metrics at Watershed Scales. For ARM, the metrics will produce and make available new continuous time series of radiative fluxes based on one year of observations from Barrow, Alaska, during the International Polar Year and report on comparisons of observations with baseline simulations of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  4. ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimage ARMturbulence

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999 ARM

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July 1999

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July3 ARM

  10. Test quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, R.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Keller, A.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test`s ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing.

  11. Test quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, R.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Keller, A.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing.

  12. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  13. Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studies due several new features, including: the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors, and a routine that corrects the spectral response of photovoltaic-type sensors used...

  14. RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudolph, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

  15. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  16. Data Quality Assessment and Control for the ARM Climate Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peppler, R

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is to provide observations of the earth climate system to the climate research community for the purpose of improving the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their coupling with the Earth's surface. In order for ARM measurements to be useful toward this goal, it is important that the measurements are of a known and reasonable quality. The ARM data quality program includes several components designed to identify quality issues in near-real-time, track problems to solutions, assess more subtle long-term issues, and communicate problems to the user community.

  17. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oscarsson, Nicklas, E-mail: nicklas.oscarsson@vgregion.se [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arnell, Per [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lodding, Pär [Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.

  18. Comparison between Model Simulations and Measurements of Hyperspectral Far- infrared Radiation from FIRST during the RHUBC-II Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baugher, Elizabeth

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to be inferred from the brightness temperature differences at 250 and 559.5 cm-1. Aerosols proved to reduce downwelling radiance by half that a clear-sky would emit, but had little effect on the total far-IR radiative forcing. Furthermore, these far...

  19. A Novel Retrieval Algorithm for Cloud Optical Properties from the Atmopsheric Radiation Measurement Program's Two-Channel Narrow-Field-of-View Radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.; Marshak, A.; Chiu, J.-Y. C.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Barnard, James C.; Luo, Yi

    2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud optical depth is the most important of all cloud optical properties, and vital for any cloud-radiation parameterization. To estimate cloud optical depth, the atmospheric science community has widely used ground-based flux measurements from either broadband or narrowband radiometers in the past decade. However, this type of technique is limited to overcast conditions and, at best, gives us an "effective" cloud optical depth instead of its "local" value. Unlike flux observations, monochromatic narrow-field-of-view (NFOV) radiance measurements contain information of local cloud properties, but unfortunately, the use of radiance to interpret optical depth suffers from retrieval ambiguity. We have pioneered an algorithm to retrieve cloud optical depth in a fully three-dimensional cloud situation using new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) ground-based passive two-channel (673 and 870 nm) NFOV measurements. The underlying principle of the algorithm is that these two channels have similar cloud properties but strong spectral contrast in surface reflectance. This algorthm offers the first opportunity to illustrate cloud evolution with high temporal resolution retrievals. A combination of two-channel NFOV radiances with multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) fluxes for the retrieval of cloud optical properties is also discussed.

  20. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan Christine [University of Reading] [University of Reading

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general three-dimensional cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. The proposal has two main parts. Part one exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also take advantage of the SWS’ high sampling resolution to study the “twilight zone” around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part two involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM’s 2-channel narrow vield-of-view radiometer and sunphotometer instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the ARM Mobile Facility deployments, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM’s operational data processing.

  1. Search for quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation: A measurement of an upper limit on the transducer conversion efficiency of yttrium barium copper oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Y. Chiao; W. J. Fitelson; A. D. Speliotopoulos

    2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A minimal coupling rule for the coupling of the electron spin to curved spacetime in general relativity suggests the possibility of a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation mediated by means of a quantum fluid. Thus quantum transducers between these two kinds of radiation fields might exist. We report here on the first attempt at a Hertz-type experiment, in which a high-$\\rm{T_c}$ superconductor (YBCO) was the sample material used as a possible quantum transducer to convert EM into GR microwaves, and a second piece of YBCO in a separate apparatus was used to back-convert GR into EM microwaves. An upper limit on the conversion efficiency of YBCO was measured to be $1.6\\times10^{-5}$ at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  2. Simulating Black Carbon and Dust and their Radiative Forcing in Seasonal Snow: A Case Study over North China with Field Campaign Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Hu, Zhiyuan; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Jiming; Flanner, M. G.; Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Yan, Huiping; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, D. G.

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A state-of-the-art regional model, WRF-Chem, is coupled with the SNICAR model that includes the sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes available for climate study. The coupled model is used to simulate the black carbon (BC) and dust concentrations and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow over North China in January-February of 2010, with extensive field measurements used to evaluate the model performance. In general, the model simulated spatial variability of BC and dust mass concentrations in the top snow layer (hereafter BCS and DSTS, respectively) are quantitatively or qualitatively consistent with observations. The model generally moderately underestimates BCS in the clean regions but significantly overestimates BCS in some polluted regions. Most model results fall into the uncertainty ranges of observations. The simulated BCS and DSTS are highest with >5000 ng g-1 and up to 5 mg g-1, respectively, over the source regions and reduce to <50 ng g-1 and <1 ?g g-1, respectively, in the remote regions. BCS and DSTS introduce similar magnitude of radiative warming (~10 W m-2) in snowpack, which is comparable to the magnitude of surface radiative cooling due to BC and dust in the atmosphere. This study represents the first effort in using a regional modeling framework to simulate BC and dust and their direct radiative forcing in snow. Although a variety of observational datasets have been used to attribute model biases, some uncertainties in the results remain, which highlights the need for more observations, particularly concurrent measurements of atmospheric and snow aerosols and the deposition fluxes of aerosols, in future campaigns.

  3. APS Upgrade - Creating a Better Quality of Life | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality of Life Share Topic Programs Synchrotron radiation Browse By - Any - Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Diesel...

  4. Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

  5. Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITION OFSupplementalC. L. Martin and A.-L.Data

  6. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  7. Measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples at Pengerang, Kota Tinggi, Johor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Nur Nazihah; Khoo, Kok Siong [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Pengerang area consists of a mix of private plantation, individual residential lots and state land, which is leased for agriculture related activities. The analysis was conducted to determine the specific activity of the initial value and the radiation hazard indices in the surrounding area in Pengerang. This area will be developed into a major downstream for oil and gas. The aims of this preliminary study were 1) to determine the specific activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K of soil samples at six selected areas by Gamma-ray spectrometry and 2) to calculate the radiation hazard indices. The specific activities (Bq/kg) of the samples ranged from 7.08±5.01 to 36.29±25.72 Bq/kg, 5.62±3.98 to 34.53±24.07 Bq/kg, 4.75±3.42 to 24.76±17.66 Bq/kg and 10.58±7.51 to 101.25±72.00 Bq/kg for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K, respectively. These values were well within the range that reported by UNSCEAR. The study also examined the radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained were 48.49±28.06 Bq/kg for Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), 0.34 Bq/kg for Representative Level Index (I{sub ?}), 21.83 nGy/h for Absorbed dose rates (D), 0.27 mSv/y for Annual Effective Dose Rates (Deff), 0.13 and 0.18 for External Hazards Index (H{sub ex}) and Internal Hazard Index (H{sub in}), respectively. These calculated hazard indices were used to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rates associated with it were well below their permissible limit. The overall findings show that no radiological threat to the health of the population in the study area.

  8. Abstract--Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the measurement of radiation emitted by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract-- Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the measurement is demonstrated by computer simulation experiments* . I. INTRODUCTION Single-photon emission computed tomography

  9. Abstract --Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the measurement of radiation emitted by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract -- Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the measurement-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), because of photoelectric absorption and Compton scatter, the gamma

  10. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  11. CIRCE: A dedicated storage ring for coherent THz synchrotron radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons",coherent THz synchrotron radiation: Measuring the Josephsonof coherent synchrotron radiation from the NSLS VUV ring",

  12. Measurement of the neutron leakage from a dedicated intraoperative radiation therapy electron linear accelerator and a conventional linear accelerator for 9, 12, 15(16), and 18(20) MeV electron energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaradat, Adnan K.; Biggs, Peter J. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Avenue, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The issue of neutron leakage has recently been raised in connection with dedicated electron-only linear accelerators used for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). In particular, concern has been expressed about the degree of neutron production at energies of 10 MeV and higher due to the need for additional, perhaps permanent, shielding in the room in which the device is operated. In particular, three mobile linear accelerators available commercially offer electron energies at or above the neutron threshold, one at 9 MeV, one at 10 MeV, and the third at 12 MeV. To investigate this problem, neutron leakage has been measured around the head of two types of electron accelerators at a distance of 1 m from the target at azimuthal angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg. The first is a dedicated electron-only (nonmobile) machine with electron energies of 6 (not used here), 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV and the second a conventional machine with electron energies of 6 (also not used here), 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV. Measurements were made using neutron bubble detectors and track-etch detectors. For electron beams from a conventional accelerator, the neutron leakage in the forward direction in Sv/Gy is 2.1x10{sup -5} at 12 MeV, 1.3x10{sup -4} at 16 MeV, and 4.2x10{sup -4} at 20 MeV, assuming a quality factor (RBE) of 10. For azimuthal angles >0 deg., the leakage is almost angle independent [2x10{sup -6} at 12 MeV; (0.7-1.6)x10{sup -5} at 16 MeV, and (1.6-2.9)x10{sup -5} at 20 MeV]. For the electron-only machine, the neutron leakage was lower than for the conventional linac, but also independent of azimuthal angle for angles >0 deg. : ([0 deg. : 7.7x10{sup -6} at 12 MeV; 3.0x10{sup -5} at 15 MeV; 1.0x10{sup -4} at 18 MeV]; [other angles: (2.6-5.9)x10{sup -7} at 12 MeV; (1.4-2.2)x10{sup -6} at 15 MeV; (2.7-4.7)x10{sup -6} at 18 MeV]). Using the upper limit of 6x10{sup -7} Sv/Gy at 12 MeV for the IORT machine for azimuthal angles >0 deg. and assuming a workload of 200 Gy/wk and an inverse square factor of 10, the neutron dose equivalent is calculated to be 0.012 mSv/wk. For the primary beam at 12 MeV (0 deg. ), the 10x higher dose would be compensated by the attenuation of a primary beam stopper in a mobile linear accelerator. These neutron radiation levels are below regulatory values (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 'Limitation of exposure to ionizing radiation', NCRP Report No. 116, NCRP Bethesda, MD, 1993)

  13. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  14. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chica, U. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain and FISRAD S.A.S Carrera 64 a No 22-41, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)] [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain and FISRAD S.A.S Carrera 64 a No 22-41, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M., E-mail: lallena@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Vilches, M. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario “San Cecilio”, Avda. Dr. Olóriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain)] [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario “San Cecilio”, Avda. Dr. Olóriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  15. Impact of solvent quality on the density profiles of looped triblock copolymer brushes by neutron reflectivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alonzo, Jose [Clemson University; Liu, Ming [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Yin, Fang [University of Utah; Smith, Grant [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preferential adsorption of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-deuterated polystyrene-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP-dPS-PVP) triblock copolymers from toluene onto silicon leads to the formation of dPS loops tethered by the PVP end blocks. Using neutron reflectometry, we have determined the segment density profiles of these looped polymer brushes in toluene, a good solvent for the dPS block, and in cyclohexane at 20 C (poor solvent), 32 C, (near- solvent), and 50 C (marginal solvent). While the swelling behavior qualitatively agrees with that observed for singly grafted brushes, there are interesting differences in the local structural details: In a good solvent, the segment density profiles are composed of an inner parabolic region and a long, extended tail. In cyclohexane, the profiles are described by exponential decays. We ascribe these features to a novel polydispersity effect that arises due to tethering the PS loops by both ends. The results also show that the less dense layers undergo more significant changes in swollen height as solvent quality is changed and that the looped brushes of different molecular weight, asymmetry, and tethering density adhere to scaling relationships derived for lightly cross-linked polymer gels.

  16. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  17. The Microwave Air Yield Beam Experiment (MAYBE): measurement of GHz radiation for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Monasor; M. Bohacova; C. Bonifazi; G. Cataldi; S. Chemerisov; J. R. T. De Mello Neto; P. Facal San Luis; B. Fox; P. W. Gorham; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; R. Meyhandan; L. C. Reyes; B. Rouille D'Orfeuil; E. M. Santos; J. Pochez; P. Privitera; H. Spinka; V. Verzi; C. Williams; J. Zhou

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present first measurements by MAYBE of microwave emission from an electron beam induced air plasma, performed at the electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Coherent radio Cherenkov, a major background in a previous beam experiment, is not produced by the 3 MeV beam, which simplifies the interpretation of the data. Radio emission is studied over a wide range of frequencies between 3 and 12 GHz. This measurement provides further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  18. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  19. Quality colonoscopy: A matter of time, technique or technology?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Robert H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reserved. FIELD OF VISION Quality colonoscopy: A matter ofrate is a val- id quality measure for colonoscopy: resultspact of videorecording on the quality of colonoscopy perfor-

  20. Relativistic cyclotron radiation detection of tritium decay electrons as a new technique for measuring the neutrino mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monreal, Benjamin

    The shape of the beta-decay energy distribution is sensitive to the mass of the electron neutrino. Attempts to measure the endpoint shape of tritium decay have so far seen no distortion from the zero-mass form, thus placing ...

  1. Optic detectors calibration for measuring ultra-high energy extensive air showers Cherenkov radiation by 532 nm laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knurenko, Stanislav; Petrov, Igor

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calibration of a PMT matrix is crucial for the treatment of the data obtained with Cherenkov tracking detector. Furthermore, due to high variability of the aerosol abundance in the atmosphere depending on season, weather etc. A constant monitoring of the atmospheric transparency is required during the measurements. For this purpose, besides traditional methods, a station for laser atmospheric probing is used.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. COPS was endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii for the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Field Campaign (an AMF2 Deployment)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    From October 2012 through September 2013, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed on the container ship Spirit, operated by Horizon Lines, for the Marine ARM GPCI* Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. During approximately 20 round trips between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, AMF2 obtained continuous on-board measurements of cloud and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; surface meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched every six hours. During two two-week intensive observational periods in January and July 2013, additional instruments were deployed and balloon soundings were be increased to every three hours. These additional data provided a more detailed characterization of the state of the atmosphere and its daily cycle during two distinctly different seasons. The primary objective of MAGIC was to improve the representation of the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition in climate models. AMF2 data documented the small-scale physical processes associated with turbulence, convection, and radiation in a variety of marine cloud types.

  4. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert May

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  5. Site-specific solar resource measurements for industrial solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar industry can borrow solar radiation measuring equipment from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as part of NREL`s Solar Industrial Program. This program provides assistance to qualified parties in quantifying the solar radiation resource at prospective sites to reduce the risks of deploying industrial solar energy systems. Up-to-date solar radiation measurements permit comparisons of fresh data with existing data to verify established data bases and also provide data based on actual measurements instead of on less accurate models. This report outlines the responsibilities and obligations of NREL and the solar industry participant. It also describes the equipment for measuring solar radiation, the data quality assessment procedures, and the format of the data provided.

  6. Measurement of the Total Hadronic Cross-Section Below the Upsilon(4S) Resonance at BaBar Using Initial-State Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Nicolas J.P.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present an inclusive measurement of {Delta}{alpha}{sub had}{sup (5)}(m{sub Z}{sup 2}) at BABAR using the Initial State Radiation (ISR) technique in e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions to simultaneously explore the whole low energy range at reduced center-of-mass energies below 7 GeV, where the current knowledge of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} hadrons production limits the precision of the prediction of the running of {alpha}. The BABAR ISR data sample is considerably larger than existing e{sup +}e{sup -} R scan measurement data over most of the low energy range, and there are also many systematic advantages with the ISR technique to allow significantly improved precision on the integral for {Delta}{alpha}{sub had}{sup (5)}(m{sub Z}{sup 2}). This thesis reports on a measurement of {Delta}{alpha}{sub had}{sup (5)}(m{sub Z}{sup 2}) at the 3% precision level, improving on the current knowledge of this quantity.

  7. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  8. Retrieval of Cloud Ice Water Content Profiles from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B Brightness Temperatures Near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, E-K.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program important goals is to develop and test radiation and cloud parameterizations of climate models using single column modeling (SCMs) (Randall et al. 1996). As forcing terms, SCMs need advection tendency of cloud condensates besides the tendencies of temperature, moisture and momentum. To compute the tendency terms of cloud condensates, 3D distribution of cloud condensates over a scale much larger than the climate model's grid scale is needed. Since they can cover a large area within a short time period, satellite measurements are useful utilities to provide advection tendency of cloud condensates for SCMs. However, so far, most satellite retrieval algorithms only retrieve vertically integrated quantities, for example, in the case of cloud ice, ice water path (IWP). To fulfill the requirement of 3D ice water content field for computing ice water advection, in this study, we develop an ice water content profile retrieval algorithm by combining the vertical distribution characteristics obtained from long-term surface radar observations and satellite high-frequency microwave observations that cover a large area. The algorithm is based on the Bayesian theorem using a priori database derived from analyzing cloud radar observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The end product of the algorithm is a 3D ice water content covering 10{sup o} x 10{sup o} surrounding the SGP site during the passage of the satellite. This 3D ice water content, together with wind field analysis, can be used to compute the advection tendency of ice water for SCMs.

  9. Ghost Imaging with Blackbody Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangjian Cai; Shiyao Zhu

    2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical study of ghost imaging by using blackbody radiation source. A Gaussian thin lens equation for the ghost imaging, which depends on both paths, is derived. The dependences of the visibility and quality of the image on the transverse size and temperature of the blackbody are studied. The main differences between the ghost imaging by using the blackbody radiation and by using the entangled photon pairs are image-forming equation, and the visibility and quality of the image

  10. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  11. aerial radiation monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement,...

  12. aerial surveying radiation monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement,...

  13. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  14. Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas S. McGregor; Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring data was collected at four locations in China during 2008. The various sites are located in regions with different climate regimes and with high aerosol loadings of different optical, physical, and chemical properties. Measurements obtained at all the AMF sites during the 8-month deployment in China will help scientists to validate satellite-based findings, understand the mechanisms of the aerosol indirect effects in the region, and examine the roles of aerosols in affecting regional climate and atmospheric circulation, with a special focus on the impact of the East Asian monsoon system. As with other collections from the ARM Mobile Facility, the datasets are available from the ARM Archive. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. NEW Fe IX LINE IDENTIFICATIONS USING SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY/SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET MEASUREMENT OF EMITTED RADIATION AND HINODE/EIS JOINT OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Young, P. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we study joint observations of Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation of Fe IX lines emitted by the same level of the high energy configuration 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 5}4p. The intensity ratios of these lines are dependent on atomic physics parameters only and not on the physical parameters of the emitting plasma, so that they are excellent tools to verify the relative intensity calibration of high-resolution spectrometers that work in the 170-200 A and 700-850 A wavelength ranges. We carry out extensive atomic physics calculations to improve the accuracy of the predicted intensity ratio, and compare the results with simultaneous EIS-SUMER observations of an off-disk quiet Sun region. We were able to identify two ultraviolet lines in the SUMER spectrum that are emitted by the same level that emits one bright line in the EIS wavelength range. Comparison between predicted and measured intensity ratios, wavelengths and energy separation of Fe IX levels confirms the identifications we make. Blending and calibration uncertainties are discussed. The results of this work are important for cross-calibrating EIS and SUMER, as well as future instrumentation.

  17. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low-emitting and “conventional” materials as installed in newly constructed residential homes using both (1) highly controlled, short-term active samples to precisely characterize the building-related chemical emissions and building contents and (2) a week-long passive sample designed to capture the impact of occupant behavior and related activities on measured IAQ contaminant levels indoors. The combination of detailed short-term measurements with the home under controlled/consistent conditions during pre- and post-occupancy and the week-long passive sampling data provide the opportunity to begin to separate the different emission sources and help isolate and quantify variability in the monitored homes. Between April and August 2014, the research team performed pre-occupancy and post-occupancy sampling in one conventional home and two homes built with low-emitting materials that were generally consistent with EPA’s Indoor airPLUS guidelines. However, for a number of reasons, the full experimental plan was not implemented. The project was intended to continue for up to three years to asses long-term changes in IAQ but the project was limited to one calendar year. As a result, several of the primary research questions related to seasonal impacts and the long-term trends in IAQ could not be addressed. In addition, there were several unexpected issues related to recruiting, availability of home types, and difficulty coordinating with builders/realtors/homeowners. Several field monitoring issues also came up that provide “lessons learned” that led to improvements to the original monitoring plan. The project produced a good experimental plan that is expected to be be useful for future efforts collecting data to support answering these same or similar research questions.

  18. Aerial Measuring System | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Consequence Management Aerial Measuring System Aerial Measuring System AMS Logo NNSA's Aerial Measuring System (AMS) provides specialized airborne radiation detection...

  19. Quality assurance plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase 1 -- Interim corrective measures and Phase 2 -- Purge and trap reactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) identifies and describes the systems utilized by the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project (MSRERP) personnel to implement the requirements and associated applicable guidance contained in the Quality Program Description Y/QD-15 Rev. 2 (Energy Systems 1995f). This QAP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements applicable to all activities and operations in and directly pertinent to the MSRERP Phase 1--Interim Corrective Measures and Phase 2--Purge and Trap objectives. This QAP will be reviewed, revised, and approved as necessary for Phase 3 and Phase 4 activities. This QAP identifies and describes the QA activities and procedures implemented by the various Oak Ridge National Laboratory support organizations and personnel to provide confidence that these activities meet the requirements of this project. Specific support organization (Division) quality requirements, including the degree of implementation of each, are contained in the appendixes of this plan.

  20. Measurement Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Catch Composition - Pelagic codes M Male F Female I Indeterminate U Unknown (not inspected) #12;Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Photos Comment Length 1 Version 1.2 6/2011 HookNo. Species name

  1. The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud scenes. The cloud reflectance spectra are read from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    distribution of clouds and aerosols along the white CALIPSO track in Fig.1b is shown in Fig. 2. The distanceThe aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud

  2. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval.

  3. ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP Update Information on new, existing, and futureAn Integrated

  4. Radiation Measurements at the Campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Subsequent Nuclear Power Plant crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of "Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and "Human and Natural Sciences". Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak v...

  5. Testing and Performance Validation of a Sensitive Gamma Ray Camera Designed for Radiation Detection and Decommissioning Measurements in Nuclear Facilities-13044

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N. [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom)] [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom); Creed, Richard; Pancake, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the measurements, testing and performance validation of a sensitive gamma ray camera designed for radiation detection and quantification in the environment and decommissioning and hold-up measurements in nuclear facilities. The instrument, which is known as RadSearch, combines a sensitive and highly collimated LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector with an optical (video) camera with controllable zoom and focus and a laser range finder in one detector head. The LaBr{sub 3} detector has a typical energy resolution of between 2.5% and 3% at the 662 keV energy of Cs-137 compared to that of NaI detectors with a resolution of typically 7% to 8% at the same energy. At this energy the tungsten shielding of the detector provides a shielding ratio of greater than 900:1 in the forward direction and 100:1 on the sides and from the rear. The detector head is mounted on a pan/tile mechanism with a range of motion of ±180 degrees (pan) and ±90 degrees (tilt) equivalent to 4 ? steradians. The detector head with pan/tilt is normally mounted on a tripod or wheeled cart. It can also be mounted on vehicles or a mobile robot for access to high dose-rate areas and areas with high levels of contamination. Ethernet connects RadSearch to a ruggedized notebook computer from which it is operated and controlled. Power can be supplied either as 24-volts DC from a battery or as 50 volts DC supplied by a small mains (110 or 230 VAC) power supply unit that is co-located with the controlling notebook computer. In this latter case both power and Ethernet are supplied through a single cable that can be up to 80 metres in length. If a local battery supplies power, the unit can be controlled through wireless Ethernet. Both manual operation and automatic scanning of surfaces and objects is available through the software interface on the notebook computer. For each scan element making up a part of an overall scanned area, the unit measures a gamma ray spectrum. Multiple radionuclides may be selected by the operator and will be identified if present. In scanning operation the unit scans a designated region and superimposes over a video image the distribution of measured radioactivity. For the total scanned area or object RadSearch determines the total activity of operator selected radionuclides present and the gamma dose-rate measured at the detector head. Results of hold-up measurements made in a nuclear facility are presented, as are test measurements of point sources distributed arbitrarily on surfaces. These latter results are compared with the results of benchmarked MCNP Monte Carlo calculations. The use of the device for hold-up and decommissioning measurements is validated. (authors)

  6. Chapter 1.12: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

  7. Use of the ARM Measurement of Spectral Zenith Radiance For Better Understanding Of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Jui-Yuan Chiu

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the �¢����solar-background�¢��� mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM�¢����s zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS�¢���� 1 Hz sampling to study the �¢����twilight zone�¢��� around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM�¢����s 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM�¢����s operational data processing.

  8. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.T.

    2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed a web-based data analysis and visualization tool, called NCVweb, that allows for easy viewing of ARM NetCDF files. NCVweb, along with our library of sharable Interactive Data Language procedures and functions, allows even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers.

  9. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  10. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  11. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  12. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhen Floatingabsorption ARM

  14. ARM - Measurement - Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiancenumber concentration ARM

  15. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwellingpolarization ARM Data Discovery

  16. Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITYResponses:December562JeffersonControloverview

  17. Progress Toward an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on an updated National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). Focus on this year's work was on preparing a test-year database for evaluating several solar radiation models that could be used to replace the METSTAT model used in the original 1961-1990 NSRDB. That model is no longer compatible with cloud observations reported by the National Weather Service. We have also included a satellite-based model that will increase the spatial resolution of solar radiation for GIS or mapping applications. Work also included development of improved estimates for aerosols, water vapor, and ozone. High-quality solar measurements were obtained for 33 sites near National Weather Service stations, and model runs were completed for test years 1999 and 2000.

  18. Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)’A: Evaluating the quality of medical care. Milbank Q 2005,MJ: Connections between quality measurement and improvement.

  19. Comparison of Data Quality of NOAA's ISIS and SURFRAD Networks to NREL's SRRL-BMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderberg, M.; Sengupta, M.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides analyses of broadband solar radiometric data quality for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Integrated Surface Irradiance Study and Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) solar measurement networks. The data quality of these networks is compared to that of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Baseline Measurement System (SRRL-BMS) native data resolutions and hourly averages of the data from the years 2002 through 2013. This report describes the solar radiometric data quality testing and flagging procedures and the method used to determine and tabulate data quality statistics. Monthly data quality statistics for each network were plotted by year against the statistics for the SRRL-BMS. Some of the plots are presented in the body of the report, but most are in the appendix. These plots indicate that the overall solar radiometric data quality of the SURFRAD network is superior to that of the Integrated Surface Irradiance Study network and can be comparable to SRRL-BMS.

  20. Quality Assurance Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Quality Control Technician; Quality Assurance Inspector; Quality Assurance Representative

  1. Characterization of Thallium Bromide (TlBr) for Room Temperature Radiation Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Holland McTyeire

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 Motivation: Radiation Detection for Homelandgermanium (HPGe) radiation detection technology is superior2006. G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement. John

  2. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  3. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions ŕ prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  4. First Measurement of [?(Ds(+) ? ?(+)?] / [?(Ds(+) ? ??(+)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Ball, S.; Baringer, Philip S.; Coppage, Don; Copty, N.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, Nowhan; Lam, H.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surrounded by a time-of-flight scintillation sys- texn and an electromagnetic shower detector consisting of 7800 thalliuxn-doped cesium iodide crystals. The track- ing system, time-of-flight scintillators, and calorimeter are installed inside a 1.5-T... at least seven interaction lengths of iron, and have ~cos8~ &0.85. Tight track quality cuts are demand- ed to reduce the contamination from kaon and pion de- cays in Aight. Once a track is found, the muon identification efficiency, measured with radiative...

  5. Correction factors for the sun shield used with the Eppley pyranometer for the measurement of sky radiation under clear and partly cloudy skies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albro, William Arthur

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    times. This process is termed multiple scattering. In a qualitative sense, however, Ray- leigh's theory leads us to the conclusion that sky radiation is anisotropic and that its maximum intensity should be concentrated in the vicinity of the solar... of solar radiation are discussed. The method in which a metal. band is utilized to screen the direct rays of Sun from the pyrano- metric sensor is examined in detail. Based on the assumption that the distribution of skI ~adiation is isotropic...

  6. Louisiana Nuclear Energy and Radiation Control Law (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation of nuclear energy safety, permitting and radiation safety and control in Louisiana. The Department operates...

  7. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The form factors for the radiative transitions between charmonium mesons are investigated. We employ an anisotropic lattice using a Wilson gauge action, and domain-wall fermion action. We extrapolate the form factors to Q{sup 2} = 0, corresponding to a real photon, using quark-model-inspired functions. Finally, comparison is made with photocouplings extracted from the measured radiative widths, where known. Our preliminary results find photocouplings commensurate with these experimentally extracted values.

  8. Millimeter Wave Sensor Technologies Track Biometrics; Detect Chemicals, Gases, and Radiation: Argonne’s millimeter wave (mmW) sensor technologies measure a wide range of threat materials remotely

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Security threats come in many forms—airborne, radiative, gaseous, human, or infiltrative—and it can be costly and impractical to deploy a broad suite of detector technologies to identify all potential hazards in public places. Argonne’s millimeter wave (mmW) sensor technologies measure a wide range of threat materials remotely, making them well suited to many security, industrial and medical applications....

  9. area radiation monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device,...

  10. Quality Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Quality Management, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security develops policies and procedures to ensure the classification and control of information is effective and...

  11. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  12. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder; Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  13. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  14. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  15. Quality Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Quality Policy It is the policy of the Department of Energy to establish quality requirements to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the facility or activity and its work. The Department implements this policy through the QA Order and the QA rule directives to ensure quality assurance requirements are clearly specified for the broad spectrum of work performed by DOE and its contractors.

  16. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  17. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  18. ANNUAL REPORT: INDICATORS OF INSTITUTIONAL QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    ANNUAL REPORT: INDICATORS OF INSTITUTIONAL QUALITY 2010-2011 #12;2 #12;3 T A B L E O F C O N T E N ................................................................................................................. 5 Quantitative Measures of Quality................................................................................................................... 20 Total Research Expenditures

  19. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order ensures that the quality of DOE/NNSA products and services meets or exceeds the customers' expectations. Cancels DOE O 414.1B and DOE N 411.1. Canceled by DOE O 414.1D.

  20. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish an effective management system [i.e., quality assurance programs (QAPs)] using the performance requirements of this Order, coupled with technical standards where appropriate. Cancels DOE O 414.1.

  1. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order ensures that the quality of DOE/NNSA products and services meets or exceeds the customer's expectations. This Order cancels DOE O 414.1A, Quality Assurance, dated 9-29-99, and Attachment 1, paragraph 8, and Attachment 2, paragraph 22, of DOE O 440.1A, Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees, dated 3-27-98. Cancels: DOE O 414.1A and DOE O 440.1A, parts as noted.

  2. 7 SAMPLING AND PREPARATION FOR LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Scanning is an evaluation technique performed by moving a portable radiation detection instrument time. Commonly used radiation detection and measuring equipment for radiological survey field

  3. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  4. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  5. How Well do Social Ratings Actually Measure Corporate Social Responsibility?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterji, Aaron K; Levine, David I.; Toffel, Michael W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rater should weigh management quality less heavily when thatif the measure of management quality is extremely noisy. Therater should weigh management quality more heavily when its

  6. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  7. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  8. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  9. The HERMES dual-radiator ring imaging Cerenkov detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akopov, N Z; Bailey, K; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Capitani, G P; Carter, P; Cisbani, E; De Leo, R; De Sanctis, E; De Schepper, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Filippone, B W; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Hansen, J O; Hommez, B; Iodice, M; Jackson, H E; Jung, P; Kaiser, R; Kanesaka, J; Kowalczyk, R; Lagamba, L; Maas, A; Muccifora, V; Nappi, E; Negodaeva, K; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; O'Connor, T; O'Neill, T G; Potterveld, D H; Ryckbosch, D; Sakemi, Y; Sato, F; Schwind, A; Shibata, T A; Suetsugu, K; Thomas, E; Tytgat, M; Urciuoli, G M; Van de Kerckhove, K; Van de Vyver, R; Yoneyama, S; Zohrabyan, H G; Zhang, L F

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction and use of a dual radiator Ring Imaging Cerenkov(RICH) detector is described. This instrument was developed for the HERMES experiment at DESY which emphasizes measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. It provides particle identification for pions, kaons, and protons in the momentum range from 2 to 15 GeV, which is essential to these studies. The instrument uses two radiators, C4F10, a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. The use of aerogel in a RICH detector has only recently become possible with the development of clear, large homogeneous and hydrophobic aerogel. A lightweight mirror was constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality. The photon detector consists of 1934 photomultiplier tubes for each detector half, held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet.

  10. RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. OVERVIEW OF REGULATIONS, PROTECTION STANDARDS, AND RADIATION SAFETY ORGANIZATION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 V. BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION PRINCIPLES

  11. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brawley, Otis W. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Emory University, and American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Emory University, and American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  12. Estimating GroundEstimating Ground--Level Solar RadiationLevel Solar Radiation and Evapotranspiration In Puerto Ricoand Evapotranspiration In Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Estimating GroundEstimating Ground--Level Solar RadiationLevel Solar Radiation radiation, therefore, solar radiation measurements throughout the island are essential. #12;Currently, including solar radiation ·In PR, solar radiation is only available at selected locations. · The majority

  13. Regulations for Air Quality (Quebec, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Regulation establishes emission standards for particulates and gases, emission opacity standards, standards of air quality and control measures to prevent, eliminate or reduce the emission of...

  14. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1981-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide Department of Energy (DOE) policy, set forth principles, and assign responsibilities for establishing, implementing, and maintaining programs of plans and actions to assure quality achievement in DOE programs. Canceled by DOE O 5700.6A, dated 7-21-1981.

  15. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1981-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide Department of Energy (DOE) policy, set forth principles, and assign responsibilities for establishing, implementing, and maintaining programs of plans and actions to assure quality achievement in DOE programs. Cancels DOE O 5700.6, dated 1-16-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.6B, dated 9-23-1986.

  16. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation

  17. Radiation Safety Edward O'Connell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /Bureau of Environmental Radiation Protection (BERP) · Regulatory Compliance ­ State Sanitary 16 · Required Radiation to cause ionization depends on the energy #12;Radiation Can Cause Ionization #12;Units of Measurements millirem per year. · At 50,000 feet, the dose rate is about 1 millirem per hour. · There are areas

  18. First Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Scientific Results: Measuring the Josephson Plasma Resonance in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Strasse 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany In a collaboration between the ALS and BESSY to make a first of operation at the BESSY synchrotron which produces stable CSR. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the measured. Measured far-IR intensity of the BESSY CSR source compared to the intensity for conventional thermal far

  19. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  20. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); St. Andrew's Medical Institute, St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment performance associated with relocation of the equipment to a new department. When tested under simulated conditions, the EWMA chart was capable of detecting a sustained 15% increase in average radiation output within 60 cases (<1 month of operation), while a 33% increase would be signaled within 20 cases. Conclusions: This technique offers a valuable enhancement to existing quality assurance programs in radiology that rely upon the testing of equipment radiation output at discrete time frames to ensure performance security.

  1. The use of computed radiography plates to determine light and radiation field coincidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerns, James R. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Anand, Aman [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Photo-stimulable phosphor computed radiography (CR) has characteristics that allow the output to be manipulated by both radiation and optical light. The authors have developed a method that uses these characteristics to carry out radiation field and light field coincidence quality assurance on linear accelerators.Methods: CR detectors from Kodak were used outside their cassettes to measure both radiation and light field edges from a Varian linear accelerator. The CR detector was first exposed to a radiation field and then to a slightly smaller light field. The light impinged on the detector's latent image, removing to an extent the portion exposed to the light field. The detector was then digitally scanned. A MATLAB-based algorithm was developed to automatically analyze the images and determine the edges of the light and radiation fields, the vector between the field centers, and the crosshair center. Radiographic film was also used as a control to confirm the radiation field size.Results: Analysis showed a high degree of repeatability with the proposed method. Results between the proposed method and radiographic film showed excellent agreement of the radiation field. The effect of varying monitor units and light exposure time was tested and found to be very small. Radiation and light field sizes were determined with an uncertainty of less than 1 mm, and light and crosshair centers were determined within 0.1 mm.Conclusions: A new method was developed to digitally determine the radiation and light field size using CR photo-stimulable phosphor plates. The method is quick and reproducible, allowing for the streamlined and robust assessment of light and radiation field coincidence, with no observer interpretation needed.

  2. QUALITY ASSURANCE MANUAL Revised March 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Guidelines 4-7 III. Standards of Care 8 IV. Standard of Care by Discipline Dental Hygiene 9 Endodontics 10 set forth in that paper. Quality assessment is a measure of quality and is a continuing function;GUIDELINES The following guidelines shall serve to guide the Quality Assurance Committee in the performance

  3. Quality Estimation and Segmentation of Pig Backs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality Estimation and Segmentation of Pig Backs Mads Fogtmann Hansen Kongens Lyngby 2005 Master the quality of the pig product "18cm back". It presents the necessary tools for deriving the measures, which are needed to perform a quality estimation. This includes finding the ribs, extracting the 18cm back from

  4. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  5. Fidelity of Physical Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas B. Bahder

    2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The fidelity (Shannon mutual information between measurements and physical quantities) is proposed as a quantitative measure of the quality of physical measurements. The fidelity does not depend on the true value of unknown physical quantities (as does the Fisher information) and it allows for the role of prior information in the measurement process. The fidelity is general enough to allow a natural comparison of the quality of classical and quantum measurements. As an example, the fidelity is used to compare the quality of measurements made by a classical and a quantum Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  6. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  7. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish an effective management system [i.e., quality assurance programs(QAPs)] using the performance requirements of this Order, coupled with technical standards where appropriate. Change 1, dated 7/12/01, facilitates the Department's organizational transition necessitated by establishment of the NNSA. (Attachment 2 of this Order is canceled by DOE O 470.2B.) Cancels: DOE O 414.1

  8. Measurements of plasma bremsstrahlung and plasma energy density produced by electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noland, Jonathan David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    30] Glenn F. Knoll. Radiation Detection and Measurement.in many textbooks on radiation detection[30], and a brief

  9. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  10. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  11. Gravitational Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard F Schutz

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and it is the dominant force in most astronomical systems. In common with all other phenomena, gravity must obey the principles of special relativity. In particular, gravitational forces must not be transmitted or communicated faster than light. This means that when the gravitational field of an object changes, the changes ripple outwards through space and take a finite time to reach other objects. These ripples are called gravitational radiation or gravitational waves. This article gives a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational radiation, including technical material suitable for non-specialist scientists.

  12. Data Driven Quality Assurance and Quality Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Data Driven Quality Assurance & Quality Control," Patrick Roche, Conservation Services Group. Provides an overview of data QA/QC system design.

  13. For Immediate Release --Wednesday, March 20, 2013 Treating male and female cancer patients with radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    ? · gender differences in cancer treatment rarely explored · consequences of radiation with radiation treatment of cancer cells and the difference between female and male or female-specific treatments that improve the quality of life for all cancer

  14. Radiation Reaction in Quantum Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keita Seto

    2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    From the development of the electron theory by H. A. Lorentz in 1906, many authors have tried to reformulate this model named "radiation reaction". P. A. M. Dirac derived the relativistic-classical electron model in 1938, which is now called the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. But this model has the big difficulty of the run-away solution. Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to stabilize this model of the radiation reaction for estimations. Via my recent research, I found a stabilized model of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum. This leads us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan's charge to mass ratio including radiation, de/dm, derived as the 4th order tensor measure. In this paper, I will discuss the latest update of the model and the ability of the equation of motion with radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings.

  15. Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

  16. Cross Sections for the Reactions e+e- --> K+ K- pi+pi-, K+ K- pi0pi0, and K+ K- K+ K- Measured Using Initial-State Radiation Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The BABAR Collaboration; J. P. Lees

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the processes e+e- --> K+ K- pi+pi-gamma, K+ K- pi0pi0gamma, and K+ K- K+ K-gamma, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 84000, 8000, and 4200 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 454 fb-1 of BaBar data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the \\epem center-of-mass energy, so that the K+ K- pi+pi- data can be compared with direct measurements of the e+e- --> K+ K- pi+pi- reaction. No direct measurements exist for the e+e- --> K+ K-pi0pi0 or e+e- --> K+ K-K+ K- reactions, and we present an update of our previous result with doubled statistics. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and extract their cross sections. In particular, we perform a more detailed study of the e+e- --> phi(1020)pipigamma reaction, and confirm the presence of the Y(2175) resonance in the phi(1020) f0(980) and K+K-f0(980) modes. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/psi in all three final states and in several intermediate states, as well as the psi(2S) in some modes, and measure the corresponding product of branching fraction and electron width.

  17. Evolving treatment plan quality criteria from institution-specific experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, D.; Shao, W.; DeMarco, J.; Tenn, S.; King, C.; Low, D.; Kupelian, P.; Steinberg, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The dosimetric aspects of radiation therapy treatment plan quality are usually evaluated and reported with dose volume histogram (DVH) endpoints. For clinical practicality, a small number of representative quantities derived from the DVH are often used as dose endpoints to summarize the plan quality. National guidelines on reference values for such quantities for some standard treatment approaches are often used as acceptance criteria to trigger treatment plan review. On the other hand, treatment prescription and planning approaches specific to each institution warrants the need to report plan quality in terms of practice consistency and with respect to institution-specific experience. The purpose of this study is to investigate and develop a systematic approach to record and characterize the institution-specific plan experience and use such information to guide the design of plan quality criteria. In the clinical setting, this approach will assist in (1) improving overall plan quality and consistency and (2) detecting abnormal plan behavior for retrospective analysis. Methods: The authors propose a self-evolving methodology and have developed an in-house prototype software suite that (1) extracts the dose endpoints from a treatment plan and evaluates them against both national standard and institution-specific criteria and (2) evolves the statistics for the dose endpoints and updates institution-specific criteria. Results: The validity of the proposed methodology was demonstrated with a database of prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy cases. As more data sets are accumulated, the evolving institution-specific criteria can serve as a reliable and stable consistency measure for plan quality and reveals the potential use of the ''tighter'' criteria than national standards or projected criteria, leading to practice that may push to shrink the gap between plans deemed acceptable and the underlying unknown optimality. Conclusions: The authors have developed a rationale to improve plan quality and consistency, by evolving the plan quality criteria from institution-specific experience, complementary to national standards. The validity of the proposed method was demonstrated with a prototype system on prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) cases. The current study uses direct and indirect DVH endpoints for plan quality evaluation, but the infrastructure proposed here applies to general outcome data as well. The authors expect forward evaluation together with intelligent update based on evidence-based learning, which will evolve the clinical practice for improved efficiency, consistency, and ultimately better treatment outcome.

  18. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is a hazard to human health when the particle size becomes small enough to enter the lungs, e.g., smoke. At LANL, particulate matter concentrations are measured continuously and...

  19. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  20. S/w Quality Assurance CAST-TX 1 Software Quality Assurance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Jeff

    (tian@engr.smu.edu) Southern Methodist University Dallas, Texas, USA Contents · Software Quality: Why Management Nov. 30, 2002 Prof. Jeff Tian, SMU #12;S/w Quality Assurance CAST-TX 2 Software Quality: Why/usage-based testing and relia- bility engineering measurement and risk management Nov. 30, 2002 Prof. Jeff Tian, SMU

  1. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the Beta-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of Beta-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  2. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the {beta}-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of {beta}-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  3. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  4. An Analysis of Universality in Blackbody Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Marie Robitaille

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the formulation of his law of thermal emission, Kirchhoff conferred upon blackbody radiation the quality of universality [G.Kirchhoff, Annalen der Physik 109, 275 (1860)]. Consequently, modern physics holds that such radiation is independent of the nature and shape of the emitted object. Recently, Kirchhoff's experimental work and theoretical conclusions have been reconsidered [P.M.L. Robitaille, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 31(6), 1263 (2003). In this work, Einstein's derivation of the Planckian relation is reexamined. It is demonstrated that claims of universality in blackbody radiation are invalid.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust2

  6. Quality control by a mobile molecular workshop: quality versus quantity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajeet K. Sharma; Debashish Chowdhury

    2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that moves on a mRNA track while, simultaneously, polymerizing a protein using the mRNA also as the corresponding template. We define, and analytically calculate, two different measures of the efficiency of this machine. However, we arugue that its performance is evaluated better in terms of the translational fidelity and the speed with which it polymerizes a protein. We define both these quantities and calculate these analytically. Fidelity is a measure of the quality of the products while the total quantity of products synthesized in a given interval depends on the speed of polymerization. We show that for synthesizing a large quantity of proteins, it is not necessary to sacrifice the quality. We also explore the effects of the quality control mechanism on the strength of mechano-chemical coupling. We suggest experiments for testing some of the ideas presented here.

  7. Status of radiation detector and neutron monitor technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Y K; Ha, J H; Han, S H; Hong, S B; Hwang, I K; Lee, W G; Moon, B S; Park, S H; Song, M H

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we describe the current states of the radiation detection technology, detectors for industrial application, and neutron monitors. We also survey the new technologies being applied to this field. The method to detect radiation is the measurement of the observable secondary effect from the interaction between incident radiation and detector material, such as ionization, excitation, fluorescence, and chemical reaction. The radiation detectors can be categorized into gas detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors according to major effects and main applications. This report contains the current status and operational principles of these detectors. The application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement, security system, fundamental science experiment, and radiation measurement standardization. The st...

  8. Optical Properties of Saharan Dust and Asian Dust: Application to Radiative Transfer Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Guangyang

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    properties for radiative transfer simulations. Using a Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM), the radiative forcing of mineral dust was computed at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface. By analyzing samples from various in-situ measurements, we...

  9. Cross Sections for the Reactions e+e to K+ K- pi+pi-, K+ K- pi0pi0, and K+ K- K+ K- Measured Using Initial-State Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}-{gamma}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -}{gamma}, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 84000, 8000, and 4200 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 454 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that the K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} data can be compared with direct measurements of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} reaction. No direct measurements exist for the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} or e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -} reactions, and we present an update of our previous result with doubled statistics. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and extract their cross sections. In particular, we perform a more detailed study of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {phi}(1020){pi}{pi}{gamma} reaction, and confirm the presence of the Y (2175) resonance in the {phi}(1020)f{sub 0}(980) and K{sup +}K{sup -} f{sub 0}(980) modes. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/{psi} in all three final states and in several intermediate states, as well as the {phi}(2S) in some modes, and measure the corresponding branching fractions.

  10. Energy Flow in Interjet Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carola F. Berger; Tibor Kucs; George Sterman

    2002-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the distribution of transverse energy, Q_Omega, radiated into an arbitrary interjet angular region, Omega, in high-p_T two-jet events. Using an approximation that emphasizes radiation directly from the partons that undergo the hard scattering, we find a distribution that can be extrapolated smoothly to Q_Omega=Lambda_QCD, where it vanishes. This method, which we apply numerically in a valence quark approximation, provides a class of predictions on transverse energy radiated between jets, as a function of jet energy and rapidity, and of the choice of the region Omega in which the energy is measured. We discuss the relation of our approximation to the radiation from unobserved partons of intermediate energy, whose importance was identified by Dasgupta and Salam.

  11. MULTI-POINT RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

  12. Calibration method for video and radiation imagers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Mark F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fabris, Lorenzo (Knoxville, TN); Gee, Timothy F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goddard, Jr., James S. (Knoxville, TN); Karnowski, Thomas P. (Knoxville, TN); Ziock, Klaus-peter (Clinton, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the high energy radiation imager pixel (HERIP) coordinate and real-world x-coordinate is determined by a least square fit between the HERIP x-coordinate and the measured real-world x-coordinates of calibration markers that emit high energy radiation imager and reflect visible light. Upon calibration, a high energy radiation imager pixel position may be determined based on a real-world coordinate of a moving vehicle. Further, a scale parameter for said high energy radiation imager may be determined based on the real-world coordinate. The scale parameter depends on the y-coordinate of the moving vehicle as provided by a visible light camera. The high energy radiation imager may be employed to detect radiation from moving vehicles in multiple lanes, which correspondingly have different distances to the high energy radiation imager.

  13. Water quality parameter measurement using spectral signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Paul Edward

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the photography, and Richard Carter of the Data Processing Center of Texas A4M who digitized the scanner data. As- sistance in preparing and editing the manuscript were provided by my committee members, Dr. W. P. James, and Dr. J. P, German, with special... water shown in figure I-1. I=rom cultures of various phytoplankton, he obtained the signatures shown in figure I-2. Figures I- 1 (P. 10) and I- 2 (p . II) indicate that water has a minimum attenuation and phytoplankton a maximum attenuation at short...

  14. Weights and Measures Division Quality Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................................. 10 1.2. Organization and Management.......................................................................................... 19 1.13. Records............................................................................ 20 1.15. Management Review

  15. Standoff alpha radiation detection via excited state absorption of air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Jimmy; Yin, Stuart Shizhuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Brenizer, Jack [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Hui, Rongqing [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

    2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A standoff alpha radiation detection technique based on the physical mechanism of excited state absorption of air molecules was explored and is presented in this paper. Instead of directly detecting the radiation via measuring the intensity of radiation induced air fluorescence, the radiation is detected via the excited state absorption of alpha radiation excited/ionized air molecules. Both theoretical analyses and experimental verifications were conducted. The experimental results confirmed that the radiation could be detected via excited state absorption of radiation excited/ionized air molecules at a 10 m standoff distance, which was consistent with the theoretical analyses.

  16. Equipment and methods for rapid analysis of PWO full-sized scintillation crystal radiation hardness during mass production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drobychev, G Yu; Fedorov, A; Korzhik, M V; Lecoq, P; Lopatik, A; Missevitch, O V; Peigneux, J P; Singovsky, A V; Zouevski, R F

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass production of lead tungstate crystals (PWO) for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Project at CERN began at the Bogoroditsk Techno- Chemical Plant (BTCP, Tula Region, Russia) in 2000. Mass production technology, developed in recent years, is based on a set of methods and instrumentation for crystal growth and machining, as well as quality control and certification of crystals. One of the most crucial categories of tolerances is the radiation hardness of crystals. Control of the PWO radiation hardness during the mass production phase requires a reliable, easy-to-use measuring tool with high productivity. A semiautomatic spectrometric setup for PWO radiation hardness monitoring was developed and tested at CERN. After final crosschecks, the setup was put into operation at BTCP. (13 refs).

  17. ARM User Survey Report: Data Access, Quality, and Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, JH; Roeder, LR; Sivaraman, C

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to determine how users of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Data Archive interact with the more than 2000 available types of datastreams. The survey also gathered information about data discovery and data quality. The Market and Competitive Analysis group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory worked with web administrators to develop a landing page from which users could access the survey. A survey invitation was sent by ARM via email to about 6100 users on February 22, 2012. The invitation was also posted on the ARM website and Facebook page. Reminders were sent via e-mail and posted on Facebook while the survey was open, February 22-March 23, 2012.

  18. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc. Boston, MA, USA June 2013 Funding was provided by the California Energy energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among1 Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits Federico Norisa, , Gary

  19. RESIDENTIAL LOCATION CHOICE AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    RESIDENTIAL LOCATION CHOICE AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIR QUALITY UC Davis-Caltrans Air control measure. #12;RESIDENTIAL LOCATION CHOICE AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIR QUALITY.......................................................... 3 2.2 The Role of Residential Location Choice

  20. PowerQuality Jonathan Manson &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    of the avoidable wastage and economic losses incurred by these industrial sectors at a time when energy sources of PQ issues, measurement undertaken and relations with the supplying electrical utility. The 6th Report #12;Power Quality Campaign 2 www.leonardo-energy.org 1. Foreword and Executive Summary Since

  1. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  2. Defining Forage Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muir, James; Lambert, Barry; Newman, Yoana

    2007-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication covers the definition of forage quality, the main factors affecting forage quality, and the components and importance of forage analyses. It focuses on the need for producers to understand forage quality and the factors that affect...

  3. Office of Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Quality Assurance establishes and maintains the quality assurance (QA) policies, requirements and guidance for the Department and serves as DOE's corporate resource to ensure that products and services meet or exceed the Department’s quality objectives.

  4. Radiation Field on Superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

    1994-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dynamics of multiwormhole configurations within the framework of the Euclidean Polyakov approach to string theory, incorporating a modification to the Hamiltonian which makes it impossible to interpret the Coleman Alpha parameters of the effective interactions as a quantum field on superspace, reducible to an infinite tower of fields on space-time. We obtain a Planckian probability measure for the Alphas that allows $\\frac{1}{2}\\alpha^{2}$ to be interpreted as the energy of the quanta of a radiation field on superspace whose values may still fix the coupling constants.

  5. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  6. Mitigation of Radiation and EMI Effects on the Vacuum Control System of LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pigny, G; Krakowski, P; Rio, B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 26 km of vacuum chambers where circulates the beam of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) must be maintained under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) to minimize the beam interactions with residual gases, and allow the operation of specific systems. The vacuum level is measured by several thousands of gauges along the accelerator. Bad vacuum quality may trigger a beam dump and close the associated sector valves. The effects of radiation or Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI) on components that may stop the machine must be evaluated and minimized. We report on the actions implemented to mitigate their impact on the vacuum control system.

  7. Groundwater Quality Standards (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain groundwater quality standards and classifications, regulations for point sources, and provisions for remedial action.

  8. Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

  9. Creating Artificial Radiation Belts in the Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauel, Michael E.

    Current: Trapped, High- Protons (15-250 keV) · Greatly intensified during geomagnetic storms · Ti ~ 7Te Jeff #12;Outline · The Earth's radiation belts and ring current · Fast-electron interchange instability to measure the artificial radiation belt produced by the Argus explosions (1958). (Explosions continued

  10. Gluon Radiation in Top Production and Decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosmin Macesanu; Lynne H. Orr

    2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an exact calculation of gluon radiation in top production and decay at high energy electron-positron colliders. We include all spin correlations and interferences, the bottom quark mass, and finite top width effects in the matrix element calculation. We study properties of the radiated gluons and implications for top mass measurement.

  11. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M. (eds.)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  12. Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality: Measuring, assessing, and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality attributes. Publication 452-400 #12;Agricultural Management Associate, respectively, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech #12;1 Introduction What makes

  13. A cost/benefit model for insertion of technological innovation into a total quality management program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratliff, William L

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for measuring quality improvement is the cost of quality. Traditionally, comprehensive quality cost reports have regularly been issued in a fixed format to identify opportunities for improvement and provide guidelines for improvement over time. However, current...

  14. Quality of Service, Efficiency and Scale in Network Industries: An analysis of European electricity distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    quality. We also show that incorporating quality of service does not alter scale economy measures. Quality of service should be an integrated part of efficiency analysis and incentive regulation regimes, as well as in the economic review of market...

  15. environmental management radiation protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    EHS environmental management biosafety radiation protection industrial hygiene safety Working: Biosafety, Environmental Management, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection and Safety. Each specialized Management Program, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection Program, and the Safety Program. (http

  16. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  17. Original article Measurement and modelling of radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (Diawara, 1990) that the trunks have almost no effect on heat and mass exchange. The leaf area index (LAI

  18. MEASUREMENT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION - STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applica..-. tions; and Solar Thermal Power Systems, Divisiondesign of large scale solar thermal power plants, and thethe analysis for solar thermal applications. SERI's ini-

  19. MEASUREMENT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION - STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    signs for a 10 MWe solar pilot plant, tile dc! >ign, n>nstlarge scale solar thermal power plants, and the performance

  20. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Donald

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the performance of a solar plant. Subsequent to these earlySolar 1, the Barstow 10 Mw Central Receiver pilot plant; the

  1. Posters Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office PressPostdoctoraldecadal observations71 Posters117

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically Induced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAt

  3. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed DonatARMDirectory:The Ames ProcessThe

  4. Session Papers Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program-

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 September 2009Energy,ServicesServicesSession Papers

  5. Courses on Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

  6. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  7. Radiation Control (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

  8. Generated using V3.2 of the official AMS LATEX templatejournal page layout FOR AUTHOR USE ONLY, NOT FOR SUBMISSION! Can Top of Atmosphere Radiation Measurements Constrain Climate Predictions? Part

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The model configurations were produced from several independent optimisation experiments in which four of perturbed-physics simulations of the HadAM3 atmospheric model were compared with the CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System) estimates of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and Reflected Shortwave Radiation

  9. Quality Counts Certificate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilek, Kevin

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This certificate accompanies the Quality Counts program. 1 page. It comes in packages of 25 certificates....

  10. Track 9: Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 9: Quality Assurance

  11. Radiation Emergency Medicine Fact Sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiation Effects Quality

  12. Determinants of Patient Satisfaction During Receipt of Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Famiglietti, Robin M., E-mail: rfamigli@mdanderson.org; Neal, Emily C.; Edwards, Timothy J.; Allen, Pamela K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlations and relative contributions of components of a radiation oncology-specific patient satisfaction survey to their overall satisfaction scores. Methods and Materials: From September 2006 through August 2012, we prospectively collected data from 8069 patients receiving radiation treatments with a 26-question survey. Each question was rated on a 10-point Likert scale. We analyzed the correlation between scores for each question and the overall satisfaction question. We also dichotomized the scores to reflect satisfaction versus dissatisfaction and used logistic regression to assess the relationship between items in 4 domains (the patient–provider relationship, access and environmental issues, wait times, and educational information) and overall satisfaction. Results: Scores on all questions correlated with overall patient satisfaction scores (P<.0001). Satisfaction with patient–provider relationships had the greatest influence on overall satisfaction (R{sup 2}=0.4219), followed by wait times (R{sup 2}=0.4000), access/environment (R{sup 2}=0.3837), and patient education (R{sup 2}=0.3700). The specific variables with the greatest effect on patient satisfaction were the care provided by radiation therapists (odds ratio 1.91) and pain management (odds ratio 1.29). Conclusions: We found that patients' judgment of provider relationships in an outpatient radiation oncology setting were the greatest contributors to their overall satisfaction ratings. Other measures typically associated with patient satisfaction (phone access, scheduling, and ease of the check-in process) correlated less strongly with overall satisfaction. These findings may be useful for other practices preparing to assess patient ratings of quality of care.

  13. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, R.A.

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

  14. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, Raymond A. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

  15. Radiation in Lorentz violating electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Montemayor; L. F. Urrutia

    2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation is analyzed in the classical effective Lorentz invariance violating model of Myers-Pospelov. Within the full far-field approximation we compute the electric and magnetic fields, the angular distribution of the power spectrum and the total emitted power in the m-th harmonic, as well as the polarization. We find the appearance of rather unexpected and large amplifying factors, which go together with the otherwise negligible naive expansion parameter. This opens up the possibility of further exploring Lorentz invariance violations by synchrotron radiation measurements in astrophysical sources where these amplifying factors are important.

  16. Measurement of the left-right asymmetry in pion-proton radiative exchange and charge exchange scattering from 301 to 625 MeV/c on a transversely polarized target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, George Jung-Kwang

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The left-right asymmetry A/sub N/ in ..pi../sup /minus//p ..-->.. ..gamma..n has been measured at p/sub ..pi.. = 301, 316, 427, 471, 547, 586, and 625 MeV/c using a transversely polarized target. The final-state neutron and gamma were detected in coincidence by two states of matching neutron and gamma detectors at gamma angles centered around 90/degree and 110/degree/ c.m. A gamma detector consisted of an array of 15 counters, each was 15/times/15/times/25 cm/sup 3/ block of lead-glass. A neutron detector consisted of 15 counters also, each one was a cylindrical plastic scintillator 7.6 cm in diameter and 45.7 cm long. The A/sub N/ results are compared with the predictions from the most recent single-pion photoproduction partial-wave analysis by Arai and Fujii. The agreement is poor, casting doubt on the correctness of the value for the radiative-decay amplitude of the neutral Roper resonance now in use. A comparison is made with the 90/degree/recoil proton polarization data of the inverse reaction derived from ..gamma..d scattering, there are substantial discrepencies. Charge exchange (..pi../sup /minus/p/ ..-->.. ..gamma../degree/n) events were the major yield in this experiment. Very precise values of the charge exchange analyzing power were obtained with an error of typically 3%. The charge exchange results are compared with the predictions from recent ..gamma..n partial wave analyses. At the lower incident energies little difference is seen between the VPI, Karlsruhe-Helsinki, and CMU-LBL analyses, and there is excellent agreement with our experiment. From the onset of the Roper resonance the VPI solution is strongly favored.

  17. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested select the most effective and economical treatment method. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications

  18. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality-- Physical and Biological Soil Crusts USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 7 What are soil crusts? A physical crust is a thin layer with reduced porosity and increased density at the surface of the soil. A biological crust

  19. LHCb RICH Online-Monitor and Data-Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerzel, U

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC (CERN) has been optimised for high precision measurements of the beauty quark sector. Its main objective is to precisely determine and over-constrain the parameters of the CKM mixing matrix, and to search for further sources of CP violation and new physics beyond the Standard Model in rare B-decays. Efficient particle identification at high purities over a wide momentum range from around 1 to ~100GeV/c is vital to many LHCb analyses. Central to the LHCb particle identification strategy are two Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detectors which use Silica Aerogel and C4F10 and CF4 gas radiators. A rigorous quality control scheme is being developed to insure that the data recorded by the RICH detector meets the stringent requirements of the physics analyses. The talk summarises the LHCb RICH online monitoring and data-quality strategy. Multiple dedicated algorithms are deployed to detect any potential issue already during data-taking ranging from integrity checks, mis-alignments to cha...

  20. Data Quality of Native XML Databases in the Healthcare Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Siobhán

    .0 [Database Management]: Security, integrity and protection; K.6.4 [System Management]: Quality assurance; J.3 are not foolproof. This report reviews work on data quality in both database and management research areas support database systems provide in giving a measure of the quality of the data they hold. This inducts

  1. Quality of Health Care PH/ISyE 703

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Quality of Health Care PH/ISyE 703 Spring 2009 Tuesday 4:30 p.m. ­ 7 p.m. Room 758 WARF Building The objectives of this course are: 1) To review the conceptualization and measurement of quality of healthcare and patient safety. 2) To illustrate basic concepts and methods in quality improvement as applied to current

  2. Quality of Health Care PH/ISyE 703

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Quality of Health Care PH/ISyE 703 Fall 2010 Monday 4:45-7:15 p.m. Room 1220 HSLC Building (750 The objectives of this course are: 1) To review the conceptualization and measurement of quality of healthcare and patient safety. 2) To illustrate basic concepts and methods in quality improvement as applied to current

  3. SOIL QUALITY (SWS 6134) 3 Credits-Fall 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    with basic concepts, principles, components, measurements, and evaluation of soil quality and its management for sustainable agriculture. Soil quality is the capacity of the soil to function within the ecosystem boundaries. In this course, state-of-the-art studies on soil quality and the principles, assessment and management of soil

  4. Residential HVAC Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential HVAC && Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2) Tav Commins #12;Contact Information · Energy construction, Additions /Alterations · Nonresidential and Residential #12;Residential HVAC && Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2) ·HVAC EfficiencyHVAC Efficiency ·Quality Installation (HERS Measures) S li b HERS R t

  5. affect health-related quality-of-life: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of quality of life and its measurement. Quality of life measurements are best done by patients themselves, although, in some situations a proxy such as carer or relative can be...

  6. Satellite-based remote sensing of cirrus clouds: hyperspectral radiative transfer modeling, analysis of uncertainties in in-situ cloud extinction measurements and intercomparison of cirrus retrievals from a-train instruments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhibo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation consists of three parts, each devoted to a particular issue of significant importance for satellite-based remote sensing of cirrus clouds. In the first part, we develop and present a fast infrared radiative transfer model...

  7. Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. Program overview of fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project is to provide essential information about the solar radiation resource to users and planners of solar technologies so that they can make informed and timely decisions concerning applications of those technologies. The project team accomplishes this by producing and disseminating relevant and reliable information about solar radiation. Topics include: Variability of solar radiation, measurements of solar radiation, spectral distribution of solar radiation, and assessment of the solar resource. FY 1993 accomplishments are detailed.

  8. Generation and characterization of superradiant undulator radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocek, D.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-power, pulsed, coherent, far-infrared (FIR) radiation has many scientific applications, such as pump-probe studies of surfaces, liquids, and solids, studies of high-T{sub c} superconductors, biophysics, plasma diagnostics, and excitation of Rydberg atoms. Few sources of such FIR radiation currently exist. Superradiant undulator radiation produced at the SUNSHINE (Stanford UNiversity SHort INtense Electron-source) is such a FIR source. First proposed in the mm-wave spectral range by Motz, superradiant undulator radiation has been realized in the 45 {micro}m to 300 {micro}m spectral range by using sub-picosecond electron bunches produced by the SUNSHINE facility. The experimental setup and measurements of this FIR radiation are reported in this thesis. In addition, to being a useful FIR source, the superradiant undulator radiation produced at SUNSHINE is an object of research in itself. Measured superlinear growth of the radiated energy along the undulator demonstrates the self-amplification of radiation by the electron bunch. This superlinear growth is seen at 47 {micro}m to 70 {micro}m wavelengths. These wavelengths are an order of magnitude shorter than in previous self-amplification demonstrations.

  9. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL] [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

  10. Studies in Power Quality Success

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laan, B. A.

    /" cycle. Low voltage sag susceptible relays offer another mitigation measure to solve problems at a number offacilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has coordinated the development of voltage sag susceptibility standards for equipment... Conference, Houston, TX, April 5-6, 2000 electricity providers can use this type of information to agree on a level ofpower quality that best meets the needs ofend users. The California Energy Commission is funding research with EPRI to define...

  11. General Water Quality (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this water quality rule is to protect, maintain and improve the quality of waters of the State. Any applicant for a federal license, permit or project to conduct any activity...

  12. State Water Quality (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the Commonwealth of Virginia to: (1) protect existing high quality state waters and restore the quality of all other state waters to permit all reasonable public uses and...

  13. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, R. C.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan documents the quality assurance activities for the Wastewater/Stormwater/Groundwater and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This QAPP was prepared in accordance with DOE guidance on compliance with 10CFR830.120.

  14. Quality of service profiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misailovic, Sasa

    Many computations exhibit a trade off between execution time and quality of service. A video encoder, for example, can often encode frames more quickly if it is given the freedom to produce slightly lower quality video. A ...

  15. Method for detecting moisture in soils using secondary cosmic radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water content in a soil is determined by measuring the attenuation of secondary background cosmic radiation as this radiation propagates through a layer of soil and water. By measuring the attenuation of secondary cosmic radiation in the range of 5 MeV-15 MeV it is possible to obtain a relative measure of the water content in a soil layer above a suitable radiation detector and thus establish when and how much irrigation is needed. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power.

  16. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Hawk, James A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  17. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  18. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  19. The German quality system for waste repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Saltzgitter (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)--Federal Office for Radiation protection--has to guarantee that the requirements resulting from different regulations concerning planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a waste repository are fulfilled. In addition, the results of the safety assessments lead to nuclear-specific requirements on the design of the plant as well as to requirements on the radioactive waste packages intended to be disposed of. Therefore, the implementation of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) system is an essential task in order to ensure that the designed quality is achieved so that the necessary precaution against damage is taken. In this paper, a detailed description of QA and QC to be applied to the planned Konrad repository as well as the basic principles and the present status of the waste package QC are indicated and discussed.

  20. Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waste Management Group

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Revision 6 Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan Waste6 WM QA Plan Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan LBNL/4 Management Quality Assurance

  1. Assessing quality management in an R and D environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, B.D.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier research and development institution operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Since 1991, LANL has pursued a heightened commitment to developing world-class quality in management and operations. In 1994 LANL adopted the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria as a framework for all activities and initiated more formalized customer focus and quality management. Five measurement systems drive the current integration of quality efforts: an annual Baldrige-based assessment, a customer focus program, customer-driven performance measurement, an employee performance management system and annual employee surveys, and integrated planning processes with associated goals and measures.

  2. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to room temperature'' and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  3. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to "room temperature", and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  4. Method for measuring the density of lightweight materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snow, Samuel G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Giacomelli, Edward J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a nondestructive method for measuring the density of articles composed of elements having a low atomic number such as plastic and carbon composites. The measurement is accomplished by striking the article with a collimated beam of X radiation, simultaneously monitoring the radiation scattered and the radiation transmitted by the article, then relating the ratio of the radiation scattered to the radiation transmitted with the density of the article. The above method is insensitive to all variables except density.

  5. Perceptual quality assessment for compressed video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Kai-Chieh

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 Perceptual Temporal Quality Metric (Frame Interpolation Quality Metric . . . . . . . . . . . .Overview of Video Quality Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford ..................................................................................................................... 17 The Basic Principles of Radiation Protection........................................................... 17 Protection against Radiation Exposure

  7. Zirconium Plate Measuring Instrument (ZPMI) Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Davies; J. H. Jackson

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the design of a device intended to measure radiation-induced strain in zirconium plate specimens as a function of neutron fluence.

  8. Laser diffraction process and apparatus for width measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    apparatus for width measurement of elongated objects Re-direct Destination: Size distribution of elongated objects is measured by forward scattering radiation from the objects...

  9. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  10. Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

  11. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  12. Recent progress in silica aerogel Cherenkov radiator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makoto Tabata; Ichiro Adachi; Hideyuki Kawai; Masato Kubo; Takeshi Sato

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present recent progress in the development of hydrophobic silica aerogel as a Cherenkov radiator. In addition to the conventional method, the recently developed pin-drying method for producing high-refractive-index aerogels with high transparency was studied in detail. Optical qualities and large tile handling for crack-free aerogels were investigated. Sufficient photons were detected from high-performance aerogels in a beam test.

  13. Recent progress in silica aerogel Cherenkov radiator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kubo, Masato; Sato, Takeshi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present recent progress in the development of hydrophobic silica aerogel as a Cherenkov radiator. In addition to the conventional method, the recently developed pin-drying method for producing high-refractive-index aerogels with high transparency was studied in detail. Optical qualities and large tile handling for crack-free aerogels were investigated. Sufficient photons were detected from high-performance aerogels in a beam test.

  14. A Systematic Review of the Impact of Physicians’ Occupational Well-Being on the Quality of Patient Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheepers, RA; Boerebach, BCM; Arah, OA; Heineman, MJ; Lombarts, KMJMH

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    care team members and quality of care. Am J Med Qual. 2011.MO, Buetow SA. Defining quality of care. Soc Sci Med. 2000;Fleischut P, Regan BK. Quality measurement in healthcare.

  15. Radiation protection at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  16. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  17. The visible Smith-Purcell radiation search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernow, R.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Ulc, S. Wang, X.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here the results of an experiment at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to search for the production of visible radiation from the Smith-Purcell effect using a 3 MeV electron beam. After running the experiment under a variety of conditions we were unable to isolate a definite signal from Smith-Parcell effect. Any Smith-Purcell signal present in the measured radiation was less than 10% of the background signal.

  18. Zemax simulations of diffraction and transition radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aumeyr, T; Bobb, L M; Bolzon, B; Lefevre, T; Mazzoni, S; Billing, M G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffraction Radiation (DR) and Transition Radiation (TR) are produced when a relativistic charged particle moves in the vicinity of a medium or through a medium respectively. The target atoms are polarised by the electric field of the charged particle, which then oscillate thus emitting radiation with a very broad spectrum. The spatialspectral properties of DR/TR are sensitive to various electron beam parameters. Several projects aim to measure the transverse (vertical) beam size using DR or TR. This paper reports on how numerical simulations using Zemax can be used to study such a system.

  19. Radiative heat transfer between dielectric bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent development of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) has led to measurements of radiative heat transfer between a heated sensor and a cooled sample down to the nanometer range. This allows for comparision of the known theoretical description of radiative heat transfer, which is based on fluctuating electrodynamics, with experiment. The theory itself is a macroscopic theory, which can be expected to break down at distances much smaller than 10-8m. Against this background it seems to be reasonable to revisit the known macroscopic theory of fluctuating electrodynamics and of radiative heat transfer.

  20. RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2002 D. Delacroix* J. P. Guerre** P. Leblanc'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

  1. Radiation Processing -an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

  2. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  3. Measurement-Measurement-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

    Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

  4. Emissions of crustal material in air quality forecast systems: Use of satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Emissions of crustal material in air quality forecast systems: Use of satellite observations) Natural (dust, fires, volcanos) Meteorology: Transport, turbulence Clouds and radiation, precipitations Chemistry-transport model Gas and particles concentrations Use of model outputs: Analysis Direct: model vs

  5. Quality assurance and data management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains graphs and tables relating to quality assurance and data management for environmental quality at Hanford Reservation.

  6. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  7. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Emily B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

  8. Water Quality (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish requirements and procedures for permitting, enforcement, monitoring, and surveillance, and spill control activities of the Department of Environmental Quality. Without...

  9. Society for Quality Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on their pre-eminence in technology, theory, education, or the application or management of quality control. ASQ Fellows represent diverse industries on a global scale....

  10. Environmental Quality (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes the policy of the state to be the conservation, protection, and restoration of the state's natural resources. The Department of Environmental Quality is established, along...

  11. Water Quality Standards (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency outlines the minimum water quality requirements for all surface waters of the state.

  12. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  13. Validation of GOES-Derived Surface Radiation Using NOAA's Physical Retrieval Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was part of a multiyear collaboration with the University of Wisconsin and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to produce high-quality, satellite-based, solar resource datasets for the United States. High-quality, solar resource assessment accelerates technology deployment by making a positive impact on decision making and reducing uncertainty in investment decisions. Satellite-based solar resource datasets are used as a primary source in solar resource assessment. This is mainly because satellites provide larger areal coverage and longer periods of record than ground-based measurements. With the advent of newer satellites with increased information content and faster computers that can process increasingly higher data volumes, methods that were considered too computationally intensive are now feasible. One class of sophisticated methods for retrieving solar resource information from satellites is a two-step, physics-based method that computes cloud properties and uses the information in a radiative transfer model to compute solar radiation. This method has the advantage of adding additional information as satellites with newer channels come on board. This report evaluates the two-step method developed at NOAA and adapted for solar resource assessment for renewable energy with the goal of identifying areas that can be improved in the future.

  14. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

  15. Radiation damage by neutrons to plastic scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, G.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Wick, K. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik] [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polystyrene based scintillator SCSN38, wavelength shifter Y7 with polymethylmethacrylate matrix and pure PM-MA light guide GS218 have been irradiated in the mixed radiation field of a pool reactor. About 77% of the dose released in SCSN38 was caused by the {gamma}-field, 23% by fast neutrons. The total dose ranged from 2 to 105 kGy. The dose measurements were made using alanine dosimeters. Transmission and fluorescence of the samples have been measured before and several times after irradiation. The radiation damage results shown o differences to irradiations in pure {gamma}-fields with corresponding released doses.

  16. Agriculture and Environmental Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    ALS 3133 Agriculture and Environmental Quality 3 credits Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry://lss.at.ufl.edu Overview: Analysis of the effects of agriculture on environmental quality with emphasis on agricultural wastes and practices, the potential for using agricultural systems for disposal of other wastes

  17. Agriculture and Environmental Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    ALS 3133 Agriculture and Environmental Quality 3 credits Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry Website is through E-Learning: http://lss.at.ufl.edu Overview: Analysis of the effects of agriculture on environmental quality with emphasis on agricultural wastes and practices, the potential for using agricultural

  18. Air Quality Chapter Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Chapter 30 Air Quality Chapter Outline 1 Overview 2 1.1 Hazards / Impacts 2 1.2 Exposure Sources 3 Manual Chapter 30: Air Quality 7 References 20 8 Implementation 21 9 Ownership 22 1 Overview SLAC operations produce a wide range of air emissions. Sources of emissions include standard equipment

  19. Implementing Best Practices for Data Quality Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S. M.; McCormack, P.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective solar radiation measurements for research and economic analyses require a strict protocol for maintenance, calibration, and documentation to minimize station downtime and data corruption. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data includes guidelines for operating a solar measurement station. This paper describes a suite of automated and semi-automated routines based on the best practices handbook as developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project. These routines allow efficient inspection and data flagging to alert operators of conditions that require immediate attention. Although the handbook is targeted for concentrating solar power applications, the quality-assessment procedures described are generic and should benefit many solar measurement applications. The routines use data in one-minute measurement resolution, as suggested by the handbook, but they could be modified for other time scales.

  20. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, annual report 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krey, P.W.; Heit, M. [eds.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1995 and serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Manager and staff of the Chicago Operations Office, and our colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven research program areas: (1) Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity; (2) Radiation Transport and Dosimetry; (3) Environmental Radon, Thoron, and Related Aerosols; (4) Atmospheric and Surface Pollutant Studies Related to Global Climate Change; (5) Atmospheric Chemistry; and (6) Metrology, Consultation, and Emergency Response Environmental Management The mission of EML is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues, and related national security issues.