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1

ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE University of California, Berkeley Adaptive radiation- tions and convergence of species groups on different land masses. Since then, adaptive radiation has diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage." There are radiations that are not adaptive

Gillespie, Rosemary

2

Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

Jian Li

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

3

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1a Figure 1b Figure 1. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma in afollowing completion of radiation therapy. Figure 2a Figurecell histiocytosis after radiation for breast carcinoma: can

Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

7, 72357275, 2007 Adaptive radiative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discussions Two adaptive radiative transfer schemes for numerical weather prediction models V. Venema 1 , A numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models. The atmosphere and the land surface are complex-stream approximation. In most weather prediction models these parameterisation schemes are therefore called infre

Boyer, Edmond

6

Radiation Induced Instability Patrick Hagerty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Induced Instability Patrick Hagerty #3; Department of Mathematics University of Michigan of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 abloch@math.lsa.umich.edu Michael I. Weinstein z Fundamental Mathematics a central rigid body which can radiate energy through exible components such as solar panels and antennae

Bloch, Anthony

7

Adaptable radiation monitoring system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable radioactive-material detection system capable of detecting radioactive sources moving at high speeds. The system has at least one radiation detector capable of detecting gamma-radiation and coupled to an MCA capable of collecting spectral data in very small time bins of less than about 150 msec. A computer processor is connected to the MCA for determining from the spectral data if a triggering event has occurred. Spectral data is stored on a data storage device, and a power source supplies power to the detection system. Various configurations of the detection system may be adaptably arranged for various radiation detection scenarios. In a preferred embodiment, the computer processor operates as a server which receives spectral data from other networked detection systems, and communicates the collected data to a central data reporting system.

Archer, Daniel E. (Livermore, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA); Mauger, G. Joseph (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Mercer, Michael B. (Manteca, CA); Pletcher, David C. (Sacramento, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Schek, James L. (Tracy, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

8

Adaptation, Speciation, and Convergence: A Hierarchical Analysis of Adaptive Radiation in Caribbean Anolis Lizards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Caribbean Anolis lizards are a classic case of adaptive radiation, repeated four times across islands of the Greater Antilles. On each island, very similar patterns of evolutionary divergence have occurred, resulting in the evolution of the same set...

Losos, Jonathan B.; Glor, Richard E.; Kolbe, Jason J.; Nicholson, Kirsten

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Medium-induced multi-photon radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Moli\\`{e}re limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

Hao Ma; Carlos A. Salgado; Konrad Tywoniuk

2011-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

10

Direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is the first investigation of using direct aperture optimization (DAO) for online adaptive radiation therapy (ART). A geometrical model representing the anatomy of a typical prostate case was created. To simulate interfractional deformations, four different anatomical deformations were created by systematically deforming the original anatomy by various amounts (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 cm). We describe a series of techniques where the original treatment plan was adapted in order to correct for the deterioration of dose distribution quality caused by the anatomical deformations. We found that the average time needed to adapt the original plan to arrive at a clinically acceptable plan is roughly half of the time needed for a complete plan regeneration, for all four anatomical deformations. Furthermore, through modification of the DAO algorithm the optimization search space was reduced and the plan adaptation was significantly accelerated. For the first anatomical deformation (0.25 cm), the plan adaptation was six times more efficient than the complete plan regeneration. For the 0.50 and 0.75 cm deformations, the optimization efficiency was increased by a factor of roughly 3 compared to the complete plan regeneration. However, for the anatomical deformation of 1.00 cm, the reduction of the optimization search space during plan adaptation did not result in any efficiency improvement over the original (nonmodified) plan adaptation. The anatomical deformation of 1.00 cm demonstrates the limit of this approach. We propose an innovative approach to online ART in which the plan adaptation and radiation delivery are merged together and performed concurrently--adaptive radiation delivery (ARD). A fundamental advantage of ARD is the fact that radiation delivery can start almost immediately after image acquisition and evaluation. Most of the original plan adaptation is done during the radiation delivery, so the time spent adapting the original plan does not increase the overall time the patient has to spend on the treatment couch. As a consequence, the effective time allotted for plan adaptation is drastically reduced. For the 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 cm anatomical deformations, the treatment time was increased by only 2, 4, and 6 s, respectively, as compared to no plan adaptation. For the anatomical deformation of 1.0 cm the time increase was substantially larger. The anatomical deformation of 1.0 cm represents an extreme case, which is rarely observed for the prostate, and again demonstrates the limit of this approach. ARD shows great potential for an online adaptive method with minimal extension of treatment time.

Mestrovic, Ante; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Nichol, Alan; Clark, Brenda G.; Otto, Karl [Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada) and Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Medical Physics, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Radiation-induced lung injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. (Yale Univ. Medical Center, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Radiative acceleration and transient, radiation-induced electric fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radiative acceleration of particles and the electrostatic potential fields that arise in low density plasmas hit by radiation produced by a transient, compact source are investigated. We calculate the dynamical evolution and asymptotic energy of the charged particles accelerated by the photons and the radiation-induced electric double layer in the full relativistic, Klein-Nishina regime. For fluxes in excess of $10^{27}$ ${\\rm erg} {\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$, the radiative force on a diluted plasma ($n\\la 10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$) is so strong that electrons are accelerated rapidly to relativistic speeds while ions lag behind owing to their larger inertia. The ions are later effectively accelerated by the strong radiation-induced double layer electric field up to Lorentz factors $\\approx 100$, attainable in the case of negligible Compton drag. The asymptotic energies achieved by both ions and electrons are larger by a factor 2--4 with respect to what one could naively expect assuming that the electron-ion assembly is a rigidly coupled system. The regime we investigate may be relevant within the framework of giant flares from soft gamma-repeaters.

L. Zampieri; R. Turolla; L. Foschini; A. Treves

2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

13

Contemporary evolution, allelic recycling, and adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contemporary evolution, allelic recycling, and adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback within ten generations. Rare freshwater-adapted alleles have been recycled from freshwater to oceanic evolve very slowly led him to study artificial selection, natural selection's component mechanisms (e

Aguirre, Windsor E.

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive radiation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adaptive radiation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Supporting Information 10.1002bies.200900102 Summary:...

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - attenuates murine radiation-induced Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation-induced Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: attenuates murine radiation-induced Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 RADIATION...

16

Radiation induced strand breakage analyzed by tunel technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION INDUCED STRAND BREAKAGE ANALYZED BY TUNEL TECHNIQUE A Thesis MAtuSSA DAWN REYNOLDS Submitted to the 015ce of Graduate Studies of Texas Ad. M University in partial fu1611ment of the requirements for the dree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 2003 Major Subject: Health Physics RADIATION INDUCED STRAND BREAKAGE ANALYZED BY TUNEL TECHNIQUE A Thesis MAtuSSA DAWN REYNOLDS Submitted to Texas %%:M University in partial fulfillmen of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Reynolds, Marissa Dawn

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The irradiation of metallic glasses to induce nanocrystallization was studied in two metallic glass compositions, Cu50Zr45Ti5 and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5. Atomic mobility was described using a model based on localized excess free volume due to displace...

Carter, Jesse

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders Todd A independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb- weaving-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web

Blackledge, Todd

20

Hierarchical Adaptive Solution of Radiation Transport Problems on Unstructured Grids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computational radiation transport has steadily gained acceptance in the last decade as a viable modeling tool due to the rapid advancements in computer software and hardware technologies. It can be applied for the analysis of a wide range of problems which arise in nuclear reactor physics, medical physics, atmospheric physics, astrophysics and other areas of engineering physics. However, radiation transport is an extremely chanllenging computational problem since the governing equation is seven-deimensional (3 in space, 2 in direction, 1 in energy, and 1 in time) with a high degree of coupleing betwen these variables. If not careful, this relatively large number of independent variables when discretized can potentially lead to sets of linear equations of intractable size. Though parallel computing has allowed the solution of very large problems, avaliable computational resources will always be finite due to the fact that every more sophisticated multiphysics models are being demanded by industry. There is thus the pressing requirement to optimize the discretizations so as to minimize the effort and maximize the accuracy.

Dr. Cassiano R. E de Oliveira

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Solution of the equation of radiative transfer using a NewtonKrylov approach and adaptive mesh refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solution of the equation of radiative transfer using a Newton­Krylov approach and adaptive mesh Available online 25 November 2011 Keywords: Radiation transport Discrete ordinates method Finite ordinates method (DOM) and finite-volume method (FVM) are used exten- sively to solve the radiative transfer

Groth, Clinton P. T.

22

Modeling radiation-induced mixing at interfaces between low solubility metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis studies radiation-induced mixing at interfaces between low solubility metals using molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. It provides original contributions on the fundamental mechanisms of radiation-induced ...

Zhang, Liang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Nature of Radiation-Induced Defects in Quartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although quartz ($\\rm \\alpha$-form) is a mineral used in numerous applications wherein radiation exposure is an issue, the nature of the atomistic defects formed during radiation-induced damage have not been fully clarified. Especially, the extent of oxygen vacancy formation is still debated, which is an issue of primary importance as optical techniques based on charged oxygen vacancies have been utilized to assess the level of radiation damage in quartz. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied to study the effects of ballistic impacts on the atomic network of quartz. We show that the defects that are formed mainly consist of over-coordinated Si and O, as well as Si--O connectivity defects, e.g., small Si--O rings and edge-sharing Si tetrahedra. Oxygen vacancies, on the contrary, are found in relatively low abundance, suggesting that characterizations based on $E^{\\prime}$ centers do not adequately capture radiation-induced structural damage in quartz. Finally, we evaluate the dependenc...

Wang, Bu; Pignatelli, Isabella; Sant, Gaurav N; Bauchy, Mathieu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Hybrid Characteristics: 3D radiative transfer for parallel adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a three-dimensional radiative transfer method designed specifically for use with parallel adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics codes. This new algorithm, which we call hybrid characteristics, introduces a novel form of ray tracing that can neither be classified as long, nor as short characteristics, but which applies the underlying principles, i.e. efficient execution through interpolation and parallelizability, of both. Primary applications of the hybrid characteristics method are radiation hydrodynamics problems that take into account the effects of photoionization and heating due to point sources of radiation. The method is implemented in the hydrodynamics package FLASH. The ionization, heating, and cooling processes are modelled using the DORIC ionization package. Upon comparison with the long characteristics method, we find that our method calculates the column density with a similarly high accuracy and produces sharp and well defined shadows. We show the quality of the new algorithm in an application to the photoevaporation of multiple over-dense clumps. We present several test problems demonstrating the feasibility of our method for performing high resolution three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics calculations that span a large range of scales. Initial performance tests show that the ray tracing part of our method takes less time to execute than other parts of the calculation (e.g. hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh refinement), and that a high degree of efficiency is obtained in parallel execution. Although the hybrid characteristics method is developed for problems involving photoionization due to point sources, the algorithm can be easily adapted to the case of more general radiation fields.

Erik-Jan Rijkhorst; Tomasz Plewa; Anshu Dubey; Garrelt Mellema

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

25

A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Cerenkov emission is induced when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons in everyday radiation therapy of tissue; yet, this phenomenon has never been fully documented. This study quantifies the emissions and also demonstrates that the Cerenkov emission can excite a fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), embedded in biological phantoms. Methods: In this study, Cerenkov emission induced by radiation from a clinical linear accelerator is investigated. Biological mimicking phantoms were irradiated with x-ray photons, with energies of 6 or 18 MV, or electrons at energies 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 MeV. The Cerenkov emission and the induced molecular fluorescence were detected by a camera or a spectrometer equipped with a fiber optic cable. Results: It is shown that both x-ray photons and electrons, at MeV energies, produce optical Cerenkov photons in tissue mimicking media. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Cerenkov emission can excite a fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), embedded in biological phantoms. Conclusions: The results here indicate that molecular fluorescence monitoring during external beam radiotherapy is possible.

Axelsson, Johan; Davis, Scott C.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Developing Quality Assurance Processes for Image-Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quality assurance has long been implemented in radiation treatment as systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the radiation oncology service will satisfy the given requirements for quality care. The existing reports from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Groups 40 and 53 have provided highly detailed QA guidelines for conventional radiotherapy and treatment planning. However, advanced treatment processes recently developed with emerging high technology have introduced new QA requirements that have not been addressed previously in the conventional QA program. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the existing QA guidelines to also include new considerations. Image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART) is a closed-loop treatment process that is designed to include the individual treatment information, such as patient-specific anatomic variation and delivered dose assessed during the therapy course in treatment evaluation and planning optimization. Clinical implementation of IGART requires high levels of automation in image acquisition, registration, segmentation, treatment dose construction, and adaptive planning optimization, which brings new challenges to the conventional QA program. In this article, clinical QA procedures for IGART are outlined. The discussion focuses on the dynamic or four-dimensional aspects of the IGART process, avoiding overlap with conventional QA guidelines.

Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)], E-mail: dyan@beaumont.edu

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Multigroup radiation hydrodynamics with flux-limited diffusion and adaptive mesh refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative transfer plays a key role in the star formation process. Due to a high computational cost, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations performed up to now have mainly been carried out in the grey approximation. In recent years, multi-frequency radiation-hydrodynamics models have started to emerge, in an attempt to better account for the large variations of opacities as a function of frequency. We wish to develop an efficient multigroup algorithm for the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES which is suited to heavy proto-stellar collapse calculations. Due to prohibitive timestep constraints of an explicit radiative transfer method, we constructed a time-implicit solver based on a stabilised bi-conjugate gradient algorithm, and implemented it in RAMSES under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We present a series of tests which demonstrate the high performance of our scheme in dealing with frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamic flows. We also present a preliminary simulation of a three-dimensional p...

Gonzlez, Matthias; Commeron, Benot; Masson, Jacques

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis: Mechanistically Based Differences between Gamma-Rays and Neutrons, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis: Mechanistically Based Differences between Gamma-Rays and Neutrons of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America Abstract Different types of ionizing radiation produce different dependences of cancer risk on radiation

Brenner, David Jonathan

30

Covariance of phenotypically plastic traits induces an adaptive shift in host selection behaviour  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Covariance of phenotypically plastic traits induces an adaptive shift in host selection behaviour efficiency. In the present study, we investigated covariance of two plastic traits--size at pupation and host; evolution 1. INTRODUCTION Phenotypic plasticity is defined as the ability of an organism to change its

Dukas, Reuven

31

GPU-based ultra-fast direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) has great promise to significantly reduce normal tissue toxicity and/or improve tumor control through real-time treatment adaptations based on the current patient anatomy. However, the major technical obstacle for clinical realization of online ART, namely the inability to achieve real-time efficiency in treatment re-planning, has yet to be solved. To overcome this challenge, this paper presents our work on the implementation of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm on graphics processing unit (GPU) based on our previous work on CPU. We formulate the DAO problem as a large-scale convex programming problem, and use an exact method called column generation approach to deal with its extremely large dimensionality on GPU. Five 9-field prostate and five 5-field head-and-neck IMRT clinical cases with 5\\times5 mm2 beamlet size and 2.5\\times2.5\\times2.5 mm3 voxel size were used to evaluate our algorithm on GPU. It takes onl...

Men, Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-induced Gastric Bleeding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we described dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. The parameters of a Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for the occurrence of {>=}grade 3 gastric bleed, adjusted for cirrhosis, were fitted to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for NTCP models. Results: Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds at a median time of 4.0 months (mean, 6.5 months; range, 2.1-28.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range, 46-86 Gy), respectively, after biocorrection of each part of the 3D dose distributions to equivalent 2-Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis predicted gastric bleed. Best-fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n=0.10 and m=0.21 and with TD{sub 50} (normal) = 56 Gy and TD{sub 50} (cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD{sub 50} value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation.

Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pan, Charlie C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amarnath, Sudha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William D. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Radiation-induced solitary waves in hot plasmas of accretion disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that the existence of radiation-induced solitary waves in hot plasmas of accretion disks depends on the radial temperature profile.

Fedor V. Prigara

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

34

E-Print Network 3.0 - attenuates ionizing radiation-induced Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

silica optical Summary: measurements and the so-called radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) measured in dBm. TSL measurements have been... measurements. Connections between...

35

E-Print Network 3.0 - abnormalities radiation-induced Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

induced cataracts appeared earlier... . In the example given above, about 60% of the low- dose radiation-induced breast cancers comes from a very small... -type animals. 1.3....

36

Motion-induced radiation from electrons moving in Maxwell's fish-eye  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In \\u{C}erenkov radiation and transition radiation, evanescent wave from motion of charged particles transfers into radiation coherently. However, such dissipative motion-induced radiations require particles to move faster than light in medium or to encounter velocity transition to pump energy. Inspired by a method to detect cloak by observing radiation of a fast-moving electron bunch going through it by Zhang {\\itshape et al.}, we study the generation of electron-induced radiation from electrons' interaction with Maxwell's fish-eye sphere. Our calculation shows that the radiation is due to a combination of \\u{C}erenkov radiation and transition radiation, which may pave the way to investigate new schemes of transferring evanescent wave to radiation.

Liu, Yangjie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Radiation induces turbulence in particle-laden fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When a transparent fluid laden with solid particles is subject to radiative heating, non-uniformities in particle distribution result in local fluid temperature fluctuations. Under the influence of gravity, buoyancy induces vortical fluid motion which can lead to strong preferential concentration, enhancing the local heating and more non-uniformities in particle distribution. By employing direct numerical simulations this study shows that the described feedback loop can create and sustain turbulence. The velocity and length scale of the resulting turbulence is not known a priori, and is set by balance between viscous forces and buoyancy effects. When the particle response time is comparable to a viscous time scale, introduced in our analysis, the system exhibits intense fluctuations of turbulent kinetic energy and strong preferential concentration of particles.

Zamansky, Rmi [Centre for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3035 (United States); Coletti, Filippo [Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, California 94305-3035 (United States); Massot, Marc [Centre for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3035 (United States); Ecole Centrale Paris, Laboratoire EM2C - UPR CNRS 288 et Fdration de Mathmatiques - FR CNRS 3487, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Mani, Ali [Centre for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3035 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, California 94305-3035 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Time dependent annealing of radiation - induced leakage currents in MOS devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented showing the radiation response of several unhardened commercial 1.25-{mu}m bulk CMOS processes using LOCOS isolation technology. In all cases studied radiation-induced failure is caused by effects in the field oxide, and the radiation-induced {delta}V{sub T} in the channel region is usually small at the failure dose. Time dependent leakage current data for the field oxides are presented and discussed.

Terrell, J.M. (Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc. Bethesda, MD (US)); Olkham, T.R.; Lelis, A.J.; Benedetto, J.M. (Harry Diamond Labs., Adelphi, MD (US))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Role for mTOR Signaling and Neuronal Activity in Morphine-Induced Adaptations in Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While the abuse of opiate drugs continues to rise, the neuroadaptations that occur with long-term drug exposure remain poorly understood. We describe here a series of chronic morphine-induced adaptations in ventral tegmental ...

Mazei-Robison, MichelleS.

40

A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ?40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.

Yannam, Govardhana Rao [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Han, Bing [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi (China); Setoyama, Kentaro [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamamoto, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzman-Lepe, Jorge [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Galambos, Csaba [Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Fong, Jason V. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamanouchi, Kosho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro [Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Dosimetric and Radiobiological Consequences of Computed TomographyGuided Adaptive Strategies for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy of the Prostate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To examine a range of scenarios for image-guided adaptive radiation therapy of prostate cancer, including different schedules for megavoltage CT imaging, patient repositioning, and dose replanning. Methods and Materials: We simulated multifraction dose distributions with deformable registration using 35 sets of megavoltage CT scans of 13 patients. We computed cumulative dosevolume histograms, from which tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) for rectum were calculated. Five-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with 18-MV x-rays was planned to achieve an isocentric dose of 76 Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV). The differences between D{sub 95}, tumor control probability, V{sub 70Gy}, and NTCP for rectum, for accumulated versus planned dose distributions, were compared for different target volume sizes, margins, and adaptive strategies. Results: The CTV D{sub 95} for IMRT treatment plans, averaged over 13 patients, was 75.2 Gy. Using the largest CTV margins (10/7 mm), the D{sub 95} values accumulated over 35 fractions were within 2% of the planned value, regardless of the adaptive strategy used. For tighter margins (5 mm), the average D{sub 95} values dropped to approximately 73.0 Gy even with frequent repositioning, and daily replanning was necessary to correct this deficit. When personalized margins were applied to an adaptive CTV derived from the first 6 treatment fractions using the STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation) algorithm, target coverage could be maintained using a single replan 1 week into therapy. For all approaches, normal tissue parameters (rectum V{sub 70Gy} and NTCP) remained within acceptable limits. Conclusions: The frequency of adaptive interventions depends on the size of the CTV combined with target margins used during IMRT optimization. The application of adaptive target margins (<5 mm) to an adaptive CTV determined 1 week into therapy minimizes the need for subsequent dose replanning.

Battista, Jerry J., E-mail: j2b@uwo.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, ON (Canada); Department of Oncology, Western University, London, ON (Canada); London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON (Canada); Johnson, Carol; Turnbull, David; Kempe, Jeff [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON (Canada); Bzdusek, Karl [Philips Healthcare (Radiation Oncology Systems), Fitchburg, Wisconsin (United States); Van Dyk, Jacob; Bauman, Glenn [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, ON (Canada); Department of Oncology, Western University, London, ON (Canada); London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON (Canada)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

Jones, Keith W.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorates radiation-induced lung Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ameliorates radiation-induced lung Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 doi:10.1016j.ijrobp.2003.12.010 BIOLOGY...

44

Irradiated Esophageal Cells are Protected from Radiation-Induced Recombination by MnSOD Gene Therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation-induced DNA damage is a precursor to mutagenesis and cytotoxicity. During radiotherapy, exposure of healthy tissues can lead to severe side effects. We explored the potential of mitochondrial SOD (MnSOD) gene ...

Niu, Yunyun

45

Genomic instability and bystander effects induced by high-LET radiation Eric J Hall*,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Genomic instability and bystander effects induced by high-LET radiation Eric J Hall*,1 and Tom K. There is a progressive increase in genomic instability, determined either by gene amplification or allelic imbalance

46

Mutation Research 504 (2002) 91100 Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mutation Research 504 (2002) 91­100 Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bystander effects; Genomic instability; Ionizing radiation 1. Introduction Exposure

47

Curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a theoretical study of the curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends at metal-dielectric interfaces. We explain qualitatively how the curvature leads to distortion of the phase front, causing the fields to radiate energy away from the metal-dielectric interface. We then quantify, both analytically and numerically, radiation losses and energy transmission efficiencies of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends with varying radii as well as sign of curvature.

Hasegawa, Keisuke; Noeckel, Jens U.; Deutsch, Miriam [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, 1371 East 13th Aveenue, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Debris and Radiation-Induced Damage Effects on EUV Nanolithography Source Collector Mirror Optics Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Debris and Radiation-Induced Damage Effects on EUV Nanolithography Source Collector Mirror Optics, Argonne, Illinois ABSTRACT Exposure of collector mirrors facing the hot, dense pinch plasma in plasma region of the lamp are known to induce serious damage to nearby collector mirrors. Candidate collector

Harilal, S. S.

49

accidental radiation-induced hematopoietic: Topics by E-print...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation, some of them can also induce neutrinoless double beta decay and mu- -- e+ conversion in nuclei large enough to be potentially...

50

acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis: Topics by E-print...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation, some of them can also induce neutrinoless double beta decay and mu- -- e+ conversion in nuclei large enough to be potentially...

51

Near-infrared sideband generation induced by intense far-infrared radiation in GaAs quantum wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-infrared sideband generation induced by intense far-infrared radiation in GaAs quantum wells J illuminated with near-infrared NIR radiation at frequency nir and intense far-infrared FIR radiation from and quenching of photoluminescence PL .8,9 The nonlinear interaction of FIR and near-infrared NIR radiation

Kono, Junichiro

52

Motion-Induced Radiation from a Dynamically Deforming Mirror  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A path integral formulation is developed to study the spectrum of radiation from a perfectly reflecting (conducting) surface. It allows us to study arbitrary deformations in space and time. The spectrum is calculated to second order in the height function. For a harmonic traveling wave on the surface, we find many different regimes in which the radiation is restricted to certain directions. It is shown that high frequency photons are emitted in a beam with relatively low angular dispersion whose direction can be controlled by the mechanical deformations of the plate.

Faez Miri; Ramin Golestanian

1998-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

53

Non-Targeted Effects Induced by Ionizing Radiation: Mechanisms and Potential Impact on Radiation Induced Health Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Not-targeted effects represent a paradigm shift from the "DNA centric" view that ionizing radiation only elicits biological effects and subsequent health consequences as a result of an energy deposition event in the cell nucleus. While this is likely true at higher radiation doses (> 1Gy), at low doses (< 100mGy) non-targeted effects associated with radiation exposure might play a significant role. Here definitions of non-targeted effects are presented, the potential mechanisms for the communication of signals and signaling networks from irradiated cells/tissues are proposed, and the various effects of this intra- and intercellular signaling are described. We conclude with speculation on how these observations might lead to and impact long-term human health outcomes.

Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Adaptive Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Automated Daily Plan Reoptimization Prevents Dose Delivery Degradation Caused by Anatomy Deformations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate how dose distributions for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can be improved by using automated, daily plan reoptimization to account for anatomy deformations, compared with setup corrections only. Methods and Materials: For 12 tumors, 3 strategies for dose delivery were simulated. In the first strategy, computed tomography scans made before each treatment fraction were used only for patient repositioning before dose delivery for correction of detected tumor setup errors. In adaptive second and third strategies, in addition to the isocenter shift, intensity modulated radiation therapy beam profiles were reoptimized or both intensity profiles and beam orientations were reoptimized, respectively. All optimizations were performed with a recently published algorithm for automated, multicriteria optimization of both beam profiles and beam angles. Results: In 6 of 12 cases, violations of organs at risk (ie, heart, stomach, kidney) constraints of 1 to 6 Gy in single fractions occurred in cases of tumor repositioning only. By using the adaptive strategies, these could be avoided (<1 Gy). For 1 case, this needed adaptation by slightly underdosing the planning target volume. For 2 cases with restricted tumor dose in the planning phase to avoid organ-at-risk constraint violations, fraction doses could be increased by 1 and 2 Gy because of more favorable anatomy. Daily reoptimization of both beam profiles and beam angles (third strategy) performed slightly better than reoptimization of profiles only, but the latter required only a few minutes of computation time, whereas full reoptimization took several hours. Conclusions: This simulation study demonstrated that replanning based on daily acquired computed tomography scans can improve liver stereotactic body radiation therapy dose delivery.

Leinders, Suzanne M. [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Mndez Romero, Alejandra [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schaart, Dennis [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Seppenwoolde, Yvette, E-mail: y.seppenwoolde@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive radiation therapy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1. What is radiation ... Source: Hamza-Lup, Felix G. - School of Computing, Armstrong Atlantic State University Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

56

Sorafenib Enhances Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting STAT3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal human malignancies. Lack of efficient therapy for advanced HCC is a pressing problem worldwide. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of combined sorafenib and radiation therapy treatment for HCC. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Huh-7, Sk-Hep1, and Hep3B) were treated with sorafenib, radiation, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: All 4 HCC cell lines showed resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis; however, this resistance could be reversed in the presence of sorafenib. Inhibition of phospho-STAT3 was found in cells treated with sorafenib or sorafenib plus radiation and subsequently reduced the expression levels of STAT3-related proteins, Mcl-1, cyclin D1, and survivin. Silencing STAT3 by RNA interference overcame apoptotic resistance to radiation in HCC cells, and the ectopic expression of STAT3 in HCC cells abolished the radiosensitizing effect of sorafenib. Moreover, sorafenib plus radiation significantly suppressed PLC5 xenograft tumor growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that sorafenib sensitizes resistant HCC cells to radiation-induced apoptosis via downregulating phosphorylation of STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.

Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chen-Si [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tai, Wei-Tien; Hsieh, Chi-Ying [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Chung-Wai [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuen-Feng, E-mail: kfchen1970@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Radiation induced by relativistic beams passing over a diffraction grating  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115,Performance QualityRadiation August

58

Ratchet Effects Induced by Terahertz Radiation in Heterostructures with a Lateral Periodic Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ratchet Effects Induced by Terahertz Radiation in Heterostructures with a Lateral Periodic of the Seebeck ratchet effect. The effect is measured in semiconductor heterostructures with a one ratchet effect, we observe a photon helicity dependent response and propose a microscopic mechanism

Ganichev, Sergey

59

Pressure-sensitive blackbody point radiation induced by infrared diode laser irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pressure-sensitive blackbody point radiation induced by infrared diode laser irradiation Feng Qin,1 accuracy. © 2011 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 350.5610, 290.6815, 280.6780, 280.5475. Trivalent, and optical amplifiers in fiber optics. [1,2]. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest

Cao, Wenwu

60

Comparison of radiation-induced transmission degradation of borosilicate crown optical glass from four different manufacturers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

glass. Our results show that whereas the glasses are optically similar before irradiation, they showComparison of radiation-induced transmission degradation of borosilicate crown optical glass from of Optics and Photonics/CREOL 4000 Central Florida Blvd. Orlando, FL 32816-2700, USA d SCK·CEN Belgian

Glebov, Leon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Radiation induced by charged particles in optical fibers Xavier Artru and Cedric Ray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation induced by charged particles in optical fibers Xavier Artru and C´edric Ray Universit, 4, 5]. Let us mention two other uses of optical fibers as particle detectors : (i) as dosimeters, through the effect of darkening by irradiation [6]; (ii) in scintillating glass fibers for particle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of adaptive evolution in populations as a consequence of overfishing (10), global warming (11), and heavy-metal pollution (12). These studies highlight the importance of examining the potential for adaptive change

Shine, Rick

63

Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Radiation hardening and radiation-induced chromium depletion effects on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Available data on neutron-irradiated materials have been analyzed and correlations developed between fluence, yield strength, grain boundary chromium concentration and cracking susceptibility in high-temperature water environments. Large heat-to-heat differences in critical fluence (0.2 to 2.5 n/cm[sup 2]) for IGSCC are documented.In many cases, this variability is consistent with yield strength differences among irradiated materials. IGSCC correlated better to yield strength than to fluence for most heats suggesting a possible role of the radiation-induced hardening (and microstructure) on cracking. However, isolatedheats reveal a wide range of yield strengths from 450 to 800 MPa necessary to promote IGSCC which cannot be understood by strength effects alone. Grain boundary Cr depletion explain differences in IGSCC susceptibility for irradiated stainless steels. Cr contents versus SCC shows that all materials showing IG cracking have some grain boundary depletion ([ge]2%). Grain boundary Cr concentrations for cracking (below [approximately]16 wt %) are in good agreement with similar SCC tests on unirradiated 304 SS with controlled depletion profiles. Heats that prompt variability in the yield strength correlation, are accounted for bydifferences in their interfacial Cr contents. Certain stainless steels are more resistant to cracking even though they have significant radiation-induced Cr depletion. It is proposed that Cr depletion is required for IASCC, but observed susceptibility is modified by other microchemical and microstructural components.

Bruemmer, S.M.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Radiation hardening and radiation-induced chromium depletion effects on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Available data on neutron-irradiated materials have been analyzed and correlations developed between fluence, yield strength, grain boundary chromium concentration and cracking susceptibility in high-temperature water environments. Large heat-to-heat differences in critical fluence (0.2 to 2.5 n/cm{sup 2}) for IGSCC are documented.In many cases, this variability is consistent with yield strength differences among irradiated materials. IGSCC correlated better to yield strength than to fluence for most heats suggesting a possible role of the radiation-induced hardening (and microstructure) on cracking. However, isolatedheats reveal a wide range of yield strengths from 450 to 800 MPa necessary to promote IGSCC which cannot be understood by strength effects alone. Grain boundary Cr depletion explain differences in IGSCC susceptibility for irradiated stainless steels. Cr contents versus SCC shows that all materials showing IG cracking have some grain boundary depletion ({ge}2%). Grain boundary Cr concentrations for cracking (below {approximately}16 wt %) are in good agreement with similar SCC tests on unirradiated 304 SS with controlled depletion profiles. Heats that prompt variability in the yield strength correlation, are accounted for bydifferences in their interfacial Cr contents. Certain stainless steels are more resistant to cracking even though they have significant radiation-induced Cr depletion. It is proposed that Cr depletion is required for IASCC, but observed susceptibility is modified by other microchemical and microstructural components.

Bruemmer, S.M.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiologic Adaptive Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF doseresponse functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. Results: The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=?0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). Conclusions: 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment strategies to maximize tumor control and minimize the risk of liver damage.

Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Frey, Kirk A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A Fully Automated Method for CT-on-Rails-Guided Online Adaptive Planning for Prostate Cancer Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This study was designed to validate a fully automated adaptive planning (AAP) method which integrates automated recontouring and automated replanning to account for interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients receiving adaptive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on daily repeated computed tomography (CT)-on-rails images. Methods and Materials: Nine prostate cancer patients treated at our institution were randomly selected. For the AAP method, contours on each repeat CT image were automatically generated by mapping the contours from the simulation CT image using deformable image registration. An in-house automated planning tool incorporated into the Pinnacle treatment planning system was used to generate the original and the adapted IMRT plans. The cumulative dosevolume histograms (DVHs) of the target and critical structures were calculated based on the manual contours for all plans and compared with those of plans generated by the conventional method, that is, shifting the isocenters by aligning the images based on the center of the volume (COV) of prostate (prostate COV-aligned). Results: The target coverage from our AAP method for every patient was acceptable, while 1 of the 9 patients showed target underdosing from prostate COV-aligned plans. The normalized volume receiving at least 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), and the mean dose of the rectum and bladder were reduced by 8.9%, 6.4 Gy and 4.3%, 5.3 Gy, respectively, for the AAP method compared with the values obtained from prostate COV-aligned plans. Conclusions: The AAP method, which is fully automated, is effective for online replanning to compensate for target dose deficits and critical organ overdosing caused by interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer.

Li, Xiaoqiang; Quan, Enzhuo M.; Li, Yupeng [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Pan, Xiaoning [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas (United States); Zhou, Yin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xiaochun [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Du, Weiliang [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Johnson, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xizhang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Flavin-Induced Oligomerization in Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AidB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The process known as adaptive response allows Escherichia coli to respond to small doses of DNA-methylating agents by upregulating the expression of four proteins. While the role of three of these proteins in mitigating ...

Drennan, Catherine L.

69

Terahertz radiation and second-harmonic generation from InAs: Bulk versus surface electric-field-induced contributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Terahertz radiation and second-harmonic generation from InAs: Bulk versus surface electric-harmonic generation and terahertz radiation emission indicates that the observed dominant surface electric-field-induced contributions Matthew Reid, Igor V. Cravetchi, and Robert Fedosejevs Department of Electrical and Computer

Reid, Matthew

70

Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal tissue complication probability models showed a parallel architecture for the thyroid. The mean dose model can be used as the best model to describe the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism complication.

Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Radiation-induced complications in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complications with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters for prostate cancer patients that underwent the conformal radiotherapy treatment. 17 prostate cancer patients that have been treated with conformal radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. The dosimetric data was retrieved in the form of dose-volume histogram (DVH) from Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System. The DVH was utilised to derived Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) in radiobiological data. Follow-up data from medical records were used to grade the occurrence of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring system. The chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complication with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters. 8 (47%) and 7 (41%) patients were having acute GI and GU complications respectively. The acute GI complication can be associated with V60{sub rectum}, rectal mean dose and NTCP{sub rectum} with p-value of 0.016, 0.038 and 0.049 respectively. There are no significant relationships of acute GU complication with dosimetric and radiobiological variables. Further study can be done by increase the sample size and follow up duration for deeper understanding of the factors that effecting the GU and GI complication in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

Azuddin, A. Yusof [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 53000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahman, I. Abdul; Mohamed, F. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Siah, N. J. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 53000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saadc, M. [Department of Oncology, University Malaya Medical Center, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ismail, F. [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

72

Photoconductivity of graphene devices induced by terahertz radiation at various photon energies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of a magnetic field on Landau levels (LLs) in graphene-based devices is described via the magneto-optical response induced by terahertz (THz) radiation. For single-layer graphene, the resonance energies of the transitions between the on Landau levels (LLs) such as L{sub 1}, L{sub 2} and L{sub 3} fit quite well to the terahertz spectral range at low magnetic fields. Also, the calculations for the terahertz photoresponse (photoconductivity) in the presence of low magnetic fields, the reported calculations for the scattering rate of LLs, recent and our experimental results of photoresponse measurements yield that single-layer graphene is suitable for the detection of terahertz radiation.

Salman, M.; Nachtwei, G. [NTH School for Contacts in Nanosystems, Germany and Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Gouider, F.; Gthlich, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Friedemann, M.; Ahlers, F. J. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Schmidt, H.; Haug, R. J. [NTH School for Contacts in Nanosystems, Germany and Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

73

Radiation reaction induced non-monotonic features in runaway electron distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Runaway electrons, which are generated in a plasma where the induced electric field exceeds a certain critical value, can reach very high energies in the MeV range. For such energetic electrons, radiative losses will contribute significantly to the momentum space dynamics. Under certain conditions, due to radiative momentum losses, a non-monotonic feature - a "bump" - can form in the runaway electron tail, creating a potential for bump-on-tail-type instabilities to arise. Here we study the conditions for the existence of the bump. We derive an analytical threshold condition for bump appearance and give an approximate expression for the minimum energy at which the bump can appear. Numerical calculations are performed to support the analytical derivations.

Hirvijoki, E; Decker, J; Embreus, O; Stahl, A; Flp, T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Longitudinal pulse shaping for the suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation-induced emittance growth  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The damaging effect of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the emittance and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. We propose a mitigation approach in which the dynamical effect of the longitudinal component of CSR is suppressed by appropriately preparing the initial longitudinal current profile of the beam. In a chicane, a linear theory for the mechanism of CSR-induced emittance growth is used to demonstrate how this procedure can produce a beam whose core experiences suppressed transverse emittance growth. The dynamics of such a beam is illustrated for the Berlin-Zeuthen CSR benchmark chicane.

Mitchell, Chad; Qiang, Ji; Emma, Paul

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Gamma radiation-induced refractive index change in Ge- and N-doped silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We measured the change of the refractive index over a wide wavelength range in Ge- and N-doped high purity (fiber optics grade) silica glasses subjected to gamma irradiation. The radiation-induced change of the refractive index tends to be greater in the infrared part of the spectrum compare to the values measured in the UV-visible part of the spectrum. By means of the Kramers-Kronig relations, we estimate that a weak broadening of the optical vibration band of the silica network adds to this effect. The paper also discusses the difference observed in the spectral behavior of the induced refractive index change for both types of doped glass.

Brichard, Benoit [SCK-CEN-Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Butov, Oleg V.; Golant, Konstantin M. [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Street 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto [Masterminds Ltd., rue du Temple 40, CH-2800 Delemont (Switzerland)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ?2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Radiation-Induced Decomposition of U(VI) Phase to Nanocrystals of UO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U{sup 6+}-phases are common alteration products, under oxidizing conditions, of uraninite and the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel. These U{sup 6+}-phases are subjected to a radiation field caused by the {alpha}-decay of U, or in the case of spent nuclear fuel, incorporated actinides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np. In order to evaluate the effects of {alpha}-decay events on the stability of the U{sup 6+}-phases, we report, for the first time, the results of ion beam irradiations (1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) of U{sup 6+}-phases. The heavy-particle irradiations are used to simulate the ballistic interactions of the recoil-nucleus of an {alpha}-decay event with the surrounding structure. The Kr{sup 2+}-irradiation decomposed the U{sup 6+}-phases to UO{sub 2} nanocrystals at doses as low as 0.006 displacements per atom (dpa). U{sup 6+}-phases accumulate substantial radiation doses ({approx}1.0 displacement per atom) within 100,000 years if the concentration of incorporated {sup 239}Pu is as high as 1 wt%. Similar nanocrystals of UO{sub 2} were observed in samples from the natural fission reactors at Oklo, Gabon. Multiple cycles of radiation-induced decomposition to UO{sub 2} followed by alteration to U{sup 6+}-phases provide a mechanism for the remobilization of incorporated radionuclides.

S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing; L. Wang

2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

78

Roles of Sensory Nerves in the Regulation of Radiation-Induced Structural and Functional Changes in the Heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a chronic severe side effect of radiation therapy of intrathoracic and chest wall tumors. The heart contains a dense network of sensory neurons that not only are involved in monitoring of cardiac events such as ischemia and reperfusion but also play a role in cardiac tissue homeostasis, preconditioning, and repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sensory nerves in RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered capsaicin to permanently ablate sensory nerves, 2 weeks before local image-guided heart x-ray irradiation with a single dose of 21 Gy. During the 6 months of follow-up, heart function was assessed with high-resolution echocardiography. At 6 months after irradiation, cardiac structural and molecular changes were examined with histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Results: Capsaicin pretreatment blunted the effects of radiation on myocardial fibrosis and mast cell infiltration and activity. By contrast, capsaicin pretreatment caused a small but significant reduction in cardiac output 6 months after irradiation. Capsaicin did not alter the effects of radiation on cardiac macrophage number or indicators of autophagy and apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that sensory nerves, although they play a predominantly protective role in radiation-induced cardiac function changes, may eventually enhance radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and mast cell activity.

Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Moros, Eduardo G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Zheng, Junying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgical Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Boerma, Marjan, E-mail: mboerma@uams.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A parallel adaptive method for simulating shock-induced combustion with detailed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in practically relevant cases since real detonations never remain planar. In- stead, detonations exhibit, parallelisation 1 Introduction A detonation wave is a self-sustained, violent form of shock-induced com- bustion that is characterised by a subtle interplay between the processes of hydrodynamic shock propagation and chemical

Deiterding, Ralf

80

Radiation-Induced Segregation and Phase Stability in Candidate Alloys for the Advanced Burner Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Major accomplishments of this project were the following: 1) Radiation induced depletion of Cr occurs in alloy D9, in agreement with that observed in austenitic alloys. 2) In F-M alloys, Cr enriches at PAG grain boundaries at low dose (<7 dpa) and at intermediate temperature (400C) and the magnitude of the enrichment decreases with temperature. 3) Cr enrichment decreases with dose, remaining enriched in alloy T91 up to 10 dpa, but changing to depletion above 3 dpa in HT9 and HCM12A. 4) Cr has a higher diffusivity than Fe by a vacancy mechanism and the corresponding atomic flux of Cr is larger than Fe in the opposite direction to the vacancy flux. 5) Cr concentration at grain boundaries decreases as a result of vacancy transport during electron or proton irradiation, consistent with Inverse Kirkendall models. 6) Inclusion of other point defect sinks into the KLMC simulation of vacancy-mediated diffusion only influences the results in the low temperature, recombination dominated regime, but does not change the conclusion that Cr depletes as a result of vacancy transport to the sink. 7) Cr segregation behavior is independent of Frenkel pair versus cascade production, as simulated for electron versus proton irradiation conditions, for the temperatures investigated. 8) The amount of Cr depletion at a simulated planar boundary with vacancy-mediated diffusion reaches an apparent saturation value by about 1 dpa, with the precise saturation concentration dependent on the ratio of Cr to Fe diffusivity. 9) Cr diffuses faster than Fe by an interstitial transport mechanism, and the corresponding atomic flux of Cr is much larger than Fe in the same direction as the interstitial flux. 10) Observed experimental and computational results show that the radiation induced segregation behavior of Cr is consistent with an Inverse Kirkendall mechanism.

Gary S. Was; Brian D. Wirth

2011-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

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81

Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water-air interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water to be a function of the surface tension. The time of mound formation measurementsin cleanwaterat low.Our objectiveisto investigatetheeffectsof surface tension on mound formation. We usea boundaryintegralmethodto

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

82

Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

2012-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

83

Detection and Repair of Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Double Strand Breaks: New Developments in Nonhomologous End Joining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DNA damage can occur as a result of endogenous metabolic reactions and replication stress or from exogenous sources such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. DNA double strand breaks are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage, and defects in their repair can result in genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. The major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs in human cells is nonhomologous end joining. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism of nonhomologous end joining, as well as new findings on its component proteins and regulation.

Wang, Chen [Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Oncology, and Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)] [Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Oncology, and Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada); Lees-Miller, Susan P., E-mail: leesmill@ucalgary.ca [Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Oncology, and Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

Hsieh, W.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Combining Physical and Biologic Parameters to Predict Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the plasma dynamics of 5 proinflammatory/fibrogenic cytokines, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-{beta}1) to ascertain their value in predicting radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT), both individually and in combination with physical dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: Treatments of patients receiving definitive conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) on clinical trial for inoperable stages I-III lung cancer were prospectively evaluated. Circulating cytokine levels were measured prior to and at weeks 2 and 4 during RT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT, defined as grade 2 and higher radiation pneumonitis or symptomatic pulmonary fibrosis. Minimum follow-up was 18 months. Results: Of 58 eligible patients, 10 (17.2%) patients developed RILT. Lower pretreatment IL-8 levels were significantly correlated with development of RILT, while radiation-induced elevations of TGF-ss1 were weakly correlated with RILT. Significant correlations were not found for any of the remaining 3 cytokines or for any clinical or dosimetric parameters. Using receiver operator characteristic curves for predictive risk assessment modeling, we found both individual cytokines and dosimetric parameters were poor independent predictors of RILT. However, combining IL-8, TGF-ss1, and mean lung dose into a single model yielded an improved predictive ability (P<.001) compared to either variable alone. Conclusions: Combining inflammatory cytokines with physical dosimetric factors may provide a more accurate model for RILT prediction. Future study with a larger number of cases and events is needed to validate such findings.

Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cai Xuwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Shedden, Kerby [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Yuan Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Radiation Oncology, Shangdong Cancer Hospital, Jinan (China); Ritter, Timothy [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kong Fengming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Radiation- and Depleted Uranium-Induced Carcinogenesis Studies: Characterization of the Carcinogenic Process and Development of Medical Countermeasures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

External or internal contamination from radioactive elements during military operations or a terrorist attack is a serious threat to military and civilian populations. External radiation exposure could result from conventional military scenarios including nuclear weapons use and low-dose exposures during radiation accidents or terrorist attacks. Alternatively, internal radiation exposure could result from depleted uranium exposure via DU shrapnel wounds or inhalation. The long-term health effects of these types of radiation exposures are not well known. Furthermore, development of pharmacological countermeasures to low-dose external and internal radiological contamination is essential to the health and safety of both military and civilian populations. The purpose of these studies is to evaluate low-dose radiation or DU-induced carcinogenesis using in vitro and in vivo models, and to test safe and efficacious medical countermeasures. A third goal of these studies is to identify biomarkers of both exposure and disease development. Initially, we used a human cell model (human osteoblast cells, HOS) to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of DU in vitro by assessing morphological transformation, genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations), mutagenic (HPRT loci), and genomic instability. As a comparison, low-dose cobalt radiation, broad-beam alpha particles, and other military-projectile metals, i.e., tungsten mixtures, are being examined. Published data from

A. C. Miller; D. Beltran; R. Rivas; M. Stewart; R. J. Merlot; P. B. Lison

87

The effects of diet and ionizing radiation on azoxymethane induced colon carcinogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability of ionizing radiation to enhance colon carcinogenesis and the role of diet in this process has not been documented. We hypothesized that radiation would enhance the formation of aberrant crypt foci, ACF, known precursor lesions to colon...

Mann, John Clifford

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

The susceptibility of silicon-ion implanted gate insulators to x-ray radiation-induced defect generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the x-ray susceptibility of silicon-ion implanted gate insulators of insulated gate-field effect transistors (IGFETs). It is found that silicon-ion implanted gate insulators appear to be much more susceptible to x-ray radiation induced defect generation than unimplanted devices. The residual defect density in silicon-implanted devices, following x-ray radiation, and subsequent postmetal annealing for up to 60 min is found to be greater than that in unimplanted devices. The results with silicon ions indicate that if the insulator is damaged by such a species during processing, as might occur due to knock-on from the gate electrode during source/drain formation, unannealable defects will form which would also tend to make the device structure more susceptible to radiation damage in a hostile environment, or to large hot- electron drift in conventional use.

Reisman, A.; Sune, C.T.; Williams, C.K. (MCNC, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a ??Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

Balmain, Allan [University of California, San Francisco; Song, Ihn Young [University of California, San Francisco

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Reproductive Status at First Diagnosis Influences Risk of Radiation-Induced Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer in the WECARE Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Our study examined whether reproductive and hormonal factors before, at the time of, or after radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multicenter, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC. Results: Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to {>=}1 Gy to the contralateral breast had a greater risk for CBC than did matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk for CBC (RR = 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-28.4) than unexposed women (4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk for CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also seem to be at an increased risk for radiation-induced CBC.

Brooks, Jennifer D., E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Reiner, Anne S. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Bernstein, Leslie [Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States)] [Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States); John, Esther M. [Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA, and Stanford University School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA (United States)] [Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA, and Stanford University School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA (United States); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Mellemkjaer, Lene [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Knight, Julia A. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto and Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto and Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Thomas, Duncan C.; Haile, Robert W. [Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Capanu, Marinela; Bernstein, Jonine L. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Shore, Roy E. [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, NY (United States) [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, NY (United States); Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Studies on Pentoxifylline and Tocopherol Combination for Radiation-Induced Heart Disease in Rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate whether the application of pentoxifylline (PTX) and tocopherol l (Vit. E) could modify the development of radiation-induced heart disease and downregulate the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1mRNA in rats. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups: control group, irradiated group, experimental group 1, and experiment group 2. Supplementation was started 3 days before irradiation; in experimental group 1, injection of PTX (15 mg/kg/d) and Vit. E (5.5 mg/kg/d) continued till the 12th week postirradiation, whereas in experimental group 2 it was continued until the 24th week postirradiation. All rats were administrated a single dose of 20 Gy irradiation to the heart except the control group. Histopathologic evaluation was performed at various time points (Days 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 and 24th week) up to 24 weeks after irradiation. Changes of levels of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were also investigated at the same time points using competitive polymerase chain reaction. Results: Compared with the irradiated group, levels of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA of the rat hearts were relatively low in the two experimental groups on the 12th week postirradiation. In experimental group 1, there was a rebound expression of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA on the 24th week postirradiation, whereas that of the experimental group 2 remained low (p < 0.05). The proportions of collagen fibers of the two experimental groups were lower than that of irradiated group (p < 0.05). A rebound could be observed in the experimental group 1. Conclusion: PTX and Vit. E downregulated the expression of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA. The irradiated rat hearts showed a marked pathologic response to the drugs. The withdrawal of drugs in the 12th week postirradiation could cause rebound effects of the development of fibrosis.

Liu Hui [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xiong Mai [Department of Cardiac Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xia Yunfei; Cui Nianji; Lu Rubiao [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Deng Ling [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Lin Yuehao [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Clinical Laboratory, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Rong Tiehua [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: esophagus2003@yahoo.com.cn

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Convection induced by radiative cooling of a layer of participating medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulations and experiments have been conducted to study the effect of radiative cooling on natural convection in a horizontal layer of a participating medium enclosed between isothermal opaque wall and radiatively transparent wall and exposed to a cold background. The study is of relevance to a nocturnal boundary layer under clear and calm conditions. The focus of the study is to capture the onset of convection caused by radiative cooling. The experiments have been designed to mimic the atmospheric radiative boundary conditions, and hence decoupling convection and radiation boundary conditions. Planck number Pl and optical thickness of the layer ?{sub H} are the two important parameters that govern the interaction between radiation and convection. The radiation-convection coupling is a strong function of length scale. Convection sets up within first few seconds for all the experiments. Strong plume like convection is observed for the experimental conditions used in the present study. Both simulations and experiments confirm that radiative cooling increases substantially with decrease in emissivity of the bottom wall. Radiative cooling is strongly influenced by the nongray nature of the participating medium, especially when strong emission from the medium escapes to space, in the window region of the atmosphere. Accurate representation of radiative properties is critical. Linear stability analysis of onset of convection indicates that radiation stabilizes convection as Pl decreases. The observations are similar to the case of Rayleigh Bnard convection in a radiating gas. However, for both experimental and numerical conditions, the observed Rayleigh numbers are much greater than the critical Rayleigh number. To conclude, the role of radiation is to drive and sustain convection in the unstable layer.

Prasanna, Swaminathan, E-mail: prasannaswam@gmail.com [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Venkateshan, S. P., E-mail: spv@iitm.ac.in [HTTP Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Madras, Chennai (India)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genome and Epigenome Instability Symposium and Epigenetic Mechanisms, DNA Repair, and Chromatin Symposium at the EMS 2008 Annual Meeting - October 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low Dose Radiation Symposium thoughtfully addressed ionizing radiation non-mutational but transmissable alterations in surviving cells. Deregulation of epigenetic processes has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis, and there is increasing realization that a significant fraction of non-targeted and adaptive mechanisms in response to ionizing radiation are likely to be epigenetic in nature. Much remains to be learned about how chromatin and epigenetic regulators affect responses to low doses of radiation, and how low dose radiation impacts other epigenetic processes. The Epigenetic Mechanisms Symposium focused on on epigenetic mechanisms and their interplay with DNA repair and chromatin changes. Addressing the fact that the most well understood mediators of epigenetic regulation are histone modifications and DNA methylation. Low levels of radiation can lead to changes in the methylation status of certain gene promoters and the expression of DNA methyltransferases, However, epigenetic regulation can also involve changes in higher order chromosome structure.

Morgan, William F.; Kovalchuk, Olga; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Schr, Primo; Pogribny, Igor; Hendzel, Michael

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

94

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

95

Parotid Glands DoseEffect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Replanning in Radiation Therapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiation therapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help make decisions regarding adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemoirradiation underwent daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with clinical setup alignment based on the C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results: Thirty-six parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy, and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were ?4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands in which delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with posttreatment salivary outputs at almost all posttherapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions (on average, SD 3.6 Gy) characterized the doseeffect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident at first fraction (r=.92, P<.0001) because of complex setup deviations (eg, rotations and neck articulations), uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions: After daily translational setup corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dosesaliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were observed at first treatment, indicating potential benefit for more complex setup corrections or adaptive interventions in the minority of patients with large deviations detected early by CBCT.

Hunter, Klaudia U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Fernandes, Laura L. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cornwall, Craig [Department of Hospital Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Mathew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham, E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Ionizing radiation induces ATM-independent degradation of p21Cip1 in transformed cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the degradation after UV and the degradation in S-phase haverepair (18). This UV- induced degradation of p21 cip1 wasof Cdt1 and the UV-induced degradation of p21 cip1 (

Stuart, Scott

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

Yu, K.N.

98

RADIATION-INDUCED DECOMPOSITION OF U(VI) ALTERATION PHASES OF UO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U{sup 6+}-phases are common alteration products of spent nuclear fuel under oxidizing conditions, and they may potentially incorporate actinides, such as long-lived {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np, delaying their transport to the biosphere. In order to evaluate the ballistic effects of {alpha}-decay events on the stability of the U{sup 6+}-phases, we report, for the first time, the results of ion beam irradiations (1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) for six different structures of U{sup 6+}-phases: uranophane, kasolite, boltwoodite, saleeite, carnotite, and liebigite. The target uranyl-minerals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and identification confirmed by SAED (selected area electron diffraction) in TEM (transmission electron microscopy). The TEM observation revealed no initial contamination of uraninite in these U{sup 6+} phases. All of the samples were irradiated with in situ TEM observation using 1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+} in the IVEM (intermediate-voltage electron microscope) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility of Argonne National Laboratory. The ion flux was 6.3 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}/sec. The specimen temperatures during irradiation were 298 and 673 K, respectively. The Kr{sup 2+}-irradiation decomposed the U{sup 6+}-phases to nanocrystals of UO{sub 2} at doses as low as 0.006 dpa. The cumulative doses for the pure U{sup 6+}-phases, e.g., uranophane, at 0.1 and 1 million years (m.y.) are calculated to be 0.009 and 0.09 dpa using SRIM2003. However, with the incorporation of 1 wt.% {sup 239}Pu, the calculated doses reach 0.27 and {approx}1.00 dpa in ten thousand and one hundred thousand years, respectively. Under oxidizing conditions, multiple cycles of radiation-induced decomposition to UO{sub 2} followed by alteration to U{sup 6+}-phases should be further investigated to determine the fate of trace elements that may have been incorporated in the U{sup 6+}-phases.

S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

99

LET dependence of radiation-induced bystander effects using human prostate tumor cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the past fifteen years, evidence provided by many independent research groups have indicated higher numbers of cells exhibiting damage than expected based on the number of cells traversed by the radiation. This phenomenon ...

Anzenberg, Vered

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Space radiation-induced bystander signaling in 2D and 3D skin tissue models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space radiation poses a significant hazard to astronauts on long-duration missions, and the low fluences of charged particles characteristic of this field suggest that bystander effects, the phenomenon in which a greater ...

Lumpkins, Sarah B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Tryptophan Cluster Protects Human ?D-Crystallin from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Photoaggregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a significant risk factor for age-related cataract, a disease of the human lens and the most prevalent cause of blindness in the world. Cataract pathology involves protein misfolding ...

Schafheimer, Steven Nathaniel

102

ameliorates radiation-induced oral: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation, some of them can also induce neutrinoless double beta decay and mu- -- e+ conversion in nuclei large enough to be potentially...

103

amifostine mitigates radiation-induced: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation, some of them can also induce neutrinoless double beta decay and mu- -- e+ conversion in nuclei large enough to be potentially...

104

Rearrangement of a phosphosilicate glass network induced by the 193-nm radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The IR absorption and Raman spectra of phosphosilicate glass (PSG) are measured during its exposure to radiation at a wavelength of 193 nm. The obtained data demonstrate the complicated rearrangement dynamics of the glass network around phosphor atoms and of the glass network as a whole. The experimental dependences are explained by the model of the PSG network based on the concepts of the theory of rigidity percolation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

Larionov, Yu V [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Novel detection methods for radiation-induced electron-hole pairs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most common ionizing radiation detectors typically rely on one of two general methods: collection of charge generated by the radiation, or collection of light produced by recombination of excited species. Substantial efforts have been made to improve the performance of materials used in these types of detectors, e.g. to raise the operating temperature, to improve the energy resolution, timing or tracking ability. However, regardless of the material used, all these detectors are limited in performance by statistical variation in the collection efficiency, for charge or photons. We examine three alternative schemes for detecting ionizing radiation that do not rely on traditional direct collection of the carriers or photons produced by the radiation. The first method detects refractive index changes in a resonator structure. The second looks at alternative means to sense the chemical changes caused by radiation on a scintillator-type material. The final method examines the possibilities of sensing the perturbation caused by radiation on the transmission of a RF transmission line structure. Aspects of the feasibility of each approach are examined and recommendations made for further work.

Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Derzon, Mark Steven; Martinez, Marino John

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Radiation-induced instability of MnS precipitates and its possible consequences on irradiation-induced stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a significant materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry and may also pose a problem for fusion power reactors that will use water as coolant. A new metallurgical process is proposed that involves the radiation-induced release into solution of minor impurity elements not usually thought to participate in IASCC. MnS-type precipitates, which contain most of the sulfur in stainless steels, are thought to be unstable under irradiation. First, Mn transmutes strongly to Fe in thermalized neutron spectra. Second, cascade-induced disordering and the inverse Kirkendall effect operating at the incoherent interfaces of MnS precipitates are thought to act as a pump to export Mn from the precipitate into the alloy matrix. Both of these processes will most likely allow sulfur, which is known to exert a deleterious influence on intergranular cracking, to re-enter the matrix. To test this hypothesis, compositions of MnS-type precipitates contained in several unirradiated and irradiated heats of Type 304, 316, and 348 stainless steels (SSs) were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. Evidence is presented that shows a progressive compositional modification of MnS precipitates as exposure to neutrons increases in boiling water reactors. As the fluence increases, the Mn level in MnS decreases, whereas the Fe level increases. The S level also decreases relative to the combined level of Mn and Fe. MnS precipitates were also found to be a reservoir of other deleterious impurities such as F and O which could be also released due to radiation-induced instability of the precipitates.

Chung, H.M.; Sanecki, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Radiation-Induced Micro-RNA Expression Changes in Peripheral Blood Cells of Radiotherapy Patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding small RNAs that regulate gene expression, are involved in numerous physiologic processes in normal and malignant cells. Our in vivo study measured miRNA and gene expression changes in human blood cells in response to ionizing radiation, to develop miRNA signatures that can be used as biomarkers for radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Blood from 8 radiotherapy patients in complete remission 1 or 2 was collected immediately before and 4 hours after total body irradiation with 1.25 Gy x-rays. Both miRNA and gene expression changes were measured by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction and microarray hybridization, respectively. Hierarchic clustering, multidimensional scaling, class prediction, and gene ontology analysis were performed to investigate the potential of miRNAs to serve as radiation biomarkers and to elucidate their likely physiologic roles in the radiation response. Results: The expression levels of 45 miRNAs were statistically significantly upregulated 4 hours after irradiation with 1.25 Gy x-rays, 27 of them in every patient. Nonirradiated and irradiated samples form separate clusters in hierarchic clustering and multidimensional scaling. Out of 223 differentially expressed genes, 37 were both downregulated and predicted targets of the upregulated miRNAs. Paired and unpaired miRNA-based classifiers that we developed can predict the class membership of a sample with unknown irradiation status, with accuracies of 100% when all 45 upregulated miRNAs are included. Both miRNA control of and gene involvement in biologic processes such as hemopoiesis and the immune response are increased after irradiation, whereas metabolic processes are underrepresented among all differentially expressed genes and the genes controlled by miRNAs. Conclusions: Exposure to ionizing radiation leads to the upregulation of the expression of a considerable proportion of the human miRNAome of peripheral blood cells. These miRNA expression signatures can be used as biomarkers of radiation exposure.

Templin, Thomas; Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A.; Young, Erik F. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Smilenov, Lubomir B., E-mail: lbs5@columbia.ed [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Evaluation of Reaction Rate Theory and Monte Carlo Methods for Application to Radiation-Induced Microstructural Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multiscale modeling scheme encompasses models from the atomistic to the continuum scale. Phenomena at the mesoscale are typically simulated using reaction rate theory, Monte Carlo, or phase field models. These mesoscale models are appropriate for application to problems that involve intermediate length scales, and timescales from those characteristic of diffusion to long-term microstructural evolution (~?s to years). Although the rate theory and Monte Carlo models can be used simulate the same phenomena, some of the details are handled quite differently in the two approaches. Models employing the rate theory have been extensively used to describe radiation-induced phenomena such as void swelling and irradiation creep. The primary approximations in such models are time- and spatial averaging of the radiation damage source term, and spatial averaging of the microstructure into an effective medium. Kinetic Monte Carlo models can account for these spatial and temporal correlations; their primary limitation is the computational burden which is related to the size of the simulation cell. A direct comparison of RT and object kinetic MC simulations has been made in the domain of point defect cluster dynamics modeling, which is relevant to the evolution (both nucleation and growth) of radiation-induced defect structures. The primary limitations of the OKMC model are related to computational issues. Even with modern computers, the maximum simulation cell size and the maximum dose (typically much less than 1 dpa) that can be simulated are limited. In contrast, even very detailed RT models can simulate microstructural evolution for doses up 100 dpa or greater in clock times that are relatively short. Within the context of the effective medium, essentially any defect density can be simulated. Overall, the agreement between the two methods is best for irradiation conditions which produce a high density of defects (lower temperature and higher displacement rate), and for materials that have a relatively high density of fixed sinks such as dislocations.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Becquart, C. S. [Universite de Lille; Domain, C. [EDF R& D, Clamart, France

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Process for producing radiation-induced self-terminating protective coatings on a substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas and radiation are used to produce a protective coating that is substantially void-free on the molecular scale, self-terminating, and degradation resistant. The process can be used to deposit very thin (.apprxeq.5-20 .ANG.) coatings on critical surfaces needing protection from degradative processes including, corrosion and contamination.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

TGF-.beta. antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-.beta. antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-.beta. antibody or a TGF-.beta. latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H. (Oakland, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

TGF-{beta} antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-{beta} antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-{beta} antibody or a TGF-{beta} latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Radiation-induced risk of resettling Bikini atoll. Final report, November 7, 1981-May 28, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has concluded that the Bikini atoll is unsafe for resettlement. In response to the Bikinians' request for an independent review, we have examined the following DOE findings: (a) radionuclide contamination of Eneu and Bikini Islands, (b) radiation dosage to those who might resettle the islands, and (c) risks to the health of such settlers. We are in practical agreement with the DOE estimates. Resettlement of either island in 1983 would lead to a range of annual or 30-year cumulative doses that exceed the Federal Radiation Council (FRC) guides for the general population, but not those for occupation exposure. By 2013 resettlement of Eneu probably would be permissible. The principal source of radiation dose is local food, especially coconut, owing to contamination of the soil by cesium-137. A precise estimate of dose is impossible. The availability of imported foods would lessen local food consumption, but not sufficiently to meet the FRC guides for the general population. The 30-year cumulative index dose is 61 (25-122) rem for Bikini, and about 8 (3-16) rem for Eneu.

Kohn, H.I.; Dreyer, N.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS MOODY T. CHU \\Lambda Abstract. The wavefront aberrations induced by atmospheric turbulence can severely degrade the performance of an optical imaging system. Adaptive optics refers to the process of removing unwanted wave front distortions

114

ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS MOODY T. CHU Abstract. The wavefront aberrations induced by atmospheric turbulence can severely degrade the performance of an optical imaging system. Adaptive optics refers to the process of removing unwanted wave front distortions

115

A physical model of the photo- and radiation-induced degradation of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a model to describe the photo- or/and the radiation-induced darkening of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers. This model accounts for the well-established experimental features of photo-darkening. Degradation behaviors predicted for fibers pumped in harsh environments are also fully confirmed by experimental data reported in the work by Duchez et al. (this proceeding), which gives a detailed characterization of the interplay between the effects of the pump and those of a superimposed ionizing irradiation (actual operation conditions in space-based applications for instance). In particular, dependences of the darkening build-up on the pump power, the total ionizing dose and the dose rate are all correctly reproduced. The presented model is a sufficient one, including the minimal physical ingredients required to reproduce experimental features. Refinements could be proposed to improve, e.g., quantitative kinetics.

Mady, Franck, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr; Duchez, Jean-Bernard, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr; Mebrouk, Yasmine, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr; Benabdesselam, Mourad, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr [University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matire Condense (LPMC), CNRS UMR 7336, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

116

Radiation-Induced Demagnetization of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 RS-PO-0001-001.docW.Radiation

117

Radiation-Induced Reduction of Ceria in Single and Polycrystalline Thin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 RS-PO-0001-001.docW.RadiationFilms. |

118

Nonimmunogenic radiation-induced lymphoma: immunity induction by a somatic cell hybrid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cell line designated PIR-2 is a nonimmunogenic X-ray-induced thymoma of C57BL/6 origin that is unable to induce antitumor immunity in syngeneic lymphocytes in vitro and in mice in vivo. Fusion of PIR-2 with an allogeneic universal fuser A9HT (clone 3c) resulted in the establishment of a somatic cell hybrid designated A9/PIR. C57BL/6 lymphocytes sensitized in vitro with A9/PIR could lyse parental PIR-2 cells, as well as other syngeneic tumors. However, immunization of mice with the hybrid significantly enhanced PIR-2 tumor takes while it partially protected the animals against a challenge with unrelated syngeneic tumors. The results imply that somatic cell hybridization can increase the immunogenicity of an otherwise nonimmunogenic tumor. However, in view of the enhancing effects of hybrid preimmunization on parental tumor cell growth, the possible application of this approach for immunotherapy is questionable.

Yefenof, E.; Goldapfel, M.; Ber, R.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Radiation-induced gain degradation in lateral PNP BJTs with lightly and heavily doped emitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionizing radiation may cause failures in ICs due to gain degradation of individual devices. The base current of irradiated bipolar devices increases with total dose, while the collector current remains relatively constant. This results in a decrease in the current gain. Lateral PNP (LPNP) transistors typically exhibit more degradation than vertical PNP devices at the same total dose, and have been blamed as the cause of early IC failures at low dose rates. It is important to understand the differences in total-dose response between devices with heavily- and lightly-doped emitters in order to compare different technologies and evaluate the applicability of proposed low-dose-rate hardness-assurance methods. This paper addresses these differences by comparing two different LPNP devices from the same process: one with a heavily-doped emitter and one with a lightly-doped emitter. Experimental results demonstrate that the lightly-doped devices are more sensitive to ionizing radiation and simulations illustrate that increased recombination on the emitter side of the junction is responsible for the higher sensitivity.

Wu, A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Schrimpf, R.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

An Analytical Model of Radiation-Induced Charge Transfer Inefficiency for CCD Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The European Space Agency's Gaia mission is scheduled for launch in 2013. It will operate at L2 for 5 years, rotating slowly to scan the sky so that its two optical telescopes will repeatedly observe more than one billion stars. The resulting data set will be iteratively reduced to solve for the position, parallax and proper motion of every observed star. The focal plane contains 106 large area silicon CCDs continuously operating in a mode where the line transfer rate and the satellite rotation are in synchronisation. One of the greatest challenges facing the mission is radiation damage to the CCDs which will cause charge deferral and image shape distortion. This is particularly important because of the extreme accuracy requirements of the mission. Despite steps taken at hardware level to minimise the effects of radiation, the residual distortion will need to be calibrated during the pipeline data processing. Due to the volume and inhomogeneity of data involved, this requires a model which describes the effec...

Short, Alexander; de Bruijne, Jos H J; Prod'homme, Thibaut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera. III. Immunology and immunopathology in rapidly induced models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) frequently develops in the long-term rat radiation chimera, we present three additional models in which a histologically similar disease is rapidly induced. These include adoptive transfer of spleen and bone marrow from rats with spontaneous chronic GVHD into lethally irradiated rats of the primary host strain; sublethal irradiation of stable chimeras followed by a booster transplant; and transfer of spleen cells of chimeras recovering from acute GVHD into second-party (primary recipient strain) or third-party hosts. Some immunopathologic and immune abnormalities associated with spontaneous chronic GVHD were not observed in one or more of the induced models. Thus, IgM deposition in the skin, antinuclear antibodies, and vasculitis appear to be paraphenomena. On the other hand, lymphoid hypocellularity of the thymic medulla, immaturity of splenic follicles, and nonspecific suppressor cells were consistently present in the long term chimeras, and in all models. These abnormalities therefore may be pathogenetically important, or closely related to the development of chronic GVHD.

Beschorner, W.E.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Molecular analysis of radiation-induced albino (c)-locus mutations that cause death at preimplantation stages of development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deletion mutations at the albino (c) locus have been useful for continuing the development of fine-structure physical and functional maps of the Fes-Hbb region of mouse chromosome 7. This report describes the molecular analysis of a number of radiation-induced c deletions that, when homozygous, cause death of the embryo during preimplantation stages. The distal extent of these deletions defines a locus, pid, (preimplantation development) genetically associated with this phenotype. The proximal breakpoints of eight of these deletions were mapped with respect to the Tyr (tyrosinase; albino) gene as well as to anonymous loci within the Fah-Tyr region that are defined by the Pmv-31 viral integration site and by chromosome-microdissection clones. Rearrangements corresponding to the proximal breakpoints of two of these deletions were detected by Southern blot analysis, and a size-altered restriction fragment carrying the breakpoint of one of them was cloned. A probe derived from this deletion fusion fragment defines a locus, D7Rn6, which maps within (or distal to) the pid region, and which discriminates among the distal extents of deletions eliciting the pid phenotype. Extension of physical maps from D7Rn6 should provide access both to the pid region and to loci mapping distal to pid that are defined by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lethal mutations. 36 refs., 10 figs.

Rinchik, E.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Toenjes, R.R.; Paul, D. (Fraunhofer-Instituet fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)); Potter, M.D. (Univ. of Tenn.-Oak Ridge Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Changes induced in a ZnS:Cr-based electroluminescent waveguide structure by intrinsic near-infrared laser radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The causes of changes that occur in a thin-film electroluminescent metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal waveguide structure based on ZnS:Cr (Cr concentration of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) upon lasing ({lambda} Almost-Equal-To 2.6 {mu}m) and that induce lasing cessation are studied. It is established that lasing ceases because of light-scattering inhomogeneities formed in the structure and, hence, optical losses enhance. The origin of the inhomogeneities and the causes of their formation are clarified by studying the surface topology and the crystal structure of constituent layers of the samples before and after lasing. The studies are performed by means of atomic force microscopy and X-ray radiography. It is shown that a substantial increase in the sizes of grains on the surface of the structure is the manifestation of changes induced in the ZnS:Cr film by recrystallization. Recrystallization is initiated by local heating by absorbed laser radiation in existing Cr clusters and quickened by a strong electric field (>1 MV cm{sup -1}). The changes observed in the ZnS:Cr film are as follows: the textured growth of ZnS crystallites, an increase in the content of Cr clusters, and the appearance of some CrS and a rather high ZnO content. Some ways for improving the stability of lasing in the ZnS:Cr-based waveguide structures are proposed.

Vlasenko, N. A., E-mail: vlasenko@isp.kiev.ua; Oleksenko, P. F.; Mukhlyo, M. A.; Veligura, L. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)] [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

adaptive interactive technologies: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shock-induced combustion Fluid-structure interaction Implementation Parallel Adaptive Cartesian Upwind Mathematics Websites Summary: Finite volume methods Adaptive mesh refinement...

125

Radiation-Induced Alterations in Mouse Brain Development Characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify regions of altered development in the mouse brain after cranial irradiation using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Female C57Bl/6 mice received a whole-brain radiation dose of 7 Gy at an infant-equivalent age of 2.5 weeks. MRI was performed before irradiation and at 3 time points following irradiation. Deformation-based morphometry was used to quantify volume and growth rate changes following irradiation. Results: Widespread developmental deficits were observed in both white and gray matter regions following irradiation. Most of the affected brain regions suffered an initial volume deficit followed by growth at a normal rate, remaining smaller in irradiated brains compared with controls at all time points examined. The one exception was the olfactory bulb, which in addition to an early volume deficit, grew at a slower rate thereafter, resulting in a progressive volume deficit relative to controls. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed demyelination in white matter and loss of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Conclusions: MRI can detect regional differences in neuroanatomy and brain growth after whole-brain irradiation in the developing mouse. Developmental deficits in neuroanatomy persist, or even progress, and may serve as useful markers of late effects in mouse models. The high-throughput evaluation of brain development enabled by these methods may allow testing of strategies to mitigate late effects after pediatric cranial irradiation.

Gazdzinski, Lisa M.; Cormier, Kyle [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Lu, Fred G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Lerch, Jason P. [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada) [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Nieman, Brian J., E-mail: bjnieman@phenogenomics.ca [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

THE RADIATION CHEMISTRY OP AMINO ACIDS, PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS IN RELATION TO THE RADIATION STERILIZATION OF HIGH-PROTEIN FOODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Various Ionizing Radiations. Radiat. Res. , 22, 694 (1968). W. M. Garrison, Radiation Induced Reactions of AminoFrozen Aqueous Solutions, in Radiation Chemistry of Aqueous

Garrison, W.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and hydroxyproline accumulation in four strains of mice  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

C57BL mice exposed to 14 Gy of whole-thorax irradiation develop significant histologic lung fibrosis within 52 weeks, whereas CBA and C3H mice do not exhibit substantial fibrosis during this time. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this strain-dependent difference in radiation histopathology is associated with genetic differences in pulmonary endothelial metabolic activity or in endothelial radioresponsiveness. C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J, CBA/J, and C3H/HeJ mice were sacrificed 12 weeks after exposure to 0 or 14 Gy of 300-kV X rays to the whole thorax. Lung angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasminogen activator (PLA) activity were measured as indices of pulmonary endothelial function; and lung hydroxyproline (HP) content served as an index of pulmonary fibrosis. Lung ACE and PLA activities in sham-irradiated C57BL/6J and CB57BL/10J mice were only half as high as those in sham-irradiated CBA/J and C3H/HeJ mice. Exposure to 14 Gy of X rays produced a slight but nonsignificant reduction in lung ACE and PLA activity in the C57BL strains, and a significant reduction in the CBA/J and C3H/HeJ mice. Even after 14 Gy, however, lung ACE and PLA activities in CBA/J and C3H/HeJ mice were higher than those in sham-irradiated C57BL/6J and C57BL/10J mice. Lung HP content in all four strains increased significantly after irradiation, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in lung wet weight. As a result, HP concentration (per milligram wet weight) remained constant or increased slightly in both C57BL strains and actually decreased in the CBA/J and C3H/HeJ mice. These data demonstrate significant genetic differences in both intrinsic pulmonary endothelial enzyme activity and endothelial radioresponsiveness among the four strains of mice.

Ward, W.F.; Sharplin, J.; Franko, A.J.; Hinz, J.M. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Radiation induced redox reactions and fragmentation of constituent ions in ionic liquids II. Imidazolium cations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In part 1 of this study, radiolytic degradation of constituent anions in ionic liquids (ILs) was examined. The present study continues the themes addressed in part 1 and examines the radiation chemistry of 1,3-dialkyl substituted imidazolium cations, which currently comprise the most practically important and versatile class of ionic liquid cations. For comparison, we also examined 1,3-dimethoxy- and 2-methyl-substituted imidazolium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations. In addition to identification of radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and selective deuterium substitution, we analyzed stable radiolytic products using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). Our EPR studies reveal rich chemistry initiated through 'ionization of the ions': oxidation and the formation of radical dications in the aliphatic arms of the parent cations (leading to deprotonation and the formation of alkyl radicals in these arms) and reduction of the parent cation, yielding 2-imidazolyl radicals. The subsequent reactions of these radicals depend on the nature of the IL. If the cation is 2-substituted, the resulting 2-imidazolyl radical is relatively stable. If there is no substitution at C(2), the radical then either is protonated or reacts with the parent cation forming a C(2)-C(2) {sigma}{sigma}*-bound dimer radical cation. In addition to these reactions, when methoxy or C{sub {alpha}}-substituted alkyl groups occupy the N(1,3) positions, their elimination is observed. The elimination of methyl groups from N(1,3) was not observed. Product analyses of imidazolium liquids irradiated in the very-high-dose regime (6.7 MGy) reveal several detrimental processes, including volatilization, acidification, and oligomerization. The latter yields a polymer with m/z of 650 {+-} 300 whose radiolytic yield increases with dose (0.23 monomer units per 100 eV for 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium trifluorosulfonate). Gradual generation of this polymer accounts for the steady increase in the viscosity of the ILs upon irradiation. Previous studies at lower dose have missed this species due to its wide mass distribution (stretching out to m/z 1600) and broad NMR lines, which make it harder to detect at lower concentrations. Among other observed changes is the formation of water immiscible fractions in hydrophilic ILs and water miscible fractions in hydrophobic ILs. The latter is due to anion fragmentation. The import of these observations for use of ILs as extraction solvents in nuclear cycle separations is discussed.

Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. W.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Hatcher, J.; Wishart, J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (BNL)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

129

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. COPS was endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading.

130

Present Situation of Diffracted X-ray Radiation and Resonance (Coherent) Transition Radiation Induced by High Energy Charged Particles in Frequencies Region Exiding Atomic one  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The review is devoted to the modern investigations of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic charged particles propagating with constant velocity through the periodic media. Two examples of radiation are considered in this review, the first corresponds to the Bragg scattering of charged particles pseudophotons in crystals, the second one to the Fresnel scattering of pseudophotons in periodic medium. Both examples play essential role in construction new compact tunable sources in X-ray region.

Ter-Mikaelian, M L

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Present Situation of Diffracted X-ray Radiation and Resonance (Coherent) Transition Radiation Induced by High Energy Charged Particles in Frequencies Region Exiding Atomic one  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The review is devoted to the modern investigations of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic charged particles propagating with constant velocity through the periodic media. Two examples of radiation are considered in this review, the first corresponds to the Bragg scattering of charged particles pseudophotons in crystals, the second one to the Fresnel scattering of pseudophotons in periodic medium. Both examples play essential role in construction new compact tunable sources in X-ray region.

M. L. Ter-Mikayelyan

2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

132

Effects of Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of the Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene in Experimental Radiation-Induced Heart Disease  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Irradiation to the heart may lead to late cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adenovirus-mediated delivery of the human hepatocyte growth factor gene could reduce post-irradiation damage of the rat heart and improve heart function. Methods and Materials: Twenty rats received single-dose irradiation of 20 Gy gamma ray locally to the heart and were randomized into two groups. Two weeks after irradiation, these two groups of rats received Ad-HGF or mock adenovirus vector intramyocardial injection, respectively. Another 10 rats served as sham-irradiated controls. At post-irradiation Day 120, myocardial perfusion was tested by myocardial contrast echocardiography with contrast agent injected intravenously. At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was assessed using the Langendorff technique with an isolated working heart model, after which heart samples were collected for histological evaluation. Results: Myocardial blood flow was significantly improved in HGF-treated animals as measured by myocardial contrast echocardiography at post-irradiation Day 120 . At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was significantly improved in the HGF group compared with mock vector group, as measured by left ventricular peak systolic pressure (58.80 +- 9.01 vs. 41.94 +- 6.65 mm Hg, p < 0.05), the maximum dP/dt (5634 +- 1303 vs. 1667 +- 304 mm Hg/s, p < 0.01), and the minimum dP/dt (3477 +- 1084 vs. 1566 +- 499 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05). Picrosirius red staining analysis also revealed a significant reduction of fibrosis in the HGF group. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer can attenuate radiation-induced cardiac injury and can preserve cardiac function.

Hu Shunying; Chen Yundai [Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China); Li Libing [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China); Chen Jinlong; Wu Bin [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhou, Xiao; Zhi Guang [Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China); Li Qingfang; Wang Rongliang; Duan Haifeng; Guo Zikuan; Yang Yuefeng; Xiao Fengjun [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang Hua, E-mail: wanghua@nic.bmi.ac.c [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang Lisheng [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2009-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

134

Modeling of plasma-controlled evaporation and surface condensation of Al induced by 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m laser radiations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase transition on the surface of an aluminum target and vapor plasma induced by laser irradiation in the nanosecond regime at the wavelengths of 1.06 {mu}m in the infrared range and 0.248 {mu}m in the ultraviolet range with an intensity of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2} in vacuum are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the wavelength dependence of the observed phenomena and the non-one-dimensional effects caused by the nonuniform (Gaussian) laser intensity distribution and the lateral expansion of the plasma plume. A transient two-dimensional model is used which includes conductive heat transfer in the condensed phase, radiative gas dynamics, and laser radiation transfer in the plasma as well as surface evaporation and back condensation at the phase interface. It was shown that distinctions in phase transition dynamics for the 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m radiations result from essentially different characteristics of the laser-induced plasmas. For the 1.06 {mu}m radiation, evaporation stops after the formation of hot optically thick plasma, can occasionally resume at a later stage of the pulse, and proceeds nonuniformly in the spot area, and the major contribution to the mass removal occurs in the outer part of the irradiated region. Plasma induced by the 0.248 {mu}m laser is colder and partially transparent since it transmits 30%-70% of the incident radiation; therefore evaporation does not stop but continues in the subsonic regime with the Mach number of about 0.1. The amount of evaporated matter that condenses back to the surface is as high as 15%-20% and less than 10% for the 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m radiations, respectively. For a beam radius smaller than {approx}100 {mu}m, the screening and retarding effect of the plasma weakens because of the lateral expansion, thickness of the removed layer increases, and condensation after the end of the pulse is not observed. Comparison of the numerical and experimental results on the removed layer thickness has shown, in particular, the importance of accounting for the plasma effect to predict the correct trends for radiation intensity and beam radius.

Mazhukin, V. I.; Nossov, V. V.; Smurov, I. [Institute of Mathematical Modeling of RAS, 4a Miusskaya Square, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Simulation of Infrared Laser Heating of Silica Using Heat Conduction and Multifrequency Radiation Diffusion Equations Adapted for Homogeneous Refractive Lossy Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized, transient heating of materials using micro-scale, highly absorbing laser light has been used in many industries to anneal, melt and ablate material with high precision. Accurate modeling of the relative contributions of conductive, convective and radiative losses as a function of laser parameters is essential to optimizing micro-scale laser processing of materials. In bulk semi-transparent materials such as silicate glass melts, radiation transport is known to play a significantly larger role as the temperature increases. Conventionally, radiation is treated in the frequency-averaged diffusive limit (Rosseland approximation). However, the role and proper treatment of radiative processes under rapidly heated, high thermal gradient conditions, often created through laser-matter interactions, is at present not clear. Starting from the radiation transport equation for homogeneous, refractive lossy media, they derive the corresponding time-dependent multi-frequency diffusion equations. Zeroth and first moments of the transport equation couple the energy density, flux and pressure tensor. The system is closed by neglecting the temporal derivative of the flux and replacing the pressure tensor by its diagonal analogue. The radiation equations are coupled to a diffusion equation for the matter temperature. They are interested in modeling infrared laser heating of silica over sub-millimeter length scales, and at possibly rapid rates. Hence, in contrast to related work, they retain the temporal derivative of the radiation field. They derive boundary conditions at a planar air-silica interface taking account of reflectivities obtained from the Fresnel relations that include absorption. The effect of a temperature-dependent absorption index is explored through construction of a multi-phonon dielectric function that includes mode dispersion. The spectral dimension is discretized into a finite number of intervals yielding a system of multigroup diffusion equations. Simulations are presented. To demonstrate the bulk heat loss due to radiation and the effect of the radiation's temporal derivative, they model cooling of a silica slab, initially at 2500 K, for 10 s. Retaining the derivative enables correctly modeling the loss of photons initially present in the slab. Other simulations model irradiating silica discs (of approximately 5 mm radii and thickness) with a CO2 laser: {lambda} = 10.59 and 4.6 um, Gaussian profile, r{sub 0} = 0.5 mm for 1/e decay. By surrounding the disks in room-temperature air, they make use of the boundary conditions described above.

Shestakov, A I; Matthews, M J; Vignes, R M; Stolken, J S

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

136

Curcumin Regulates Low-Linear Energy Transfer {gamma}-Radiation-Induced NF{kappa}B-Dependent Telomerase Activity in Human Neuroblastoma Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: We recently reported that curcumin attenuates ionizing radiation (IR)-induced survival signaling and proliferation in human neuroblastoma cells. Also, in the endothelial system, we have demonstrated that NF{kappa}B regulates IR-induced telomerase activity (TA). Accordingly, we investigated the effect of curcumin in inhibiting IR-induced NF{kappa}B-dependent hTERT transcription, TA, and cell survival in neuroblastoma cells. Methods and Materials: SK-N-MC or SH-SY5Y cells exposed to IR and treated with curcumin (10-100 nM) with or without IR were harvested after 1 h through 24 h. NF{kappa}B-dependent regulation was investigated either by luciferase reporter assays using pNF{kappa}B-, pGL3-354-, pGL3-347-, or pUSE-I{kappa}B{alpha}-Luc, p50/p65, or RelA siRNA-transfected cells. NF{kappa}B activity was analyzed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and hTERT expression using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. TA was determined using the telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay and cell survival using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide and clonogenic assay. Results: Curcumin profoundly inhibited IR-induced NF{kappa}B. Consequently, curcumin significantly inhibited IR-induced TA and hTERT mRNA at all points investigated. Furthermore, IR-induced TA is regulated at the transcriptional level by triggering telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter activation. Moreover, NF{kappa}B becomes functionally activated after IR and mediates TA upregulation by binding to the {kappa}B-binding region in the promoter region of the TERT gene. Consistently, elimination of the NF{kappa}B-recognition site on the telomerase promoter or inhibition of NF{kappa}B by the I{kappa}B{alpha} mutant compromises IR-induced telomerase promoter activation. Significantly, curcumin inhibited IR-induced TERT transcription. Consequently, curcumin inhibited hTERT mRNA and TA in NF{kappa}B overexpressed cells. Furthermore, curcumin enhanced the IR-induced inhibition of cell survival. Conclusions: These results strongly suggest that curcumin inhibits IR-induced TA in an NF{kappa}B dependent manner in human neuroblastoma cells.

Aravindan, Natarajan, E-mail: naravind@ouhsc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Veeraraghavan, Jamunarani; Madhusoodhanan, Rakhesh; Herman, Terence S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Natarajan, Mohan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

adaptive antioxidant methionine: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Departments of *Ecology for review July 26, 2005) Adaptive radiation is defined as the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage....

138

Development and adaptation of conduction and radiation heat-transfer computer codes for the CFTL. [Core Flow Test Loop; RODCON; HOTTEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

RODCON and HOTTEL are two computational methods used to calculate thermal and radiation heat transfer for the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) analysis efforts. RODCON was developed at ORNL to calculate the internal temperature distribution of the fuel rod simulator (FRS) for the CFTL. RODCON solves the time-dependent heat transfer equation in two-dimensional (R angle) cylindrical coordinates at an axial plane with user-specified radial material zones and time- and position-variant surface conditions at the FRS periphery. Symmetry of the FRS periphery boundary conditions is not necessary. The governing elliptic, partial differential heat equation is cast into a fully implicit, finite-difference form by approximating the derivatives with a forward-differencing scheme with variable mesh spacing. The heat conduction path is circumferentially complete, and the potential mathematical problem at the rod center can be effectively ignored. HOTTEL is a revision of an algorithm developed by C.B. Baxi at the General Atomic Company (GAC) to be used in calculating radiation heat transfer in a rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal duct. HOTTEL uses geometric view factors, surface emissivities, and surface areas to calculate the gray-body or composite view factors in an enclosure having multiple reflections in a nonparticipating medium.

Conklin, J.C.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Adaptation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environment ? Natural Environment ? People FIVE STRATEGIES Copyright 2011, City of Chicago ADAPTATION ESL-KT-11-11-16 9 CCAP Adaptation Evolution 2007 2008 2009 2010 ? Understood the climate science: Assess climate impacts ? Assessed economic... E xi st in g Tr un k Existing on Rogers Rogers Ave CIP Stormwater management: Chicago?s comprehensive sewer model Climate impacts Example actions to prepare the built environment Copyright 2011, City of Chicago ESL-KT-11-11-16 13 CCAP...

Durnbaugh, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

SNP in TXNRD2 Associated With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis: A Study of Genetic Variation in Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Signaling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify noninvasive markers of treatment-induced side effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated after irradiation, and genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism might influence the level of radiation-induced adverse effects (AEs). Methods and Materials: 92 breast cancer (BC) survivors previously treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy were assessed for the AEs subcutaneous atrophy and fibrosis, costal fractures, lung fibrosis, pleural thickening, and telangiectasias (median follow-up time 17.1 years). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were analyzed for association to AE grade. SNPs associated with subcutaneous fibrosis were validated in an independent BC survivor material (n=283). The influence of the studied genetic variation on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of 18 genes previously associated with fibrosis was assessed in fibroblast cell lines from BC patients. Results: Subcutaneous fibrosis and atrophy had the highest correlation (r=0.76) of all assessed AEs. The nonsynonymous SNP rs1139793 in TXNRD2 was associated with grade of subcutaneous fibrosis, the reference T-allele being more prevalent in the group experiencing severe levels of fibrosis. This was confirmed in another sample cohort of 283 BC survivors, and rs1139793 was found significantly associated with mRNA expression level of TXNRD2 in blood. Genetic variation in 24 ROS-related genes, including EGFR, CENPE, APEX1, and GSTP1, was associated with mRNA expression of 14 genes previously linked to fibrosis (P?.005). Conclusion: Development of subcutaneous fibrosis can be associated with genetic variation in the mitochondrial enzyme TXNRD2, critically involved in removal of ROS, and maintenance of the intracellular redox balance.

Edvardsen, Hege, E-mail: hege.edvardsen@rr-research.no [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway) [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Landmark-Hyvik, Hege [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway) [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Reinertsen, Kristin V. [National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway)] [National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Zhao, Xi [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway) [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Grenaker-Alns, Grethe Irene; Nebdal, Daniel [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Syvnen, Ann-Christine [Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Rdningen, Olaug [Department of Medical Genetics, OUS Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Medical Genetics, OUS Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Ahus University Hospital (Norway)] [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Ahus University Hospital (Norway); Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway) [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Foss, Sophie D. [K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway) [K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Kristensen, Vessela N. [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway) [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Department of Clinical Molecular Biology (EpiGen), Division of Medicine, Ahus University Hospital (Norway)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

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141

A new time-dependent analytic model for radiation-induced photocurrent in finite 1D epitaxial diodes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photocurrent generated by ionizing radiation represents a threat to microelectronics in radiation environments. Circuit simulation tools such as SPICE [1] can be used to analyze these threats, and typically rely on compact models for individual electrical components such as transistors and diodes. Compact models consist of a handful of differential and/or algebraic equations, and are derived by making simplifying assumptions to any of the many semiconductor transport equations. Historically, many photocurrent compact models have suffered from accuracy issues due to the use of qualitative approximation, rather than mathematically correct solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation. A practical consequence of this inaccuracy is that a given model calibration is trustworthy over only a narrow range of operating conditions. This report describes work to produce improved compact models for photocurrent. Specifically, an analytic model is developed for epitaxial diode structures that have a highly doped subcollector. The analytic model is compared with both numerical TCAD calculations, as well as the compact model described in reference [2]. The new analytic model compares well against TCAD over a wide range of operating conditions, and is shown to be superior to the compact model from reference [2].

Verley, Jason C.; Axness, Carl L.; Hembree, Charles Edward; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Precise method of compensating radiation-induced errors in a hot-cathode-ionization gauge with correcting electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To compensate pressure-measurement errors caused by a synchrotron radiation environment, a precise method using a hot-cathode-ionization-gauge head with correcting electrode, was developed and tested in a simulation experiment with excess electrons in the SPring-8 storage ring. This precise method to improve the measurement accuracy, can correctly reduce the pressure-measurement errors caused by electrons originating from the external environment, and originating from the primary gauge filament influenced by spatial conditions of the installed vacuum-gauge head. As the result of the simulation experiment to confirm the performance reducing the errors caused by the external environment, the pressure-measurement error using this method was approximately less than several percent in the pressure range from 10{sup ?5} Pa to 10{sup ?8} Pa. After the experiment, to confirm the performance reducing the error caused by spatial conditions, an additional experiment was carried out using a sleeve and showed that the improved function was available.

Saeki, Hiroshi, E-mail: saeki@spring8.or.jp; Magome, Tamotsu, E-mail: saeki@spring8.or.jp [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Kohto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

143

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gray Cancer Institute has pioneered the use of X ray focussing techniques to develop systems for micro irradiating individual cells and sub cellular targets in vitro. Cellular micro irradiation is now recognised as a highly versatile technique for understanding how ionising radiation interacts with living cells and tissues. The strength of the technique lies in its ability to deliver precise doses of radiation to selected individual cells (or sub cellular targets). The application of this technique in the field of radiation biology continues to be of great interest for investigating a number of phenomena currently of concern to the radiobiological community. One important phenomenon is the so called bystander effect where it is observed that unirradiated cells can also respond to signals transmitted by irradiated neighbours. Clearly, the ability of a microbeam to irradiate just a single cell or selected cells within a population is well suited to studying this effect. Our prototype tabletop X-ray microprobe was optimised for focusing 278 eV C-K X rays and has been used successfully for a number of years. However, we have sought to develop a new variable energy soft X-ray microprobe capable of delivering focused CK (0.28 keV), Al-K (1.48 keV) and notably, Ti-K (4.5 keV) X rays. Ti-K X rays are capable of penetrating several cell layers and are therefore much better suited to studies involving tissues and multi cellular layers. In our new design, X-rays are generated by the focussed electron bombardment of a material whose characteristic-K radiation is required. The source is mounted on a 1.5 x 1.0 metre optical table. Electrons are generated by a custom built gun, designed to operate up to 15 kV. The electrons are focused using a permanent neodymium iron boron magnet assembly. Focusing is achieved by adjusting the accelerating voltage and by fine tuning the target position via a vacuum position feedthrough. To analyze the electron beam properties, a custom built microscope is used to image the focussed beam on the target, through a vacuum window. The X-rays are focussed by a zone plate optical assembly mounted to the end of a hollow vertical tube that can be precisely positioned above the X ray source. The cell finding and positioning stage comprises an epi-fluorescence microscope and a feedback controlled 3 axis cell positioning stage, also mounted on the optical table. Independent vertical micro positioning of the microscope objective turret allows the focus of the microscope and the X ray focus to coincide in space (i.e. at the point where the cell should be positioned for exposure). The whole microscope stage assembly can be precisely raised or lowered, to cater for large differences in the focal length of the X ray zone plates. The facility is controlled by PC and the software provides full status and control of the source and makes use of a dual-screen for control and display during the automated cell finding and irradiation procedures.

Folkard, Melvyn; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Schettino, Giuseppe; Atkinson, Kirk; Prise, Kevin, M.; Michael, Barry, D.

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

144

Optical bistability and cooling of a mechanical oscillator induced by radiation pressure in a hybrid optomechanical system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate theoretically the effect of optical feedback from a cavity containing an ultracold two level atomic ensemble, on the bistable behavior shown by mean intracavity optical field and the ground state cooling effect of the mechanical oscillator in an optomechanical cavity resonator. The optical bistability can be controlled by tuning the frequency and power of the single driving laser as well as by varying the atom-cavity coupling strength in the atomic cavity. Study of the cooling of the mechanical oscillator, in both good and bad cavity limits, reveals that the hybrid system is more efficient in cooling in comparison to a generic optomechanical setup, even at room temperature. In essence, our work emphasizes the impact of the coupling with the atomic cavity on the radiation pressure effects in the optomechanical cavity.

Sarma, Bijita

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Nuclear apoJ: A low dose radiation inducible regulator of cell death. Final report for period September 15, 1998 - September 14, 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was based on preliminary data that was published by Dr. Boothman (Yang et al. 2000) which indicated a strong induction of apoJ gene expression, increased secretion of the protein, and accumulation of an apparently somewhat different form of the apoJ protein in the nucleus of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells undergoing response to DNA damage. A clone expressing apoJ protein was isolated that was capable of interacting with Ku80, a component of the double strand break repair complex that is essential for the successful repair of rearranging immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes as evidenced by failure to produce mature B and T cells in the absence of Ku70. ApoJ clones isolated and characterized by Dr. Boothman bound strongly to a Ku-70 ''bait'' protein. Over-expression of these same clones in a cell line was capable of killing the cell. ApoJ is very strongly induced in many instances of programmed cell death and has been proposed repeatedly to play some sort of effector role in the process. Our principle hypothesis for this study was that the strong induction of the apoJ gene and the particular expression of a nuclear form of the protein was potentially a causal factor in the decision point made by the cell as it attempts to repair double-strand breakage based DNA damage. The hypothesis was that if sufficiently high damage occurred, it would be deleterious to maintain the cell's viability through continued DNA repair. One method to inhibit DNA repair might be by inhibiting proteins such as Ku-70 that are necessary for double-strand break repair. If apoJ does play a critical role in tipping the decision balance over to cell death, we reasoned that deficiency of apoJ would cause increased accumulation of cells with DNA damage and that this might decrease cell death in response to DNA damage and increase tumor occurrence rates. To test this hypothesis and its potential implications, we exposed wildtype and apoJ deficient animals that we constructed through gene targeting to increasing levels of ionizing radiation from a Cesium source. Data gathered under the support of this grant application initially indicated that apoJ deficient animals were more resistant to radiation, but as we accumulated more and more data points and covered a tighter exposure range, the genotype-based differences became insignificant. However, the possibility existed that because mortality based radiation-resistance could be attributable to mechanism for which nuclear apoJ was not rate determining, we maintained a very large of colony of apoJ knockout and wildtype animals in both the C57/B16 and Cv129 strain backgrounds that were exposed to sub-lethal levels of ionizing radiation to monitor for the occurrence of tumors. These animals were allowed to fully recover and age normally in either germ free or normal animal housing. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between wildtype and apoJ knockout animals over a period that extended up to 30 months for individual animals. We recorded similar weight gain, a relatively low mortality rate, and a similar mixture and rate of sarcoma and adenocarcinomas after surviving the initial ionizing radiation exposures. Thus we conclude that apoJ gene function, which was totally eliminated by our gene targeting, did not influence radiation sensitivity or serve as a tumor suppressor in response to DNA damage.

Aronow, Bruce J.

2002-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.j [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Akashi, Makoto [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Adaptive sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

Watson, Bobby L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Aeby, Ian (Fremont, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Adaptive sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

1980-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

149

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line }) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Up-Tack }) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p < .05). The radiation dose correlated with an increase in cingulum {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 and 6 weeks (p < .05). The post-RT changes in verbal recall scores correlated linearly with the late changes in cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} (30 weeks, p < .02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, early cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

Chapman, Christopher H., E-mail: chchap@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nagesh, Vijaya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sundgren, Pia C. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Buchtel, Henry [Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chenevert, Thomas L. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Junck, Larry [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Influence of adaptive mesh refinement and the hydro solver on shear-induced mass stripping in a minor-merger scenario  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compare two different codes for simulations of cosmological structure formation to investigate the sensitivity of hydrodynamical instabilities to numerics, in particular, the hydro solver and the application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). As a simple test problem, we consider an initially spherical gas cloud in a wind, which is an idealized model for the merger of a subcluster or galaxy with a big cluster. Based on an entropy criterion, we calculate the mass stripping from the subcluster as a function of time. Moreover, the turbulent velocity field is analyzed with a multi-scale filtering technique. We find remarkable differences between the commonly used PPM solver with directional splitting in the Enzo code and an unsplit variant of PPM in the Nyx code, which demonstrates that different codes can converge to systematically different solutions even when using uniform grids. For the test case of an unbound cloud, AMR simulations reproduce uniform-grid results for the mass stripping quite well, although...

Schmidt, W; Iapichino, L; Vazza, F; Almgren, A S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R.B. Mikkelsen, Ionizing radiation-induced, mitochondria-W.K. Rorrer, P.B. Chen, Radiation-induced proliferation ofresponse genes to ionizing radiation in human lymphoblastoid

Wyrobek, A. J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at alpha/beta = 3 gray equivalent (GyE{sub 3}). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE{sub 3}) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

Demizu, Yusuke, E-mail: y_demizu@nifty.co [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Akagi, Takashi [Department of Accelerator Managing, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei [Division of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Terashima, Kazuki [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Suga, Daisaku [Department of Radiation Technology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Kamae, Isao [Division of Medical Statistics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hishikawa, Yoshio [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

adaptive tree code: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 A fast tree-based method for estimating column densities in Adaptive Mesh Refinement codes Influence of UV radiation field on the structure of molecular clouds CERN Preprints...

154

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Adaptive genomic changes in Antarctic fish...............................................................  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-zero temperatures of the Southern Ocean requires special adaptation to extreme cold, and the notothenioid fish radiation--which dominates the biomass and species diversity of Antarctic fish--has provided textbook., 2004). This result suggests that, not surprisingly, evolu- tionary adaptation to the Southern Ocean has

Renn, Susan C.P.

155

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

156

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

Cossairt, J.D.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Generalized Adaptive A* Xiaoxun Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generalized Adaptive A* Xiaoxun Sun USC Computer Science Los Angeles, California xiaoxuns spaces changes. Adaptive A* [7] is a Cite as: Generalized Adaptive A*, Xiaoxun Sun, Sven Koenig

Yeoh, William

160

Differential Gene Expression Profiles of Radioresistant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines Established by Fractionated Irradiation: Tumor Protein p53-Inducible Protein 3 Confers Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Despite the widespread use of radiotherapy as a local and regional modality for the treatment of cancer, some non-small-cell lung cancers commonly develop resistance to radiation. We thus sought to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to radiation. Methods and Materials: We established the radioresistant cell line H460R from radiosensitive parental H460 cells. To identify the radioresistance-related genes, we performed microarray analysis and selected several candidate genes. Results: Clonogenic and MTT assays showed that H460R was 10-fold more resistant to radiation than H460. Microarray analysis indicated that the expression levels of 1,463 genes were altered more than 1.5-fold in H460R compared with parental H460. To evaluate the putative functional role, we selected one interesting gene tumor protein p53-inducible protein 3 (TP53I3), because that this gene was significantly downregulated in radioresistant H460R cells and that it was predicted to link p53-dependent cell death signaling. Interestingly, messenger ribonucleic acid expression of TP53I3 differed in X-ray-irradiated H460 and H460R cells, and overexpression of TP53I3 significantly affected the cellular radiosensitivity of H460R cells. Conclusions: These results show that H460R may be useful in searching for candidate genes that are responsible for radioresistance and elucidating the molecular mechanism of radioresistance.

Lee, Young Sook; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Kwon, Myung-Sang [Toxicogenomics Team, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The effects of age and awareness on prism adaptation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neglect patients show a lack of awareness of both the prismatic displacement induced during prism adaptation and of the negative aftereffect they display afterwards. They also show significantly larger aftereffects than ...

Roach, Louise

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

adapte au petit: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences Websites Summary: par l'extrait suivant : Human-induced climate change is real and beyond. So, given the necessity to adapt to the impacts of these climate...

163

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

On the Phenomenology of Tachyon Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a brief overview of the different kinds of electromagnetic radiations expected to come from (or to be induced by) space-like sources (tachyons). New domains of radiation are here considered; and the possibility of experimental observation of tachyons via electromagnetic radiation is discussed.

Ron Folman; Erasmo Recami

1995-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le confrencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrle des zones et les prcautions prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

166

Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

Cossairt, J.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Development of a New Analysis Tool for Evaluating and Correcting for Weather Conditions that Constrain Radiation Portal Monitor Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) for the continuous measurement of environmental radionuclide decay. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of combining a variety of data streams into an array of real-time plots. Once acquired, data streams are analyzed to store static images and extract data based on previously defined thresholds. AMRAP is currently used at ORNL to combine data streams from an Ortec Detective high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a TSA Systems radiation portal monitor (RPM), and an Orion weather station. The combined data are used to study the rain-induced increase in RPM background radiation levels. RPMs experience an increase in background radiation during precipitation due to the deposition of atmospheric radionuclides on the ground. Using AMRAP results in a real-time analysis workstation specifically dedicated to the study of RPM background radiation levels. By means of an editable library of common inputs, AMRAP is adaptable to remote monitoring applications that would benefit from the real-time visualization and analysis of radiation measurements. To study rain-induced increases in background radiation levels observed in radiation portal monitors (RPMs), researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a software package that allows data with different formats to be analyzed and plotted in near real time. The Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) was developed to operate in the background and capture plots of important data based on previously defined thresholds. After executing AMRAP, segments of a data stream can be captured without additional post-processing. AMRAP can also display previously recorded data to facilitate a detailed offline analysis. Without access to these capabilities in a single software package, analyzing multiple continuously recorded data streams with different formats is impractical. Commercially available acquisition software packages record and analyze radiation measurements but are not designed to perform real-time analysis in conjunction with data from other vendors. The lack of collaboration between vendors is problematic when research requires different data streams to be correlated in time and immediately analyzed. AMRAP was specifically developed to provide a solution to this problem. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of plotting and analyzing data from different vendors in near real time.

Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL] [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold speed-up of the processing (from 1336 to 150 s). Conclusions: Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the potential to substantially improve image quality and/or reduce the radiation dose required for obtaining 3D image data using cone beam CT.

Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pattern Recognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim 91301 (Germany); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

LIMITING ACCRETION ONTO MASSIVE STARS BY FRAGMENTATION-INDUCED STARVATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform and analyze simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive-mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Banerjee, Robi [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac, E-mail: thomas.peters@ita.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States)

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

170

In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the Beta-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of Beta-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the {beta}-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of {beta}-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

SciTech Connect: Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancer of the hematopoietic system. Technical progress report, August 1, 1973--July 31, 1974 Citation Details...

173

Radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, B.T.

1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

175

BIODIVERSITY Incorporating sociocultural adaptive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIODIVERSITY VIEWPOINT Incorporating sociocultural adaptive capacity in conservation hotspot of biodiversity threats. Conservation biogeography (Whittaker et al., 2005) has emerged as a critical area biodiversity (Mawdsley et al., 2009). Adjusting conservation strategies to maintain diversity in recognition

176

Dynamic Adaptation using Xen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The topic of virtualization has received renewed attention. Xen is a popular open source type-I hypervisor. The Xen hypervisor currently has limited capabilities for runtime modification to the core hypervisor, which impairs research into dynamic adaptation for system-level virtualization. This paper discusses recent investigations into the feasibility of extending Xen to support runtime adaptation for core hypervisor service, e.g., scheduler.

Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Discriminative Adaptive Training and Bayesian Inference for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adaptation is a standard part of many speech recognition systems. This process requires some adaptation data

de Gispert, Adrià

178

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Entanglement from thermal black body radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two non--interacting quantum systems which couple to a common environment with many degrees of freedom initially in thermal equilibrium can become entangled due to the indirect interaction mediated through this heat bath. I examine here the dynamics of reservoir induced entanglement for a heat bath consisting of a thermal electro--magnetic radiation field, such as black body radiation or the cosmic microwave background, and show how the effect can be understood as result of an effective induced interaction.

Daniel Braun

2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Radiation sensitivity of microelectromechanical system devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

them soonest. MEMS can also encounter a high radiation environment in nuclear reactors. Since nearly of space missions rather than of operation in nuclear re- actors. As a purely structural material, silicon to the impact on device operation of radiation-induced trapped charge in dielectrics. MEMS devices operating

Floreano, Dario

182

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office 130 DeSoto Street G-7 Parran with sources of ionizing radiation are required to be instructed in the basic principles of radiation protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide

Sibille, Etienne

183

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

184

Standoff alpha radiation detection via excited state absorption of air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A standoff alpha radiation detection technique based on the physical mechanism of excited state absorption of air molecules was explored and is presented in this paper. Instead of directly detecting the radiation via measuring the intensity of radiation induced air fluorescence, the radiation is detected via the excited state absorption of alpha radiation excited/ionized air molecules. Both theoretical analyses and experimental verifications were conducted. The experimental results confirmed that the radiation could be detected via excited state absorption of radiation excited/ionized air molecules at a 10 m standoff distance, which was consistent with the theoretical analyses.

Yao, Jimmy; Yin, Stuart Shizhuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Brenizer, Jack [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Hui, Rongqing [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

185

Adaptive Medical Information Delivery Combining User, Task and Situation Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., in their model for adaptive hypermedia AHAM [2], distinguish contentadaptation from link adaptation

186

Adaptation and adaptability : expectant design for resilience in coastal urbanity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What is the nature of and possibility for urban resiliency through adaptation? Adaptation implies responsiveness to phenomena that are disruptive to a system's functioning; it is a willful evolution in response to changed ...

Ruskeep, Laura A. Delaney (Laura Ashley Delaney)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Adaptive sequential controller  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

189

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Project: (version of January 28, 2009) Sparse tensor product methods for radiative transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulating a dense gas at very high temperatures, energy transport by means of radiation has to be taken into account. However, as even the non-scattering stationary monochromatic radiative transfer equation s · x. Applying an adaptive sparse discretiza- tion to the radiative transfer equation [1] allows to significantly

Hiptmair, Ralf

191

7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia Universitys Kellogg Center in New York City on March 1517, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (15). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and non-targeted responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

Brenner, David J.

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

192

Spectral-element adaptive refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectral-element adaptive refinement magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the island coalescence;Abstract A recently developed spectral-element adaptive refinement incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD statically refined and dynamically refined grids. The island coalescence instability is a fundamental MHD

Ng, Chung-Sang

193

Adaptation of Microvasculature to Pulsatility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adaptation has not yet been fully characterized. In fact, standard mathematical models using the common assumption that vessels solely adapt to steady flow do not reproduce normal vascular structure. Therefore, we developed a simple, mathematical model of a...

Bimal, Tia

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

194

Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development Daniel H. Cole*THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE . ADAPTATIONCONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE . IV. A.

Cole, Daniel H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE LINEAR RECONSTRUCTOR PROBLEM IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE LINEAR RECONSTRUCTOR PROBLEM IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS MOODY T. CHU induced by atmospheric turbulence can severely de- grade the performance of an optical imaging system. Adaptive optics refers to the process of removing unwanted wave front distortions in real time, i

196

A MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE LINEAR RECONSTRUCTOR PROBLEM IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE LINEAR RECONSTRUCTOR PROBLEM IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS MOODY T. CHU aberrations induced by atmospheric turbulence can severely de­ grade the performance of an optical imaging system. Adaptive optics refers to the process of removing unwanted wave front distortions in real time, i

197

NEW SOURCES OF RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project Report No. 75/07.IBL 79M0733 Fig. 20. Radiation emission pattern by electronsWinick, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Fig. 21.

Schimmerling, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

199

6 options spring '00 understanding adaptation in natural systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Fisheries scientists and mana- gers have increasingly6 options spring '00 understanding adaptation in natural systems Shrinking Cod: Fishery-Induced Change in an Oceanic Stock Fishing is a major source of food and other resources for humankind. Today

Dieckmann, Ulf

200

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically Induced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Adaptive control for accelerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An adaptive feedforward control loop is provided to stabilize accelerator beam loading of the radio frequency field in an accelerator cavity during successive pulses of the beam into the cavity. A digital signal processor enables an adaptive algorithm to generate a feedforward error correcting signal functionally determined by the feedback error obtained by a beam pulse loading the cavity after the previous correcting signal was applied to the cavity. Each cavity feedforward correcting signal is successively stored in the digital processor and modified by the feedback error resulting from its application to generate the next feedforward error correcting signal. A feedforward error correcting signal is generated by the digital processor in advance of the beam pulse to enable a composite correcting signal and the beam pulse to arrive concurrently at the cavity.

Eaton, Lawrie E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jachim, Stephen P. (Los Alamos, NM); Natter, Eckard F. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ultrafast Core-Hole Induced Dynamics in Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ultrafast Core-Hole Induced Dynamics in Water Print A thorough understanding of the chemical processes that are initiated when radiation interacts with aqueous systems is essential...

203

Transforming Growth Factor ?-1 (TGF-?1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor ? -1 (TGF-?1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-?1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-?1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-?1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 5016 pg/mL, P<.0001); and women with moderate to severe RIF (34,462 4713 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Patients with moderate to severe RIF had significantly elevated TGF-?1 levels when compared with those with none to mild RIF before surgery (P=.0014) during IBAPBI (P?0001), and the elevation persisted at 6 months (P?.001), 12 months (P?.001), 18 months (P?.001), and 24 months (P=.12). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of TGF-?1 values predicting moderate to severe RIF was generated with an area under the curve (AUC){sub ROC} of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-?1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-?1 levels correlate with the development of moderate to severe RIF. The pre-IBAPBI mean TGF-?1 levels can serve as an early biomarker for the development of moderate to severe RIF after IBAPBI.

Boothe, Dustin L. [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Coplowitz, Shana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Greenwood, Eleni [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Barney, Christian L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Christos, Paul J. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Wernicke, A. Gabriella, E-mail: gaw9008@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stars with masses of >~ 20 solar masses have short Kelvin times that enable them to reach the main sequence while still accreting from their natal clouds. The resulting nuclear burning produces a huge luminosity and a correspondingly large radiation pressure force on dust grains in the accreting gas. This effect may limit the upper mass of stars that can form by accretion. Indeed, simulations and analytic calculations to date have been unable to resolve the mystery of how stars of 50 solar masses and up form. We present two new ideas to solve the radiation pressure problem. First, we use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study the collapse of massive cores. We find that in three dimensions a configuration in which radiation holds up an infalling envelope is Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, leading radiation driven bubbles to collapse and accretion to continue. We also present Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations showing that the cavities created by protostellar winds provides a valve that allow radiation to escape the accreting envelope, further reducing the ability of radiation pressure to inhibit accretion.

Mark R. Krumholz; Richard I. Klein; Christopher F. McKee

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

205

Radiation-hardened polymeric films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

206

Radiation-hardened polymeric films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Adapting to Survive  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the Building TechnologiesS1!4T op Document: NAActivitiesAdapting to

208

Alpha Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OF RESEARCHThermal SolarAllocatioBasics of Radiation Gamma

209

Normal shock solutions to the viscous shock layer equations including thermal, chemical, thermodynamic, and radiative nonequilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An existing axisymmetric body viscous shock layer code including chemical, thermal, and thermodynamic nonequilibrium and nonequilibrium radiative gasdynamic coupling is adapted to simulate the one-dimensional flow within a shock tube. A suitable...

Mott, David Ray

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the continuum calculations and the experiments.

Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Maintainable and Reusable Scientific Software Adaptation Democratizing Scientific Software Adaptation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptation Pilsung Kang, Eli Tilevich, Srinidhi Varadarajan, and Naren Ramakrishnan Center for High, and available resources to en- sure its efficiency and reliability. Although adaptation pat- terns can be found, Maintenance, and Enhancement; D.2.13 [Reusable Soft- ware]: [Reusable libraries]; D.3.3 [Language Constructs

Ryder, Barbara G.

212

BRIDGING NAVIGATION, SEARCH AND ADAPTATION. Adaptive Hypermedia Models Evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corpus, Dexter Model, AHAM, GAF. Abstract: Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHS) have long been concentrating The most referenced (but certainly not only) Adaptive Hypermedia (AH) model dates back to 1999. Since AHAM/Hypermedia modelling from Dexter Model through AHAM to the proposed GAF model, out- line advantages of each framework

De Bra, Paul

213

Coherent Transition Radiation in Askaryan radio detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the coherent transition radiation emitted by a macroscopic bunch of particles with a net charge traversing the boundary of two different media. The obtained expression is compared to the emission from a relativistically moving steady charge, as well the emission from a time-varying charge or current. As a first application, we discuss the transition radiation from high-energy cosmic-ray induced air showers hitting Earth's surface before the cascade has died out in the atmosphere. The induced emission gives rise to a radio signal which should be detectable in the currently operating Askaryan radio detectors built to search for the GZK neutrino flux.

de Vries, Krijn D; van Eijndhoven, Nick; Meures, Thomas; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Scholten, Olaf

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Radiotherapy Adapted to Spatial and Temporal Variability in Tumor Hypoxia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To explore the feasibility and clinical potential of adapting radiotherapy to temporal and spatial variations in tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Repeated dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (DCEMR) images were taken of a canine sarcoma during the course of fractionated radiation therapy. The tumor contrast enhancement was assumed to represent the oxygen distribution. The IMRT plans were retrospectively adapted to the DCEMR images by employing tumor dose redistribution. Optimized nonuniform tumor dose distributions were calculated and compared with a uniform dose distribution delivering the same integral dose to the tumor. Clinical outcome was estimated from tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling. Results: The biologically adapted treatment was found to give a substantial increase in TCP compared with conventional radiotherapy, even when only pretreatment images were used as basis for the treatment planning. The TCP was further increased by repeated replanning during the course of treatment, and replanning twice a week was found to give near optimal TCP. Random errors in patient positioning were found to give a small decrease in TCP, whereas systematic errors were found to reduce TCP substantially. NTCP for the adapted treatment was similar to or lower than for the conventional treatment, both for parallel and serial normal tissue structures. Conclusion: Biologically adapted radiotherapy is estimated to improve treatment outcome of tumors having spatial and temporal variations in radiosensitivity.

Sovik, Aste [Department of Medical Physics, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Malinen, Eirik [Department of Medical Physics, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: emalinen@fys.uio.no; Skogmo, Hege K. [Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Bentzen, Soren M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bruland, Oyvind S. [Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Clincal Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Olsen, Dag Rune [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Organizational Adaptation Kathleen M. Carley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-humans. For example, they suggest that organizational learning resides not just in the minds of the personnel withinOrganizational Adaptation Kathleen M. Carley Dept. of Social and Decision Sciences Carnegie Mellon: Kathleen M. Carley, 1998, "Organizational Adaptation." Annals of Operations Research. 75: 25-47. #12

Sadeh, Norman M.

216

Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization over  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization over Networks Ali H. Sayed University of California at Los 2014 A. H. Sayed DOI: 10.1561/2200000051 Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization over Networks Ali H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.6 Notation and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Optimization by Single Agents

California at Los Angeles, University of

217

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2. Radiation Safety Committee (RSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4. Radiation Safety Office (RSO

Rubloff, Gary W.

218

Method and devices for performing stereotactic microbeam radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radiation delivery system generally includes either a synchrotron source or a support frame and a plurality of microbeam delivery devices supported on the support frame, both to deliver a beam in a hemispherical arrangement. Each of the microbeam delivery devices or synchrotron irradiation ports is adapted to deliver at least one microbeam of radiation along a microbeam delivery axis, wherein the microbeam delivery axes of the plurality of microbeam delivery devices cross within a common target volume.

Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY)

2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

219

Adaptive Optics in Star Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the past ten years, the concept of adaptive optics has evolved from early experimental stages to a standard observing tool now available at almost all major optical and near-infrared telescope facilities. Adaptive optics will also be essential in exploiting the full potential of the large optical/infrared interferometers currently under construction. Both observations with high-angular resolution and at high contrast, and with a high point source sensitivity are facilitated by adaptive optics. Among the areas which benefit most from the use of adaptive optics are studies of the circumstellar environment (envelopes, disks, outflows), substellar companions and multiple systems, and dense young stellar populations. This contribution highlights some of the recent advances in star formation studies facilitated by adaptive optics, and gives a brief tutorial on optimized observing and data reduction strategies.

Wolfgang Brandner

2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

220

Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 514 (2003) 150155 Laser detection of radiation enhanced electron transport in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be enhanced substantially by X-ray radiation-induced damage as detected by a novel fast-pulsed laser technique by radiation-induced neutral traps in the oxide [4]. In particular, optical SHG has become an extremely useful of radiation enhanced electron transport in ultra-thin oxides R. Pasternaka, *, Y.V. Shirokayaa , Z. Markaa , J

Tolk, Norman H.

222

Effects of radiation on materials: twelfth international symposium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication provides information on irradiation creep of structural metals; microstructural development, neutron-induced swelling and charged particle irradiation. The theory of swelling is discussed along with mechanical properties, pressure vessel steels and irradiation facilities. The influence of helium on radiation-induced microstructural development, and radiation-induced changes in fracture toughness of iron-based austenitic and ferrite alloys are presented. The final section on other radiation studies covers the following: a modified method of helium introduction into alloys via the tritium trick, radiation damage aspects of a novel method for providing safe storage of Krypton-85 from fuel re-processing, and radiation effects on resins and zeolites forming part of the waste stream from the clean-up effort at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant.

Garner, F.A. (ed.); Perrin, J.S. (ed)

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Adaptive excitation control in power systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents an adaptive excitation controller of power systems. The control law is derived by using model reference adaptive control (MRAC) or adaptive pole placement control (APPC) and an equilibrium tracking mechanism is implemented...

Chiu, Pei-Chen

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

224

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

225

Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

the Medical Aspects of Radiation in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1995, NRPB published revised estimates of the radiation dose and the risks of radia-tion-induced leukaemias and other cancers in children and young persons living in Seascale, Cumbria. The work was under-taken at the request of the Committee on

Carol A. Robinson; J. R. Simmonds; C. R. Muirhead; Fry Chilton

227

Autonomous adaptive acoustic relay positioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the problem of maximizing underwater acoustic data transmission by adaptively positioning an autonomous mobile relay so as to learn and exploit spatial variations in channel performance. The acoustic channel ...

Cheung, Mei Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff ?. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than ?. The resulting ?-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (?+SD-CI), which is based on a small ?-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build ?-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The ?-CI and ?+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the ?-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the ?-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

Evangelista, Francesco A., E-mail: francesco.evangelista@emory.edu [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

230

adaptive response induced: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NANOLAMINATES . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??To characterize the self-propagating, high-temperature exothermic alloying reactions of NiAl nanoscaled...

231

adaptive responses induced: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NANOLAMINATES . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??To characterize the self-propagating, high-temperature exothermic alloying reactions of NiAl nanoscaled...

232

Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors : comparison of long-term health effects and costs between proton therapy and IMRT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation therapy is an important component of pediatric brain tumor treatment. However, radiation-induced damage can lead to adverse long-term health effects. Proton therapy has the ability to reduce the dose delivered ...

Vu, An T. (An Thien)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Asymptotic Accuracy of the Equilibrium Diffusion Approximation and Semi-analytic Solutions of Radiating Shocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 I.4 State-of-the-art computational methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 CHAPTER II RADIATION TRANSPORT AND RADIATION HYDRODY- NAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 II.1 Radiation transport without material... recombination at the front of the expanding shock. Adapted from the March 24, 2005, Astronomy Picture of the Day [16]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure I.2 SN1987A was viewed from earth on February 23, 1987. Only 168,000 light...

Ferguson, Jim Michael

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

234

Matrix adaptation in discriminative vector quantization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Gabriel Zachmann (Computer Graphics) #12;Matrix adaptation in discriminative vector quantization Petra

Zachmann, Gabriel

235

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional-wide, systematic approach · Flexible--Adaptive Management Adaptive Manageme nt #12;Integrated Water Management

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

236

Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high sensitivity transient grating ultrafast radiation to optical image converter is based on a fixed transmission grating adjacent to a semiconductor substrate. X-rays or optical radiation passing through the fixed transmission grating is thereby modulated and produces a small periodic variation of refractive index or transient grating in the semiconductor through carrier induced refractive index shifts. An optical or infrared probe beam tuned just below the semiconductor band gap is reflected off a high reflectivity mirror on the semiconductor so that it double passes therethrough and interacts with the radiation induced phase grating therein. A small portion of the optical beam is diffracted out of the probe beam by the radiation induced transient grating to become the converted signal that is imaged onto a detector.

Stewart, Richard E; Vernon, Stephen P; Steel, Paul T; Lowry, Mark E

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

237

Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft 1ft prototype panels for the worlds first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicrons patented e-Tint technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMIs roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

239

Straddle Carrier Radiation Portal Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nations ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O Dennis

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Radiation due to Josephson oscillations in layered superconductors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive the power of direct radiation into free space induced by Josephson oscillations in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered superconductors. We consider the superradiation regime for a crystal cut in the form of a thin slice parallel to the c axis. We find that the radiation correction to the current-voltage characteristic in this regime depends only on crystal shape. We show that at a large number of junctions oscillations are synchronized providing high radiation power and efficiency in the terahertz frequency range. We discuss the crystal parameters and bias current optimal for radiation power and crystal cooling.

Bulaevskii, L. N.; Koshelev, A. E.; Materials Science Division; LANL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

242

Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

Olivier, S

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

243

Training Adaptive Decision-Making.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adaptive Thinking has been defined here as the capacity to recognize when a course of action that may have previously been effective is no longer effective and there is need to adjust strategy. Research was undertaken with human test subjects to identify the factors that contribute to adaptive thinking. It was discovered that those most effective in settings that call for adaptive thinking tend to possess a superior capacity to quickly and effectively generate possible courses of action, as measured using the Category Generation test. Software developed for this research has been applied to develop capabilities enabling analysts to identify crucial factors that are predictive of outcomes in fore-on-force simulation exercises.

Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James C.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

245

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Tachyons and Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND GRAVITATIONAL CHERENKOV RADIATION CHARLES SCHWARTZwould emit gravitational radiation. It is very small.gravitational waves; Cherenkov radiation. In a recent work,

Schwartz, Charles

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

248

Adaptive constructive processes 1 Running head: Adaptive constructive processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a current environmental demand when automatic, learned responses are not elicited. Bartlett argued further of Psychology Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 phone: (617) 495-3856 fax: (617) 496-3122 e to be operating in any well-adapted organic response (1932, p. 201)". He further emphasized the importance of "the

Schacter, Daniel

249

Maintainable and Reusable Scientific Software Adaptation Democratizing Scientific Software Adaptation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.kang@samsung.com Eli Tilevich, Srinidhi Varadarajan, and Naren Ramakrishnan Center for High-End Computing Systems Dept resources to ensure its efficiency and reliability. Although adaptation patterns can be found in a sizable-oriented Pro- gramming; D.2.7 [Software Engineering]: Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement; D.2

Ramakrishnan, Naren

250

WI Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

251

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

252

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

253

Radiation Damping with Inhomogeneous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Damping with Inhomogeneous Broadening: Limitations of the Single Bloch Vector Model of inhomoge- neous broadening on radiation damping of free precession signals have been described using 13: 1 7, 2001 KEY WORDS: radiation damping; FID shape; inhomogeneous broadening The phenomenon

Augustine, Mathew P.

254

astroph/9507030 Gravitational Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

astro­ph/9507030 10 Jul 95 Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry Ted Pyne of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein­de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

255

Radiation Processing -an overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

256

Development of a plasma panel radiation detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on the development and experimental results of commercial plasma display panels adapted for their potential use as micropattern gas radiation detectors. The plasma panel sensor (PPS) design and materials include glass substrates, metal electrodes and inert gas mixtures which provide a physically robust, hermetically sealed device. Plasma display panels used as detectors were tested with cosmic ray muons, beta rays and gamma rays, protons, and thermal neutrons. The results demonstrated rise times and time resolution of a few nanoseconds, as well as sub-millimeter spatial resolution compatible with the pixel pitch.

Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Bensimon, B [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Ferretti, Claudio [University of Michigan; Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; Wetzel, R. [University of Michigan; Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan; Anderson, T [GE Measurement and Control Solutions; McKinny, K [GE Measurement and Control Solutions; Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Development of a plasma panel radiation detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article reports on the development and experimental results of commercial plasma display panels adapted for their potential use as micropattern gas radiation detectors. The plasma panel sensors (PPS) design an materials include glass substrates, metal electrodes and inert gas mixtures which provide a physically robust, hermetically-sealed device. Plasma display panels used as detectors were tested with cosmic ray muons, beta rays and gamma rays, protons and thermal neutrons. The results demonstrated rise times and time resolution of a few nanoseconds, as well as sub-millimeter spatial resolution compatible with the pixel pitch.

R. Ball; J. R. Beene; M. Ben-Moshe; Y. Benhammou; R. Bensimon; J. W. Chapman; E. Etzion; C. Ferretti; P. S. Friedman; D. S. Levin; Y. Silver; R. L. Varner; C. Weaverdyck; R. Wetzel; B. Zhou; T. Anderson; K. McKinny; E. H. Bentefour

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

258

Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

Yuan, Ding (Henderson, NV)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

259

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

260

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Adaptive protection algorithm and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

Hedrick, Paul (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L. (Irwin, PA) [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M. (Mars, PA) [Mars, PA

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

262

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection J. Kenneth Shultis Richard E. Faw Department@triad.rr.com Radiation Fields and Sources ................................................ . Radiation Field Variables........................................................... .. Direction and Solid Angle Conventions ......................................... .. Radiation Fluence

Shultis, J. Kenneth

263

adaptive control algorithm: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS APPLICATIONS Mathematics Websites Summary: ON AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR...

264

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR CALIFORNIA Legal Analysis of Barriers's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012019 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to that framework that would facilitate adaptation to climate change. Since such changes may be difficult

266

Climate Change Adaptation Planning | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Change Adaptation Planning Climate Change Adaptation Planning October 7, 2014 6:00AM CDT to October 9, 2014 3:00PM CDT Norman, Oklahoma This course provides an introduction to...

267

IIR algorithms for adaptive line enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a simple IIR structure for the adaptive line enhancer. Two algorithms based on gradient-search techniques are presented for adapting the structure. Results from experiments which utilized real data as well as computer simulations are provided.

David, R.A.; Stearns, S.D.; Elliott, G.R.; Etter, D.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Mechanics and Applications of Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A pressure-adaptive wing structure is presented that relies on the pressure-altitude relation to adapt the wing shape to the various flight conditions (e.g. landing and cruise). This structure employs conventional, certified ...

Vos, Roelof

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms Radiation Radiation is energy in transit in the form of high not carry enough energy to separate molecules or remove electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly

Vallino, Joseph J.

270

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

271

The versatile E. coli adaptive response protein AlkB mitigates toxicity and mutagenicity of etheno-, ethano-, and methyl-modified bases in vivo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Escherichia coli AlkB protein is an exceptionally versatile DNA repair enzyme. Its expression is induced upon exposure to alkylating agents as part of the Ada-mediated adaptive response. This member of the ac-ketoglu ...

Frick, Lauren Elizabeth

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting.

Argo, P.; Loveland, R.; Anderson, K. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Adaptation in constant utility nonstationary environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptation in constant utility nonstationary environments Michael L. Littman & David H. Ackley Abstract Environments that vary over time present a fundamental problem to adaptive systems. Although adaptive opportunities. We consider a broad class of nonstationary environments, those which combine

Littman, Michael L.

275

Anisotropic Grid Adaptation for Multiple Aerodynamic Outputs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anisotropic Grid Adaptation for Multiple Aerodynamic Outputs David A. Venditti and David L Anisotropic gridadaptive strategies are presented for viscous flow simulations in which the accurate estimation and Hessian-based anisotropic grid adaptation. Airfoil test cases are presented to demonstrate

Peraire, Jaime

276

Article original Adaptation digestive du lapin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Article original Adaptation digestive du lapin la teneur en constituants paritaux du rgime ne diffre pas d'un rgime l'autre, du fait d'une rgulation de l'nergie digestible ingre. L le rgime B. lapin / digestion / fibre / adaptation / transit Summary Digestive adaptation

Boyer, Edmond

277

Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS A. J. Wright1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy A. J. Wright1 , S. P. Poland1 , J. M. Girkin with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for label-free deep tissue imaging based tissue in order to enhance the CARS signal. The combined system and sample-induced aberration correction

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

278

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive systems Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adaptive systems Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 From Adaptive Hypermedia to the Adaptive Web Systems Summary: 1 From Adaptive Hypermedia to the Adaptive Web Systems Peter...

279

RADIATION CHEMISTRY 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JULY 18-23  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2010 Gordon Conference on Radiation Chemistry will present cutting edge research regarding the study of radiation-induced chemical transformations. Radiation Chemistry or 'high energy' chemistry is primarily initiated by ionizing radiation: i.e. photons or particles with energy sufficient to create conduction band electrons and 'holes', excitons, ionic and neutral free radicals, highly excited states, and solvated electrons. These transients often interact or 'react' to form products vastly different than those produced under thermal equilibrium conditions. The non-equilibrium, non-thermal conditions driving radiation chemistry exist in plasmas, star-forming regions, the outer solar system, nuclear reactors, nuclear waste repositories, radiation-based medical/clinical treatment centers and in radiation/materials processing facilities. The 2010 conference has a strong interdisciplinary flavor with focus areas spanning (1) the fundamental physics and chemistry involved in ultrafast (atto/femtosecond) energy deposition events, (2) radiation-induced processes in biology (particularly spatially resolved studies), (3) radiation-induced modification of materials at the nanoscale and cosmic ray/x-ray mediated processes in planetary science/astrochemistry. While the conference concentrates on fundamental science, topical applied areas covered will also include nuclear power, materials/polymer processing, and clinical/radiation treatment in medicine. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present work in poster format or as contributors to the Young Investigator session. The program and format provides excellent avenues to promote cross-disciplinary collaborations.

Thomas Orlando

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

280

Radiation Damage in Polarized Ammonia Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid NH3 and ND3 provide a highly polarizable, radiation resistant source of polarized protons and deuterons and have been used extensively in high luminosity experiments investigating the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past twenty years, the UVA polarized target group has been instrumental in producing and polarizing much of the material used in these studies, and many practical considerations have been learned in this time. In this discussion, we analyze the polarization performance of the solid ammonia targets used during the recent JLab Eg4 run. Topics include the rate of polarization decay with accumulated charge, the annealing procedure for radiation damaged targets to recover polarization, and the radiation induced change in optimum microwave frequency used to polarize the sample. We also discuss the success we have had in implementing frequency modulation of the polarizing microwave frequency.

K. Slifer

2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

adapter protein tsad: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ecosystem Adaptive Management Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: ;2 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management, BEAM, r ett tvrvetenskapligt...

282

adaptive antitumor immunity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ecosystem Adaptive Management Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: ;2 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management, BEAM, r ett tvrvetenskapligt...

283

adaptation azole drug: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ecosystem Adaptive Management Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: ;2 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management, BEAM, r ett tvrvetenskapligt...

284

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Solar radiation intensity calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

Levine, Randolph Steven

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

287

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

288

Rotating bubble membrane radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

289

Synchrotron radiation of vector bosons at relativistic colliders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic fields produced in collisions of electrically charged particles at relativistic energies are strong enough to affect the dynamics of the strong interactions. In particular, it induces radiation of vector bosons by relativistic fermions. To develop deeper insight into this problem, I calculate the corresponding spectrum in constant magnetic field and analyze its angular distribution and mass dependence. As an application, I consider synchrotron radiation of virtual photon by the quark-gluon plasma.

Kirill Tuchin

2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

290

Center for Adaptive Optics* Santa Cruz,CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for Adaptive Optics* Santa Cruz,CA The Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) will concentrate on astronomical and vision science applications of adaptive optics and will reach out to other adaptive optics communities to share technologies. It will develop new instruments optimized for adaptive optics. Adaptive

Grether, Gregory

291

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

292

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

293

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

294

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

295

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

296

A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

Gagliardi, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.gagliardi@karolinska.s [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Cancer Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Allen, Aaron M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana- Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Rabin Medical Center Petach Tikvah (Israel); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A Role for Repressive Histone Methylation in Cocaine-Induced Vulnerability to Stress  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Substance abuse increases an individual's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses, which is presumably mediated by drug-induced neural adaptations that alter subsequent responses to stress. Here, we identify repressive ...

Covington, HerbertE.

299

Influence of Insulin Resistance on Contractile Activity-Induced Anabolic Response of Skeletal Muscle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although the long-term therapeutic benefits of exercise are indisputable, contractile activity may induce divergent adaptations in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to elucidate if the anabolic...

Nilsson, Mats I.

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

300

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses and cancert-A T. w- - SIR- In February 1990, the Soviet. Nikipelov et al. published in g Priroda (Nature)' the radiation doses for each year, averaged over environmental impact on the Gulf waters is rapidly ex- ported to the Arabian Sea and then to the Indian Ocean

Shlyakhter, Ilya

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Radiative Flux Analysis  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

Long, Chuck [NOAA

302

Radiation-resistant microorganism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

Fliermans, Carl B.

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

T violation in radiative $\\beta$ decay and electric dipole moments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In radiative $\\beta$ decay, $T$ violation can be studied through a spin-independent $T$-odd correlation. We consider contributions to this correlation by beyond the standard model (BSM) sources of $T$-violation, arising above the electroweak scale. At the same time such sources, parametrized by dimension-6 operators, can induce electric dipole moments (EDMs). As a consequence, the manifestations of the $T$-odd BSM physics in radiative $\\beta$ decay and EDMs are not independent. Here we exploit this connection to show that current EDM bounds already strongly constrain the spin-independent $T$-odd correlation in radiative $\\beta$ decay.

Dekens, W G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Issues in adaptive mesh refinement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present an approach for a patch-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for multi-physics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, and management of patches. Among the special features of this patch-based AMR are symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement, special implementation offlux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. Here, higher efficiency of refinement means less unnecessarily refined cells for a given set of cells to be refined. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement are shown in both two- and three-dimensions.

Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation.

Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of MedicineWichita, Kansas (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of MedicineWichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Coherent Radiation in an Undulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solving the particle-radiation system in a self-consistentto clarify the coherent radiation mechanism. References 1.the Proceedings Coherent Radiation in an Undulator Y,H. Chin

Chin, Y.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

The Properties of Undulator Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Dedicated Synchrotron Radiation Facility," IEEE Trans.1983), "Characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation and of itsHandbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E. -E. Koch.1A. 65-172,

Howells, M.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated December 2012 Stanford University, Stanford California #12; #12; Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated Environmental Health and Safety, Stanford University, Stanford California #12; CREDITS This Radiation Safety

Kay, Mark A.

310

Effects of High Dietary Iron and Gamma Radiation on Oxidative Stress and Bone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(induced by feeding a high iron diet) and gamma radiation exposure would independently increase markers of oxidative stress and markers of oxidative damage and result in loss of bone mass, with the combined treatment having additive or synergistic effects...

Yuen, Evelyn P

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

311

Mechanical Properties and Radiation Tolerance of Ultrafine Grained and Nanocrystalline Metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loops. Here we provide experimental evidence that high angle grain boundaries can effectively remove radiation-induced defects. The equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique was used to produce ultrafine grained Fe-Cr-Ni alloy. Mechanical...

Sun, Cheng

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

312

Machine Learning for Adaptive Computer Game Opponents .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis investigates the use of machine learning techniques in computer games to create a computer player that adapts to its opponent's game-play. This includes (more)

Miles, Jonathan David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

AN ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adaptive strategy is established for the diffraction grating problem, such that ...... applications in optical filters and guided mode resonance devices. the...

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

314

Adaptive Barrier Strategies for Nonlinear Interior Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 25, 2005 ... that adaptive choices, such as Mehrotra's probing procedure, outperform ... focus on the effects of merit functions or filters, and on regularization...

2005-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

315

Training for Climate Adaptation in Conservation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Wildlife Conservation Society and the Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science are hosting this two-day training for climate adaptation.

316

Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Case of Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed Jump to: navigation, search Name Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan-Carranglan...

317

Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Practitioners Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning: A Guide for Practitioners Agency...

318

Adapting California's water management to climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage, water transfers, conservation, recycling, and desalination to meet changing demands. These same settlers had fewer intellectual, organizational, and economic resources to adapt than present

Pasternack, Gregory B.

319

Crosscutting Subsurface Initiative: Adaptive Control of Subsurface...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in the ability to access, characterize, predict, and adaptively manipulate fracture and flow processes over scales from nanometers to kilometers. This town hall...

320

Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM); Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

322

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation governing the use of radioactive materials at Ames Laboratory is 10 CFR 835. To implement this...

324

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

325

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

329

Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

330

Method and apparatus for measuring spatial uniformity of radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for measuring the spatial uniformity of the intensity of a radiation beam from a radiation source based on a single sampling time and/or a single pulse of radiation. The measuring apparatus includes a plurality of radiation detectors positioned on planar mounting plate to form a radiation receiving area that has a shape and size approximating the size and shape of the cross section of the radiation beam. The detectors concurrently receive portions of the radiation beam and transmit electrical signals representative of the intensity of impinging radiation to a signal processor circuit connected to each of the detectors and adapted to concurrently receive the electrical signals from the detectors and process with a central processing unit (CPU) the signals to determine intensities of the radiation impinging at each detector location. The CPU displays the determined intensities and relative intensity values corresponding to each detector location to an operator of the measuring apparatus on an included data display device. Concurrent sampling of each detector is achieved by connecting to each detector a sample and hold circuit that is configured to track the signal and store it upon receipt of a "capture" signal. A switching device then selectively retrieves the signals and transmits the signals to the CPU through a single analog to digital (A/D) converter. The "capture" signal. is then removed from the sample-and-hold circuits. Alternatively, concurrent sampling is achieved by providing an A/D converter for each detector, each of which transmits a corresponding digital signal to the CPU. The sampling or reading of the detector signals can be controlled by the CPU or level-detection and timing circuit.

Field, Halden (Boulder, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS & COMPLIANCE BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING

332

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

334

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Radiation due to Josephson Oscillations in Layered Superconductors L. N. Bulaevskii1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation due to Josephson Oscillations in Layered Superconductors L. N. Bulaevskii1 and A. E 2007) We derive the power of direct radiation into free space induced by Josephson oscillations to the current-voltage characteristic in this regime depends only on crystal shape. We show that at a large

Alexei, Koshelev

336

SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE VARIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-induced climate change. Cloud-radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo are three key quantities

337

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 Table of Contents Introduction Chapter I: Radiation Safety Program A. Program

Grishok, Alla

339

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

340

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Downhole tool adapted for telemetry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cycleable downhole tool such as a Jar, a hydraulic hammer, and a shock absorber adapted for telemetry. This invention applies to other tools where the active components of the tool are displaced when the tool is rotationally or translationally cycled. The invention consists of inductive or contact transmission rings that are connected by an extensible conductor. The extensible conductor permits the transmission of the signal before, after, and during the cycling of the tool. The signal may be continuous or intermittent during cycling. The invention also applies to downhole tools that do not cycle, but in operation are under such stress that an extensible conductor is beneficial. The extensible conductor may also consist of an extensible portion and a fixed portion. The extensible conductor also features clamps that maintain the conductor under stresses greater than that seen by the tool, and seals that are capable of protecting against downhole pressure and contamination.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

342

Stimulated Emission of Radiation in a Nuclear Fusion Reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This letter claims that process of stimulated emission of radiation can be used to induce a fusion reaction in a HD molecule to produce Helium-3. An experimental set-up for this reaction is presented. It is proposed to study the technical potential of this reaction as an energy amplifier.

Michael Duren

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

343

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

Roybal, Lyle Gene

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

345

A fuzzy-tuned adaptive Kalman filter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, fuzzy processing is applied to the adaptive Kalman filter. The filter gain coefficients are adapted over a 50 dB range of unknown signal/noise dynamics, using fuzzy membership functions. Specific simulation results are shown for a...

Painter, John H.; Young Hwan Lho

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials

347

Adaptive Composite Map Projections Bernhard Jenny  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Composite Map Projections Bernhard Jenny Abstract--All major web mapping services use.The proposed composite map projection combines several projections that are recommended in cartographic.The composite projection adapts the maps geometry to scale, to the maps height-to-width ratio

Jenny, Bernhard

348

Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials Rachel E. Scherr and Andrew Elby 20742 USA Abstract. Instructors inevitably need to adapt even the best reform materials to suit instructors, and video clips of students working on the materials. Our materials thus facilitate their own

Elby, Andy

349

Adaptive Filtering of Multilingual Document Streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the volume of new documents that must be examined by the user to manageable levels. This paper presents three techniques for extending adaptive monolingual text ltering techniques to manage multilingual document streamsAdaptive Filtering of Multilingual Document Streams Douglas W. Oard College of Library

Oard, Doug

350

WORKLOAD ADAPTATION IN AUTONOMIC DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Autonomic DBMSs", Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Self-Managing Database Systems (SMDB 2007 to meet its Service Level Objectives (SLOs). It is a challenge to adapt multiple workloads with complex scheduler that performs workload adaptation in a DBMS, as the test bed to prove the effectiveness

351

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Adaptation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Adaptation, Personalization and REcommendation. Carrero3 1 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain {ivan.cantador, david.vallet}@uam.es 2 Yahoo! Research.carrero}@uem.es #12;#12;Preface The 1st International Workshop on Adaptation, Personalization and REcommendation

Cantador, Iván

352

Adaptive Web Sites: Automatically Synthesizing Web Pages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Web Sites: Automatically Synthesizing Web Pages Mike Perkowitz Oren Etzioni Department interfaces Abstract The creation of a complex web site is a thorny problem in user interface design. In IJCAI '97, we challenged the AI community to address this problem by creating adaptive web sites: sites

Etzioni, Oren

353

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mitigation needs adaptation: Tropical forestry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mitigation needs adaptation: Tropical forestry and climate change Manuel R adapt to this change. This paper discusses how tropical forestry practices can contribute to maintaining Forestry Research, P.O. Box 6596 JKPWB, Jakarta 10065, Indonesia e-mail: m.guariguata@cgiar.org J. P

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

General Adaptive Replacement Policies Yannis Smaragdakis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

General Adaptive Replacement Policies Yannis Smaragdakis College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology yannis@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT We propose a general scheme for creating adaptive replace- ment any two existing replacement policies so that the resulting policy provably can never perform worse

Smaragdakis, Yannis

355

Adaptive Port Reduction in Static Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Port Reduction in Static Condensation JL Eftang DBP Huynh DJ Knezevic EM Rønquist a framework for adaptive reduction of the degrees of freedom associated with ports in static condensation (SC reduction for the interior of a component with model order reduction on the ports in order to rapidly

Rønquist, Einar M.

356

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive information processing Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

user (adaptable... .1 Adaptation and Adaptivity Even if ... Source: Oppermann, Reinhard - Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Information Technology & Fachbereich Informatik,...

357

REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

358

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

359

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

360

Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANLs pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational waves affect the observed direction of light from distant sources. At telescopes, this change in direction appears as periodic variations in the apparent positions of these sources on the sky; that is, as proper motion. A wave of a given phase, traveling in a given direction, produces a characteristic pattern of proper motions over the sky. Comparison of observed proper motions with this pattern serves to test for the presence of gravitational waves. A stochastic background of waves induces apparent proper motions with specific statistical properties, and so, may also be sought. In this paper we consider the effects of a cosmological background of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein-de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation. We also show how to obtain similar expressions for curved Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes.

Ted Pyne; Carl R. Gwinn; Mark Birkinshaw; T. Marshall Eubanks; Demetrios N. Matsakis

1995-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

362

Smith-Purcell Radiation from Rough Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation of a charged particle moving parallel to a inhomogeneous surface is considered. Within a single formalism periodic and random gratings are examined. For the periodically inhomogeneous surface we derive new expressions for the dispersion relation and the spectral-angular intensity. In particular, for a given observation direction two wavelengths are emitted instead of one wavelength of the standard Smith-Purcell effect. For a rough surface we show that the main contribution to the radiation intensity is given by surface polaritons induced on the interface between two media. These polaritons are multiply scattered on the roughness of surface and convert into real photons. The spectral-angular intensity is calculated and its dependence on different parameters is revealed.

Gevorkian, Zh S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive systems theory Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems theory Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 From Adaptive Hypermedia to the Adaptive Web Systems Summary: 1 From Adaptive Hypermedia to the Adaptive Web Systems Peter...

364

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Probing young massive clusters with laser guide star adaptive optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

laser guide star adaptive optics Nate McCrady Received: 10laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS/AO) on the 10 m Keckof 4 Mpc. Our adaptive optics work is motivated by three

McCrady, Nate

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program Dynamical Seasonal Forecasting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program Dynamical Seasonal Forecasting Seasonal Prediction · POAMA · Issues for future Outline #12;Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program Major source Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program El Nino Mean State · Easterlies westward surface current upwelling

Lim, Eun-pa

367

Radiation Detection for Active Interrogation of HEU  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report briefly describes the neutrons and gamma rays emitted by active interrogation of HEU, briefly discusses measurement methods, briefly discusses sources and detectors relevant to detection of shielded HEU in Sealand containers, and lists the measurement possibilities for the various sources. All but one of the measurement methods detect radiation emitted by induced fission in the HEU; the exception utilizes nuclear resonance fluorescence. The brief descriptions are supplemented by references. This report presents some active interrogation possibilities but the status of understanding is not advanced enough to select particular methods. Additional research is needed to evaluate these possibilities.

Mihalczo, J.T.

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

368

Electroweak Radiative Corrections to Muon Capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electroweak radiative corrections to muon capture on nuclei are computed and found to be sizable. They enhance the capture rates for hydrogen and helium by 2.8% and 3.0% respectively. As a result, the value of the induced pseudoscalar coupling, g_P^exp, extracted from a recent hydrogen 1S singlet capture experiment is increased by about 21% to g_P^exp = 7.3 +/- 1.2 and brought into good agreement with the prediction of chiral perturbation theory, g_P^theory=8.2 +/- 0.2. Implications for helium capture rate predictions are also discussed.

A. Czarnecki; W. J. Marciano; A. Sirlin

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

369

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

Phelps, J.E.

1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

371

A Garch-based adaptive playout delay algorithm for VoIP Ying Zhang a,*, Damien Fay b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Garch-based adaptive playout delay algorithm for VoIP Ying Zhang a,*, Damien Fay b , Liam Garch Playout delay Time series forecasting VoIP a b s t r a c t Network delay, packet loss and network a trade-off between the buffer-induced delay and any additional packet loss rate. In this paper, a Garch

Haddadi, Hamed

372

National Adaptation Forum Webinar Series: Out of Town, Not Out...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Adaptation Forum Webinar Series: Out of Town, Not Out of Trouble: Small Agriculture and Indigenous Communities National Adaptation Forum Webinar Series: Out of Town, Not Out of...

373

Farming in a Changing Climate: Agricultural Adaptation in Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agricultural Adaptation in Canada Ellen Wall, Barry Smit,Agricultural Adaptation in Canada. Vancouver, BC: Universitythe agri-food sector in Canada, the insights provided are so

Jain, Varinder

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

adaptive signal processing: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADAPTIVE CONTROL AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Int. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process. (in press) Engineering Websites Summary: predictive control 1....

375

adaptive predictive control: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

applied to analyze the transient Antsaklis, Panos 44 ADAPTIVE ROBUST TRACKING CONTROL OF PRESSURE Engineering Websites Summary: 1---- 1 ADAPTIVE ROBUST TRACKING CONTROL OF...

376

India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Adaptive Capacities to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities to Climate Change AgencyCompany...

377

Software Adaptation Patterns for Service-Oriented Architectures .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis describes the concept of software adaptation patterns and how they can be used in software adaptation of service-oriented architectures. The patterns are described (more)

Hashimoto, Koji

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Development of an adaptive fuzzy logic controller for HVAC system.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An adaptive approach to control a cooling coil chilled water valve operation, called adaptive fuzzy logic control (AFLC), is developed and validated in this study. (more)

Navale, Rahul Laxman

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

adaptive particle swarm: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Page Topic Index 1 An Adaptive Learning Particle Swarm Optimizer for Function Optimization Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: An Adaptive...

380

adaptive intrusion detection: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Page Topic Index 1 Adaptive Model Generation for Intrusion Detection Systems Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Adaptive Model Generation for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

383

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 21, NO. 1, 2004, 112 1 A Possible Role of Solar Radiation and Ocean in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 21, NO. 1, 2004, 1­12 1 A Possible Role of Solar Radiation to simulate the climate of the mid-Holocene period. The role of the solar radiation and ocean in the mid solar radiation induced by the changed orbital parameters and the changed SST simulated by the OGCM

384

Density matrix of black hole radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hawking's model of black hole evaporation is not unitary and leads to a mixed density matrix for the emitted radiation, while the Page model describes a unitary evaporation process in which the density matrix evolves from an almost thermal state to a pure state. We compare a recently proposed model of semiclassical black hole evaporation to the two established models. In particular, we study the density matrix of the outgoing radiation and determine how the magnitude of the off-diagonal corrections differs for the three frameworks. For Hawking's model, we find power-law corrections to the two-point functions that induce exponentially suppressed corrections to the off-diagonal elements of the full density matrix. This verifies that the Hawking result is correct to all orders in perturbation theory and also allows one to express the full density matrix in terms of the single-particle density matrix. We then consider the semiclassical theory for which the corrections, being non-perturbative from an effective field-theory perspective, are much less suppressed and grow monotonically in time. In this case, the R\\'enyi entropy for the outgoing radiation is shown to grow linearly at early times; but this growth slows down and the entropy eventually starts to decrease at the Page time. In addition to comparing models, we emphasize the distinction between the state of the radiation emitted from a black hole, which is highly quantum, and that of the radiation emitted from a typical classical black body at the same temperature.

Lasma Alberte; Ram Brustein; Andrei Khmelnitsky; A. J. M. Medved

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

385

Radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations at different dose-rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of breakage. These breakages may be due to the physiochemical changes affecting the nucleic acid structure within one or more of the chromatin strands; this is in accordance with the "target theory. " Evans (21) states that after the initial breakage.... The somatic mutation theory purposes that ageing is caused by a gradual accumulation of mutations. Curtis has shown that chroaosomal aberrations of the liver cells increase steadily with age (19). Ionizing radiaticns shorten the lifespan and also increase...

McDaniel, Jackson Dean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

386

Radiation-Induced Radicals in Polyurea-Crosslinked Silica Aerogel.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Free radicals are atoms or molecules with an odd number of electrons in an outer shell. Since electrons typically occur in pairs, this leaves (more)

Walters, Benjamin Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Hydrogen decoration of radiation damage induced defect structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The defect complexes that are formed when protons with energies in the MeV-range were implanted into high-purity silicon were investigated. After implantation, the samples were annealed at 400 C or 450 C for times ranging between 15 minutes and 30 hours. The resistivity of the samples was then analyzed by Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP). The resistivity shows minima where there is a high carrier concentration and it is possible to extract the carrier concentration from the resistivity data. Initially, there is a large peak in the carrier concentration at the implantation depth where most of the hydrogen is concentrated. For longer anneals, this peak widens as the hydrogen diffuses away from the implantation depth. Following the changes in resistivity as a function of annealing time allows us to characterize the diffusion of hydrogen through these samples. Differences in the diffusion were observed depending on whether the silicon was grown by the magnetic Czochralski (m:Cz) method or the Float zone (Fz) method.

Kirnsttter, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz and Infineon Technologies Austria AG, 9500 Villach (Austria); Faccinelli, M.; Hadley, P. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, 8010 (Austria); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, 9500 Villach (Austria); Laven, J. G.; Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, 81726 Munich (Germany)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

388

Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Tunable terahertz radiation source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

390

Wireless passive radiation sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

391

Creating Adaptive Feedback designed for Improving Data Entry Accuracy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract- Data quality is a critical problem in modern databases. Data-entry forms present the first and arguably best opportunity for detecting and mitigating errors, but there has been little research into automatic methods for improving data quality at entry time. In this paper, we propose USHER, an end-to-end system for form design, entry, and data quality assurance. Using previous form submissions, USHER learns a probabilistic model over the questions of the form. USHER then applies this model at every step of the data-entry process to improve data quality. Before entry, it induces a form layout that captures the most important data values of a form instance as quickly as possible and reduces the complexity of error-prone questions. During entry, it dynamically adapts the form to the values being entered by providing real-time interface feedback, reasking questions with dubious responses, and simplifying questions by reformulating them. After entry, it revisits question responses that it deems likely to have been entered incorrectly by reasking the question or a reformulation thereof. We evaluate these components of USHER using two real-world data sets. Our results demonstrate that USHER can improve data quality considerably at a reduced cost when compared to current practice. Index Terms- Data quality, data entry, form design, adaptive form. O I.

P. Jaya Prakash; B. Venkateswarlu; S. Abdul Jeelan; Assistant Professors; Andhra Pradesh-india

392

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

393

Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Relativistic MHD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations using distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement. We discuss strong scaling tests of the code, and present evolutions of Michel accretion and a TOV star.

David Neilsen; Eric W. Hirschmann; Matthew Anderson; Steven L. Liebling

2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

394

Adaptive control of a generic hypersonic vehicle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a an adaptive augmented, gain-scheduled baseline LQR-PI controller applied to the Road Runner six-degree-of-freedom generic hypersonic vehicle model. Uncertainty in control effectiveness, longitudinal ...

Wiese, Daniel Philip

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Adaptive Reliability Analysis of Excavation Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This analysis couples the adaptive design capabilities of the observational method with updated reliability indices, to be used in risk-based design decisions. A probabilistic framework is developed to predict three-dimensional deformation profiles due...

Park, Jun Kyung

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

396

Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, we investigated adaptive, parallel, and multilevel methods for numerical modeling of various real-world applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), complex fluids, Electromagnetism, Navier-Stokes equations, and reservoir simulation. First, we have designed improved mathematical models and numerical discretizaitons for viscoelastic fluids and MHD. Second, we have derived new a posteriori error estimators and extended the applicability of adaptivity to various problems. Third, we have developed multilevel solvers for solving scalar partial differential equations (PDEs) as well as coupled systems of PDEs, especially on unstructured grids. Moreover, we have integrated the study between adaptive method and multilevel methods, and made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multi-physics problems.

Xu, Jinchao

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Optimization Online - Multistage Adaptive Robust Optimization for ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sep 5, 2014 ... ... with the increasing penetration of wind and solar power generation has ... Keywords: Electric energy systems, multistage robust optimization, ... Multistage Adaptive Robust Optimization for the Unit Commitment Problem.

Alvaro Lorca

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

398

Anisotropic Grid Adaptation for Multiple Aerodynamic Outputs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anisotropic gridadaptive strategies are presented for viscous flow simulations in which the accurate prediction of multiple aerodynamic outputs (such as the lift, drag, and moment coefficients) is required from a single ...

Venditti, David A.

399

Marginalized Monitoring: Adaptively Managing Urban Stormwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental assessment, 28 Superfund decisionmaking, 29 Endangered Species Act decisionmaking, 30 and water management.Environmental Impacts Under Florida Water Law: From Water Wars Towards Adaptive Management ,water infrastructure problems. And yet, the environmental management

Scanlan, Melissa K; Tai, Stephanie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Fast Adaptive Silhouette Area based Template Matching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast Adaptive Silhouette Area based Template Matching Daniel Mohr and Gabriel Zachmann If (Technical Informatics and Computer Systems) Prof. Dr. Gabriel Zachmann (Computer Graphics) Prof. Dr Template Matching Daniel Mohr and Gabriel Zachmann Clausthal University of Technology, Department

Zachmann, Gabriel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A Logical Characterization of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reference models for adaptive hypermedia, e.g. the AHAM Reference Model [4], or the Munich Reference Model [20]. Both, the AHAM and Munich Reference Model, extend the Dexter Hypertext Model [16], and pro- vide

Henze, Nicola

402

Adaptive Importance Sampling via Stochastic Convex Programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Importance Sampling via Stochastic Convex Programming Ernest K. Ryu1 and Stephen P. Boyd1 Abstract We show that the variance of the Monte Carlo estimator that is importance sam- pled from

403

Developmental Plasticity Links Local Adaptation and Evolutionary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developmental Plasticity Links Local Adaptation and Evolutionary Diversification in Foraging, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona Developmental plasticity is thought to reconcile the constraining role morphology into adulthood, providing an opportunity to directly examine the links between plasticity of bone

Badyaev, Alex

404

Adaptive control for optimizing microalgae production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive control for optimizing microalgae production Francis Mairet Rafael Mu for light-limited microalgae culture. This controller regulates the light absorption factor, defined productivity under day-night cycles. Keywords: Nonlinear controller, Microalgae, Optimization, Biomass

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

405

Exponential convergence with adaptive Monte Carlo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For over a decade, it has been known that exponential convergence on discrete transport problems was possible using adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. Now, exponential convergence has been empirically demonstrated on a spatially continuous problem.

Booth, T.E.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Challenges of Adapting to a Changing Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Global Climate Change on Agriculture: An Interpretiveon U.S. Agriculture, in THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THEclimate change and the potential roles for adaptation are more severe for ecosystems than they are for managed systems like agriculture.

Hurd, Brian H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Robust adaptive control of switched systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, robust adaptive controllers are developed for classes of switched nonlinear systems. Switched systems are those governed by differential equations, which undergo vector field switching due to sudden changes ...

El-Rifai, Khalid, 1979-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Convert! : the adaptive reuse of churches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis examines the phenomenon of vacated churches and analyzes the major issues underlying their adaptive reuse in order to help promulgate an awareness of the range of successful strategies and solutions that are ...

Kiley, Christopher John, 1972-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global

Sheridan, Jennifer

410

Skeletal adaptation to reduced mechanical loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bone adapts its mass and architecture in response to its mechanical environment. Yet control of this process by mechanical cues is poorly understood, particularly for unloading. Defining the fundamental mechanoregulation ...

Eliman, Rachel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Adaptive sampling in autonomous marine sensor networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, an innovative architecture for real-time adaptive and cooperative control of autonomous sensor platforms in a marine sensor network is described in the context of the autonomous oceanographic network scenario. ...

Eickstedt, Donald Patrick

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Adaptive gain improves reactor control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An interesting application of the modern control theory technique called adaptive control is presently in use on a process located at a plant in the Standard Oil Co. (Ind.) system. The results of this application are: first, the transformation of an uncontrollable process to a controllable one; and, second, a significant economic savings to the corporation. It also shows that a detailed analysis of the mechanical, chemical and control systems can provide both the basis for revising an existing control system and some of the reasons why that system is inadequate. The contrast between classical and modern control theories is seen in four major areas. In classical systems, the controller manipulates the error to calculate its output. The error is subjected to a limited number of analog computing functions such as multiplication by a constant and integration. Each controller has one specific strategy--to hold the measured variable at the setpoint. And each controller controls only one variable, independent of all others. In a modern system, the controller can manipulate many different variables in addition to the error to compute its output. Its computing power is unlimited in a practical sense. It can do all classical computations plus many others, including a table look-up. The controller can independently change its strategy as a function of time or the condition of the process. It can also control many variables at one time to accomplish a complex objective. The implementation of a modern control theory project requires a good understanding of the dynamic, as well as the steady-state character of the process. As you can see we are limited only by our understanding of the process, our imagination, and the economics of the situation.

Whatley, M.J.; Pott, D.C.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, Eric [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

417

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

418

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction than 40years, the U.S. Government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford

420

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

RADIATION ALERT User Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Area Monitoring 16 Checking for Surface Contamination 16 5 Maintenance 17 Calibration 17 Monitoring possible radiation exposure while working with radionuclides Screening for environmental. Water can damage the circuitry and the mica surface of the Geiger tube. Do not put the Inspector

Haller, Gary L.

423

Fully Adaptive AMG Scott MacLachlan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" Ah "-1 ik ff Energy measure: Let G (i) j = (Ah )-1 ij , Sij = G(i) - G (i) j e(j) Ah G(i) Ah Fully, Sij? Apply (localized) relaxation to Ah G(i) = e(i) Fully Adaptive AMG ­ p.11 #12;Approximating Sij to Ah G(i) = e(i) Weighted Jacobi, 1 step: Fully Adaptive AMG ­ p.11 #12;Approximating Sij Can

MacLachlan, Scott

424

Irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with an adaptive algorithm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The simultaneous treatment of pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate in radiotherapy for prostate cancer is complicated by the independent motion of these two target volumes. In this work, the authors study a method to adapt intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans so as to compensate for this motion by adaptively morphing the multileaf collimator apertures and adjusting the segment weights. Methods: The study used CT images, tumor volumes, and normal tissue contours from patients treated in our institution. An IMRT treatment plan was then created using direct aperture optimization to deliver 45 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes and 50 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prostate target volume was then shifted in either the anterior-posterior direction or in the superior-inferior direction. The treatment plan was adapted by adjusting the aperture shapes with or without re-optimizing the segment weighting. The dose to the target volumes was then determined for the adapted plan. Results: Without compensation for prostate motion, 1 cm shifts of the prostate resulted in an average decrease of 14% in D-95%. If the isocenter is simply shifted to match the prostate motion, the prostate receives the correct dose but the pelvic lymph nodes are underdosed by 14% {+-} 6%. The use of adaptive morphing (with or without segment weight optimization) reduces the average change in D-95% to less than 5% for both the pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate. Conclusions: Adaptive morphing with and without segment weight optimization can be used to compensate for the independent motion of the prostate and lymph nodes when combined with daily imaging or other methods to track the prostate motion. This method allows the delivery of the correct dose to both the prostate and lymph nodes with only small changes to the dose delivered to the target volumes.

Hwang, A. B.; Chen, J.; Nguyen, T. B.; Gottschalk, A. G.; Roach, M. R. III; Pouliot, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Prowess Inc., Concord, California 94520 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

PhotoPhoto--and Radiation Induced Processesand Radiation Induced Processes ** Research Focus in PhotochemistryResearch Focus in Photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--term storage of solar energy as fuels or valuable chemicalsterm storage of solar energy as fuels or valuable

426

The Durham ELT adaptive optics simulation platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive optics systems are essential on all large telescopes where image quality is important. These are complex systems with many design parameters requiring optimisation before good performance can be achieved. The simulation of adaptive optics systems is therefore necessary to categorise the expected performance. This paper describes an adaptive optics simulation platform, developed at Durham University, which can be used to simulate adaptive optics systems on the largest proposed future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) as well as current systems. This platform is modular, object oriented and has the benefit of hardware application acceleration which can be used to improve the simulation performance, essential for ensuring that the run time of a given simulation is acceptable. The simulation platform described here can be highly parallelised using parallelisation techniques suited for adaptive optics simulation, whilst still offering the user complete control while the simulation is running. Results from the simulation of a ground layer adaptive optics system are provided as an example to demonstrate the flexibility of this simulation platform.

Alastair Basden; Timothy Butterley; Richard Myers; Richard Wilson

2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

427

ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of external surfaces by naturally occurring atomic oxygen. CCD detectors are particularly vulnerable to damage damage. A comprehensive discussion of the types of radiation damage known to occur in CCDs is beyond1 ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment Michael R. Jones Space Telescope Science

Sirianni, Marco

428

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas K. Tathe resulting betatron radiation spectrum can therefore bepro?le, the betatron radiation emitted by theses electrons

Ta Phuoc, Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

430

Bubble Radiation Detection: Current and Future Capability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite a number of noteworthy achievements in other fields, superheated droplet detectors (SDDs) and bubble chambers (BCs) have not been used for nuclear nonproliferation and arms control. This report examines these two radiation-detection technologies in detail and answers the question of how they can be or should be ''adapted'' for use in national security applications. These technologies involve closely related approaches to radiation detection in which an energetic charged particle deposits sufficient energy to initiate the process of bubble nucleation in a superheated fluid. These detectors offer complete gamma-ray insensitivity when used to detect neutrons. They also provide controllable neutron-energy thresholds and excellent position resolution. SDDs are extraordinarily simple and inexpensive. BCs offer the promise of very high efficiency ({approximately}75%). A notable drawback for both technologies is temperature sensitivity. As a result of this problem, the temperature must be controlled whenever high accuracy is required, or harsh environmental conditions are encountered. The primary findings of this work are listed and briefly summarized below: (1) SDDs are ready to function as electronics-free neutron detectors on demand for arms-control applications. The elimination of electronics at the weapon's location greatly eases the negotiability of radiation-detection technologies in general. (2) As a result of their high efficiency and sharp energy threshold, current BCs are almost ready for use in the development of a next-generation active assay system. Development of an instrument based on appropriately safe materials is warranted. (3) Both kinds of bubble detectors are ready for use whenever very high gamma-ray fields must be confronted. Spent fuel MPC and A is a good example where this need presents itself. (4) Both kinds of bubble detectors have the potential to function as low-cost replacements for conventional neutron detectors such as {sup 3}He tubes. For SDDs, this requires finding some way to get boron into the detector. For BCs, this requires finding operating conditions permitting a high duty cycle.

AJ Peurrung; RA Craig

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A successful candidate in this position will serve as the Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist) senior subject matter expert for health physics/radiation safety at the sites. You will...

432

Acceleration and Classical Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Classical radiation from an accelerated charge is reviewed along with the reciprocal topic of accelerated observers detecting radiation from a static charge. This review commemerates Bahram Mashhoon's 60th birthday.

E. N. Glass

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

433

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data UO SOLAR MONITORING LAB Physics Department -- Solar Energy Center 1274 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1274 April 1, 1999 #12;Hourly solar radiation data

Oregon, University of

434

Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

435

Adaptive mean filtering for noise reduction in CT polymer gel dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray computed tomography (CT) as a method of extracting 3D dose information from irradiated polymer gel dosimeters is showing potential as a practical means to implement gel dosimetry in a radiation therapy clinic. However, the response of CT contrast to dose is weak and noise reduction is critical in order to achieve adequate dose resolutions with this method. Phantom design and CT imaging technique have both been shown to decrease image noise. In addition, image postprocessing using noise reduction filtering techniques have been proposed. This work evaluates in detail the use of the adaptive mean filter for reducing noise in CT gel dosimetry. Filter performance is systematically tested using both synthetic patterns mimicking a range of clinical dose distribution features as well as actual clinical dose distributions. Both low and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations are examined. For all cases, the effects of filter kernel size and the number of iterations are investigated. Results indicate that adaptive mean filtering is a highly effective tool for noise reduction CT gel dosimetry. The optimum filtering strategy depends on characteristics of the dose distributions and image noise level. For low noise images (SNR {approx}20), the filtered results are excellent and use of adaptive mean filtering is recommended as a standard processing tool. For high noise images (SNR {approx}5) adaptive mean filtering can also produce excellent results, but filtering must be approached with more caution as spatial and dose distortions of the original dose distribution can occur.

Hilts, Michelle; Jirasek, Andrew [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, V8R6V5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W2Y2 (Canada)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

DOE Radiation Records Contacts List  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

437

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

438

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

439

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

DCS1800/WCDMA ADAPTIVE VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DCS1800/WCDMA ADAPTIVE VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR Aleksandar Tasi, Wouter A. Serdijn and John R, an adaptive 2G/3G voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is described in this paper. For the DCS1800 operation with this reasoning, an adaptive 2G/3G voltage- controlled oscillator, meant for a dual-standard adaptive front

Serdijn, Wouter A.

442

IEEE INFOCOM 2001 1 Pricing Network Resources for Adaptive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and provides a natural and equitable incentive for applications to adapt their service contract according

Wang, Xin

443

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia Robert D. Stewart, Ph.D.Robert D. Stewart, Ph

Stewart, Robert D.

444

Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford The privilege to use ionizing radiation at Stanford University, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard with radioactive materials or radiation devices are responsible for knowing and adhering to applicable requirements

Kay, Mark A.

445

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212-305-0318 rso-clinical@columbia by more than 50 percent. #12;COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ #12;COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212-305-0318 rso-clinical@columbia

Jia, Songtao

446

Adaptive Plasticity and Plasticity as an Adaptation: A Selective Review of Plasticity in Animal Morphology and Life History  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Plasticity and Plasticity as an Adaptation: A Selective Review of Plasticity in Animal wide-ranging. All key REVIEW references should be cited. A summary is required. Adaptive plasticity and plasticity as an adaptation: a selective review of plasticity in animal morphology and life history Karl

Gotthard, Karl

447

Terahertz radiation mixer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

448

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

449

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

451

Time encoded radiation imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

National Ambient Radiation Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

453

Handheld CZT radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

454

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Adaptive method with intercessory feedback control for an intelligent agent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An adaptive architecture method with feedback control for an intelligent agent provides for adaptively integrating reflexive and deliberative responses to a stimulus according to a goal. An adaptive architecture method with feedback control for multiple intelligent agents provides for coordinating and adaptively integrating reflexive and deliberative responses to a stimulus according to a goal. Re-programming of the adaptive architecture is through a nexus which coordinates reflexive and deliberator components.

Goldsmith, Steven Y.

2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

456

Purely radiative perfect fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study `purely radiative' (div E = div H = 0) and geodesic perfect fluids with non-constant pressure and show that the Bianchi class A perfect fluids can be uniquely characterized --modulo the class of purely electric and (pseudo-)spherically symmetric universes-- as those models for which the magnetic and electric part of the Weyl tensor and the shear are simultaneously diagonalizable. For the case of constant pressure the same conclusion holds provided one also assumes that the fluid is irrotational.

B. Bastiaensen; H. R. Karimian; N. Van den Bergh; L. Wylleman

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

457

EcoAdapt Working Paper Series N1 Adaptation to climate change for local development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 EcoAdapt Working Paper Series N°1 Adaptation to climate change for local development Análisis in terms of employment, water situation and land use, at a quantitative and qualitative level, in three and summer pastures, due to the geographic and climatic conditions. hal-01059368,version1-30Aug2014 #12

Boyer, Edmond

458

Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high ? and e{sup ?} radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 55 ?m{sup 2}) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin {sup 10}B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10{sup ?4}.

Vavrik, D., E-mail: vavrik@itam.cas.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic); Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S. [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic); Vacik, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, 250 68 Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic)] [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, 250 68 Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Photon Clusters in Thermal Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the framework of Bose-Einstein statistics, it is shown that the blackbody radiation, in addition to single photons, contains photon clusters, or coalescent photons. The probability to find a k-photon cluster versus radiation frequency and temperature is found, as well as the statistics of clusters. Spectra of photon-cluster radiation are calculated as functions of blackbody temperature. The Planck's radiation law is derived based on the existence of photon clusters. The possibility of experimental observation of photon clusters in thermal radiation is discussed.

Aleksey Ilyin

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

460

THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

Karam, P. A.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations - Instructors Guide Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations - Instructors Guide COURSE...

462

POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a 45 angle. Radiation whose electric field (polarization)radiation field, it can be uniquely characterized by its electric

Lubin, Philip Lubin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

464

Global aspects of radiation memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

J. Winicour

2014-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

465

Method for microbeam radiation therapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

466

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x 2012) Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-induced carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces modification during EUV exposure. XPS analysis showed that total carbon contamination (C 1s peak

Harilal, S. S.

467

RADECS 2010 Proceedings Paper LN2 1 Abstract--Radiation effects in ytterbium-doped silica optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fibers are still poorly studied despite their importance in space- based applications as optical inter measurements. Connections between traps populated by X ray irradiations and the radiation-induced optical Stimulated Luminescence, Ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers. I. INTRODUCTION HE radiation

Boyer, Edmond

468

Silencing of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation through the abrogation of DNA damage checkpoint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Radiosensitization by PARG silencing was observed in multiple lung cancer cells. PAR accumulation was enhanced by PARG silencing after DNA damage. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation were impaired by PARG siRNA. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a major enzyme that plays a role in the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARG deficiency reportedly sensitizes cells to the effects of radiation. In lung cancer, however, it has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether PARG siRNA contributes to an increased radiosensitivity using 8 lung cancer cell lines. Among them, the silencing of PARG induced a radiosensitizing effect in 5 cell lines. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest was largely suppressed by PARG siRNA in PC-14 and A427 cells, which exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity in response to PARG knockdown. On the other hand, a similar effect was not observed in H520 cells, which did not exhibit a radiosensitizing effect. Consistent with a cell cycle analysis, radiation-induced checkpoint signals were not well activated in the PC-14 and A427 cells when treated with PARG siRNA. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity to radiation induced by PARG knockdown occurs through the abrogation of radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation in lung cancer cells. Our findings indicate that PARG could be a potential target for lung cancer treatments when used in combination with radiotherapy.

Nakadate, Yusuke [Shien-Lab, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Shien-Lab, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuo; Kitamura, Yuka [Shien-Lab, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Shien-Lab, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Tachibana, Taro [Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Tamura, Tomohide [Division of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Koizumi, Fumiaki, E-mail: fkoizumi@ncc.go.jp [Division of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

469

Anisotropic radiation elds: causality and quantum statistics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation transport 5 2.1 Radiation transport equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Closures The transport of radiation through a medium is described by the radiation transport equation for the radiative is used to describe anisotropic radiation. Because the two moment equations do not form a closed set

Honingh, Aline

470

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

473

Use of diamond-turned mirrors for synchrotron radiation (SR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The diamond turning technique has great interest for users of synchrotron radiation because of its ability to produce surfaces of arbitrary shape. It also has the advantage of being well adapted to producing metal optics. These are of interest because they lend themselves to water cooling and hence represent one approach to the problem of high synchrotron radiation power loadings on optical surfaces. The optical figure produced by diamond turning is generally adequate for synchrotron radiation applications. The main difficulty centers around the question of smoothness. Diamond turned surfaces must receive a final polish after machining before they are sufficiently smooth for use with ultra-violet or x-ray radiation. The manufacturing stages can be carried out by various groups in the optics industry and the National Synchrotron Light Source has procured a considerable number of mirrors and is having them polished for use on the vuv storage ring. At the time of writing one mirror has been completed and evaluated and we give the results for this and discuss the indications for the future. The important measurement of the r.m.s. height of the surface roughness has given a value of 3 +- 0.9A using total integrated scatter of visible light at normal incidence.

Howells, M.R.; Takacs, P.Z.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan Sally P filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be ,1% of its total metabolism implying there is little adaptive value to reducing the cost of pumping by using ``passive'' flow induced by the ambient

Yahel, Gitai

476

Bistability of self-modulation of the GaAs intrinsic stimulated picosecond radiation spectrum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bistability of self-modulation of the spectrum of the stimulated picosecond radiation that appears during picosecond optical pumping of GaAs is detected. The radiation is measured before it reaches the end faces of a sample. One set of equidistant modes occurs in the radiation spectrum at the radiation pulse front. A set of modes located at the center between the initial modes replaces the first set in the descending radiation branch. The intermode interval inside each set coincides with the calculated interval between the eigenmodes of the GaAs layer, which is an active cavity. The radiation rise time turns out to be an oscillating function of the photon energy. The spectrum evolution is self-consistent so that the time-integrated spectrum and the spectrum-integrated radiation pulse envelope have a smooth (without local singularities) shape. The revealed bistability explains the physical nature of the two radiation-induced states of population depletion between which subterahertz self-oscillations in the radiation field were detected earlier. The radiation spectrum self-modulation is assumed to be a variant of stimulated Raman scattering.

Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L., E-mail: bil@cplire.ru; Zabegaev, D. N.; Krivonosov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

477

Radiative ?(1S) decays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wW~ ii~ ~ + v~ 1''&WV'' V 0.20 0.45 0.70 ~y ~ EBFA~ 0.95 l.20 FIG. 4. Energy spectrum (normalized to beam energy) for Y~y2(h+h ) event candidates, with continuum data and ex- pected background from Y~m 2(h +h ) overplotted. 40 30 ~ 20 LLI IO hl...PHYSICAL REVIEW 0 VOLUME 41, NUMBER 5 Radiative T(lS) decays 1 MARCH 1990 R. Fulton, M. Hempstead, T. Jensen, D. R. Johnson, H. Kagan, R. Kass, F. Morrow, and J. Whitmore Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 W.-Y. Chen, J. Dominick, R. L. Mc...

Baringer, Philip S.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Radiation Field on Superspace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of multiwormhole configurations within the framework of the Euclidean Polyakov approach to string theory, incorporating a modification to the Hamiltonian which makes it impossible to interpret the Coleman Alpha parameters of the effective interactions as a quantum field on superspace, reducible to an infinite tower of fields on space-time. We obtain a Planckian probability measure for the Alphas that allows $\\frac{1}{2}\\alpha^{2}$ to be interpreted as the energy of the quanta of a radiation field on superspace whose values may still fix the coupling constants.

P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

1994-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

479

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

480

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation induced adaptive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Radiation.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115,Performance QualityRadiation August

482

Courses on Synchrotron Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases on &gamma;-Al2O3. |ID#:Synchrotron Radiation The following is

483

Defects of a phosphosilicate glass exposed to the 193-nm radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Induced absorption is measured in a hydrogen-unloaded phosphosilicate glass (PSG) in spectral ranges from 140 to 850 nm and from 1000 to 1700 nm before and after its exposure to the 193-nm radiation. It is shown that the induced-absorption bands in the range between 140 and 300 nm do not coincide with the bands observed earlier after exposing a PSG to X-rays. It is assumed that the photorefractive effect in the PSG is related to variations induced in the glass network rather than to defects responsible for the induced-absorption bands. (fiber and integrated optics)

Larionov, Yu V; Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

484

Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel \\v Cerenkov Radiator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel \\v Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the $B$-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8~MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3\\% and 0.001 at 90\\% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed.

S. K. Sahu et al

1996-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

486

Radiation Control Program and Radiation Control Act (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute authorizes the state to implement a regulatory program for sources of radiation, and contains rules for the Department, licensing and registration, and taxation of radioactive materials.

487

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive radiation model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 35 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in Summary: , we...