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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) including a continuous mixture of active and sterile neutrinos, 4) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 5) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favored solutions are robust, but the presence at 3 sigma of individual sterile solutions and the active Just So2 solution is sensitive to the analysis assumptions.

John N. Bahcall; M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia; Carlos Pena-Garay

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

2

Interannual Variability of the Global Radiation Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interannual variability of the global radiation budget, regions that contribute to its variability, and what limits albedo variability are investigated using Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data taken from March 2000 through ...

Seiji Kato

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Global Solar Radiation Estimation from Relative Sunshine Hours in Italy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine the existing measurements of global solar radiation and sunshine duration for Italy, and evaluate the errors made in estimating global solar radiation from sunshine hours measurements. We find that the Ångstrom–Black linear relation in ...

A. Andretta; B. Bartoli; B. Coluzzi; V. Cuomo; M. Francesca; C. Serio

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

The Asymmetry of Global Solar Radiation Around Solar Noon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using approximately 25 years of rehabilitated global solar radiation measurements, an analysis of the asymmetry of global solar radiation around solar noon was performed for three climatic regions of the United states represented by Miami, ...

R. T. Pinker; L. M. Militana

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

Gary Hodges; Tom Stoffel; Mark Kutchenreiter; Bev Kay; Aron Habte; Michael Ritsche; Victor Morris; Mary Anderberg

6

Quality control and estimation of global solar radiation in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of surface radiation in China are too sparse to meet demand for scientific research and engineering applications. Moreover, the radiation data often include erroneous and questionable values though preliminary quality-check has been done before the data release. Therefore, quality control of radiation data is often a prerequisite for using these data. In this study, a set of quality-check procedures were implemented to control the quality of the solar radiation measurements at 97 stations in China. A hybrid model for estimating global solar radiation was then evaluated against the controlled data. The results show that the model can estimate the global radiation with accuracy of MBE less than 1.5 MJ m{sup -2} and RMSE less than 2.8 MJ m{sup -2} for daily radiation and RMSE less than 2.0 MJ m{sup -2} for monthly-mean daily radiation at individual stations over most of China except at a few stations where unsatisfactory estimates were possibly caused by severe air pollution or too dense clouds. The MBE averaged over all stations are about 0.7 MJ m{sup -2} and RMSE about 2.0 MJ m{sup -2} for daily radiation and RMSE about 1.3 MJ m{sup -2} for monthly-mean daily radiation. Finally, this model was used to fill data gaps and to expand solar radiation data set using routine meteorological station data in China. This data set would substantially contribute to some radiation-related scientific studies and engineering applications in China. (author)

Tang, Wenjun; He, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

The Global Character of the Flux of Downward Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four different types of estimates of the surface downwelling longwave radiative flux (DLR) are reviewed. One group of estimates synthesizes global cloud, aerosol, and other information in a radiation model that is used to calculate fluxes. Because ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Martin Wild; Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.; Tristan L’Ecuyer; Seiji Kato; David S. Henderson

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Global Relationships among the Earth's Radiation Budget, Cloudiness, Volcanic Aerosols, and Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analyses of Cess are extended to consider global relationships among the earth's radiation budget (including solar insulation and changes in optically active gass), cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature. ...

Philip E. Ardanuy; H. Lee Kyle; Douglas Hoyt

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Estimation of global solar radiation using ANN over Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main objective of the present study is to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) method for estimating the monthly mean daily sum global solar radiation at any place of Turkey. For this purpose, ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Estimation, Global solar radiation, Stepwise multi-nonlinear regression, Turkey

Muammer Ozgoren; Mehmet Bilgili; Besir Sahin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

An Earth Outgoing Longwave Radiation Climate Model. Part II: Radiation with Clouds Included  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Earth outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) climate model was constructed for radiation budget studies. The model consists of the upward radiative transfer parameterization of Thompson and Warren, the cloud cover model of Sherr et al., and a ...

Shi-Keng Yang; G. Louis Smith; Fred L. Bartman

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Contemporaneous Relationships between Global Radiation and Heating Degree Days during Severe Winters in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global radiation climate associated with anomalously cold winter months and cold winters is analyzed for the contiguous United States. The radiation data consist of rehabilitated measured and modeled monthly values of global radiation on both ...

Thomas R. Karl; Frank T. Quinlan

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Effect of Ice-Albedo Feedback on Global Sensitivity in a One-Dimensional Radiative-Convective Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feedback between ice albedo and temperature is included in a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model. The effect of this feedback on global sensitivity to changes in solar constant is studied for the current climate conditions. ...

Wei-Chyung Wang; Peter H. Stone

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Decline in Global Solar Radiation with Increased Horizontal Visibility in Germany between 1964 and 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistically significant decrease in mean annual global solar radiation between 1964 and 1990 under completely overcast skies was found at five out of eight studied locations in Germany. A decrease of global solar radiation is also evident in ...

Beate G. Liepert; George J. Kukla

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Radiation Detector R&D | Global and Regional Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Detector and Nonproliferation R&D Group Radiation Detector and Nonproliferation R&D Group A major element in nonproliferation, arms control verification, nuclear materials safeguards and homeland security is the ability to detect, identify and measure nuclear, radioactive and chemical materials. BNL has a significant and world-class capability in radiation detection including the design and fabrication of advanced detector systems for scientific R&D and nonproliferation applications that has evolved over more than six decades. To support nonproliferation, arms control, safeguards and homeland security, BNL has focused on advanced radiation detector systems that offer room temperature operation with high energy resolution for gamma-ray detectors, imaging and direction indicating capabilities for both gamma-ray

16

Including Croplands in a Global Biosphere Model: Methodology and Evaluation at Specific Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a strong international demand for quantitative estimates of both carbon sources/sinks, and water availability at the land surface at various spatial scales (regional to global). These estimates can be derived (and usually are) from ...

Sébastien Gervois; Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré; Nicolas Viovy; Philippe Ciais; Nadine Brisson; Bernard Seguin; Alain Perrier

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

A Model for the Estimation of Global Solar Radiation Using Fuzzy Random Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the concept of fuzzy random variables is applied for the estimation of global solar radiation on a surface at ground level. The cloudiness index is defined as the fraction of extraterrestrial radiation that reaches the earth's ...

Nalin K. Gautam; N. D. Kaushika

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The Estimation of Hourly Global Solar Radiation Using a Cloud Cover Model Developed at Blytheville, Arkansas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lack of a comprehensive solar radiation monitoring network throughout the United States has led to extensive modeling. Some of the models use a measured component, usually the global solar radiation, to predict the other components, direct ...

W. D. Turner; Abdulaziz Mujahid

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Determination of pion and kaon fragmentation functions including spin asymmetries data in a global analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new functional form of pion and kaon fragmentation functions up to next-to-leading order obtained through a global fit to single-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data and also employ, the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering asymmetry data from HERMES and COMPASS to determine FFs. In this analysis we consider the impression of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering asymmetry data on the fragmentation functions, where the produced hadrons of different electric charge are identified. We break symmetry assumption between quark and anti-quark fragmentation functions for favored partons by using the asymmetry data. The results of our analysis are in good agreement with electron-positron annihilation data and also with all the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering asymmetry data. Also we apply the obtained fragmentation functions to predict the scaled-energy distribution of $\\pi^+/K^+$ inclusively produced in top-quark decays at next-to-leading order using the zero-mass variable-flavor-number scheme exploiting the universality and scaling violations of fragmentation functions.

M. Soleymaninia; A. N. Khorramian; S. M. Moosavinejad; F. Arbabifar

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Global, Seasonal Cloud Variations from Satellite Radiance Measurements. Part II. Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global, daily, visible and infrared radiance measurements from the NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer (SR) are analyzed for the months of January, April, July and October 1977 to infer cloud and surface radiative properties and their effects on the Earth ...

William B. Rossow; Andrew A. Lacis

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

22

Change in regime and transfer function models of global solar radiation in Kuwait  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of the models for global solar radiation in Kuwait is based on removing the annual periodicity and seasonal variation. The first methodology used here is the change in regime technique that relies on dividing the observations into two ... Keywords: ARMA model, Harmonic analysis, Solar radiation, Transfer function

S. A. Al-Awadhi

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Modeling the Global Solar Radiation on the Earth’s Surface Using Atmospheric Deterministic and Intelligent Data-Driven Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three methods for analyzing and modeling the global shortwave radiation reaching the earth’s surface are presented in this study. Solar radiation is a very important input for many aspects of climatology, hydrology, atmospheric sciences, and ...

M. Santamouris; G. Mihalakakou; B. Psiloglou; G. Eftaxias; D. N. Asimakopoulos

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud fields in a realistic way and how to use them in a relatively simple one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer model to compute the domain averaged irradiance. To address this issue, a simple shortwave radiative transfer model that can treat the vertical cloud optical property correlation is developed. The model is based on the gamma-weighted

25

Evaluation of Various Methods for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in the Southeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global solar radiation Rg is an important input for crop models to simulate crop responses. Because the scarcity of long and continuous records of Rg is a serious limitation in many countries, Rg is estimated using models. For crop-model ...

Prem Woli; Joel O. Paz

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Posters Radiation Impacts on Global Climate Models F. Baer, N. Arsky, and K. Rocque  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters Radiation Impacts on Global Climate Models F. Baer, N. Arsky, and K. Rocque University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Climate Prediction and Radiative Heating Climate models are driven by forcing, and these forces are seen primarily by the thermal field in general circulation models (GCMs). The major forces that affect the thermal field are longwave radiative (LWR) heating, shortwave radiative (SWR) heating, and convection (cumulus, etc.). These forcing effects are cycled through the thermal field to the motion field by nonlinear transfer. The dependent variables-in particular, temperature (T), moisture (Q) and especially clouds-evolve in time in a model and determine the subsequent forcing. If the dependent variables are not accurately calculated in space and time, the forcing

27

Prediction of clock time hourly global radiation from daily values over  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Prediction of clock time hourly global radiation from daily values over Prediction of clock time hourly global radiation from daily values over Bangladesh Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A need for predicting hourly global radiation exists for many locations particularly in Bangladesh for which measured values are not available and daily values have to be estimated from sunshine data. The CPRG model has been used to predict values of hourly Gh for Dhaka (23.770N, 90.380E), Chittagong (22.270N, 91.820E) and Bogra (24.850N, 89.370E) for = ±7.50, ±22.50, ±37.50, ±52.50, ±67.50, ±82.50 and ±97.50 i.e., for ±1/2, ±3/2, ±5/2, ±7/2, ±9/2, ±11/2, ±13/2 hours before and after solar noon and the computed values for different months are symmetrical about solar noon whereas for many months experimental data show a clear asymmetry. To obtain improved

28

Global Calibration of the GEOS-5 L-Band Microwave Radiative Transfer Model over Nonfrozen Land Using SMOS Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A zero-order (tau-omega) microwave radiative transfer model (RTM) is coupled to the Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) catchment land surface model in preparation for the future assimilation of global brightness temperatures (Tb) ...

Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy; Rolf H. Reichle; Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Brazil Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km) from INPE 40km) from INPE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global horizontal solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files. The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took art in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory.

30

Accounting for Unresolved Clouds in a 1D Infrared Radiative Transfer Model. Part I: Solution for Radiative Transfer, Including Cloud Scattering and Overlap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various aspects of infrared radiative transfer through clouds are investigated. First, three solutions to the IR radiative transfer equation are presented and assessed, each corresponding to a different approximation for the Planck function. It ...

J. Li

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Brazil Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10km) from INPE 10km) from INPE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global horizontal solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 10km x 10km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

32

The Effect of Realistic Radiative Transfer on Potential Vorticity Structures, Including the Influence of Background Shear and Strain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified version of the radiation scheme of Shine is used to investigate the decay of small-scale potential vorticity structures characteristic of those observed in the lower and middle stratosphere. Following Fels, effective thermal damping ...

P. H. Haynes; W. E. Ward

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Improvements in the Shortwave Cloud-free Radiation Budget Accuracy. Part I: Numerical Study Including Surface Anisotropy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shortwave radiation field, i.e., in the solar spectral range, emerging at the top of the atmosphere is anisotropic due to the optical properties of the atmosphere and the reflectance characteristics of the underlying surface. Thus, anisotropy ...

P. Koepke; K. T. Kriebel

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

35

GLOBAL MODELING OF RADIATIVELY DRIVEN ACCRETION OF METALS FROM COMPACT DEBRIS DISKS ONTO WHITE DWARFS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent infrared observations have revealed the presence of compact (radii {approx}rate M-dot{sub PR}{approx}10{sup 8} g s{sup -1}. Here we extend this local analysis by exploring the global evolution of the debris disk under the action of the PR drag for a variety of assumptions about the disk properties. We find that massive disks (mass {approx}> 10{sup 20} g), which are optically thick to incident stellar radiation, inevitably give rise to metal accretion at rates M-dot {approx}>0.2 M-dot{sub PR}. The magnitude of M-dot and its time evolution are determined predominantly by the initial pattern of the radial distribution of the debris (i.e., ring-like versus disk-like) but not by the total mass of the disk. The latter determines only the disk lifetime, which can be several Myr or longer. The evolution of an optically thick disk generically results in the development of a sharp outer edge of the disk. We also find that the low-mass ({approx}< 10{sup 20} g), optically thin disks exhibit M-dot << M-dot{sub PR} and evolve on a characteristic timescale {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} yr, independent of their total mass.

Bochkarev, Konstantin V. [Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: bochkarevkv@gmail.com, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Global ice cloud observations: radiative properties and statistics from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice clouds occur quite frequently, yet so much about these clouds is unknown. In recent years, numerous investigations and field campaigns have been focused on the study of ice clouds, all with the ultimate goal of gaining a better understanding of microphysical and optical properties, as well as determining the radiative impact. Perhaps one of the most recognized instruments used for such research is the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), carried aboard the NASA EOS satellites Terra and Aqua. The present research aims to support ongoing efforts in the field of ice cloud research by use of observations obtained from Terra and Aqua MODIS. First, a technique is developed to infer ice cloud optical depth from the MODIS cirrus reflectance parameter. This technique is based on a previous method developed by Meyer et al. (2004). The applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated with retrievals from level-2 and -3 MODIS data. The technique is also evaluated with the operational MODIS cloud retrieval product and a method based on airborne ice cloud observations. From this technique, an archive of daily optical depth retrievals is constructed. Using simple statistics, the global spatial and temporal distributions of ice clouds are determined. Research has found that Aqua MODIS observes more frequent ice clouds and larger optical depths and ice water paths than does Terra MODIS. Finally, an analysis of the time series of daily optical depth values revealed that ice clouds at high latitudes, which are most likely associated with synoptic scale weather sytems, persist long enough to move with the upper level winds. Tropical ice clouds, however, dissipate more rapidly, and are in all likelihood associated with deep convective cells.

Meyer, Kerry Glynne

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice clouds influence the climate system by changing the radiation budget and large-scale circulation. Therefore, climate models need to have an accurate representation of ice clouds and their radiative effects. In this paper, new broadband ...

Bingqi Yi; Ping Yang; Bryan A. Baum; Tristan L'Ecuyer; Lazaros Oreopoulos; Eli J. Mlawer; Andrew J. Heymsfield; Kuo-Nan Liou

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Downscaling Aerosols and the Impact of Neglected Subgrid Processes on Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing for a Representative Global Climate Model Grid Spacing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent improvements to many global climate models include detailed, prognostic aerosol calculations intended to better reproduce the observed climate. However, the trace gas and aerosol fields are treated at the grid-cell scale with no attempt to account for sub-grid impacts on the aerosol fields. This paper begins to quantify the error introduced by the neglected sub-grid variability for the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a representative climate model grid spacing of 75 km. An analysis of the value added in downscaling aerosol fields is also presented to give context to the WRF-Chem simulations used for the sub-grid analysis. We found that 1) the impact of neglected sub-grid variability on the aerosol radiative forcing is strongest in regions of complex topography and complicated flow patterns, and 2) scale-induced differences in emissions contribute strongly to the impact of neglected sub-grid processes on the aerosol radiative forcing. The two of these effects together, when simulated at 75 km vs. 3 km in WRF-Chem, result in an average daytime mean bias of over 30% error in top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a large percentage of central Mexico during the MILAGRO field campaign.

Gustafson, William I.; Qian, Yun; Fast, Jerome D.

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

39

An Improved Method for Estimating Global Evapotranspiration Based on Satellite Determination of Surface Net Radiation, Vegetation Index, Temperature, and Soil Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and accurate method to estimate regional or global latent heat of evapotranspiration (ET) from remote sensing data is essential. The authors proposed a method in an earlier study that utilized satellite-determined surface net radiation (...

Kaicun Wang; Shunlin Liang

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Estimation of Surface Solar Global Radiation from NOAA AVHRR Data in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physical method for estimating the instantaneous global irradiance and daily cumulative insolation based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data was developed and tested at high latitudes in a boreal subarctic region. The satellite ...

Vesa Laine; Ari Venäläinen; Martti Heikinheimo; Otto Hyvärinen

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Global tropospheric chemistry models for radiatively important trace species: Design and research recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the Earth`s climate could significantly affect regional and global concentrations of trace species that are criteria pollutants regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The policy community also needs to know how changes in global natural and anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particulate aerosols, and aerosol precursors will affect the distribution and concentration of these pollutants. This report maps out one path for obtaining this information.

Barchet, W.R.; Brothers, A.J.; Berkowitz, C.M.; Easter, R.C.; Ghan, S.J.; Saylor, R.D.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A 3-D Canopy Radiative Transfer Model for Global Climate Modeling: Description, Validation and Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of solar radiative transfer at the land surface is important to energy, water and carbon balance, especially for vegetated areas. Currently the most commonly used two-stream model considers the Plant Functional Types (PFTs) within a ...

Hua Yuan; Robert E. Dickinson; Yongjiu Dai; Muhammad J. Shaikh; Liming Zhou; Wei Shangguan; Duoying Ji

43

Lecture 3 week 2/3 2012: Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... that would be like 13.68 one- hundred watt light bulbs illuminating a one-meter square surface, except that light bulbs put about 80% of their 100 watts of power into heat/infrared radiation. Given the distance

44

Seasonal Changes in Solar Radiation and Relative Humidity in Europe in Response to Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future seasonal changes in surface incident solar radiation and relative humidity (RH) over Europe and adjacent ocean areas were assessed based on phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) model ensemble. Under the A1B scenario, ...

Kimmo Ruosteenoja; Petri Räisänen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Role of aerosols in radiative forcing of climate change: Global mean and uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenically induced climate change is of great current interest because of increases in atmospheric loading of infrared active (greenhouse) gases over the past 150 years and the inferred resultant increase in infrared radiation flux in the troposphere. However, the climate change ascribed to such increases, not to mention predictions of future climate change in response to prospective changes in the earth`s radiation budget, is based virtually entirely on climate model simulations of how the earth`s climate would respond to changes in radiation rather than on empirically established relationships between changes in the earth`s radiation budget and climate change. There is thus an urgent need to evaluate the performance of climate models to ascertain the accuracy with which they represent the changes in temperature and other indicia of climate that have been observed over the industrial period. Such an evaluation, however, requires an accurate assessment of the totality of changes in the earth`s radiation budget in both the longwave (thermal infrared) and shortwave (solar) spectral regions, not just of changes in the longwave due to increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases.

Schwartz, S.E.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

On the Variability of the Global Net Radiative Energy Balance of the Nonequilibrium Earth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent observations and model studies of the earth’s radiative energy balance have focused attention on the earth’s top of atmosphere (TOA) energy balance. This is the balance between the shortwave energy absorbed by the earth, which is ...

John E. Harries; Claudio Belotti

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and hybrid ARMA/ANN model to predict global radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 1999; Hoinka and Castro 2003), Saudi Arabia (Ackermann and Cox 1982; Blake et al. 1983; Smith 1986a peak. Because of the dryness of the land, a large fraction of the incoming solar radiation is available on local weather. A good example is the `west- coast trough' over Australia. The coastal areas of Western

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

John H. Seinfeld

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

50

An option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide global greenhouse effect including estimates for reduced CO/sub 2/ emissions technologies  

SciTech Connect

A new technical option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect has been devised. The option concerns a ''hydrogen economy'' based on coal. We have developed a very efficient process called HYDROCARB, which effectively splits coal into carbon and hydrogen. This process produces a clean, pure carbon fuel from coal for application in both mobile and stationary heat engines. We are suggesting that coal refineries be built based on this technology. A co-product of the process is a hydrogen-rich gas. If one is concerned about the greenhouse effect, then either all or part of the carbon can be withheld and either mainly or only the hydrogen is used as fuel. If one desires to attain the ultimate, and eliminate all CO/sub 2/ emissions from coal, then all of the carbon can be stored and only the hydrogen used. The option is still open for utilizing the clean carbon, which would be placed in monitored retrievable storage, not unlike the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Should the greenhouse effect be found to be a myth in the future, the carbon would be taken out of storage and utilized as a clean fuel, the impurities having been previously removed. This concept can be valuable to the coal industry in response to the arguments of the anti-coal critics. Total capital cost estimates have been made to replace all conventional coal burning power plants in the US with technologies that eliminate emissions of CO/sub 2/. These include removal, recovery and disposal of CO/sub 2/, nuclear, solar, photovoltaics, biomass, and HYDROCARB. 12 refs., 1 fig. 4 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Radiative Forcing of Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 6 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 6.1 Radiative Forcing 6.2 Forcing-Response Relationship 6.3 Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases 6.4 Stratospheric Ozone 6.5 Radiative Forcing By Tropospheric Ozone 6.6 Indirect Forcings due to Chemistry 6.7 The Direct Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.8 The Indirect Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.9 Stratospheric Aerosols 6.10 Land-use Change (Surface Albedo Effect) 6.11 Solar Forcing of Climate 6.12 Global Warming Potentials hydrocarbons 6.13 Global Mean Radiative Forcings 6.14 The Geographical Distribution of the Radiative Forcings 6.15 Time Evolution of Radiative Forcings Appendix 6.1 Elements of Radiative Forcing Concept References.

Ramaswamy, V.; Boucher, Olivier; Haigh, J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Haywood, J.; Myhre, G.; Nakajima, Takahito; Shi, Guangyu; Solomon, S.; Betts, Robert E.; Charlson, R.; Chuang, C. C.; Daniel, J. S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Feichter, J.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Forster, P. M.; Ghan, Steven J.; Jones, A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Koch, D.; Land, C.; Lean, J.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Minschwaner, K.; Penner, Joyce E.; Roberts, D. L.; Rodhe, H.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rotstayn, Leon D.; Schneider, T. L.; Schumann, U.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Schwartzkopf, M. D.; Shine, K. P.; Smith, Steven J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Stordal, F.; Tegen, I.; van Dorland, R.; Zhang, Y.; Srinivasan, J.; Joos, Fortunat

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Regional and Global Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products > Regional/Global Products > Regional/Global Regional and Global Data Biogeochemical Dynamics Data Regional and global biogeochemical dynamics data can be used to improve our understanding of the structure and function of various ecosystems; to enable prediction across spatial and temporal scales; and to parameterize and validate terrestrial ecosystem models. The ORNL DAAC compiles, archives, and distributes more than 150 products from the following projects: Climate Collections Hydroclimatology Collections ISLSCP II Project Net Primary Productivity (NPP) River Discharge (RIVDIS) Russian Land Cover (RLC) Soil Collections Vegetation Collections Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling (VEMAP) Climate Collections Climate collections include measured and modeled values for variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, radiation, wind velocity, and

53

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over Global Oceans from Merged CERES and MODIS Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The direct radiative effect of aerosols (DREA) is defined as the difference between radiative fluxes in the absence and presence of aerosols. In this study, the direct radiative effect of aerosols is estimated for 46 months (March 2000–December ...

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A COMPENDIUM OF INFORMATION FOR USE IN CONTROLLING RADIATION EMERGENCIES INCLUDING LECTURE NOTES FROM A TRAINING SESSION AT IDAHO FALLS, IDAHO, FEBRUARY 12-14, 1958  

SciTech Connect

A training course was held to familiarize members of radiological assistance teams from various parts of the U. S. with the origin and nature of situations that might, by the event of an unusual accident. release radioactive materials to a populated environment. The course consisted of a series of lectures and a tour of some of the radiation monitoring, source handling, and transportation facilities at NRTS. A summary of the lecture material is presented. (W.D.M.)

Brodsky, A.; Beard, G.V. comps. and eds.

1960-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Cosmic global strings  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields.

Sikivie, P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

The Radiation Budget of the West African Sahel and Its Controls: A Perspective from Observations and Global Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuous measurements of the shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cross-atmosphere radiation flux divergence over the West African Sahel were made during the year 2006 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and ...

Mark A. Miller; Virendra P. Ghate; Robert K. Zahn

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Global climate feedbacks  

SciTech Connect

The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Manowitz, B.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Single-Scattering Albedo and Radiative Forcing of Various Aerosol Species with a Global Three-Dimensional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global distributions of the aerosol optical thickness, Ångström exponent, and single-scattering albedo are simulated using an aerosol transport model coupled with an atmospheric general circulation model. All the main tropospheric aerosols are ...

Toshihiko Takemura; Teruyuki Nakajima; Oleg Dubovik; Brent N. Holben; Stefan Kinne

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

A Radiative–Convective Equilibrium Perspective of Weakening of the Tropical Walker Circulation in Response to Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both observational analysis and GCM simulations indicate that the tropical Walker circulation is becoming weaker and may continue to weaken as a consequence of climate change. Here, the authors use a conceptual radiative–convective equilibrium (...

Xianglei Huang; Hui-Wen Chuang; Andrew Dessler; Xiuhong Chen; Kenneth Minschwaner; Yi Ming; V. Ramaswamy

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another. 1

unknown authors

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Earth's Global Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An update is provided on the Earth's global annual mean energy budget in the light of new observations and analyses. In 1997, Kiehl and Trenberth provided a review of past estimates and performed a number of radiative computations to better ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; John T. Fasullo; Jeffrey Kiehl

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Radiation Cataract  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation including patients undergoing diagnostic CT scans or radiotherapy, atomic bomb survivors, residents of radioactively contaminated buildings, victims of the...

67

Equilibrium Response of an Atmosphere–Mixed Layer Ocean Model to Different Radiative Forcing Agents: Global and Zonal Mean Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equilibrium response to various forcing agents, including CO2, solar irradiance, tropospheric ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, and volcanic aerosols, is investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a ...

Masakazu Yoshimori; Anthony J. Broccoli

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

69

Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer simulations have been carried out of the motion and decay of global strings, including spectrum analysis of the energy stored in the scalar field which describes the global string and the radiated Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We simulated relaxing pieces of bent string and collapsing loops. We find, for the string sizes investigated, that the spectrum of field energy hardens rather than softens while the string decays into Nambu-Goldstone radiation. We argue on theoretical grounds that is indeed the most plausible general behaviour. 19 refs., 12 figs.

Hagmann, C.; Sikivie, P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950 to 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases ...

Bruce T. Anderson; Jeff R. Knight; Mark A. Ringer; Jin-Ho Yoon; Annalisa Cherchi

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

72

Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Security Global Security LANL's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent;...

73

Comparison of Short-Term and Long-Term Radiative Feedbacks and Variability in Twentieth-Century Global Climate Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate sensitivity uncertainty of global climate models (GCMs) is partly due to the spread of individual feedbacks. One approach to constrain long-term climate sensitivity is to use the relatively short observational record, assuming there ...

Meghan M. Dalton; Karen M. Shell

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Global Climate Change Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Climate Change Links Global Climate Change Links This page provides links to web pages that we at CDIAC feel do a responsible job of presenting information and discussion pertinent to the science behind the global climate change ("global warming") debate. These sites include those on both sides of the debate; some asserting that global warming is a clear and present danger, and others that might be labeled global warming "skeptics." Some of these sites don't take a position per se; they exist to offer the public objective scientific information and results on our present understanding of the climate system. The list is not intended to be comprehensive, by any means. We hope it will be especially helpful for those who may be just beginning their research into global

76

Global and Regional Solutions Directorate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Pacific NW National Lab (PNNL) ­ Founding Director Joint Global Change Research Institute (PNNL/UMd) ­ ALD (PNNL) ­ Environmental and Health Sciences Directorate; Emerging Technologies ­ Chief Scientist ­ Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ­ Director ­ PNNL Global Studies Program ­ Other (PNNL): Center

Homes, Christopher C.

77

Evaluation of the Surface Radiation Budget in the Atmospheric Component of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM1)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The partitioning of the earth radiation budget (ERB) between its atmosphere and surface components is of crucial interest in climate studies as it has a significant role in the oceanic and atmospheric general circulation. An analysis of the ...

A. Bodas-Salcedo; M. A. Ringer; A. Jones

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Radiation dose reduction to the breast in thoracic CT: Comparison of bismuth shielding, organ-based tube current modulation, and use of a globally decreased tube current  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate dose performance and image quality in thoracic CT using three techniques to reduce dose to the breast: bismuth shielding, organ-based tube current modulation (TCM) and global tube current reduction. Methods: Semi-anthropomorphic thorax phantoms of four different sizes (15, 30, 35, and 40 cm lateral width) were used for dose measurement and image quality assessment. Four scans were performed on each phantom using 100 or 120 kV with a clinical CT scanner: (1) reference scan; (2) scan with bismuth breast shield of an appropriate thickness; (3) scan with organ-based TCM; and (4) scan with a global reduction in tube current chosen to match the dose reduction from bismuth shielding. Dose to the breast was measured with an ion chamber on the surface of the phantom. Image quality was evaluated by measuring the mean and standard deviation of CT numbers within the lung and heart regions. Results: Compared to the reference scan, dose to the breast region was decreased by about 21% for the 15-cm phantom with a pediatric (2-ply) shield and by about 37% for the 30, 35, and 40-cm phantoms with adult (4-ply) shields. Organ-based TCM decreased the dose by 12% for the 15-cm phantom, and 34-39% for the 30, 35, and 40-cm phantoms. Global lowering of the tube current reduced breast dose by 23% for the 15-cm phantom and 39% for the 30, 35, and 40-cm phantoms. In phantoms of all four sizes, image noise was increased in both the lung and heart regions with bismuth shielding. No significant increase in noise was observed with organ-based TCM. Decreasing tube current globally led to similar noise increases as bismuth shielding. Streak and beam hardening artifacts, and a resulting artifactual increase in CT numbers, were observed for scans with bismuth shields, but not for organ-based TCM or global tube current reduction. Conclusions: Organ-based TCM produces dose reduction to the breast similar to that achieved with bismuth shielding for both pediatric and adult phantoms. However, organ-based TCM does not affect image noise or CT number accuracy, both of which are adversely affected by bismuth shielding. Alternatively, globally decreasing the tube current can produce the same dose reduction to the breast as bismuth shielding, with a similar noise increase, yet without the streak artifacts and CT number errors caused by the bismuth shields. Moreover, globally decreasing the tube current reduces the dose to all tissues scanned, not simply to the breast.

Wang Jia; Duan Xinhui; Christner, Jodie A.; Leng Shuai; Yu Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Assessment of the global impact of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] We present here a fully coupled global aerosol and chemistry model for the troposphere. The model is used to assess the interactions between aerosols and chemical oxidants in the troposphere, including (1) the conversion from gas-phase oxidants into the condensed phase during the formation of aerosols, (2) the heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of aerosols, and (3) the effect of aerosols on ultraviolet radiation and photolysis rates. The present study uses the global three-dimensional chemical/ transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), in which aerosols are coupled with the model. The model accounts for the presence of

Xuexi Tie; Sasha Madronich; Stacy Walters; David P. Edwards; Paul Ginoux; Natalie Mahowald; Renyi Zhang; Chao Lou; Guy Brasseur

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Estimation and Model Validation of Surface Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing Using TOGA COARE Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) radiation measurements in the western Pacific warm pool are used to estimate surface solar radiation budgets and to validate radiation model ...

Ming-Dah Chou; Wenzhong Zhao

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Global Climate Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Data The climate data at the ORNL DAAC are used primarily as driving variables in terrestrial biogeochemistry models. These models typically use data on temperature (min,max), precipitation, humidity (relative humidity, vapor pressure deficit, dew point), radiation (PFD in PAR, shortwave, direct/diffuse, and UV radiation, daylength), and wind velocity. Climate / meteorology data are required at hourly to monthly time scales, either point or gridded, at spatial scales ranging from regional to continental to global. The ORNL DAAC currently distributes climate data from several related projects: VEMAP-1 Hydroclimatology, and Global Historical Climatology Network. We are also now distributing climate data developed at the East Anglia Climate Research Unit and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Research.

82

Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000  

SciTech Connect

Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Radiation Emergency Medicine Fact Sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Global Response Improving Global Response to Radiation Emergencies Improving Radiation Emergency Response Through Education and Specialized Expertise In the event of a radiological or nuclear incident, first responders as well as hospital and emergency management personnel must call on their knowledge and training to provide immediate and effective care for victims. Through practical, hands-on education programs, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is improving global response to radiation emergencies. In addition, dedicated 24/7 deployable teams of physicians, nurses, and health physicists from the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), which is managed by ORAU for DOE/NNSA, provide expert medical management of radiological incidents

84

A Beta Regression Model for Improved Solar Radiation Predictions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predicting global solar radiation is an integral part of much environmental modeling. There are several approaches for predicting global solar radiation at a site where no instrumentation exists. One popular approach uses the difference between ...

Randall Mullen; Lucy Marshall; Brian McGlynn

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

A beta regression model for improved solar radiation predictions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predicting global solar radiation is an integral part of much environmental modeling. There are several approaches for predicting global solar radiation at a site where no instrumentation exists. One popular approach uses the difference between ...

Randall Mullen; Lucy Marshall; Brian McGlynn

86

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

An Analytical Model of Atmospheric Feedback and Global Temperature Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical model of the globally averaged surface temperature response to changes in radiative forcing induced by greenhouse gases is developed from a time-dependent version of the global energy budget. The model clarifies the role of feedback ...

John A. Dutton

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

National Solar Radiation Data Base

The National Solar Radiation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) is the most comprehensive collection of solar data freely available. The 1991 - 2005 NSRDB contains hourly solar radiation (including...

92

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. [Physics Today, New York, NY (United States); Hafemeister, D. [Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States); Scribner, R. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [eds.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. (Physics Today, New York, NY (United States)); Hafemeister, D. (Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States)); Scribner, R. (Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)) (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Global cooling: increasing world-wide urban albedos to offset...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In addition, increasing urban albedo can result in less absorption of incoming solar radiation by the surface-troposphere system, countering to some extent the global scale...

95

Global, Seasonal Surface Variations from Satellite Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global, daily, visible, and infrared radiance measurements from the NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer (SR) are analyzed for the months of January, April, July, and October 1977 to infer surface radiative properties A radiative transfer model that ...

William B. Rossow; Christopher L. Brest; Leonid C. Garder

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Short communication: A software component for estimating solar radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GSRad (global solar radiation) is a software component containing models to estimate extra-terrestrial and ground-level solar radiation (global and photosynthetically active; direct, diffuse, and reflected components) from alternative methods. Radiation ... Keywords: Atmospheric transmissivity, Component architecture, GSRad, Model extensibility, Solar radiation fractions

M. Donatelli; L. Carlini; G. Bellocchi

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Topography and Radiation Exchange of a Mountainous Watershed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report deals with the radiation exchange of a complex terrain. A relatively simple network for computing topographic parameters global radiation, and net radiation of a mountainous terrain was developed and applied to a forested Appalachian ...

Hailiang Fu; Stanislaw J. Tajchman; James N. Kochenderfer

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Incident Solar Radiation over Europe Estimated from METEOSAT Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily sums of the downward solar radiation, i.e., the global radiation, have been computed from imaging data of reflected solar and emitted infrared radiation which were measured from the geostationary satellites METEOSAT I and II during the ...

Werner Möser; Ehrhard Raschke

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

National Solar Radiation Data Base | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Radiation Data Base Solar Radiation Data Base Dataset Summary Description The National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) is the most comprehensive collection of solar data freely available. The 1991 - 2005 NSRDB contains hourly solar radiation (including global, direct, and diffuse) and meteorological data for 1,454 stations. NCDC's Integrated Surface Data (ISD) were the key data source for this effort, with much of the solar data modeled/estimated based on the surface observations. This dataset builds on the 1961-1990 NSRDB, which contains data for 239 stations. These data are extremely useful in estimating solar energy potential across the U.S., and in estimating heating/cooling requirements for buildings based on heat-gain from solar radiation. More information available at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reds/

100

Measuring Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Radiative forcing for changes in tropospheric O{sub 3}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have evaluated the radiative forcing for assumed changes in tropospheric O{sub 3} in the 500-1650 cm{sup {minus}1} wavenumber range. The radiative forcing calculations were performed as a function of latitude as well as for a globally and seasonally averaged model atmosphere, both in a clear sky approximation and in a model containing a representative cloud distribution. The scenarios involved radiative forcing calculations for O{sub 3} at normal atmospheric abundance and at a tropospheric abundance depleted by 25 ppbv, at each altitude, for all northern hemisphere latitudes. Normal abundances of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O were included in the calculations. The IR radiative forcing was calculated using a correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model. The tropospheric radiative forcing values are compared to the IPCC formulae for ozone tropospheric forcing as well as other published values to determine the validity of the correlated k-distribution approach to the radiative forcing calculations. The results for the global average atmosphere show agreement with previous results to the order of 10 percent. We conclude that the O{sub 3} forcing is linear in the background abundance and that the radiative forcing for ozone for the globally averaged atmosphere and the latitude averaged radiative forcing in the clear sky approximation are in agreement to within 10 percent. For the case of an atmosphere in which the tropospheric ozone has been depleted by 25 ppbv at all altitudes in the northern hemisphere, the mid latitude zone contributes {approximately}50 percent of the forcing, tropic zone contributes {approximately}37 percent of the forcing and the polar zone contributes {approximately}13 percent of the total forcing.

Grossman, A.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Grant, K.E.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Study Climate and Global Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Study How We Study Prepare The Nation For Change Assess the U.S. Climate Make Our Science Accessible Link Climate Change & Health Provide Data and Tools Coordinate Internationally Study Climate and Global Change Print E-mail Deforestation What is global change? "Global change" refers to changes in the global environment that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. This includes alterations in: Climate Land productivity Oceans or other water resources Atmospheric chemistry Ecological systems Demographic and socioeconomic trends What is global change research? According to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, "Global change research" refers to the study, monitoring, assessment, prediction, and information management activities used to describe and understand the:

103

Global Scratch Upgrade in Progress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Scratch Gets Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Improvements Will Include Higher Data Output Rates, Connection to PDSF October 29, 2013 The most used file system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)-global scratch-just got an upgrade. As a result, some users may see their data output to global scratch reach up to 80 gigabytes per second. Although users will probably not see their 20-terabyte storage quotas increase, the upgrade ensures that global scratch remains flexible and paves the way for PDSF to eventually use the file system Because of the upgrade, users will also be able to better access their temporary data files or "scratch data" from any NERSC system, not just the one that generated it. Prior to the upgrade, Global scratch typically

104

Global emissions inventories  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

Dignon, J.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

107

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

108

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Radiation Hydrodynamics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish hydrogen atoms from helium atoms, for instance. There are all just components of a mixed fluid in this case. So why do we have a special subject called ''radiation hydrodynamics'', when photons are just one of the many kinds of particles that comprise our fluid? The reason is that photons couple rather weakly to the atoms, ions and electrons, much more weakly than those particles couple with each other. Nor is the matter-radiation coupling negligible in many problems, since the star or nebula may be millions of mean free paths in extent. Radiation hydrodynamics exists as a discipline to treat those problems for which the energy and momentum coupling terms between matter and radiation are important, and for which, since the photon mean free path is neither extremely large nor extremely small compared with the size of the system, the radiation field is not very easy to calculate. In the theoretical development of this subject, many of the relations are presented in a form that is described as approximate, and perhaps accurate only to order of {nu}/c. This makes the discussion cumbersome. Why are we required to do this? It is because we are using Newtonian mechanics to treat our fluid, yet its photon component is intrinsically relativistic; the particles travel at the speed of light. There is a perfectly consistent relativistic kinetic theory, and a corresponding relativistic theory of fluid mechanics, which is perfectly suited to describing the photon gas. But it is cumbersome to use this for the fluid in general, and we prefer to avoid it for cases in which the flow velocity satisfies {nu} << c. The price we pay is to spend extra effort making sure that the source-sink terms relating to our relativistic gas component are included in the equations of motion in a form that preserves overall conservation of energy and momentum, something that would be automatic if the relativistic equations were used throughout.

Castor, J I

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

110

Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Uncertainty Based on a Radiative Perturbation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To provide a lower bound for the uncertainty in measurement-based clear- and all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), a radiative perturbation analysis is performed for the ideal case in which the perturbations in global mean aerosol ...

Norman G. Loeb; Wenying Su

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

112

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

113

Radiation receiver  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Radiation protection at CERN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities NREL's solar radiation research staff provides expertise in renewable energy measurement and instrumentation. Major capabilities include solar resource measurement,...

116

PNNL: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change - Frontiers in Global Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frontiers in Global Change Frontiers in Global Change Dr. Thanos Nenes Dr. Thanos Nenes Aerosol-Cloud Interactions: The Elusive Component of Climate Change Dr. Thanos Nenes Professor & Georgia Power Faculty Scholar, School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Thursday, August 1, 2013 EMSL Auditorium 10:00AM The effect of human activities on climate is one of the most important issues facing society. Humans influence climate in many ways. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) tend to warm climate, by reducing the amount of infrared radiation that is emitted to space. Increased levels of suspended atmospheric particles ("aerosols") exert a net cooling effect by directly scattering and absorption of solar radiation (the "aerosol direct climatic

117

Validation in an Arid Area of an Algorithm for the Estimation of Daily Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Thornton–Running algorithm to estimate daily global radiation was tested at a site in a coastal desert of the eastern Mediterranean. In this algorithm three factors are multiplied in order to compute the daily global radiation: the total ...

P. R. Berliner; K. Droppelmann

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the Industrial Era  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the direct and diffuse solar radiation changes are estimated, and they contribute to the understanding of the observed global dimming and the more recent global brightening during the industrial era. Using a multistream radiative ...

Maria M. Kvalevåg; Gunnar Myhre

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A Global Cloud Resolving Model Goals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Resolving Model Cloud Resolving Model Goals Uniform global horizontal grid spacing of 4 km or better ("cloud permitting") 100 or more layers up to at least the stratopause Parameterizations of microphysics, turbulence (including small clouds), and radiation Execution speed of at least several simulated days per wall-clock day on immediately available systems Annual cycle simulation by end of 2011. Motivations Parameterizations are still problematic. There are no spectral gaps. The equations themselves change at high resolution. GCRMs will be used for NWP within 10 years. GCRMs will be used for climate time-slices shortly thereafter. It's going to take some time to learn how to do GCRMs well. Scaling Science Length, Spatial extent, #Atoms, Weak scaling Time scale

120

Global change research: Summaries of research in FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

Greenhouse gases result from both natural and man-made processes and include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (N{sub x}0{sub y}), methane, chlorofluorocarbons, halogenated compounds, water vapor, and others. Since the industrial revolution, the atmospheric concentrations of several greenhouse gases have been increasing, primarily because of human activities. These increases have the potential to cause global climate change through increased radiative forcing. Global climate change is a significant issue for the Department of Energy (DOE) because energy production and use now contribute more than half of the total man-made emissions of greenhouse gases on a global basis. The missions of the Department`s Global Change Research Program are: To predict the future atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other energy-related greenhouse gases; to predict the future and magnitude of potential climate change caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect; to understand both the direct impacts of greenhouse-gas emissions on biota and the indirect consequences produced by climate change; to assess the impacts of global climate change on energy systems and energy demand; and to develop and assess the potential of mitigation and adaptation technologies and practices to offset or limit the impact of any potential climate change or to facilitate natural and societal adjustment to the environmental, social, and economic consequences of global climate changes. The information produced by these activities is necessary in order to assess the economic and environmental costs and benefits of both potential climate change caused by the effects of greenhouse gases and implementing different technologies and energy-policy options aimed at preventing, mitigating, or adapting to such change. This document describes the activities and products of the Global Change Research Program in FY 1992.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Global change research: Summaries of research in FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

Greenhouse gases result from both natural and man-made processes and include carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxides (N[sub x]0[sub y]), methane, chlorofluorocarbons, halogenated compounds, water vapor, and others. Since the industrial revolution, the atmospheric concentrations of several greenhouse gases have been increasing, primarily because of human activities. These increases have the potential to cause global climate change through increased radiative forcing. Global climate change is a significant issue for the Department of Energy (DOE) because energy production and use now contribute more than half of the total man-made emissions of greenhouse gases on a global basis. The missions of the Department's Global Change Research Program are: To predict the future atmospheric concentrations of CO[sub 2] and other energy-related greenhouse gases; to predict the future and magnitude of potential climate change caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect; to understand both the direct impacts of greenhouse-gas emissions on biota and the indirect consequences produced by climate change; to assess the impacts of global climate change on energy systems and energy demand; and to develop and assess the potential of mitigation and adaptation technologies and practices to offset or limit the impact of any potential climate change or to facilitate natural and societal adjustment to the environmental, social, and economic consequences of global climate changes. The information produced by these activities is necessary in order to assess the economic and environmental costs and benefits of both potential climate change caused by the effects of greenhouse gases and implementing different technologies and energy-policy options aimed at preventing, mitigating, or adapting to such change. This document describes the activities and products of the Global Change Research Program in FY 1992.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

123

Global Insight Energy Group  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Outlook Outlook Mary Novak Managing Director IHS Global Insight Copyright © 2010 IHS Global Insight, Inc. Overview: Energy Sector Transformation Underway * The recession has hit energy demand hard, and aggregate energy demand is not expected to return to 2007 levels until 2018. * Oil and natural gas prices will both rise over the long-term, but the price trends will diverge with natural gas prices rising slowly due to the development of shale gas. * This forecast does not include a GHG cap-and-trade program. However, it is assumed that there will be continued improvement in equipment, appliance and building efficiencies that will reduce carbon emissions relative to past projections. * The forecast also includes the more than 30 state- level programs to increase efficiency and reduce

124

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from...

125

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

126

Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appendix F Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including Section 106 Consultation STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 1725 23 rd Street, Suite 100 SACRAMENTO, CA 95816-7100 (916) 445-7000 Fax: (916) 445-7053 calshpo@parks.ca.gov www.ohp.parks.ca.gov June 14, 2011 Reply in Reference To: DOE110407A Angela Colamaria Loan Programs Office Environmental Compliance Division Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave SW, LP-10 Washington, DC 20585 Re: Topaz Solar Farm, San Luis Obispo County, California Dear Ms. Colamaria: Thank you for seeking my consultation regarding the above noted undertaking. Pursuant to 36 CFR Part 800 (as amended 8-05-04) regulations implementing Section

127

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

128

On the Surface Temperature Sensitivity of the Reflected Shortwave, Outgoing Longwave, and Net Incident Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global-mean top-of-atmosphere incident solar radiation (ISR) minus the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and the reflected shortwave radiation (RSW) is the net incident radiation (NET). This study analyzes the global-mean NET sensitivity to a ...

Hartmut H. Aumann; Alexander Ruzmaikin; Ali Behrangi

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 7.83 7.76 7.90 8.91 8.76 8.11 3.68 01/06/14 8.00 7.78 7.94 8.92 8.74 8.09 3.69 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.68 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.63 12/16/13 7.86 7.79 8.05 9.00 8.78 8.08 3.61 12/9/13 7.95 7.81 8.14 8.99 8.80 8.12 3.63 12/2/13 7.91 7.68 8.07 8.85 8.68 8.08 3.64 11/25/13 7.69 7.61 8.07 8.77 8.63 7.97 3.65 11/18/13 7.99 7.54 8.00 8.70 8.57 7.92 3.57 11/11/13 7.63 7.44 7.79 8.63 8.46 7.85 3.55 11/4/13 7.70 7.51 7.98 8.70 8.59 7.86 3.61 10/28/13 8.02 7.74 8.08 8.96 8.79 8.04 3.64 10/21/13 7.91 7.71 8.11 8.94 8.80 8.05 3.70 10/14/13 7.88 7.62 8.05 8.87 8.74 7.97 3.69

130

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Experiments with Cloud Properties: Impact on Surface Radiative Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface provides the primary forcing of the climate system, and thus, information on this parameter is needed at a global scale. Several satellite-based estimates of surface radiative fluxes are available, but ...

H. Wang; R. T. Pinker; P. Minnis; M. M. Khaiyer

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

The Sensitivity of the Tropical-Mean Radiation Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key disagreement exists between global climate model (GCM) simulations and satellite observations of the decadal variability in the tropical-mean radiation budget. Measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) over the period ...

Amy C. Clement; Brian Soden

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

134

NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation-resistant Microorganisms. ... Elucidated radiation protection by intracellular halides. ...

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

RADIATION WAVE DETECTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

Wouters, L.F.

1960-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 - Ionizing Radiation 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Radiation Decay chain Half-life Dose Radiation measurements Sources of radiation Average annual exposure Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation.pptx More Documents & Publications DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2007

138

Models of Procyon A including seismic constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed models of Procyon A based on new asteroseismic measurements by Eggenberger et al (2004) have been computed using the Geneva evolution code including shellular rotation and atomic diffusion. By combining all non-asteroseismic observables now available for Procyon A with these seismological data, we find that the observed mean large spacing of 55.5 +- 0.5 uHz favours a mass of 1.497 M_sol for Procyon A. We also determine the following global parameters of Procyon A: an age of t=1.72 +- 0.30 Gyr, an initial helium mass fraction Y_i=0.290 +- 0.010, a nearly solar initial metallicity (Z/X)_i=0.0234 +- 0.0015 and a mixing-length parameter alpha=1.75 +- 0.40. Moreover, we show that the effects of rotation on the inner structure of the star may be revealed by asteroseismic observations if frequencies can be determined with a high precision. Existing seismological data of Procyon A are unfortunately not accurate enough to really test these differences in the input physics of our models.

P. Eggenberger; F. Carrier; F. Bouchy

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

139

Beta Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

140

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Measurement Methods Affect the Observed Global Dimming and Brightening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface incident solar radiation G determines our climate and environment, and has been widely observed with a single pyranometer since the late 1950s. Such observations have suggested a widespread decrease between the 1950s and 1980s (global ...

Kaicun Wang; Robert E. Dickinson; Qian Ma; John A. Augustine; Martin Wild

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Assimilation of Global Cloud Imagery from Multiple Satellites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synoptic images of the global cloud field have been created from measurements of infrared radiation taken aboard four geostationary and two polar-orbiting platforms simultaneously observing the earth's cloud field. A series of spatial and ...

Ken Tanaka; Karen Woodberry; Harry Hendon; Murry Salby

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Four Years of Global Cirrus Cloud Statistics Using HIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trends in global upper-tropospheric transmissive cirrus cloud cover are beginning to emerge from a four-year cloud climatology using NOAA polar-orbiting High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) multispectral data. Cloud occurrence, ...

Donald P. Wylie; W. Paul Menzel; Harold M. Woolf; Kathleen I. Strabala

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature  

SciTech Connect

In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

145

Radiation detection system  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electromagnetic radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

Benson, Jay L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hansen, Gordon J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Assessment of the Global Monthly Mean Surface Insolation Estimated from Satellite Measurements Using Global Energy Balance Archive Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global datasets of surface radiation budget (SRB) have been obtained from satellite programs. These satellite-based estimates need validation with ground-truth observations. This study validates the estimates of monthly mean surface insolation ...

Zhanqing Li; Charles H. Whitlock; Thomas P. Charlock

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

ORISE: REAC/TS Symposium to include sessions on the Fukushima...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEDIA ADVISORY: REACTS International Symposium to include sessions on the Fukushima crisis FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Aug. 31, 2011 FY11-42 Who: Radiation Emergency Assistance Center...

149

Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations  

SciTech Connect

This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

SciTech Connect

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Annual Cycle of Surface Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual cycles of upward and downward longwave fluxes at the earth’s surface are investigated by use of the NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget Dataset. Principal component analysis is used to quantify ...

Pamela E. Mlynczak; G. Louis Smith; Anne C. Wilber; Paul W. Stackhouse

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Insolation resource assessment program plan. Fiscal year 1979--Fiscal year 1981. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Insolation Resource Assessment Program is to collect, standardize, certify, process,, and archive geophysical data for solar energy applications. The principal solar parameters to be measured are global, direct, diffuse and total radiation on an inclined surface. The measurement of the spectral distribution of solar radiation is also important to the development of several technologies. The aim of many of the completed, current, and planned projects presented in the IRAP Plan is to improve solar data collection methods and procedures and to refine solar radiation forecasting capabilities.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Patterns of CO2 Variability from Global Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present an analysis of the global midtropospheric CO2 retrieved for all-sky (clear and cloudy) conditions from measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Radiation Sounder on board the Aqua satellite in 2003–09. The global data coverage ...

Alexander Ruzmaikin; Hartmut H. Aumann; Thomas S. Pagano

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

155

Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Ionizing Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

156

RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100  

SciTech Connect

Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

157

A thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential are disclosed. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Radiation Physics Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Portal. Radiation Physics Portal. ... more. >> see all Radiation Physics programs and projects ... ...

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

159

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

160

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

164

Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM  

SciTech Connect

The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.

Dr. Graeme L. Stephens

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Forecast cloudy; The limits of global warming models  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on climate models used to study global warming. It discusses factors which must be included in climate models, shortcomings of existing climate models, and scenarios for global warming.

Stone, P.H.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Solar: annual and seasonal average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global horizontal (GHI) GIS data global horizontal (GHI) GIS data (contours) for Brazil from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Annual and seasonal mean of Global Horizontal Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day based on data from 1995 to 2002 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The cross-calibration process worked with data from 3 ground stations: Caicó (located in the Northeast of Brazil), Florianópolis (located in the South) and Balbina (located in Amazonia). These data have been used for validation and comparison of radiation transfer models operated in SWERA to estimate the incidence of solar radiation on the surface of the country from satellite images

167

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

GTZ Global Energy Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GTZ Global Energy Program GTZ Global Energy Program Jump to: navigation, search Logo: GTZ Global Energy Program Name GTZ Global Energy Program Agency/Company /Organization GTZ Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics Background analysis Website http://www.gtz.de/en/praxis/95 Program Start 2008 Program End 2012 References GTZ projects [1] GTZ is working globally with countries on supply of energy technologies and services to households, SME and public utility institutions. Key products include access to modern energy services and promotion of new technologies. References ↑ "GTZ projects" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=GTZ_Global_Energy_Program&oldid=328691" Category: Programs What links here Related changes

169

(Chemistry of the global atmosphere)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

Marland, G.

1990-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

170

Review: Globalization of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

Tennant, Matthew Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

between Photolytic Aerosols and Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the early 70’s chemistry and transport models (ChTMs) have been proposed and improved. Tropospheric ChTMs for trace species are detailed numerical formulations intended to represent the atmospheric system as a whole, accounting for all the individual processes and phenomena that influence climate changes. The development of computer resources and the retrieval of emission inventories and observational data of the species of interest have enhanced the model evolution towards three-dimensional global models that account for more complicated chemical mechanisms, wet and dry deposition phenomena, and interactions and feedback mechanisms between meteorology and atmospheric chemistry. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the sensitivity of the solar radiative field in the atmosphere to absorption and scattering by aerosols. This effort is preliminary to the study of feedback mechanisms between photolytic processes that create and destroy aerosols and the radiation field itself. In this study, a cloud of water-soluble aerosols, randomly distributed in space within hypothetical 1-cm cubes of atmosphere, is generated. A random radius is assigned to each aerosol according to a lognormal size distribution function. The radiative field characterization is analyzed using a Mie scattering code to determine the scattering phase function and the absorption and scattering coefficients of sulfate aerosols, and a Monte Carlo ray-trace code is used to evaluate the radiative exchange. The ultimate goal of the effort is to create a tool to analyze the vertical distribution of absorption by aerosols in order to determine whether or not feedback between photolytic processes and the radiation field needs to be included in a Third Generation Chemistry and Transport model. ii

María Santa; María Iruzubieta; María Santa; María Iruzubieta

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Underwater radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Global Energy Perspectives  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Global Energy Perspectives: Supply Security, Economic Development and Sustainability The Annual Energy Policy Conference of the National Capital Area ...

174

Global Security 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Security *Intelligence *Hyper Innovation Global Security Weapons & Complex Integration NIF Office of Strategic Outcomes Operations & Business Lawrence Livermore National...

175

Isocurvature perturbations in extra radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent cosmological observations, including measurements of the CMB anisotropy and the primordial helium abundance, indicate the existence of an extra radiation component in the Universe beyond the standard three neutrino species. In this paper we explore the possibility that the extra radiation has isocurvatrue fluctuations. A general formalism to evaluate isocurvature perturbations in the extra radiation is provided in the mixed inflaton-curvaton system, where the extra radiation is produced by the decay of both scalar fields. We also derive constraints on the abundance of the extra radiation and the amount of its isocurvature perturbation. Current observational data favors the existence of an extra radiation component, but does not indicate its having isocurvature perturbation. These constraints are applied to some particle physics motivated models. If future observations detect isocurvature perturbations in the extra radiation, it will give us a hint to the origin of the extra radiation.

Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

Butler, B.L.

1985-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

178

Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

Butler, Barry L. (Del Mar, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Near-Global Observations of Low Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes several near-global datasets of low cloud cover, including the the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite observations, C. J. Hahn et al. surface-derived observations, and the National Centers for ...

Bryan C. Weare

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Advanced global illumination using photon mapping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photon mapping provides a practical way of efficiently simulating global illumination including interreflections, caustics, color bleeding, participating media and subsurface scattering in scenes with complicated geometry and advanced material models. ...

Wojciech Jarosz; Henrik Wann Jensen; Craig Donner

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Enhanced radiation detectors using luminescent materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detecting device comprising a radiation sensing element, and a layer of luminescent material to expand the range of wavelengths over which the sensing element can efficiently detect radiation. The luminescent material being selected to absorb radiation at selected wavelengths, causing the luminescent material to luminesce, and the luminescent radiation being detected by the sensing element. Radiation sensing elements include photodiodes (singly and in arrays), CCD arrays, IR detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Luminescent materials include polymers, oligomers, copolymers and porphyrines, Luminescent layers include thin films, thicker layers, and liquid polymers.

Vardeny, Zeev V. (Holladay, UT); Jeglinski, Stefan A. (Durham, NC); Lane, Paul A. (Sheffield, GB)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Multilayer radiation shield  

SciTech Connect

A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

Urbahn, John Arthur (Saratoga Springs, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Niskayuna, NY)

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

183

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation, increasing the near-surface temperature.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

184

Science Accelerator content now includes multimedia  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Science Accelerator content now includes multimedia Science Accelerator has expanded its suite of collections to include ScienceCinema, which contains videos produced by the U.S....

185

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Petroleum > Analysis > Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) ...

186

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Impacts

187

2013 Global Carbon Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

188

Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Information << Timeline >> Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player July 31, 1942 The Army Corp of Engineers leases...

189

Cloud-Induced Infrared Radiative Heating and Its Implications for Large-Scale Tropical Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional global distributions of longwave radiative cooling for the summer of 1988 and the winter of 1989 are generated from radiative transfer calculations using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and ...

Byung-Ju Sohn

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Effect of Clouds on the Earth's Solar and Infrared Radiation Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of global cloudiness on the solar and infrared components of the earth's radiation balance is studied in general circulation model experiments. A wintertime simulation is conducted in which the cloud radiative transfer calculations use ...

Gerald F. Herman; Man-Li C. Wu; Winthrop T. Johnson

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Annual Cycle and Spatial Spectra of Earth Emitted Radiation at Large Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly averaged, resolution enhanced global distributions of the Earth's emitted radiation, as measured by the Nimbus-6 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) wide field of view radiometers, have been analyzed for 1 year of data from July 1975 to June ...

G. Louis Smith; T. Dale Bess

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Influence of Absorbing Aerosols on the Inference of Solar Surface Radiation Budget and Cloud Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study addresses the impact of absorbing aerosols on the retrieval of the solar surface radiation budget (SSRB) and on the inference of cloud absorption using multiple global datasets. The data pertain to the radiation budgets at the top of ...

Zhanqing Li

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Lower-Stratospheric Radiative Damping and Polar-Night Jet Oscillation Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of stratospheric radiative damping time scales on stratospheric variability and on stratosphere–troposphere coupling is investigated in a simplified global circulation model by modifying the vertical profile of radiative damping in the ...

Peter Hitchcock; Theodore G. Shepherd; Masakazu Taguchi; Shigeo Yoden; Shunsuke Noguchi

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Variability of Earth-Emitted Radiation from One Year of Nimbus-6 ERB Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements from the Nimbus-6 ERR wide field-of-view (WFOV) instrument are used to study daytime and nighttime radiation variability on a 15° regional, zonal and global scale. An analysis of components of ...

T. Dale Bess

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: Interactions and feedbacks  

SciTech Connect

Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions of these effects with climate change, including feedbacks on climate. Such interactions occur in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. While there is significant uncertainty in the quantification of these effects, they could accelerate the rate of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase and subsequent climate change beyond current predictions. The effects of predicted changes in climate and solar UV radiation on carbon cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are expected to vary significantly between regions. The balance of positive and negative effects on terrestrial carbon cycling remains uncertain, but the interactions between UV radiation and climate change are likely to contribute to decreasing sink strength in many oceanic regions. Interactions between climate and solar UV radiation will affect cycling of elements other than carbon, and so will influence the concentration of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases. For example, increases in oxygen-deficient regions of the ocean caused by climate change are projected to enhance the emissions of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse and ozone-depleting gas. Future changes in UV-induced transformations of aquatic and terrestrial contaminants could have both beneficial and adverse effects. Taken in total, it is clear that the future changes in UV radiation coupled with human-caused global change will have large impacts on biogeochemical cycles at local, regional and global scales.

Erickson III, David J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. FY 1991 annual progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL`s Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU`s), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Middle East leads global crude oil and condensate production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Growth in North American crude oil production (including lease condensate) contributed to record global production of 75.6 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2012 ...

198

Global Primary Aluminium Industry 2010 Life Cycle Inventory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within this framework, the Primary Aluminium Industry has established a global Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data set. Inventory flows include inputs of raw materials  ...

199

Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Jump to: navigation, search Name Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 9DN Product Cleantech Professional Resource is a resource management consultancy focusing on the cleantech sector in the UK and Europe. References Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) is a company located in London, United Kingdom . References ↑ "Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Cleantech_Professional_Resource_Global_Limited_CPR_Global&oldid=343687

200

Radiation control standards and procedures  

SciTech Connect

This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

1956-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Global Oil Geopolitics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Iran-Iraq War . Iranian revolution . Arab Oil Embargo . Asian financial crisis . capacity exhausted . Global financial collapse . 9-11 attacks . OPEC cuts targets 1.7 ...

202

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

203

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

205

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Monitoring Program has been measuring UV radiation since 1994. The initial network of 12 stations employed broadband meters to measure UVB irradiance and included ancillary ...

D. S. Bigelow; J. R. Slusser; A. F. Beaubien; J. H. Gibson

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Surface Radiation in the Tropical Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly surface radiative fluxes in the tropical Pacific between January 1970 and February 1978 have been calculated using a radiative transfer package which includes detailed treatments of the molecular and droplet absorptions and of the surface ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

209

Definition of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of...

210

How to Detect Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How...

211

Global warming and biological diversity  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on presentations given at the World Wildlife Fund's Conference on Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diverisity in 1988, and includes updated literature citations. The general topics covered in the book include the following: overview; summary of past responses of plants to climatic change; general ecological and physiological responses; ecosystems in 4 specific regions (arctic marine, Alaskan North Slope, NW US forests, and Mediterranean); global warming's implications for conservation. Ideas and data from many ecosystems and information about the relationships between biodiversity and climatic change are brought together with a balance of factual information and defensible scientific prognostication.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Radiation in Particle Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle simulations of fusion ignition plasmas including the important effects of radiation emission and absorption.

More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

214

Global and regional decreases in tropospheric oxidants from photochemical effects of aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] We evaluate the sensitivity of tropospheric OH, O3, and O3 precursors to photochemical effects of aerosols not usually included in global models: (1) aerosol scattering and absorption of ultraviolet radiation and (2) reactive uptake of HO2,NO2, and NO3. Our approach is to couple a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) with aerosol fields from a global 3-D aerosol model (GOCART). Reactive uptake by aerosols is computed using reaction probabilities from a recent review (gHO2 = 0.2, gNO2 =10 4, gNO3 =10 3). Aerosols decrease the O3! O ( 1 D) photolysis frequency by 5–20 % at the surface throughout the Northern Hemisphere (largely due to mineral dust) and by a factor of 2 in biomass burning regions (largely due to black carbon). Aerosol uptake of HO2 accounts for 10–40 % of total HOx radical ( OH + peroxy) loss in the boundary layer over polluted continental regions (largely due to sulfate and organic carbon) and for more than 70 % over tropical biomass burning regions (largely due to organic carbon). Uptake of NO2 and NO3 accounts for 10–20 % of total HNO3 production over biomass burning regions and less elsewhere. Annual mean OH concentrations decrease by 9 % globally and by 5–35 % in the boundary layer over the Northern

All V. Martin; Daniel J. Jacob; Robert M. Yantosca; Mian Chin; Paul Ginoux

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Cross-Validation of SWERA's Core Radiative Transfer Models - Partial Report  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cross-Validation of SWERA's Core Radiative Transfer Models - Partial Report Cross-Validation of SWERA's Core Radiative Transfer Models - Partial Report Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): This partial report describes the results obtained by two of the core radiative transfer models adopted in the SWERA Project for global horizontal solar irradiation during the cross-validation step. They are BRASIL-SR and SUNY-ALBANY models (Martins, 2001; Stuhlmann et al. 1990; Perez et al., 2002). The results from other two other core models, NREL and DLR, are not yet available. The HELIOSAT was included as a reference model at this stage. The HELIOSAT model is widely employed for solar energy assessment in Europe and is well know by the solar energy community worldwide (Beyer et al., 1996; Cano et al., 1986). (Purpose): SWERA solar cross-validation study

216

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

SciTech Connect

A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals.

Geyer, R.A. (ed.)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection: Annual Occupational Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report Print information on Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report (pdf). This webpage provides information to help you understand the dose quantities being reported to you on your Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report. If you would like general information about radiation exposure, please refer to www.radiationanswers.org. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835), requires assessment, recording and reporting of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or radioactive contamination. This includes assessing external exposure from a variety of radiation types, such as, beta, photon, and neutron radiation. External exposures may be uniform over the whole body or occur in a non-uniform (i.e., limited body location) fashion. Internal doses occur when radioactive material is taken into the body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption or wounds. The requirements include assessing doses to the whole body, skin, lens of the eyes, extremities and various organs and tissues.

218

Molecular Dynamics Model of Ultraviolet Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Including Ionization Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular Dynamics Model of Ultraviolet Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Including A molecular dynamics model of UV-MALDI including ionization processes is presented. In addition/desorption of molecular systems, it includes radiative and nonradiative decay, exciton hopping, two pooling processes

Zhigilei, Leonid V.

219

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

220

Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Solar Radiation Mapping from NOAA AVHRR Data in Catalonia, Spain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical model is presented for the determination of hourly global solar radiation from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA AVHRR) satellite data, which provide wide coverage ...

Henry Flores Tovar; Jose M. Baldasano

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

An Analytic Longwave Radiation Formula for Liquid Layer Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) intercomparisons of boundary layer clouds have used a convenient but idealized longwave radiation formula for clouds in their large-eddy simulations (LESs). Under ...

Vincent E. Larson; Kurt E. Kotenberg; Norman B. Wood

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

The Surface Radiation Budget over Oceans and Continents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An updated evaluation of the surface radiation budget in climate models (1994–96 versions; seven datasets available, with and without aerosols) and in two new satellite-based global datasets (with aerosols) is presented. All nine datasets capture ...

J. R. Garratt; A. J. Prata; L. D. Rotstayn; B. J. McAvaney; S. Cusack

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Rainfall and Radiative Heating Rates from TOGA COARE Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heat and moisture budgets are used to determine rainfall and radiative heating rates over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Results are ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Modeling Surface Solar Radiation: Model Formulation and Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for computing global solar radiation at the surface was formulated for use with satellite observations. A compromise in the approach was necessary, whereby the model accuracy and the inherent limitations of satellite observations were ...

R. T. Pinker; J. A. Ewing

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

RADIATION DETECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

227

NIST Radiation thermometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation thermometry. Summary: ... Description: Radiation thermometers are calibrated using a range of variable-temperature blackbodies. ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

228

NIST Optical Radiation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Group. Welcome. The Optical Radiation Group maintains, improves, and disseminates the national scales ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

229

Global Renewable Power International Global RPI | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RPI) Place Spain Sector Wind energy Product Spain-based developer of wind projects in Poland, Croatia and Chile. References Global Renewable Power International (Global RPI)1...

230

Pax Global, Inc.,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pax Global, Inc., Pax Global, Inc., (freezers) Issued: April 2, 2013 BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2013-SE-L413 NOTICE OF NONCOMPLIANCE DETERMINATION Manufacturers and private labelers are prohibited from distributing covered products in the United States that do not comply with applicable federal energy conservation standards. 10 C.F.R. § 429.102; 42 U.S.C. § 6302. Pax Global, Inc. ("Pax Global") is a private labeler and uses the "Crosley" and "Daewoo" brands to distribute freezers in the United States. TESTING l. The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") tested four privately labeled units o basic model numbe , manufactured , 1 that had been distributed in the United States by a third-pa1iy private labeler.

231

The Global Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper puts forward the vision that a natural future stage of the electricity network could be a grid spanning the whole planet and connecting most of the large power plants in the world: this is the "Global Grid". The main driving force behind the Global Grid will be the harvesting of remote renewable sources, and its key infrastructure element will be the high capacity long transmission lines. Wind farms and solar power plants will supply load centers with green power over long distances. This paper focusses on the introduction of the concept, showing that a globally interconnected network can be technologically feasible and economically competitive. We further highlight the multiple opportunities emerging from a global electricity network such as smoothing the renewable energy supply and electricity demand, reducing the need for bulk storage, and reducing the volatility of the energy prices. We also discuss possible investment mechanisms and operating schemes. Among others, we envision in such a system...

Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Andersson, Göran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Estimated Global Hydrographic Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An estimate is made of the three-dimensional global oceanic temperature and salinity variability, omitting the seasonal cycle, both as a major descriptive element of the ocean circulation and for use in the error estimates of state estimation. ...

Gaël Forget; Carl Wunsch

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

KRFTWRK – Global Human Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Network 2.1.1 Virtual Power Plants The Global Powernetwork, based on "Virtual Power Plants", called "VPP". A "participant runs a virtual human power plant. Per every "

Prohaska, Rainer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Global Ocean Meridional Overturning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A decade-mean global ocean circulation is estimated using inverse techniques, incorporating air–sea fluxes of heat and freshwater, recent hydrographic sections, and direct current measurements. This information is used to determine mass, heat, ...

Rick Lumpkin; Kevin Speer

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Global Warming, Soot, Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming, Soot, Ice Speaker(s): James Hansen Date: November 7, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Irreversible "dangerous anthropogenic interference" with the climate system...

236

Global Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

When President Bush announced his Global Climate Change Initiative in February 2002, he committed the United States to a new strategy to cut greenhouse gas emissions over the next...

237

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developoilfields. ” China Daily (27 August 2005) http://David and Bi Jianhai. “China’s Global Hunt for Energy. ”

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Evaluation of the NCEP Global Forecast System at the ARM SGP Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the performance of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) against observations made by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the southern ...

Fanglin Yang; Hua-Lu Pan; Steven K. Krueger; Shrinivas Moorthi; Stephen J. Lord

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Physically Based Global Downscaling: Climate Change Projections for a Full Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global atmosphere–land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977–2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated ...

Steven J. Ghan; Timothy Shippert

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Robust Identification of Global Greening Phase Patterns from Remote Sensing Vegetation Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) is an essential diagnostic variable to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere. The present study provides a new method to assess global ...

Carola Dahlke; Alexander Loew; Christian Reick

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

The CALIPSO Mission: A Global 3D View of Aerosols and Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosols and clouds have important effects on Earth's climate through their effects on the radiation budget and the cycling of water between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. Limitations in our understanding of the global distribution and ...

D. M. Winker; J. Pelon; J. A. Coakley Jr.; S. A. Ackerman; R. J. Charlson; P. R. Colarco; P. Flamant; Q. Fu; R. M. Hoff; C. Kittaka; T. L. Kubar; H. Le Treut; M. P. McCormick; G. Mégie; L. Poole; K. Powell; C. Trepte; M. A. Vaughan; B. A. Wielicki

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

The Enhanced NOAA Global Land Dataset from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global mapped data of reflected radiation in the visible (0.63 ?m) and near-infrared (0.85 ?m) wavebands of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites have been ...

Garik Gutman; Dan Tarpley; Aleksandr Ignatov; Steve Olson

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Projected Changes in Mean and Extreme Precipitation in Africa under Global Warming. Part I: Southern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates likely changes in mean and extreme precipitation over southern Africa in response to changes in radiative forcing using an ensemble of global climate models prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ...

M. E. Shongwe; G. J. van Oldenborgh; B. J. J. M. van den Hurk; B. de Boer; C. A. S. Coelho; M. K. van Aalst

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Global, Seasonal Cloud Variations from Satellite Radiance Measurements. Part I: Sensitivity of Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global, daily, visible and infrared radiance measurements from the NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer (SR) are analyzed for the months of January, April, July and October 1977 to infer cloud and surface radiative properties. In this first paper in a ...

William B. Rossow; Leonid C. Garder; Andrew A. Lacis

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Ocean Mixed Layer Radiant Heating and Solar Penetration: A Global Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid parameterization for the determination of in-water solar fluxes is developed and applied to compute the flux of solar radiation that penetrates beyond the upper-ocean mixed layer into permanent pycnocline waters on global space and ...

J. Carter Ohlmann; David A. Siegel; Catherine Gautier

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership Graphic of Global Superior Energy Performance working groups, including energy management led by the United States, power led by Japan, combined heat and power led by Finland, steel led by Japan, cool roofs led by the United states, and cement led by Japan. GSEP, a multi-country effort to create and coordinate nationally accredited energy performance certification programs, comprises a number of working groups. Credit: DOE The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program, which provides industrial facilities and commercial buildings a framework for achieving continual improvement in energy efficiency while maintaining market competitiveness. SEP aims to provide a transparent, globally accepted system for energy management and continuous energy performance improvement.

250

ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

article addresses methods that can be used to rapidly estimate internal and external radiation dose magnitudes that can be used to help guide early medical management. Included...

251

Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

252

Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers April 24, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Joining Director Dot Harris (second from left) were Marlene Kaplan, the Deputy Director of Education and director of EPP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Claudia Rankins, a Program Officer with the National Science Foundation and Jim Stith, the past Vice-President of the American Institute of Physics Resources. Joining Director Dot Harris (second from left) were Marlene Kaplan, the Deputy Director of Education and director of EPP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Claudia Rankins, a Program Officer with the National Science Foundation and Jim Stith, the past Vice-President of the

253

Transmission line including support means with barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

An Improvement of the IGMK Model to Derive Total and Diffuse Solar Radiation at the Surface from Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For a better understanding, of climate, as well as all kinds of solar power applications it is necessary to know about incoming solar radiation at the surface (global radiation) and its partition into disuse and direct components Over the last ...

Rolf Stuhlmann; Martin Rieland; Ehrhard Paschke

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

DISASTER POLICY Including Extreme Emergent Situations (EES)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the ACGME website with information relating to the ACGME response to the disaster. 3. The University-specific Program Requirements. Defined Responsibilities Following the Declaration of a Disaster or Extreme EmergentPage 123 DISASTER POLICY Including Extreme Emergent Situations (EES) The University of Connecticut

Oliver, Douglas L.

256

AREA RADIATION MONITOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

1962-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

257

Global Feed-in Tariffs Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Feed-in Tariffs Project Global Feed-in Tariffs Project Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Global Feed-in Tariffs Project Agency/Company /Organization: World Future Council Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics: Finance, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Workshop, Publications, Guide/manual, Training materials, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.worldfuturecouncil.org/arguing_fits.html References: WFC's Global Feed-in Tariffs Project [1] The WFC's Global Feed-in Tariffs Project website includes links to publications, a guide for policy makers, a FIT design website and upcoming workshops and events. References ↑ "WFC's Global Feed-in Tariffs Project" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Global_Feed-in_Tariffs_Project&oldid=383252

258

RADIATION SOURCES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

Brucer, M.H.

1958-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

NETL: Global Environmental Benefits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Gasification Systems Global Environmental Benefits Environmental performance for future energy production systems is a much greater factor as emission standards tighten in the United States and worldwide. The outstanding environmental performance of gasification systems makes it an excellent technology for the clean production of electricity and other products. In addition, the reduction of CO2 emissions is one of the major challenges facing industry in response to global climate change. Other countries with coal reserves might potentially import technologies developed in the United States to enable low-cost gasification with carbon capture and EOR or sequestration. Not only will this benefit the U.S. gasification technology industry, but it will also result in a global environmental benefit through more affordable control of greenhouse gases (GHGs). See the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) link below for a summary of the impact of fossil fuels without carbon capture on CO2 emissions, on the GHG contributions of different countries, and of the projected impact of developing countries to 2030:

260

Testing a Model of IR Radiative Losses: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermopile pyranometers exhibit IR radiative losses that affect global and diffuse shortwave measurements made with first class thermopile based instruments. Pyrgeometers can be used to measure the sky temperature and are used to calculate the pyranometer?s IR radiative losses.

Vignola, F.; Long, C. N.; Reda, I.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Buildings Included on EMS Reports"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS Reports" "Site","Property Name","Property ID","GSF","Incl. in Water Baseline (CY2007)","Water Baseline (sq. ft.)","Water CY2008 (sq. ft.)","Water CY2009 (sq. ft.)","Water Notes","Incl. in Energy Baseline (CY2003)","Energy Baseline (sq. ft.)","CY2008 Energy (sq. ft.)","CY2009 Energy (sq. ft.)","Energy Notes","Included as Existing Building","CY2008 Existing Building (sq. ft.)","Reason for Building Exclusion" "Column Totals",,"Totals",115139,,10579,10579,22512,,,3183365,26374,115374,,,99476 "Durango, CO, Disposal/Processing Site","STORAGE SHED","DUD-BLDG-STORSHED",100,"no",,,,,"no",,,,"OSF","no",,"Less than 5,000 GSF"

262

Power generation method including membrane separation  

SciTech Connect

A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

264

Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Principal Associate Director - Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principal Associate Director - Global Security Principal Associate Director - Global Security As Principal Associate Director for Global Security, Wallace leads Laboratory programs with special focus on developing and applying the scientific and engineering capabilities to address complex national and global security threats. Contact Operator Los Alamos National Laboratory (505 667-5061 Wallace's expertise is forensic seismology, a highly specialized discipline focusing on detection and quantification of nuclear tests. Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Principal Associate Director for Global Security Terry C. Wallace, Jr., Principal Associate Director for Global Security As Principal Associate Director for Global Security, Wallace leads Laboratory programs with a focus on applying scientific and engineering capabilities

266

Radiator debris removing apparatus and work machine using same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiator assembly includes a finned radiator core and a debris removing apparatus having a compressed air inlet and at least one compressed air outlet configured to direct compressed air through the radiator core. A work machine such as a wheel loader includes a radiator and a debris removing apparatus coupled with on-board compressed air and having at least one pressurized gas outlet configured to direct a gas toward the face of the radiator.

Martin, Kevin L. (Washburn, IL); Elliott, Dwight E. (Chillicothe, IL)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

267

global | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global global Dataset Summary Description GIS data for offshore wind speed (meters/second). Specified to Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ).Wind resource based on NOAA blended sea winds and monthly wind speed at 30km resolution, using a 0.11 wind sheer to extrapolate 10m - 90m. Annual average >= 10 months of data, no nulls. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords GIS global NOAA NREL offshore wind wind speed Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 18.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Please cite NREL and NOAA Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata

268

Global ice sheet modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

270

Radiation Tolerant Metallic Multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strategies that can alleviate radiation damage may assist the design of radiation tolerant materials. We will summarize our recent studies on radiation damage in ...

271

NEW SOURCES OF RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project Report No. 75/07.IBL 79M0733 Fig. 20. Radiation emission pattern by electronsWinick, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Fig. 21.

Schimmerling, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1a Figure 1b Figure 1. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma in afollowing completion of radiation therapy. Figure 2a Figurecell histiocytosis after radiation for breast carcinoma: can

Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Mission to planet Earth: Role of clouds and radiation in climate  

SciTech Connect

The role of clouds in modifying the earth`s radiation balance is well recognized as a key uncertainty in predicting any potential future climate change. This statement is true whether the climate change of interest is caused by changing emissions of greenhouse gases and sulfates, deforestation, ozone depletion, volcanic eruptions, or changes in the solar constant. This paper presents and overview of the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Earth Observing System (EOR) satellite data in understanding the role of clouds in the global climate system. The paper gives a brief summary of the cloud/radiation problem, and discusses the critical observations needed to support further investigation. The planned EOS data products are summarized, including the critical advances over current satellite cloud and radiation budget data. Key advances include simultaneous observation on cloud particle size and phase, improved detection of thin clouds and multilayer cloud systems, greatly reduced ambiguity in partially cloud-filled satellite fields of view, improved calibration and stability of satellite-observed radiances, and improved estimates of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and at levels within the atmosphere. outstanding sampling and remote sensing issues that effect data quality are also discussed. Finally, the EOS data are placed in the context of other satellite observations as well as the critical surface, field experiment and laboratory data needed to address the role in clouds on the climate system. I is concluded that the EOS data are a necessary but insufficient condition for solution of the scientific cloud/radiation issues. A balanced approach of satellite, field, and laboratory data will be required. These combined data can span the necessary spatial scales of global, regional, cloud cell and cloud particle physics. 137 refs., 12 fig., 4 tab.

Wielicki, B.A.; Harrison, E.F. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

National Solar Radiation Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Solar Radiation Database National Solar Radiation Database Jump to: navigation, search The National Solar Radiation Database, or NSRDB, describes the amount of solar energy which is available at any location in the United States. It is generated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with the assistance of many collaborators.[1] Technical Overview Per its user's manual, "The NSRDB is a serially complete collection of hourly values of the three most common measurements of solar radiation (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) over a period of time adequate to establish means and extremes, and at a sufficient number of locations to represent regional solar radiation climates."[2] There have been two releases of the NSRDB, each covering different time

275

Core-Collapse Supernovae Induced by Anisotropic Neutrino Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the important role of anisotropic neutrino radiation on the mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions. Through a new parameter study with a fixed radiation field of neutrinos, we show that prolate explosions caused by globally anisotropic neutrino radiation is the most effective mechanism of increasing the explosion energy when the total neutrino luminosity is given. This is suggestive of the fact that the expanding materials of SN 1987A has a prolate geometry.

Yuko Motizuki; Hideki Madokoro; Tetsuya Shimizu

2004-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

276

Drainage Flow Prediction with a One-Dimensional Model Including Canopy, Soil and Radiation Parameterizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model for simulation of winds over mountain slopes was developed and tested withobservations from Australia and the western United States. The model computes profiles of wind andtemperature normal to the slope. The model also ...

Alfred J. Garrett

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Technique for Global Monitoring of Net Solar Irradiance at the Ocean Surface. Part I: Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm based on radiative transfer theory is presented to generate the first accurate, long-term (84- month) climatology of net surface solar irradiance over the global oceans from Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) wide-field-of-view ...

Robert Frouin; Beth Chertock

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilities Facilities Photo of two researchers standing on a platform near a solar tracker at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory gathers solar radiation and meteorological data on South Table Mountain. NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar radiation components since 1981. Since then, it has expanded its expertise to include integrated metrology, optics, electronics, and data acquisition capabilities. In addition, the SRRL provides facilities for outdoor performance testing of new research instrumentation and energy conversion devices such as photovoltaic modules. The SRRL is located on NREL's South Table Mountain site in Golden, Colorado, where it has excellent solar access because of its unrestricted

279

Radiation properties of cavity Cerenkov radiation  

SciTech Connect

Cerenkov radiation from cavities has been analyzed by quantum electrodynamic theory. Analytical expressions of basic radiation properties such as the Einstein's A and B coefficients are derived and shown to be directly modified by the cavities. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the coherent radiation from the Cerenkov radiation devices is due to super radiance of spontaneous emission instead of stimulated emission. Coherent and incoherent radiations are analyzed in the THz radiation range.

Gao Ju; Shen Fang [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.  

SciTech Connect

Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. According to the EPA, the burning of fossil fuels for cars and trucks, the heating of homes and businesses, and the operation of power plants account for approximately 98% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. The increase of greenhouse gases will, theoretically, enhance the greenhouse effect by trapping more of the heat energy emitted by Earth's surface, thus increasing the surface temperatures on a global scale. Scientists expect that the global average surface temperature could rise 1-4.5 F in the next 50 years and as much as 10 F in the next century. Global warming could potentially have harmful effects on human health, water resources, forests, agriculture, wildlife, and coastal areas. A few degrees of warming might lead to more frequent and severe heat waves, worsened air pollution with adverse effects on human respiratory health, and wider spread of tropical disease such as malaria. The world's hydrologic cycle might be affected by an increase in evaporation and, thus, in precipitation. An increase in evaporation will increase atmospheric water vapor, a significant natural greenhouse gas. The increase in water vapor might further enhance the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect. This is known as a positive feedback. The increase in water vapor could also change the amount of clouds present in the atmosphere, which could reduce temperatures in a negative feedback. Many interrelated factors affect the global climate and are responsible for climate change. Predicting the outcome of the interactions among the many factors is not easy, but it must be addressed. The ARM Program is taking a lead in this effort by collecting vast amounts of data whose analysis will improve our forecasting models for both daily weather and long-term climate. For more information on the ARM Program, please visit our web site at www.arm.gov.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. According to the EPA, the burning of fossil fuels for cars and trucks, the heating of homes and businesses, and the operation of power plants account for approximately 98% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. The increase of greenhouse gases will, theoretically, enhance the greenhouse effect by trapping more of the heat energy emitted by Earth's surface, thus increasing the surface temperatures on a global scale. Scientists expect that the global average surface temperature could rise 1-4.5 F in the next 50 years and as much as 10 F in the next century. Global warming could potentially have harmful effects on human health, water resources, forests, agriculture, wildlife, and coastal areas. A few degrees of warming might lead to more frequent and severe heat waves, worsened air pollution with adverse effects on human respiratory health, and wider spread of tropical disease such as malaria. The world's hydrologic cycle might be affected by an increase in evaporation and, thus, in precipitation. An increase in evaporation will increase atmospheric water vapor, a significant natural greenhouse gas. The increase in water vapor might further enhance the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect. This is known as a positive feedback. The increase in water vapor could also change the amount of clouds present in the atmosphere, which could reduce temperatures in a negative feedback. Many interrelated factors affect the global climate and are responsible for climate change. Predicting the outcome of the interactions among the many factors is not easy, but it must be addressed. The ARM Program is taking a lead in this effort by collecting vast amounts of data whose analysis will improve our forecasting models for both daily weather and long-term climate. For more information on the ARM Program, please visit our web site at www.arm.gov.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Global Hunger Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of halving the proportion of hungry people between 1990 and 2015, we are nowhere near meeting that target. The percentage of undernourished people fell from 20 percent in 1990–92 to 16 percent in 2004–06. In recent years, however, the number of hungry people has actually been increasing. In 2009, on the heels of a global food price

Heidi Fritschel; Yisehac Yohannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Types of Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation...

285

Radiation Effects In Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RADIATION MATERIALS SCIENCE IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS II: Radiation Effects in Ceramics. Sponsored by: Jt. SMD/MSD Nuclear Materials ...

286

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry. ... OH. US Air Force Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Wright-Patterson - Base, OH [100548- 0] PA. ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

287

Radiation Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Radiation Physics Division, part of the Physical Measurement Laboratory ... the measurement standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

288

Brazil Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files

(Supplemental Information):   The assessment of...

289

Brazil Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files.
The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed...

290

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

comprises a very large proportion of the mouse and human genomes. Using bisulphite modification and quantitative real-time PCR, the method can be used to analyse a very large pool...

291

Global Distribution of Photosynthetically Active Radiation as Observed from Satellites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concern about possible effects of a steady increase in CO2 on the earth's climate, and the fact that current estimates of sources and sinks of CO2 do not balance, generated interest to improve knowledge of rates at which carbon is cycled between ...

R. T. Pinker; I. Laszlo

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Analyses of Global Monthly Precipitation Using Gauge Observations, Satellite Estimates, and Numerical Model Predictions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is developed to construct global gridded fields of monthly precipitation by merging estimates from five sources of information with different characteristics, including gauge-based monthly analyses from the Global Precipitation ...

Pingping Xie; Phillip A. Arkin

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sommerfeld radiation condition at threshold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove Besov space bounds of the resolvent at low energies in any dimension for a class of potentials that are negative and obey a virial condition with these conditions imposed at infinity only. We do not require spherical symmetry. The class of potentials includes in dimension $\\geq3$ the attractive Coulomb potential. There are two boundary values of the resolvent at zero energy which we characterize by radiation conditions. These radiation conditions are zero energy versions of the well-known Sommerfeld radiation condition.

Erik Skibsted

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

294

Joint Variability of Global Runoff and Global Sea Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905–2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly ...

Gregory J. McCabe; David M. Wolock

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

PNNL Global Energy Technology Strategy Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technology Strategy Program Technology Strategy Program Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Energy Technology Strategy Program Name Global Energy Technology Strategy Program Agency/Company /Organization Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sector Energy Website http://www.pnl.gov/gtsp/ References Global Energy Technology Strategy Program [1] "Since its inception in 1998, the Global Energy Technology Strategy Program (GTSP) has been assessing the important roles that technology can play in effectively managing the long-term risks of climate change. This involves an integrated approach to fully exploring all aspects of climate change - including scientific, economic, regulatory, and social impacts - and then aligning new or existing technologies to mitigate negative consequences.[1]

296

The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility SURF III ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Synchrotron Radiation. What is Synchrotron Radiation? Synchrotron radiation ... known. Properties of Synchrotron Radiation. Schwinger ...

298

Global Climate & Energy ProjectGlobal & Energy Project STANFORD UNIVERSITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from plants and animals to energy, and to determine the best conditions for doing so (see below). #12, and processes may have an enormous impact on the world's future energy consumption and environment. In orderGlobal Climate & Energy ProjectGlobal & Energy Project STANFORD UNIVERSITY Global Energy Climate

Nur, Amos

299

Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the response of global water vapor to global warming in a series of fully coupled climate model simulations. We find that a roughly 7% per Kelvin rate of increase of water vapor with global surface temperature is robust only for rapid ...

Larissa Back; Karen Russ; Zhengyu Liu; Kuniaki Inoue; Jiaxu Zhang; Bette Otto-Bliesner

300

Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors  

SciTech Connect

The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in the conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.

Brenner, David J.

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

IGBP-DIS Global Primary Production Data Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IGBP-DIS Global Primary Production Data Initiative IGBP-DIS Global Primary Production Data Initiative The GPPDI Workshop was held in Cincinnati, U.S.A., December 1996 (Olson et al., 1997). Summary (September 1996) by Dick Olson and Steve Prince from Global Change Newsletter No. 27; International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme: A Study of Global Change (IGBP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions Global modelling and monitoring of net primary production (NPP) is being given high priority in IGBP owing to increasing concern over issues such as the consequences of perturbations in the carbon cycle, the impacts of global land-use change, global climate change, and global food security. Significant advances have been made in process modelling and in the use of remote sensing to monitor global vegetation. The advances in modelling and remote sensing of NPP have highlighted the lack of readily available, reliable information from field studies with which to parameterise and validate the models. The Global Primary Production Data Initiative (GPPDI) is intended to remedy this problem by identifying existing field data sets of primary production and associated environmental data. The programme is using data sets for representative sites, and extrapolating or regionalising the better data sets to grid cells sizes of up to 0.5º x 0.5º. Emphasis is on variables needed to parameterise and validate primary production models, including above and below ground NPP, standing crop, LAI, climate data, site data and landscape variability.

302

ORNL Global Change and Developing Country Programs | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ORNL Global Change and Developing Country Programs ORNL Global Change and Developing Country Programs (Redirected from Global Change and Developing Country Programs) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Change and Developing Country Programs Name Global Change and Developing Country Programs Agency/Company /Organization Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector Energy Website http://www.esd.ornl.gov/eess/g References Global Change [1] "For more than twenty years, ORNL has been active in energy and environmental collaborations with developing countries. Projects have involved more than forty countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East; and they have included every major kind of energy technology and policy, along with a wide range of environmental technologies and policies." [1]

303

Global residential appliance standards  

SciTech Connect

In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (US); Lebot, B. [Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l`Energie, Valbonne (FR)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

GoGlobal Fall 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy and Social Welfare at the UCLA School of Public Affairs, and Visiting Professor of Global & International

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material  

SciTech Connect

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT); Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

306

Coal mine methane global review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Analysis of alpha Centauri AB including seismic constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed models of alpha Cen A and B based on new seismological data for alpha Cen B by Carrier & Bourban (2003) have been computed using the Geneva evolution code including atomic diffusion. Taking into account the numerous observational constraints now available for the alpha Cen system, we find a stellar model which is in good agreement with the astrometric, photometric, spectroscopic and asteroseismic data. The global parameters of the alpha Cen system are now firmly constrained to an age of t=6.52+-0.30 Gyr, an initial helium mass fraction Y_i=0.275+-0.010 and an initial metallicity (Z/X)_i=0.0434+-0.0020. Thanks to these numerous observational constraints, we confirm that the mixing-length parameter alpha of the B component is larger than the one of the A component, as already suggested by many authors (Noels et al. 1991, Fernandes & Neuforge 1995 and Guenther & Demarque 2000): alpha_B is about 8% larger than alpha_A (alpha_A=1.83+-0.10 and alpha_B=1.97+-0.10). Moreover, we show that asteroseismic measurements enable to determine the radii of both stars with a very high precision (errors smaller than 0.3%). The radii deduced from seismological data are compatible with the new interferometric results of Kervella et al. (2003) even if they are slightly larger than the interferometric radii (differences smaller than 1%).

P. Eggenberger; C. Charbonnel; S. Talon; G. Meynet; A. Maeder; F. Carrier; G. Bourban

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

308

SAIS Energy, Resources and Environment Program (ERE) Global Leaders Forum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a number of international advisory boards, including the China Council for International Cooperation in private sector emerging markets renewable energy investing and with international organizations Energies, Inc. a leading private global renewable energy investment firm, part of COFRA Holding

Holsinger, Kent

309

National Ambient Radiation Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

310

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Carbon Emission Estimates image image Global Per Capita Carbon Emission Estimates...

311

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE Lowdose Radiation Program Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan1 and Marianne B. Sowa2 Institutions: 1Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD 21201 2 Chemical Structure and Dynamics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 We have recently installed a low LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons to mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources. It has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated (Figure 1). In this way it is possible to examine non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure including induced genomic instability and

312

Differential rotation in solar-like stars from global simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To explore the physics of large-scale flows in solar-like stars, we perform 3D anelastic simulations of rotating convection for global models with stratification resembling the solar interior. The numerical method is based on an implicit large-eddy simulation approach designed to capture effects from non-resolved small scales. We obtain two regimes of differential rotation, with equatorial zonal flows accelerated either in the direction of rotation (solar-like) or in the opposite direction (anti-solar). While the models with the solar-like differential rotation tend to produce multiple cells of meridional circulation, the models with anti-solar differential rotation result in only one or two meridional cells. Our simulations indicate that the rotation and large-scale flow patterns critically depend on the ratio between buoyancy and Coriolis forces. By including a subadiabatic layer at the bottom of the domain, corresponding to the stratification of a radiative zone, we reproduce a layer of strong radial shear...

Guerrero, G; Kosovichev, A G; Mansour, N N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Angular Distribution of UV-B Sky Radiance under Cloudy Conditions: A Comparison of Measurements and Radiative Transfer Calculations Using a Fractal Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, global warming concerns have focused attention on cloud radiative forcing and its accurate encapsulation in radiative transfer measurement and modeling programs. At present, this process is constrained by the dynamic movement and ...

Christopher Kuchinke; Kurt Fienberg; Manuel Nunez

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Estimation of methane and carbon dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methane (CH?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate global ...

Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

An Assessment of the Primary Sources of Spread of Global Warming Estimates from Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate feedback analysis constitutes a useful framework for comparing the global mean surface temperature responses to an external forcing predicted by general circulation models (GCMs). Nevertheless, the contributions of the different radiative ...

Jean-Louis Dufresne; Sandrine Bony

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

PAR solar radiation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PAR solar radiation PAR solar radiation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Mean values of PAR Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day for 40km cells for 1 year (month, season, year) based on data from 1995 to 2005 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders Source INPE (National Institute for Spatial Research) and LABSOLAR (Laboratory of Solar Energy/Federal University of Santa Catarina) - Brazil Date Released August 05th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated August 05th, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords INPE LABSOLAR PAR solar radiation renewable energy South America SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 977.7 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1.8 MiB)

317

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

backscattered radiation backscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System MPL : Micropulse Lidar NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer

318

ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTSEDASSNDCLASS1 : Model Output Loc. Time Ser. (MOLTS): EDAS

319

Survivable pulse power space radiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

1988-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

320

CRAD, Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012 Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012 CRAD, Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012 December 4, 2012 Occupational Radiation Protection Program Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry (HSS CRAD 45-35, Rev. 1) This document provides an overview of the Criteria, Activities, and Lines of Inquiry that will be used to collect information to evaluate occupational radiation protection programs against DOE policy, standards, and regulatory requirements. The approach includes evaluation of essential programmatic elements of radiation protection programs with additional emphasis on implementation of the core functions of integrated safety management. CRAD, Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Multimode Radiative Transfer in Finite Optical Media. I: Fundamentals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we develop a new method for solving the transfer of radiation within a laterally finite optical medium. A new radiative transfer equation, based on a multimode approach, is developed which includes the explicit effects of the sides ...

Rudolph W. Preisendorfer; Graeme L. Stephens

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Radiative Energy Budget in the Cloudy and Hazy Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radiation model is constructed that includes radiative interactions with atmospheric gases as well as parameterized treatments of scattering and absorption/emission by cloud droplets and haze particles. A unified treatment of solar and ...

Si-Chee Tsay; Knut Stamnes; Kolf Jayaweera

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

First Data From the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first data obtained from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented. These data include emitted infrared radiation, albedo, and estimated scene types for 15 November 1984, as well as measurements of the ‘solar constant’. ...

ERRE Science Team

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Arrhenius and global warming  

SciTech Connect

Although concern about global atmospheric warming has intensified in recent decades, research into the greenhouse effect actually began in the 19th century. Fourier and other scientists appreciated that without heat-absorbing gases in the atmosphere, the temperature on the ground would be considerably lower, making life as we know it impossible. In 1896, the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius was the first to make a quantitative link between changes in carbon dioxide concentration and climate. Publication of his paper was celebrated at a recent Swedish workshop. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Uppenbrink, J.

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

325

Global Laser Enrichment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION – PUBLIC RESPONSES GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE) hereby submits the additional information requested in the November 19, 2009 letter. Enclosure 1 of this letter contains the responses the questions. A separate letter has been submitted that contains a non-public version of these responses, which contains Export-Controlled and Security-Related Information. If there are any questions regarding this letter and its contents, please do not hesitate to contact myself, or Julie Olivier of my staff at 910-819-4799 or at Julie.Olivier@ge.com.

Uranium Enrichment Branch; Albert E. Kennedy; Albert E. Kennedy; Tammy Orr (gle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Global Laser Enrichment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PUBLIC VERSION GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE) hereby submits revision 2 of the GLE License Application. Enclosure 1 contains revised Request for Additional Information responses. Enclosure 2 contains revised chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11 of the GLE License Application. Enclosure 3 contains the revised pubic version of the Decommissioning Funding Plan. Non-Public versions of the revised License Application and the Decommissioning Funding Plan have been prepared and will be submitted under separate enclosure. If there are any questions regarding this letter and its contents, please do not hesitate to contact me at 910-819-4799 or at

Julie Olivier; Brian Smith Chief; Uranium Enrichment Branch; Julie Olivier; Tim Johnson (nrc; Tammy Orr (gle; Lori Butler (geh; Jerry Head (geh; Patricia Campbell (geh; Bob Crate (gle; Ken Givens (gle; Tom Owens (gle

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The Global Energy Challenge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use. The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate. New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

Crabtree, George (ANL)

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

328

Daily radiation model for use in the simulation of passive solar buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A model is presented to characterize solar radiation with just three input parameters for each day. This compressed daily radiation data may be used in place of hourly data in simulations of passive solar buildings. This method is tested with the SUNCAT passive simulation. Global horizontal and direct normal radiation data are input using the compressed daily form instead of by hour. Simulation results are found to be comparable to results based on hourly radiation data.

Sillman, S.; Wortman, D.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 1990 GLOBAL INVENTORY FOR SO(X) AND NO(X) ON A 1(DEGREE) X 1(DEGREE) LATITUDE-LONGITUDE GRID.  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted to the atmosphere have been linked to the acidification of water bodies and soils and perturbations in the earth's radiation balance. In order to model the global transport and transformation of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories are required. Benkovitz et al. (1996) published the development of an inventory of 1985 global emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from anthropogenic sources. The inventory was gridded to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} latitude-longitude grid and has served as input to several global modeling studies. There is now a need to provide modelers with an update of this inventory to a more recent year, with a split of the emissions into elevated and low level sources. This paper describes the development of a 1990 update of the SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} global inventories that also includes a breakdown of sources into 17 sector groups. The inventory development starts with a gridded global default EDGAR inventory (Olivier et al, 1996). In countries where more detailed national inventories are available, these are used to replace the emissions for those countries in the global default. The gridded emissions are distributed into two height levels (0-100m and >100m) based on the final plume heights that are estimated to be typical for the various sectors considered. The sources of data as well as some of the methodologies employed to compile and develop the 1990 global inventory for SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} are discussed. The results reported should be considered to be interim since the work is still in progress and additional data sets are expected to become available.

VAN HEYST,B.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Gamma Radiation & X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

331

Radiation Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

332

RADIATION COUNTER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

Goldsworthy, W.W.

1958-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

RADIATION DOSIMETER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement was made in the determination of amounts of ionizing radiation, particularly low-energy beta particles of less than 1000 rad total dose by means of fluid-phase dosimeter employing a stabilized-- sensitized ferrous-ferric colorimetric system in a sulphuric acid medium. The improvement in the dosimeter consists of adding to the ferrous-ferric system in concentrations of 10/sub -2/ to 10/sup -4/M an organic compound having one or more carboxylic or equivalent groups, such compounds being capable of chelating or complexing the iron ions in the solution. Suitable sensitizing and stabilizing agents are benzoic, phthalic, salicylic, malonic, lactic, maleic, oxalic, citric, succinic, phenolic tartaric, acetic, and adipic acid, as well as other compounds which are added to the solution alone or in certain combinations. As in conventional fluid-phase dosimeters, the absorbed dosage is correlated with a corresponding change in optical density at particular wavelengths of the solution.

Balkwell, W.R. Jr.; Adams, G.D. Jr.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

MACRAD: A mass analysis code for radiators  

SciTech Connect

A computer code to estimate and optimize the mass of heat pipe radiators (MACRAD) is currently under development. A parametric approach is used in MACRAD, which allows the user to optimize radiator mass based on heat pipe length, length to diameter ratio, vapor to wick radius, radiator redundancy, etc. Full consideration of the heat pipe operating parameters, material properties, and shielding requirements is included in the code. Preliminary results obtained with MACRAD are discussed.

Gallup, D.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

A Radiation Fog Model with a Detailed Treatment of the Interaction between Radiative Transfer and Fog Microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional radiation fog model is presented which includes a detailed description of the interaction between atmospheric radiative transfer and the microphysical structure of the fog. Aerosol particles and activated cloud droplets are ...

A. Bott; U. Sievers; W. Zdunkowski

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

BBSLA – Kazakhstan (032610) Kazakh (Global Version ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BBSLA – Kazakhstan (032610) Kazakh (Global Version 031010) 1 BLACKBERRY SOLUTION ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ...

337

BBSLA - Kazakhstan (032610) Russian (Global Version ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BBSLA - Kazakhstan (032610) Russian (Global Version 031010) 1 ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ...

338

Fluctuation of solar radiation in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Fluctuations in the daily solar radiation are examined in an unbroken 5-yr sequence of measurements at Bangkok, and are also estimated from daily sunshine measurements at Bangkok and 3 other stations in Thailand. Seasonal effects are shown by separate studies for eight 1/sup 1///sub 2/ month periods of the year defined by standard solar declination values. During the dry season in winter and spring the frequency distribution of daily totals of global solar radiation at Bangkok has a peak near 20 MJ m/sup -2/d/sup -1/ and is skewed towards low values. During the wet season in summer and autumn the distribution is more dispersed. Elsewhere the distributions are similar to those at Bangkok. The time series of daily totals of global solar radiation at Bangkok is analysed as a second order random process. The observed annual frequencies of runs of consecutive days with low radiation at Bangkok are given. There are 32.0 isolated days, 9.4 pairs of days, and 3.4 runs of 3 days per year with radiation less than 12.57 MJ m/sup -2/d/sup -1/. These results are adequately described by the second order theory. The runs are most likely to occur in summer and autumn. Elsewhere in Thailand the annual frequencies of the runs and their seasonal distributions are almost the same as at Bangkok, except that in the south the runs are more likely to occur later in the year.

Exell, R.H.B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Water is used for many purposes, includ-ing growing crops, producing copper,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WATER USES Water is used for many purposes, includ- ing growing crops, producing copper, generating electricity, watering lawns, keeping clean, drinking and recreation. Bal- ancing the water budget comes down of the water budget. Reducing demand involves re- ducing how much water each person uses, lim- iting the number

340

Global Soils Data, Sept. 5, 2000  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soils Data, Sept. 5 Soils Data, Sept. 5 The ORNL DAAC expanded its global data holdings to include the three additional data sets related to soil characteristics. "Global Soil Profile Data (ISRIC-WISE)" This data set consists of homogenized data for 1125 soil profiles, including soil classification, site data, soil horizon data, source of data, and methods used for determining analytical data. The profiles were derived from the World Inventory of Soil Emissions Potentials (WISE) project. The data set contains a selection of 665 profiles from the Natural Resources Conservation Service, 250 profiles from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and 210 profiles from the reference collection of the International Soil Reference and Information

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2) W. J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , Newand R. J. Berry, "Manual on Radiation Dosimetry" (New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (New

Perez-Mendez, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Solar radiation resource assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Courses on Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

344

Radiation Physics Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Events. Radiation Physics Events. (showing 1 - 3 of 3). CIRMS 2012 Start Date: 10/22/2012 ...

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Bayesian Radiation Source Localization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Special Issue on the 16th Biennial Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division / Radiation Measurements and General Instrumentation

Kenneth D. Jarman; Erin A. Miller; Richard S. Wittman; Christopher J. Gesh

346

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

347

Privatization and the globalization of energy markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Gordon Research Conference on Radiation & Climate in 2009, July 5 -10  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on the outstanding issues in global climate change with focus on the radiative forcing and sensitivity of the climate system and associated physical processes. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, including grand challenges in radiation and climate, radiative forcing, climate feedbacks, cloud processes in climate system, hydrological cycle in changing climate, absorbing aerosols and Asian monsoon, recent climate changes, and geo-engineering. The invited speakers will present the recent most important advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists especially junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

Quiang Fu

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

349

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonproliferation Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011 Jeff Galan, Deputy Project Manager U.S.-Origin Nuclear Remove Program National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2 GTRI Mission and Goals GTRI is: A part of President Obama's comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other

350

Global Energy Management System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exxon Mobil Corporation has undertaken voluntary actions to continuously improve energy efficiency in our operations for many years. From 1973 to 1999, we improved the energy efficiency of our refineries and chemical plants by over 35 percent - saving the cumulative equivalent of 1.8 billion barrels of oil and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by over 200 million tonnes. In 2000, we redoubled our efforts with deployment of our Global Energy Management System (GEMS), which utilizes international best practices and benchmarking to identify energy efficiencies at each of our refineries and chemical plants. Thus far, we have identified opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of these facilities by an additional 15 to 20 percent. At full implementation, savings are expected to total $500 million to $1 billion per year, with an associated reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of about 10 million tonnes per year - roughly equivalent to removing 1.5 million cars from the world's roads.

Eidt, B. D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Global Natural Gas Market Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the characteristics of global gas markets. These markets have entered a period of supplier strength and high prices as global demand growth has outpaced supply growth. The report systematically evaluates developments in global liquefaction andfor the principal consuming nationsin domestic production, market growth, pipelines, and regasification. While containing a great deal of detail, the report probes myriad announcements of commercial activities to help interpret the evolving comp...

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program  

SciTech Connect

The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

353

PNNL Global Energy Technology Strategy Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technology Strategy Program Technology Strategy Program (Redirected from Global Energy Technology Strategy Program) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Energy Technology Strategy Program Name Global Energy Technology Strategy Program Agency/Company /Organization Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sector Energy Website http://www.pnl.gov/gtsp/ References Global Energy Technology Strategy Program [1] "Since its inception in 1998, the Global Energy Technology Strategy Program (GTSP) has been assessing the important roles that technology can play in effectively managing the long-term risks of climate change. This involves an integrated approach to fully exploring all aspects of climate change - including scientific, economic, regulatory, and social impacts - and then aligning new or existing technologies to mitigate negative consequences.[1]

354

Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Buildings » Global Superior Energy Performance Commercial Buildings » Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership Graphic of Global Superior Energy Performance working groups, including energy management led by the United States, power led by Japan, combined heat and power led by Finland, steel led by Japan, cool roofs led by the United states, and cement led by Japan. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program, which provides industrial facilities and commercial buildings a framework for achieving continual improvement in energy efficiency while maintaining market competitiveness. SEP aims to provide a transparent, globally accepted system for energy management and continuous energy performance improvement.

355

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Steering Group Members Approve  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Steering Group Members Approve Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Steering Group Members Approve Transformation to the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Steering Group Members Approve Transformation to the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation June 21, 2010 - 11:59am Addthis The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Steering Group met in Accra, Ghana on June 16-17, 2010, and approved unanimously several transformative changes to reflect global developments that have occurred since the Partnership was established in 2007. The transformation includes a new name - the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation -- and the establishment of a new Statement of Mission. Participants in this new International Framework agreed that this

356

Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

Adams, S.R.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

NIST Global Standards Information Staff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ileana Martinez. Global standards & trade, Europe, Americas, e-Accessibility, biofuels, accreditation. ileana.martinez@nist.gov 301-975-2766. ...

358

Machine Learning for Global Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approach for global optimization in which machine learning is used to predict ..... In Figure 1 we show the level curves of the 2–dimensional Rastrigin function.

359

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

Ackerman, T

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

The Earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology 3. Comparison of observations over the oceans with a GCM  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a study that seeks to examine a very limited set of interactions between the hydrological cycle and the radiative processes that take place on Earth and attempt to test how well these interactions are simulated by a general circulation model. Two broad types of tests of the model are introduced in this paper. The first focuses on comparing various sensitivity relationships established by the model with those observed on Earth. The specific relationships examined in this paper include the sensitivities of column-integrated water vapor, the clear sky greenhouse effect, cloud albedo, and cloud radiative forcing to sea surface temperature. The second type of test focuses on comparison of simulated and observed seasonal cycles of the greenhouse effect and cloud radiative forcing. The main results of this study suggest that the model studied, which the authors take to be representative of the current generation of global climate models, is able to simulate some aspects of the observed sensitivities fairly well. Qualitative successes of the simulations include realistic variations of column vapor with sea surface temperature, the clear sky greenhouse parameter and its variation with both column vapor and sea surface temperature, and cloud longwave radiative forcing with sea surface temperature, as well as the seasonal changes of the greenhouse effect and the cloud radiative forcing. However, there exist many serious quantitative differences between the model and the observations. These include problems in the simulations of the column vapor in the tropics and an excessively strong clear-sky greenhouse effect in the mid-latitudes. Significant differences between the simulated and the observed radiative properties of clouds include the overprediction of the longwave cloud radiative forcing over warm tropical oceans and a significant underestimate of the cloud reflection in mid-latitudes during the summer season. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Stephens, G.L.; Randall, D.A.; Wittmeyer, I.L.; Dazlich, D.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)); Tjemkes, S. (State University, Utrecht (Netherlands))

1993-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation By Tansa Musa zones and do not respect size limits in their quest for maximum financial returns. "I lack words economy. China's demand for hardwood drives illegal logging says "Both illegal and authorized

363

An Algorithm for Inferring Surface UV Irradiance Including Cloud Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent extratropical ozone depletion and the concomitant increase in surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation may be expected to adversely influence the biosphere. Since few long-term, high quality datasets of surface UV are available for assessing ...

Greg E. Bodeker; Richard L. McKenzie

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Including realistic tidal deformations in binary black-hole initial data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A shortcoming of current binary black-hole initial data is the generation of spurious gravitational radiation, so-called junk radiation, when they are evolved. This problem is a consequence of an oversimplified modeling of the binary's physics in the initial data. Since junk radiation is not astrophysically realistic, it contaminates the actual waveforms of interest and poses a numerical nuisance. The work here presents a further step towards mitigating and understanding the origin of this issue, by incorporating post-Newtonian results in the construction of constraint-satisfying binary black-hole initial data. Here we focus on including realistic tidal deformations of the black holes in the initial data, by building on the method of superposing suitably chosen black hole metrics to compute the conformal data. We describe the details of our initial data for an equal-mass and nonspinning binary, compute the subsequent relaxation of horizon quantities in evolutions, and quantify the amount of junk radiation that is generated. These results are contrasted with those obtained with the most common choice of conformally flat (CF) initial data, as well as superposed Kerr-Schild (SKS) initial data. We find that when realistic tidal deformations are included, the early transients in the horizon geometries are significantly reduced, along with smaller deviations in the relaxed black hole masses and spins from their starting values. Likewise, the junk radiation content in the $l=2$ modes is reduced by a factor of $\\sim$1.7 relative to CF initial data, but only by a factor of $\\sim$1.2 relative to SKS initial data. More prominently, the junk radiation content in the $3\\leq l\\leq8$ modes is reduced by a factor of $\\sim$5 relative to CF initial data, and by a factor of $\\sim$2.4 relative to SKS initial data.

Tony Chu

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

365

Parameterization of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer. Part I: Validity of Simple Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper outlines a radiation parameterization method for deriving broadband fluxes that is currently being implemented in a number of global and regional atmospheric models. The rationale for the use of the 2-stream method as a way of solving ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Philip M. Gabriel; Philip T. Partain

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Systematic Study of GCM Sensitivity to Latitudinal Changes in Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paleoclimatic data and climate model simulations have demonstrated that orbitally forced changes in solar radiation can have a pronounced effect on global climate. Key questions remain, however, about the spatial patterns in the climatic ...

Benjamin Felzer; Robert J. Oglesby; Hong Shao; Thompson Webb III; Dena E. Hyman; Warren L. Prell; John E. Kutzbach

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The Effects of Moist Convection and Water Vapor Radiative Processes on Climate Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary interest of the present study is to examine the sensitivity of climate to radiative perturbations such as increases in CO2 and solar insolation for surface temperatures warmer than present day global averaged values (Ts> 290 K). The ...

M. Lal; V. Ramanathan

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cloud, Surface Temperature, and Outgoing Longwave Radiation for the Period from 1979 to 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quasi-biennial global, midlatitude, and tropical oscillations were observed using top-of-the-atmosphere outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), surface air temperature (SAT), and cloud amount for the period from 1979 to 1989. The in-phase quasi-...

H. Lee Kyle; Mitchell Weiss; Philip Ardanuy

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Radiative Properties of Boundary Layer Clouds: Droplet Effective Radius versus Number Concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The plane-parallel model for the parameterization of clouds in global climate models is examined in order to estimate the effects of the vertical profile of the microphysical parameters on radiative transfer calculations for extended boundary ...

Jean-Louis Brenguier; Hanna Pawlowska; Lothar Schüller; Rene Preusker; Jürgen Fischer; Yves Fouquart

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Toward Optimal Closure of the Earth's Top-of-Atmosphere Radiation Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite recent improvements in satellite instrument calibration and the algorithms used to determine reflected solar (SW) and emitted thermal (LW) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes, a sizeable imbalance persists in the average global net ...

Norman G. Loeb; Bruce A. Wielicki; David R. Doelling; G. Louis Smith; Dennis F. Keyes; Seiji Kato; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Takmeng Wong

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Observed Perturbations of the Earth's Radiation Budget: A Response to the El Chichón Stratospheric Aerosol Layer?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Earth Radiation Budget experiment, launched aboard the Nimbus-7 polar-orbiting spacecraft in late 1978, has now taken over seven years of measurements. The dataset, which is global in coverage, consists of the individual components of the ...

Philip E. Ardanuy; H. Lee Kyle

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Effects of Ocean Biology on the Penetrative Radiation in a Coupled Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of phytoplankton on the seasonal cycle and the mean global climate is investigated in a fully coupled climate model. The control experiment uses a fixed attenuation depth for shortwave radiation, while the attenuation depth in the ...

Patrick Wetzel; Ernst Maier-Reimer; Michael Botzet; Johann Jungclaus; Noel Keenlyside; Mojib Latif

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Intraseasonal Circulation and Outgoing Longwave Radiation Modes During Northern Hemisphere Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An eigenvector analysis is used to characterize global-scale, intraseasonal variability in satellite-derived outgoing longwave radiation fields and NMC analyzed circulation fields. Five-day average covering November-March of 1974–75 through 1979–...

Klaus M. Weickmann

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A Comparison of Three Different Modeling Strategies for Evaluating Cloud and Radiation Parameterizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parallel simulations of clouds and radiation fields by a single-column model (SCM), a regional circulation model, and a global circulation model (GCM), each using the same treatment of all physical processes and approximately the same spatial ...

Steven J. Ghan; L. Ruby Leung; James McCaa

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Ocean Radiant Heating. Part II: Parameterizing Solar Radiation Transmission through the Upper Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate determination of sea surface temperature (SST) is critical to the success of coupled ocean–atmosphere models and the understanding of global climate. To accurately predict SST, both the quantity of solar radiation incident at the sea ...

J. Carter Ohlmann; David A. Siegel

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

NIST MIRF - Accelerator Radiation Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerator Radiation Physics. Medium-energy accelerators are under investigation for production of channeling radiation ...

377

NIST Synchrotron radiation in SSD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation in the Sensor Science Division. ... Synchrotron Radiation-Based Calibrations for Space Weather Prediction. ...

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

378

Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration, and parasites and diseases; arctic mariene ecosystems and coasta marine zones; tropical forests; arctic tundra; western North American forests, etc.; indirect linkages and snyergisms among climate change, biodiversity, geosphere, and anthropogenic stresses.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. [eds.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

Sigg, Raymond A. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

11th International Conference of Radiation Research  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

NONE

1999-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

383

Radiation Detection Instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Directory of Accredited Laboratories. Radiation Detection Instruments. In 2005, the Department of Homeland Security requested ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

384

Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Global Databases, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, USDOE  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Global Databases Global Databases OSTI ensures global access to DOE research. OSTI brings the world's research to DOE. Multilingual WorldWideScience.org The Global Science Gateway This gateway gives citizens, researchers, and anyone interested in science the capability to search national science portals from participating nations. Patrons will get the most current information from around the world in fields such as energy, medicine, agriculture, environment, and basic sciences. IEA Energy Technology Data Exchange Energy Technology Data Exchange World Energy Base (ETDEWEB) includes information on the environmental impact of energy production and use, including climate change; energy R&D; energy policy; nuclear, coal, hydrocarbon, and renewable energy technologies, and more. ETDEWEB is free, with registration, for any U.S. resident.

386

Statistical global metabolic control analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work introduces the concept of global sensitivity based on simultaneous variation of a complete set of enzymes, metabolite concentrations, and cofactors in finite ranges of concentrations. Perturbations are defined by finite ranges of concentrations ... Keywords: MCA metabolic control analysis, flux control coefficients, global sensitivity, homeostasis

Zelimir Kurtanjek

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;#12;CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME 4 VICE: INNOVATIVE AND WORLD-CLASS 18 CONTACT 26 CONTENTS 3GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;Queen THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELANDGLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME

Müller, Jens-Dominik

388

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Rethinking the economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Most of the debates over the impact of the greenhouse effect have centered around the reliability of computer models and have neglected considerations of the economic effects of attempts to reduce global warming. Economic models have certain limitations but the input of cost benefit analysis is needed for arriving at suitable policies for lowering anthropogenic input into warming of the earth. Care must be used in extrapolating from data of time periods which are inappropriate. Estimates of costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions also must include possible benefits; at present this is not being done. Economic models must address differences in the distribution of global warming's consequences over time and geographical space. The costs of delaying or accelerating reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions need to be included in policy considerations. A global agreement must not adversely affect developing countries. Faulty assumptions of the effect of market forces on costs impair economic models. We have to recognize that economic and environmental goals need not be incompatible. If economic models are viewed as possible scenarios and not as predictions, then these scenarios can be useful in determining policies for reducing the greenhouse effect without harming populations and their economies.

Miller, A.; Mintzer, I.; Brown, P.G. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Educational Global Climate Change Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Educational Global Climate Change Links Educational Global Climate Change Links Evidence of the importance of global climate change to the future generation is reflected in the increasing number of queries CDIAC receives from students and educators, from a range of educational levels. We have compiled a listing of some sites that we hope will be of interest and of use to those looking for information, fun, ideas, and ways that they can make a difference. These links were chosen because we have found them useful in responding to those with inquiring minds. These links will take the user outside of CDIAC, and are by no means comprehensive. We are not responsible for the content or intent of these outside links. Tools you can use! NOAA's Global Climate Dashboard - The Global Climate Dashboard is

391

Frequently Asked Global Change Questions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Asked Global Change Questions Asked Global Change Questions This page lists global change questions that have been received at CDIAC and the answers that were provided to a diverse audience. If you have a question relating to carbon dioxide and global change and cannot find the answer you need here, you can "Ask Us a Question", and we will be glad to try to help you. Questions Should we grow trees to remove carbon in the atmosphere? What are the present tropospheric concentrations, global warming potentials (100 year time horizon), and atmospheric lifetimes of CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, methyl chloroform, HCFC-22, sulphur hexafluoride, trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride, perfluoroethane, and surface ozone? Where can I find information on the naming of halocarbons?

392

Alcatel-Lucent, Global Product Compliance Lab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... H Ionizing Radiation, and Annex K Thermostat. ... Engineering (EE); Power supply interface at ... excludes test types: Air, Water, Radiation, Chemically ...

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

393

Radiation Transport in Takamak Edge Plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plasmas in edge regions of tokamaks can be very optically thick to hydrogen lines. Strong line radiation introduces a non-local coupling between different regions of the plasma and can significantly affect the ionization and energy balance. These effects can be very important, but they are not included in current edge plasma simulations. We report here on progress in self-consistently including the effects of a magnetic field, line radiation and plasma transport in modeling tokamak edge plasmas.

Scott, H; Adams, M

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Radiation Field Control Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Radiation Management Program is dedicated to reducing nuclear power plant worker personnel exposure by developing practices and technologies to increase the radiation protection of the worker, and to implement methods to reduce radiation fields. The nuclear power industry has recently implemented the RP2020 Initiative to promote positive radiation protection trends. Control of radiation fields is crucial to one of the initiative goals of reducing exposure. This manual provides the current state ...

2004-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

395

Functional Proteomic Pattern Identification under Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this study is to explore and to understand the dynamic responses of signaling pathways to low dose ionizing radiation (IR). Low dose radiation (10 cGy or lower) affects several signaling pathways including DNA repair, survival, cell cycle, ... Keywords: low dose radiation, functional proteomics

Young Bun Kim; Jean Gao; Ying Dong; Chin-Rang Yang

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

FAQS Qualification Card - Radiation Protection | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiation Protection Radiation Protection FAQS Qualification Card - Radiation Protection A key element for the Department's Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA). For each functional area, the FAQS identify the minimum technical competencies and supporting knowledge and skills for a typical qualified individual working in the area. FAQC-RadiationProtection.docx Description Radiation Protection Qualification Card More Documents & Publications FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Radiation Protection

397

Decarbonization and Sequestration for Mitigating Global Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DECARBONIZATION AND SEQUESTRATION FOR DECARBONIZATION AND SEQUESTRATION FOR MITIGATING GLOBAL WARMING M. Steinberg (msteinbe@bnl.gov); 631-344-3036 Brookhaven National Laboratory 12 South Upton Street Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA ABSTRACT Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO 2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO 2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO 2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO

398

Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS Reports...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS Reports Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS Reports Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS...

399

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Proteomic and Biochemical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

proteomic changes including protein expression levels and post-translational modification due to low dose-rate ionizing radiation Expected Outcomes Increased differentiation...

400

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Ionizing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research Program, and the Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research program and Prostate Cancer Research program. Researchers include Eva...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Does an accelerated electron radiate Unruh radiation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accelerated particle sees the Minkowski vacuum as thermally excited, and the particle moves stochastically due to an interaction with the thermal bath. This interaction fluctuates the particle's transverse momenta like the Brownian motion in a heat bath. Because of this fluctuating motion, it has been discussed that the accelerated charged particle emits extra radiation (the Unruh radiation) in addition to the classical Larmor radiation, and experiments are under planning to detect such radiation by using ultrahigh intensity lasers constructed in near future. There are, however, counterarguments that the radiation is canceled by an interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the fluctuating motion. In fact, in the case of an internal detector where the Heisenberg equation of motion can be solved exactly, there is no additional radiation after the thermalization is completed. In this paper, we revisit the issue in the case of an accelerated charged particle in the scalar QED. We first prove the e...

Iso, Satoshi; Zhang, Sen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy Resources with Additional Information Planned radiation treatment Peregrine calculation from Mission Possible: DOE Advanced Biomedical Technology Research, page 10 Over the time span of many years, DOE's research has made many contributions to radiation and cancer therapy, including PEREGRINE and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). 'PEREGRINE, a hardware and software system that addresses the problem of radiation therapy dosage using fundamental physics principles, is a revolutionary new tool for analyzing and planning radiation treatment for cancer patients. About 90 percent of radiation treatment patients receive photon therapy, which is PEREGRINE's principal application. PEREGRINE may also be applied to the less frequently used electron-beam therapy and to brachytherapy, which is radiation therapy from an internally planted radiation source. It is effective for radiography, which predicts the pattern of radiation that is transmitted through a patient or other object.'1

403

Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Buckner, Mark A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

404

Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

Britton, Jr.; Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Buckner, Mark A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

405

Timescape cosmology with radiation fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The timescape cosmology represents a potentially viable alternative to the standard homogeneous cosmology, without the need for dark energy. Although average cosmic evolution in the timescape scenario only differs substantially from that of Friedmann-Lemaitre model at relatively late epochs when the contribution from the energy density of radiation is negligible, a full solution of the Buchert equations to incorporate radiation is necessary to smoothly match parameters to the epoch of photon decoupling and to obtain constraints from cosmic microwave background data. Here we extend the matter-dominated solution found in earlier work to include radiation, providing series solutions at early times and an efficient numerical integration strategy for generating the complete solution. The numerical solution is used to directly calculate the scale of the sound horizon at decoupling, and at the baryon drag epoch. The constraints on these scales from the Planck satellite data yield bounds on the timescape cosmological...

Duley, James A G; Wiltshire, David L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Global production through 2005  

SciTech Connect

Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

Foreman, N.E. [Petroconsultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Health Risks Associated with Low Doses of Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite a wealth of information, there remains uncertainty concerning human radiation effects at low dose levels. This report provides background information and a literature review of research on the potential health hazards associated with exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Topics include radiation characteristics, protection standards, epidemiologic data and risk models, the nature of human health exposure-related effects, important radiation health studies to date, and the scientific method fo...

1994-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

408

Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle  

SciTech Connect

The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

409

Radiation in molecular dynamic simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of Megabars to thousands of Gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The new technique passes a key test: it relaxes to a blackbody spectrum for a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This new tool also provides a method for assessing the accuracy of energy and momentum exchange models in hot dense plasmas. As an example, we simulate the evolution of non-equilibrium electron, ion, and radiation temperatures for a hydrogen plasma using the new molecular dynamics simulation capability.

Glosli, J; Graziani, F; More, R; Murillo, M; Streitz, F; Surh, M

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

410

Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. Program overview of fiscal year 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mission of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project is to provide essential information about the solar radiation resource to users and planners of solar technologies so that they can make informed and timely decisions concerning applications of those technologies. The project team accomplishes this by producing and disseminating relevant and reliable information about solar radiation. Topics include: Variability of solar radiation, measurements of solar radiation, spectral distribution of solar radiation, and assessment of the solar resource. FY 1993 accomplishments are detailed.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

412

GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

413

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - General Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Radiation Information Answers to Questions about Radiation Dose Ranges Charts - tables showing radiation dose ranges from radio diagnostics to cancer radiotherapy....

414

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Websites about Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Websites About Radiation The ABC's of Nuclear Science A Teacher's Guide To The Nuclear Science Wall Chart Answers to Questions about Radiation and You Background Radiation:...

415

Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract. This study presents the results of a broad intercomparison of a total of 15 global aerosol models within the AeroCom project. Each model is compared to observations related to desert dust aerosols, their direct radiative effect, and their impact on the biogeochemical cycle, i.e., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and dust deposition. Additional comparisons to Angstr¨om exponent (AE), coarse mode AOD and dust surface concentrations are included to extend the assessment of model performance and to identify common biases present in models. These data comprise a benchmark dataset that is proposed for model inspection and future dust model development. There are large differences among the global models that simulate the dust cycle and its impact on climate. In general, models simulate the climatology of vertically integrated parameters (AOD and AE) within a factor of two whereas the total deposition and surface concentration are reproduced within a factor of 10. In addition, smaller mean normalized bias and root mean square errors are obtained for the climatology of AOD and AE than for total deposition and surface concentration. Characteristics of the datasets used and their uncertainties may influence these differences. Large uncertainties still exist with respect to the deposition fluxes in the southern oceans. Further measurements and model studies are necessary to assess the general model performance to reproduce dust deposition in ocean regions sensible to iron contributions. Models overestimate the wet deposition in regions dominated by dry deposition. They generally simulate more realistic surface concentration at stations downwind of the main sources than at remote ones. Most models simulate the gradient in AOD and AE between the different dusty regions. However the seasonality and magnitude of both variables is better simulated at African stations than Middle East ones. The models simulate the offshore transport of West Africa throughout the year but they overestimate the AOD and they transport too fine particles. The models also reproduce the dust transport across the Atlantic in the summer in terms of both AOD and AE but not so well in winter-spring nor the southward displacement of the dust cloud that is responsible of the dust transport into South America. Based on the dependency of AOD on aerosol burden and size distribution we use model bias with respect to AOD and AE to infer the bias of the dust emissions in Africa and the Middle East. According to this analysis we suggest that a range of possible emissions for North Africa is 400 to 2200 Tg yr?1 and in the Middle East 26 to 526 Tg yr?1.

Huneeus, N.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Griesfeller, J.; Prospero, J.; Kinne, Stefan; Bauer, S.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, Richard C.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginnoux, P.; Grini, A.; Horowitz, L.; Koch, D.; Krol, M.; Landing, W.; Liu, Xiaohong; Mahowald, N.; Miller, R.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, J.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Zender, C. S.

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

416

Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Homeland Security & Defense » Homeland Security & Defense » Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors The present invention includes a composition comprising nanophosphor particles capped with a ligand. June 25, 2013 Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors The present invention includes a composition comprising nanophosphor particles capped with a ligand. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors The present invention includes a composition comprising nanophosphor particles capped with a ligand. The nanophosphor particles have are less than or equal to 20 nanometers. The composition has at least one lanthanide and at least one halide. The weight percent of lanthanide

417

Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

419

Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High energy neutron and charged particle radiation cause microstructural and mechanical degradation in structural metals and alloys, such as phase segregation, void swelling, embrittlement and creep. Radiation induced damages typically limit nuclear materials to a lifetime of about 40 years. Next generation nuclear reactors require materials that can sustain over 60 - 80 years. Therefore it is of great significance to explore new materials with better radiation resistance, to design metals with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe. Such systems obtain high volume fraction of boundaries, which are considered sinks to radiation induced defects. From the viewpoint of nanomechanics, it is of interest to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of nanostructured films, which typically show strong size dependence. By controlling the feature size (layer thickness, twin spacing and grain size), it is applicable to picture a deformation mechanism map which also provides prerequisite information for subsequent radiation hardening study. And from the viewpoint of radiation effects, it is of interest to explore the fundamentals of radiation response, to examine the microstructural and mechanical variations of irradiated nanometals and to enrich the design database. More importantly, with the assistance of in situ techniques, it is appealing to examine the defect generation, evolution, annihilation, absorption and interaction with internal interfaces (layer interfaces, twin boundaries and grain boundaries). Moreover, well-designed nanostructures can also verify the speculation that radiation induced defect density and hardening show clear size dependence. The focus of this thesis lies in the radiation response of Ag/Ni multilayers and nanotwinned Ag subjected to charged particles. The radiation effects in irradiated nanograined Fe are also investigated for comparison. Radiation responses in these nanostructured metallic films suggest that immiscible incoherent Ag/Ni multilayers are more resistant to radiation in comparison to their monolithic counterparts. Their mechanical properties and radiation response show strong layer thickness dependence in terms of radiation hardening and defect density. Coherent twin boundaries can interact with stacking fault tetrahedral and remove them effectively. Twin boundaries can actively absorb radiation induced defects and defect clusters resulting in boundary migration. Size dependence is also found in nanograins where fewer defects exhibit in films with smaller grains.

Yu, Kaiyuan

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Searching for Global Dimming Evidence at SGP and Update of ARM Submissions to BSRN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Searching for Global Dimming Evidence at SGP and Searching for Global Dimming Evidence at SGP and Update of ARM Submissions to BSRN G. Hodges Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction Global dimming, usually defined as a reduction of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the surface of the earth, is a topic being discussed with increasing frequency. A recent news article on global dimming in the web-based newspaper the Guardian Unlimited seems to have brought this issue to the forefront with scientists and laypeople alike. In fact, there is a special session devoted to global dimming at the upcoming May 17-21 American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting in Montreal, Canada. The article quotes Atsumu Ohmura and references his findings on this subject.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Global Warming and Extreme Weather  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming and Extreme Weather Global Warming and Extreme Weather Speaker(s): Michael Wehner Date: November 28, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Surabi Menon Extreme weather events can have serious impacts on human and ecological systems. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather associated with changes in the mean climate are likely the most serious consequence of human induced global warming. Understanding what the future portends is vital if society hopes to adapt to the very different world that awaits. In this talk, we will exploit simple extreme value theory to make predictions about the late 21st century climate. Current work on the relationship between global warming and the hurricane cycle will also be presented. The bottom line is that events that are considered rare today

422

BPL Global | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BPL Global BPL Global Jump to: navigation, search Name BPL Global Place Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Zip 15222 Product BPL Global is a Pittburgh based company that uses broadband over powerline (BPL) to intergrate offerings of advanced metering infrastructure and broadband internet. Coordinates 40.438335°, -79.997459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.438335,"lon":-79.997459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

423

THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP: GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP: Greater Energy Security in a Cleaner, Safer World The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a comprehensive strategy to increase U.S. and global energy security, encourage clean development around the world, reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, and improve the environment. A plentiful, reliable supply of energy is the cornerstone of sustained economic growth and prosperity. Nuclear power is the only proven technology that can provide abundant supplies of base load electricity reliably and without air pollution or emissions of greenhouse gasses. In order to help meet growing demand for energy at home and encourage the growth of prosperity around the globe, GNEP provides for the safe, extensive expansion of clean nuclear power.

424

Endeavor Global | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Endeavor Global Endeavor Global Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Endeavor Global Name Endeavor Global Address 900 Broadway Place New York, New York Zip 10003 Coordinates 40.7391824°, -73.9897252° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.7391824,"lon":-73.9897252,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

425

Global Circuit Model with Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database have been introduced into the global circuit model developed by Tinsley and Zhou. Using the cloud-top pressure data and cloud type information, the authors ...

Limin Zhou; Brian A. Tinsley

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Puzzles from the First Globalization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the first globalization, 1870-1914, as in our own times, debates raged over the impact on domestic life of free movement across borders of goods, people, and capital. Then as today in the hard times that have followed ...

Berger, Suzanne

427

EPS Global International Cancer Conference  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sept.10-12th, 2010 Suzhou, China Welcome Message Dear Colleagues and Friends, It is my pleasure to announce that EPS Global International Cancer Conference will be held on...

428

The Psychology of Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evidence in support of global warming and the lack of significant published evidence to the contrary provides an extraordinarily strong foundation for the scientific community's call for action on greenhouse gas emissions. However, public ...

Ben R. Newell; Andrew J. Pitman

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Magnitude correlations in global seismicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By employing natural time analysis, we analyze the worldwide seismicity and study the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We find that global seismicity exhibits nontrivial magnitude correlations for earthquake magnitudes greater than M{sub w}6.5.

Sarlis, N. V. [Solid State Section and Solid Earth Physics Institute, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos GR-157 84, Athens (Greece)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Tachyons and Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND GRAVITATIONAL CHERENKOV RADIATION CHARLES SCHWARTZwould emit gravitational radiation. It is very small.gravitational waves; Cherenkov radiation. In a recent work,

Schwartz, Charles

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advisor Paul Hoover Special Assistant and Issues Management Coordinator Elinor Gwynn Radiation Protection Radiation Protection The Radiation Protection Division supports the...

432

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2.2. Internal ExposureRADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

Rubloff, Gary W.

433

Validation of General Circulation Model Radiative Fluxes Using Surface Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface radiative fluxes of the ECHAM3 General Circulation Model (GCM) with T2 1, T42, and T 106 resolutions have been validated using observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, World Climate Program-Water Project A7). GEBA ...

Martin Wild; Atsumu Ohmura; Hans Gilgen; Erich Roeckner

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Sensitivity of Tropical Storm Forecast to Radiative Destabilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the medium-range forecast of a typhoon using a global model. The focus of this study is on a comparison of two longwave radiative transfer calculations, one is based on an emissivity formulation while the other utilizes a band ...

T. N. Krishnamurti; K. S. Yap; D. K. Oosterhof

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Radiation and photochemistry section  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The highlights of this past year in the Radiation and Photochemistry Section at Argonne include: (1) picosecond optical studies of radical cations and excited states produced in hydrocarbon radiolysis provided the first kinetic measurements of ion transformation and production of triplet and singlet excited states by ion recombination. (2) studies of radical cations of alkyl-substituted amines and sulfides provided insights into ion-molecule reactions of radical cations in the condensed phase. (3) studies of the behavior of strained alkane radical cations, such as cubane {sup +}{center dot}, revealed new rearrangements and remarkable, medium-dependent differences in their structures. (4) H{center dot}atom reactions yielding e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} provided the first reliable measurements of hydrated-electron enthalpy and entropy and forced the revision of some previous thinking about the driving force in {sub aq}{sup {minus}} reactions.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901...

437

The Private Regulation of Global Corporate Conduct  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ameliorate the negative social impacts of global markets isenvironmental and social impacts and the royalty paymentscriticisms of the social impact of economic globalization

Vogel, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Superior Energy Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Activities 179d Tax Calculator Advanced Energy Design Guides Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides

439

Global Environment Facility (GEF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Global Environment Facility (GEF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Environment Facility Address...

440

Global Energias Renovables SL | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energias Renovables SL Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Energias Renovables SL Place Madrid, Spain Sector Wind energy Product Spanish wind power developer. References Global...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Global Celsius SL | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Celsius SL Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Celsius SL Place Madrid, Spain Sector Wind energy Product Spanish wind project developer. References Global Celsius SL1...

442

Global Alternative Fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Alternative Fuels Place El Paso, Texas Zip 79922 Product Global Alternative Fuels processes virgin oils (palm, soybean,...

443

Global Green Partners | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Global Green Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Green Partners Place Los Altos,...

444

Sunrise Global Solar Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Sunrise Global Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Sunrise Global Solar Energy Place Taoyuan County, Taiwan Zip...

445

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Data graphic Data (ASCII, Fixed Format) Data graphic Data (ASCII, Comma-delimited)...

446

[Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models  

SciTech Connect

This is a renewal proposal for an on-going project of the Department of Energy (DOE)/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The objective of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of radiation-cloud in GCMs so that reliable predictions of the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and regional responses can be made. The ARM Program supports two research areas: (I) The modeling and analysis of data related to the parameterization of clouds and radiation in general circulation models (GCMs); and (II) the development of advanced instrumentation for both mapping the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and high accuracy/precision radiometric observations. The present project conducts research in area (I) and focuses on GCM treatment of cloud life cycle, optical properties, and vertical overlapping. The project has two tasks: (1) Development and Refinement of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment Using ARM Data; and (2) Validation of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment.

Wang, W.C.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) An article that examines the global nuclear energy partnership. The Global Nuclear Energy...

448

Global Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Database Global Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Database Agency/Company /Organization: EMBARQ Complexity/Ease of Use: Not Available Website: www.brtdata.org/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/global-bus-rapid-transit-brt-database Language: English Related Tools European Green Cars Initiative Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Making Car Sharing and Car Clubs Work: Final Report ... further results Find Another Tool FIND TRANSPORTATION TOOLS This tool provides public access to current data about bus rapid transit systems around the world, including data for the design, performance, and cost of these systems. The database can be filtered by location or

449

Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) Data Base | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) Data Base Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) Data Base Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: GTAP 6 Data Base Agency/Company /Organization: Purdue University Sector: Energy Topics: Policies/deployment programs, Co-benefits assessment, - Macroeconomic, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/databases/v6/default.asp GTAP 6 Data Base Screenshot References: GTAP Data Base[1] "The GTAP Data Base is a fully documented, publicly available global data base which contains complete bilateral trade information, transport and protection linkages among 113 regions for all 57 GTAP commodities for a single year. " GTAP 6 Data Base "Includes: Updated data base corresponds to the global economy in 2001 Additional regional disaggregation (87 regions and 57 sectors),

450

Future Earth: International Coordination of Research for Global  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Future Earth: International Coordination of Research for Global Sustainability Print E-mail Future Earth: International Coordination of Research for Global Sustainability Print E-mail Monday, January 28, 2013 On Saturday, February 16, 2013 from 1:30-4:30pm the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) will be holding a symposium to present Future Earth, a new 10-year international initiative on integrated global environmental change research. Future Earth is mobilizing the global scientific community, funders, and users of research to define together and address the most pressing research questions on sustainable development and its integrated environmental, social, and economic dimensions. This includes strengthened links between science, policy, and society. The discussion on February 16th will address international coordination of research and funding; co-designing research with funders, scientists, and users; and the role of science in bridging to policy and practice. For more information about the symposium please click here

451

ORNL Global Change and Developing Country Programs | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Change and Developing Country Programs Change and Developing Country Programs Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Change and Developing Country Programs Name Global Change and Developing Country Programs Agency/Company /Organization Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector Energy Website http://www.esd.ornl.gov/eess/g References Global Change [1] "For more than twenty years, ORNL has been active in energy and environmental collaborations with developing countries. Projects have involved more than forty countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East; and they have included every major kind of energy technology and policy, along with a wide range of environmental technologies and policies." [1] References ↑ 1.0 1.1 Global Change Retrieved from

452

Global Soil Data on CD-ROM, Nov. 2000  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Available on CD-ROM Available on CD-ROM The ORNL DAAC now offers a CD-ROM with global soil data prepared by the Global Soil Data Task for the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Data and Information Services (DIS). The CD is entitled "Global Soil Data Products CD-ROM (IGBP-DIS)." The new CD includes the IGBP's SoilData System, which links the Global Pedon Database to the FAO/UNESCO Digital Soil Map of the World. The system allows users to generate maps and data sets for a range of original and derived soil parameters for any part of the world at soil depths and resolutions selected by the user. The CD also contains 1125 soil profiles that provide information about fundamental soil properties (e.g., depth, particle size distribution, bulk density, extractable nutrient composition) for soil classes based on FAO

453

Global scale hydrology - Advances in land surface modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research into global scale hydrology is an expanding area that includes researchers from the meteorology, climatology, ecology and hydrology communities. This paper reviews research in this area carried out in the United States during the last IUGG quadrennial period of 1987-1990. The review covers the representation of land-surface hydrologic processes for general circulation models (GCMs), sensitivity analysis of these representations on global hydrologic fields like precipitation, regional studies of climate that have global hydrologic implications, recent field studies and experiments whose aims are the improved understanding of land surface-atmospheric interactions, and the use of remotely sensed data for the further understanding of the spatial variability of surface hydrologic processes that are important at regional and global climate scales. 76 refs.

Wood, E.F. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

Braswell, B.H. Jr.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

456

WI Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

457

Nonionizing Radiation and HIV  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nonionizing Radiation and HIV Name: Flora R Pitchford Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: What are the effects of nonionizing radiation on DNA , RNA or any other cell...

458

Radiation and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation is the driving force for the general circulation of the atmosphere and controls the Earth's climate. Ozone is responsible for the warm stratosphere and protects life on Earth from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In July 1959, the ...

G. Ohring; R. D. Bojkov; H-J. Bolle; R. D. Hudson; H. Volkert

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Stripe Dynamics, Global Phase Ordering and Quantum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By modeling the stripe phase in cuprates as spin gapped stripes coupled to the RVB liquid of preformed electron pairs, I derive the low energy effective theory of the RVB phase variable. It is found that the effect of stripe dynamics (including both longitudinal and transverse modes) leads to incipient temporal phase stiffness in the RVB liquid, which tunes a quantum phase transition toward a superconducting ground state with global phase order. Physical consequences of this quantum criticality are discussed. Typeset using REVTEX 1 I.

Criticality High; Tc Superconductors; Wenjun Zheng

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Radiative Heat Transfer between Neighboring Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The near-field interaction between two neighboring particles is known to produce enhanced radiative heat transfer. We advance in the understanding of this phenomenon by including the full electromagnetic particle response, heat exchange with the environment, and important radiative corrections both in the distance dependence of the fields and in the particle absorption coefficients. We find that crossed terms of electric and magnetic interactions dominate the transfer rate between gold and SiC particles, whereas radiative corrections reduce it by several orders of magnitude even at small separations. Radiation away from the dimer can be strongly suppressed or enhanced at low and high temperatures, respectively. These effects must be taken into account for an accurate description of radiative heat transfer in nanostructured environments.

Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier Garcia de Abajo

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Radiation Dosimetry Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Dosimetry Data. Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions. MJ Berger The databases ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

462

Radiation Shields Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Materials Solutions for the Nuclear Renaissance. Presentation Title, Radiation ...

463

Global and Regional Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Robyn Rock Robyn Rock Robyn Rock Manager, BNL Proposal Center rrock@bnl.gov, (631)-344-5468 Photo of Robyn Rock Responsibilities Robyn is responsible for establishing a new Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Proposal Center to support the Laboratory's development of high-quality, competitive proposals to sponsor organizations; for providing oversight for BNL proposal process, organizational performance and optimization in proposal execution; supporting the Laboratory's growth initiative through collaborations with BNL's research organizations and with external funding organizations and partners. She is also responsible for providing leadership in advising BNL's research organizations on funding opportunity requirements. Experience Robyn's strengths include 15 years of experience in Government

464

TRENDS '90: A compendium of data on global change  

SciTech Connect

This document is a source of frequently used global change data. This first issue includes estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and from the production of cement, historical and modern records of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and methane concentrations, and several long-term temperature records. Included are tabular and graphical presentations of the data, discussions of trends in the data, and references to publications that provide further information. Data are presented in a two-page format, each dealing with a different data set. All data are available in digital form from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.); Boden, T.A.; Kanciruk, P.; Farrell, M.P.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices...

466

Property:Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of Plants included in Capacity Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate Property Type Number Retrieved from "http:...

467

The Effect of a Solar Perturbation on a Global Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-three-dimensional global climate model is used to study the effect of a transient change in solar radiation on the model's climate. The solar constant is decreased abruptly by 5 percent in the 10th year of a 50-year run. It is then ...

William D. Sellers

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

A Technique for Global Monitoring of Net Solar Irradiance at the Ocean Surface. Part II: Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study constitutes the generation and validation of the first satellite-based, long-term record of surface solar irradiance over the global oceans. The record is generated using Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) wide-field-of-view (...

Beth Chertock; Robert Frouin; Catherine Gautier

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Radiation-hardened polymeric films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

470

Radiation-hardened polymeric films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Enlightening Global Dimming and Brightening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fundamental determinant of climate and life on our planet is the solar radiation (sunlight) incident at the Earth's surface. Any change in this precious energy source affects our habitats profoundly. Until recently, for simplicity and lack of better ...

Martin Wild

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

473

Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

474

NIST Optical Radiation Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Staff Directory. Staff. Name, Position, Office Phone. ... Contact. Optical Radiation Group Eric Shirley, Group Leader. ...

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

475

NVLAP Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry LAP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry LAP. ... This site has been established for applicants to the accreditation program for ionizing radiation dosimetry. ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

476

Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Welcome. The Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division is a division ... disseminate the national standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

477

NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course. ... 2012 NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course October 15-19, 2012 NIST Gaithersburg, Maryland. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Ionizing Radiation Division of the Physics Laboratory supports the ... meaningful, and compatible measurements of ionizing radiations (x rays ...

479

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation including global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Radiation detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

Nelson, Melvin A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Davies, Terence J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Morton, III, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

1961-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

483

Sandia Laboratories radiation facilities  

SciTech Connect

This brochure is designed as a basic source of information for prospective users of Sandia Laboratories Radiation Facilities. It contains a brief description of the various major radiation sources, a summary of their output characteristics, and additional information useful to experimenters. Radiation source development and source upgrading is an ongoing program, with new source configurations and modes of operation continually being devised to satisfy the ever-changing radiation requirements of the users. For most cases, the information here should allow a potential user to assess the applicability of a particular radiation facility to a proposed experiment and to permit some preirradiation calculations and planning.

Choate, L.M.; Schmidt, T.R.; Schuch, R.L.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Conceptual design of a heat pipe radiator  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design of a waste heat radiator has been developed for a thermoelectric space nuclear power system. The basic shape of the heat pipe radiator was a frustum of a right circular cone. The design included stringer heat pipes to carry reject heat from the thermoelectric modules to the radiator skin that was composed of small-diameter, thin-walled cross heat pipes. The stringer heat pipes were armored to resist puncture by a meteoroid. The cross heat pipes were designed to provide the necessary unpunctured radiating area at the mission end with a minimum initial system mass. Several design cases were developed in which the individual stringer survival probabilities were varied and the radiator system mass was calculated. Results are presented for system mass as a function of individual stringer survival probability for six candidate container materials, three candidate heat pipe fluids, two radiator operating temperatures, two meteoroid shield types, and two radiating surface cases. Results are also presented for radiator reject heat as a function of system mass, area, and length for three system sizes.

Bennett, G.A.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Fact Sheet: U.S. and China Actions Matter for Global Energy Demand, for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fact Sheet: U.S. and China Actions Matter for Global Energy Demand, Fact Sheet: U.S. and China Actions Matter for Global Energy Demand, for Global Environmental Quality, and for the Challenge of Global Climate Change Fact Sheet: U.S. and China Actions Matter for Global Energy Demand, for Global Environmental Quality, and for the Challenge of Global Climate Change December 5, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis The U.S. is committed to working together with China to tackle current energy challenges the world faces, including cultivating sufficient investment, the development and deployment of new energy technologies, and addressing greenhouse gas emissions from producing and using energy. Our cooperation spans power generation, efficient buildings, sustainable transportation, emissions-free nuclear power, and clean fossil fuels. The U.S. and China are the world's largest energy consumers and are

486

Fact Sheet: U.S. and China Actions Matter for Global Energy Demand, for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

S. and China Actions Matter for Global Energy Demand, S. and China Actions Matter for Global Energy Demand, for Global Environmental Quality, and for the Challenge of Global Climate Change Fact Sheet: U.S. and China Actions Matter for Global Energy Demand, for Global Environmental Quality, and for the Challenge of Global Climate Change December 5, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis The U.S. is committed to working together with China to tackle current energy challenges the world faces, including cultivating sufficient investment, the development and deployment of new energy technologies, and addressing greenhouse gas emissions from producing and using energy. Our cooperation spans power generation, efficient buildings, sustainable transportation, emissions-free nuclear power, and clean fossil fuels. The U.S. and China are the world's largest energy consumers and are

487

Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Wisconsin (Million Cubic Feet)

488

Making Global Illumination User Friendly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Making Global Illumination User Friendly Making Global Illumination User Friendly Title Making Global Illumination User Friendly Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-37860 Year of Publication 1995 Authors Ward, Gregory J. Conference Name 6th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Date Published 06/1995 Conference Location Dublin, Ireland Call Number LBL-37860 Abstract Global illumination researchers tend to think in terms of mesh density and sampling frequency, and their software reflects this in its user interface. Advanced rendering systems are rife with long command lines and parameters for tuning the sample densities, thresholds and other algorithm-specific variables, and the novice user is quickly lost in a sea of possibilities. This paper details a successful effort of making one such global illumination system usable by people who understand their problems, even if they do not understand the methods needed to solve them, through an assisted oracle approach. A single program is introduced to map a small set of intuitive control variables to the rendering commands and parameter settings needed to produce the desired output in a reasonable time. This new executive program then serves as the basis for a graphical user interface that is both friendly in its appearance and reliable in its performance. Finally, we conclude with some future directions for improving this interface.

489

Hawaii-bound in search of global climate data | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hawaii-bound in search of global climate data Hawaii-bound in search of global climate data By Brian Grabowski * September 13, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint While the idea of a cruise to Hawaii may sound like paradise, making that same journey 25 times back and forth in a year might start to lose its appeal. But for a climate data-gathering machine called AMF