National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radiation detection systems

  1. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  2. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Lyons, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  3. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedel, Richard A.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Clonts, Lloyd G.; Cooper, Ronald G.

    2012-02-14

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  4. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  5. Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgen, Gerald P.; Peterson, William W.

    2009-06-11

    Testing and valuation of the Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package for the US Coast Guard.

  6. NNSA, Argentina Transition Radiation Detection System | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Argentina Transition Radiation Detection System May 19, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Government of Argentina recently completed the transition of full responsibility for the radiation detection systems located at the Port of Buenos Aires and Port of Dock Sud at an official signing in Argentina's capital of Buenos Aires. This transition reflects the strong commitment of Argentina's government to deter, detect and

  7. NNSA, Djibouti Transition Radiation Detection System | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration NNSA, Djibouti Transition Radiation Detection System March 26, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) recently celebrated the transition of full responsibility to the government of Djibouti for the radiation detection system located at the Doraleh Container Terminal at the Port of Djibouti. The joint ceremony was held in Djibouti's capital to mark the event attended by senior officials from Djibouti, the U.S., and Ethiopia. This

  8. NNSA, Romania Launch Radiation Detection System at International Airport

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    near Bucharest | National Nuclear Security Administration NNSA, Romania Launch Radiation Detection System at International Airport near Bucharest July 22, 2015 Today, the U.S. Embassy in Bucharest, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Romania's Ministry of Internal Affairs celebrated the commencement of operations of the radiation detection system located at Henri Coandă International Airport near Bucharest. To mark the occasion, U.S. Embassy Chargé d'Affaires Duane

  9. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, James Christopher; Rennie, John Alan; Toevs, James Waldo; Wallace, Darrin J.; Abhold, Mark Edward

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  10. Spreader-Bar Radiation Detection System Enhancements: A Modeling and Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Baciak, James E.; Hensley, Walter K.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Schweppe, John E.

    2012-11-13

    This report provides the modeling and simulation results of the investigation of enhanced spreader bar radiation detection systems.

  11. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  12. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of estimating these frequencies for future work. Modeling of nuisance source populations is only useful if it helps in understanding detector system performance in real operational environments. Examples of previous studies in which nuisance source models played a key role are briefly discussed. These include screening of in-bound urban traffic and monitoring of shipping containers in transit to U.S. ports.

  13. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  14. Technical specifications manual for the MARK-1 pulsed ionizing radiation detection system. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, R.S.; Harker, Y.D.; Jones, J.L.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The MARK-1 detection system was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation. The completely portable system was designed for the detection and analysis of intense photon emissions from pulsed ionizing radiation sources. This manual presents the technical design specifications for the MARK-1 detection system and was written primarily to assist the support or service technician in the service, calibration, and repair of the system. The manual presents the general detection system theory, the MARK-1 component design specifications, the acquisition and control software, the data processing sequence, and the system calibration procedure. A second manual entitled: Volume 2: Operations Manual for the MARK-1 Pulsed Ionizing Radiation Detection System (USDOE Report WINCO-1108, September 1992) provides a general operational description of the MARK-1 detection system. The Operations Manual was written primarily to assist the field operator in system operations and analysis of the data.

  15. Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burks, Morgan Thomas; Eckels, Joel Del

    2010-06-08

    In one embodiment, a radiation detection system is provided including a radiation detector and a first enclosure encapsulating the radiation detector, the first enclosure including a low-emissivity infra-red (IR) reflective coating used to thermally isolate the radiation detector. Additionally, a second enclosure encapsulating the first enclosure is included, the first enclosure being suspension mounted to the second enclosure. Further, a cooler capable of cooling the radiation detector is included. Still yet, a first cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure is included for coupling the cooler and the first enclosure. Furthermore, a second cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure and capable of coupling the first enclosure to a cooler separate from the radiation detection system is included. Other embodiments are also presented.

  16. NNSA Transitions Radiation Detection System at Port of Laem Chabang...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... NNSA scientists find more effective ways to detect nuclear explosions near and far NNSA Deputy Administrator Creedon Travels to China NNSA Delivers Annual Reports to Congress on ...

  17. Method and apparatus for providing pulse pile-up correction in charge quantizing radiation detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Wintenberg, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    A radiation detection method and system for continuously correcting the quantization of detected charge during pulse pile-up conditions. Charge pulses from a radiation detector responsive to the energy of detected radiation events are converted to voltage pulses of predetermined shape whose peak amplitudes are proportional to the quantity of charge of each corresponding detected event by means of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. These peak amplitudes are sampled and stored sequentially in accordance with their respective times of occurrence. Based on the stored peak amplitudes and times of occurrence, a correction factor is generated which represents the fraction of a previous pulses influence on a preceding pulse peak amplitude. This correction factor is subtracted from the following pulse amplitude in a summing amplifier whose output then represents the corrected charge quantity measurement.

  18. Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2006-06-20

    A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

  19. Detection system for high-resolution gamma radiation spectroscopy with neutron time-of-flight filtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dioszegi, Istvan; Salwen, Cynthia; Vanier, Peter

    2014-12-30

    A .gamma.-radiation detection system that includes at least one semiconductor detector such as HPGe-Detector, a position-sensitive .alpha.-Detector, a TOF Controller, and a Digitizer/Integrator. The Digitizer/Integrator starts to process the energy signals of a .gamma.-radiation sent from the HPGe-Detector instantly when the HPGe-Detector detects the .gamma.-radiation. Subsequently, it is determined whether a coincidence exists between the .alpha.-particles and .gamma.-radiation signal, based on a determination of the time-of-flight of neutrons obtained from the .alpha.-Detector and the HPGe-Detector. If it is determined that the time-of-flight falls within a predetermined coincidence window, the Digitizer/Integrator is allowed to continue and complete the energy signal processing. If, however, there is no coincidence, the Digitizer/Integrator is instructed to be clear and reset its operation instantly.

  20. Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl E.; Valentine, John D.; Beauchamp, Brock R.

    2007-07-17

    A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

  1. Systems and methods for detecting nuclear radiation in the presence of backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-06-21

    Systems and methods for the simultaneous detection and identification of radiation species, including neutrons, gammas/x-rays and minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). A plurality of rectangular and/or triangularly shaped radiation sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within a central hole of each extruded scintillator, wherein the wavelength-shifting fiber absorbs scintillation light and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength, thereby piping the light to a photodetector whose response to the light indicates the presence of radiation The resulting method and system can simultaneously detect neutrons, gamma rays, x-rays and cosmic rays (MIPs) and identify each.

  2. High speed preamplifier circuit, detection electronics, and radiation detection systems therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedel, Richard A. [Knoxville, TN; Wintenberg, Alan L. [Knoxville, TN; Clonts, Lloyd G. [Knoxville, TN; Cooper, Ronald G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-09-21

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  3. Portable modular detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  4. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Fischer, Larry E.; Felter, Thomas E.

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  5. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  6. radiation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NNSA Deputy Administrator Creedon Travels to China NNSA keeps the promises borne out of ... NNSA Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System to China Customs NNSA, ...

  7. Radiation detection system using semiconductor detector with differential carrier trapping and mobility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whited, Richard C. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI.sub.2, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  8. RADIATION DETECTOR SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundlach, J.C.; Kelley, G.G.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to radiation detection devices and presents a unique detection system especialiy desirable for portable type instruments using a Geiger-Mueller for a high voltage battery, thereby reducing the size and weight of the instrument, by arranging a one-shot multivibrator to recharge a capacitance applying operating potential to tho Geiger-Mueller tube each time a nuclear particle is detected. When detection occurs, the multivibrator further delivers a pulse to an appropriate indicator doing away with the necessity for the pulse amplifier conventionally intermediate between the detector and indicator in pulse detection systems.

  9. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

  10. DETECTION OR WARNING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillman, J.E.

    1953-10-20

    This patent application describes a sensitive detection or protective system capable of giving an alarm or warning upon the entrance or intrusion of any body into a defined area or zone protected by a radiation field of suitable direction or extent.

  11. Detection of contraband using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, Richard P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Bacon, Larry D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

  12. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  13. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  14. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum wells structures (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well

  15. Transport Test Problems for Radiation Detection Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2012-09-30

    This is the final report and deliverable for the project. It is a list of the details of the test cases for radiation detection scenarios.

  16. Apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a micromechanical sensor Title: Apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation using electron photoemission in a micromechanical sensor A micromechanical ...

  17. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and ... An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable ...

  18. Simulated Performance of Algorithms for the Localization of Radioactive Sources from a Position Sensitive Radiation Detecting System (COCAE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karafasoulis, K.; Zachariadou, K.; Seferlis, S.; Kaissas, I.; Potiriadis, C.; Lambropoulos, C.; Loukas, D.

    2011-12-13

    Simulation studies are presented regarding the performance of algorithms that localize point-like radioactive sources detected by a position sensitive portable radiation instrument (COCAE). The source direction is estimated by using the List Mode Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-ML-EM) imaging algorithm. Furthermore, the source-to-detector distance is evaluated by three different algorithms based on the photo-peak count information of each detecting layer, the quality of the reconstructed source image, and the triangulation method. These algorithms have been tested on a large number of simulated photons over a wide energy range (from 200 keV to 2 MeV) emitted by point-like radioactive sources located at different orientations and source-to-detector distances.

  19. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  20. Adaptable radiation monitoring system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Daniel E. (Livermore, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA); Mauger, G. Joseph (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Mercer, Michael B. (Manteca, CA); Pletcher, David C. (Sacramento, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Schek, James L. (Tracy, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-06-20

    A portable radioactive-material detection system capable of detecting radioactive sources moving at high speeds. The system has at least one radiation detector capable of detecting gamma-radiation and coupled to an MCA capable of collecting spectral data in very small time bins of less than about 150 msec. A computer processor is connected to the MCA for determining from the spectral data if a triggering event has occurred. Spectral data is stored on a data storage device, and a power source supplies power to the detection system. Various configurations of the detection system may be adaptably arranged for various radiation detection scenarios. In a preferred embodiment, the computer processor operates as a server which receives spectral data from other networked detection systems, and communicates the collected data to a central data reporting system.

  1. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detectors coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  2. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  4. Management of the baseline shift using a new and simple method for respiratory-gated radiation therapy: Detectability and effectiveness of a flexible monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Nozomi; Ito, Yasushi; Kawai, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masaru; Tsuda, Akihisa; Shiizuka, Hisao

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiation therapy, a baseline shift decreases the accuracy of target coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing. The effectiveness of audio-feedback and audio-visual feedback in correcting the baseline shift in the breathing pattern of the patient has been demonstrated previously. However, the baseline shift derived from the intrafraction motion of the patient's body cannot be corrected by these methods. In the present study, the authors designed and developed a simple and flexible system. Methods: The system consisted of a web camera and a computer running our in-house software. The in-house software was adapted to template matching and also to no preimage processing. The system was capable of monitoring the baseline shift in the intrafraction motion of the patient's body. Another marker box was used to monitor the baseline shift due to the flexible setups required of a marker box for gated signals. The system accuracy was evaluated by employing a respiratory motion phantom and was found to be within AAPM Task Group 142 tolerance (positional accuracy <2 mm and temporal accuracy <100 ms) for respiratory-gated radiation therapy. Additionally, the effectiveness of this flexible and independent system in gated treatment was investigated in healthy volunteers, in terms of the results from the differences in the baseline shift detectable between the marker positions, which the authors evaluated statistically. Results: The movement of the marker on the sternum [1.599 {+-} 0.622 mm (1 SD)] was substantially decreased as compared with the abdomen [6.547 {+-} 0.962 mm (1 SD)]. Additionally, in all of the volunteers, the baseline shifts for the sternum [-0.136 {+-} 0.868 (2 SD)] were in better agreement with the nominal baseline shifts than was the case for the abdomen [-0.722 {+-} 1.56 mm (2 SD)]. The baseline shifts could be accurately measured and detected using the monitoring system, which could acquire the movement of the marker on the sternum. The baseline shift-monitoring system with the displacement-based methods for highly accurate respiratory-gated treatments should be used to make most of the displacement-based gating methods. Conclusions: The advent of intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated radiation therapy facilitates margin reduction for the planning target volumes and the OARs, but highly accurate irradiation is needed to achieve target coverage and OAR sparing with a small margin. The baseline shifts can affect treatment not only with the respiratory gating system but also without the system. Our system can manage the baseline shift and also enables treatment irradiation to be undertaken with high accuracy.

  5. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to "room temperature", and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  6. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-03-23

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to room temperature'' and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  7. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  8. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A.; Robison, Thomas W.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2002-01-01

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  9. Three-axis asymmetric radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martini, Mario Pierangelo (Oak Ridge, TN); Gedcke, Dale A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raudorf, Thomas W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sangsingkeow, Pat (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A three-axis radiation detection system whose inner and outer electrodes are shaped and positioned so that the shortest path between any point on the inner electrode and the outer electrode is a different length whereby the rise time of a pulse derived from a detected radiation event can uniquely define the azimuthal and radial position of that event, and the outer electrode is divided into a plurality of segments in the longitudinal axial direction for locating the axial location of a radiation detection event occurring in the diode.

  10. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Burger, Arnold; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2009-06-23

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  11. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  12. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  13. Photovoltaic System Fault Detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System Fault Detection and Diagnostics using Laterally Primed Adaptive Resonance Theory Neural Network C. Birk Jones, Joshua S. Stein, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, U.S.A Abstract-Cost effective integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems requires increased reliability. This can be achieved with a robust fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool that auto- matically discovers faults. This paper introduces the Laterally

  14. Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S. [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A. [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-28

    Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

  15. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  16. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  17. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  18. Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2006-12-12

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  19. Waveshifters and Scintillators for Ionizing Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Baumgaugh; J.Bishop; D.Karmgard; J.Marchant; M.McKenna; R.Ruchti; M.Vigneault; L.Hernandez; C.Hurlbut

    2007-12-11

    Scintillation and waveshifter materials have been developed for the detection of ionizing radiation in an STTR program between Ludlum Measurements, Inc. and the University of Notre Dame. Several new waveshifter materials have been developed which are comparable in efficiency and faster in fluorescence decay than the standard material Y11 (K27) used in particle physics for several decades. Additionally, new scintillation materials useful for fiber tracking have been developed which have been compared to 3HF. Lastly, work was done on developing liquid scintillators and paint-on scintillators and waveshifters for high radiation environments.

  20. PNNL Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Bob

    2013-07-10

    PNNL's Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School gives graduate and advanced graduate students an understanding of how radiation detectors are used in national security missions.

  1. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or accessmore » to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.« less

  2. Radiation imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Immel, David M.; Bobbit, III, John T.; Plummer, Jean R.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-03-22

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  3. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminiscent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminscent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO.sub.4) or cerussite (PbCO.sub.3) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes.

  4. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1994-08-09

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminescent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminescent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO[sub 4]) or cerussite (PbCO[sub 3]) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes. 3 figs.

  5. Uzbekistan Radiation Portal Monnitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J; Knapp, R; Loshak, A; Yuldashev, B; Petrenko, V

    2005-06-10

    The work proposed in this presentation builds on the foundation set by the DTRA funded demonstration project begun in 2000 and completed in December of 2003. This previous work consisted of two phases whose overall objective was to install portal radiation monitors at four select ports-of-entry in Uzbekistan (Tashkent International Airport, Gisht-Kuprik (Kazakhstan border), Alat (Turkmenistan border), and Termez (Afghanistan border)) in order to demonstrate their effectiveness in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objectives also included developing and demonstrating capabilities in the design, installation, operation, training, and maintenance of a radiation portal monitoring system. The system and demonstration project has proved successful in many ways. An effective working relationship among the Uzbekistan Customs Services, Uzbekistan Border Guards, and Uzbekistan Institute of Nuclear Physics has been developed. There has been unprecedented openness with the sharing of portal monitor data with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The system has proved to be effective, with detection of illicit trafficking, and, at Alat, an arrest of three persons illegally transporting radioactive materials into Turkmenistan. The demonstration project has made Uzbekistan a model nonproliferation state in Central Asia and, with an expanded program, places them in a position to seal a likely transit route for illicit nuclear materials. These results will be described. In addition, this work is currently being expanded to include additional ports-of-entry in Uzbekistan. The process for deciding on which additional ports-of-entry to equip will also be described.

  6. Apparatuses for large area radiation detection and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W; Drigert, Mark W

    2015-04-28

    Apparatuses and a related method relating to radiation detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first scintillator and a second scintillator adjacent to the first scintillator, with each of the first scintillator and second scintillator being structured to generate a light pulse responsive to interacting with incident radiation. The first scintillator is further structured to experience full energy deposition of a first low-energy radiation, and permit a second higher-energy radiation to pass therethrough and interact with the second scintillator. The apparatus further includes a plurality of light-to-electrical converters operably coupled to the second scintillator and configured to convert light pulses generated by the first scintillator and the second scintillator into electrical signals. The first scintillator and the second scintillator exhibit at least one mutually different characteristic for an electronic system to determine whether a given light pulse is generated by the first scintillator or the second scintillator.

  7. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  8. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  9. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken placetechniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportationthe so-called second line of defense.

  10. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or ?Smart Wells? along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise in the pressure sensor and uncertainty in the reservoir model.

  11. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  12. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Moses, William W

    2015-11-06

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  13. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or nearmore » surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise in the pressure sensor and uncertainty in the reservoir model.« less

  14. Hybrid Radiator Cooling System | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiator Cooling System Technology available for licensing: Hybrid radiator cooling system uses conventional finned air cooling under most driving conditions that would be...

  15. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Other Related Sites DOE - Main Home Page - the home page for ...

  16. Incipient fire detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Jr., William K.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  17. Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates: Final Status Repor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for ...

  18. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  19. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  20. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

  1. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  2. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, R.A.

    1994-12-13

    A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

  3. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

  4. radiation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, NNSA, Argentina Transition Radiation...

  5. Protein detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fruetel, Julie A.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; McIlroy, Andrew

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  6. Three-dimensional, position-sensitive radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Zhong; Zhang, Feng

    2010-04-06

    Disclosed herein is a method of determining a characteristic of radiation detected by a radiation detector via a multiple-pixel event having a plurality of radiation interactions. The method includes determining a cathode-to-anode signal ratio for a selected interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions based on electron drift time data for the selected interaction, and determining the radiation characteristic for the multiple-pixel event based on both the cathode-to-anode signal ratio and the electron drift time data. In some embodiments, the method further includes determining a correction factor for the radiation characteristic based on an interaction depth of the plurality of radiation interactions, a lateral distance between the selected interaction and a further interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions, and the lateral positioning of the plurality of radiation interactions.

  7. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength.

  8. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-12-21

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

  9. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  10. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  11. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNMmore » detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information« less

  12. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  13. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  14. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  15. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  16. Detection of alpha radiation in a beta radiation field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Reese, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting alpha particles in the presence of high activities of beta particles utilizing an alpha spectrometer. The apparatus of the present invention utilizes a magnetic field applied around the sample in an alpha spectrometer to deflect the beta particles from the sample prior to reaching the detector, thus permitting detection of low concentrations of alpha particles. In the method of the invention, the strength of magnetic field required to adequately deflect the beta particles and permit alpha particle detection is given by an algorithm that controls the field strength as a function of sample beta energy and the distance of the sample to the detector.

  17. Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at High Rates: Final Status Repor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates: Final Status Repor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates: Final Status Repor Authors: Sauli, F. ; /CERN ; , Publication Date: 2013-10-21 OSTI Identifier: 1097431 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15815 DOE Contract Number:

  18. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide December 17, 2015 Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System ...

  19. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  20. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.

  1. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  2. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Eichner, Fred N.; Durham, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material and then optically stimulating the thermoluminescent material by exposure to light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light.

  3. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  4. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  5. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, David R.; Miller, William R.

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  6. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  7. Organic materials and devices for detecting ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2007-03-06

    A .pi.-conjugated organic material for detecting ionizing radiation, and particularly for detecting low energy fission neutrons. The .pi.-conjugated materials comprise a class of organic materials whose members are intrinsic semiconducting materials. Included in this class are .pi.-conjugated polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules, and quinolates. Because of their high resistivities (.gtoreq.10.sup.9 ohmcm), these .pi.-conjugated organic materials exhibit very low leakage currents. A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation can be made by applying an electric field to a layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material to measure electron/hole pair formation. A layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material can be made by conventional polymer fabrication methods and can be cast into sheets capable of covering large areas. These sheets of polymer radiation detector material can be deposited between flexible electrodes and rolled up to form a radiation detector occupying a small volume but having a large surface area. The semiconducting polymer material can be easily fabricated in layers about 10 .mu.m to 100 .mu.m thick. These thin polymer layers and their associated electrodes can be stacked to form unique multi-layer detector arrangements that occupy small volume.

  8. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  9. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  10. Explosives detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  11. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.; Berliner, Ronald R.

    1994-01-01

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation.

  12. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.H.; Berliner, R.R.

    1994-09-13

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation. 2 figs.

  13. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Eichner, Fred N.; Tomeraasen, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material to a cryogenic temperature. The thermoluminescent material is then optically stimulated by exposure to ultraviolet light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light.

  14. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.; McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Durham, J.S.

    1992-08-04

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material and then optically stimulating the thermoluminescent material by exposure to light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light. 5 figs.

  15. Radiation augmentation energy storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christe, K.O.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a method of converting radiation energy into chemical energy to produce a high-performance propellant. It comprises: photolytically converting oxygen to ozone; storing and stabilizing the ozone in liquid oxygen to form an ozone/liquid oxygen solution; and combusting the ozone/liquid oxygen solution with hydrogen.

  16. Field Testing of a Portable Radiation Detector and Mapping System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1998-03-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have developed a man- portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) which integrates the accumulation of radiation information with precise ground locations. RADMAPS provides field personnel with the ability to detect, locate, and characterize nuclear material at a site or facility by analyzing the gamma or neutron spectra and correlating them with position. the man-portable field unit records gamma or neutron count rate information and its location, along with date and time, using an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS). RADMAPS is an advancement in data fusion, integrating several off-the-shelf technologies with new computer software resulting in a system that is simple to deploy and provides information useful to field personnel in an easily understandable form. Decisions on subsequent actions can be made in the field to efficiently use available field resources. The technologies employed in this system include: recording GPS, radiation detection (typically scintillation detectors), pulse height analysis, analog-to-digital converters, removable solid-state (Flash or SRAM) memory cards, Geographic Information System (GIS) software and personal computers with CD-ROM supporting digital base maps. RADMAPS includes several field deployable data acquisition systems designed to simultaneously record radiation and geographic positions. This paper summarizes the capabilities of RADMAPS and some of the results of field tests performed with the system.

  17. Radiation detection and situation management by distributed sensor networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jan, Frigo; Mielke, Angela; Cai, D Michael

    2009-01-01

    Detection of radioactive materials in an urban environment usually requires large, portal-monitor-style radiation detectors. However, this may not be a practical solution in many transport scenarios. Alternatively, a distributed sensor network (DSN) could complement portal-style detection of radiological materials through the implementation of arrays of low cost, small heterogeneous sensors with the ability to detect the presence of radioactive materials in a moving vehicle over a specific region. In this paper, we report on the use of a heterogeneous, wireless, distributed sensor network for traffic monitoring in a field demonstration. Through wireless communications, the energy spectra from different radiation detectors are combined to improve the detection confidence. In addition, the DSN exploits other sensor technologies and algorithms to provide additional information about the vehicle, such as its speed, location, class (e.g. car, truck), and license plate number. The sensors are in-situ and data is processed in real-time at each node. Relevant information from each node is sent to a base station computer which is used to assess the movement of radioactive materials.

  18. ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring System (REMS) ORISE maintains large database of radition exposure records for the U.S. Department of Energy ORISE staff monitoring radiation data for DOE Rule 10 CFR 835...

  19. Proceedings of the symposium on Nuclear Radiation Detection Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, D.L.; Burger, A.; Franks, L.; Schieber, M.

    2008-07-01

    This symposium provides a venue for the presentation of the latest results and discussion of radiation detection materials from both experimental and theoretical standpoints. As advances are made in this area of materials, additional experimental and theoretical approaches are used to both guide the growth of materials and to characterize the materials that have a wide array of applications for detecting different types of radiation. The types of detector materials for semiconductors and scintillators include a variety of molecular compounds such as lanthanum halides (LaX{sub 3}), zinc oxide (ZnO), lead iodide (PbI{sub 2}), cadmium telluride (CdTe), mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}), thallium bromide (TlBr), as well as others, such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). An additional class of scintillators includes those based on organic compounds and glasses. Ideally, desired materials used for radiation detection have attributes such as appropriate-range band-gaps, high atomic numbers of the central element, high densities, performance at room temperature, and strong mechanical properties, and are low cost in terms of their production. There are significant gaps in the knowledge related to these materials that are very important in making radiation detector materials that are higher quality in terms of their reproducible purity, homogeneity, and mechanical integrity. The topics that are the focal point of this symposium address these issues so that much better detectors may be made in the future. Topics cover the following areas: - Material growth: on-going developments regarding cadmium telluride (CdTe), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}), cadmium manganese telluride (CMT), LaX{sub 3}, and all other detector materials; new materials with potential for radiation detection (II-VI, III-VI, III-VII compounds, neutron detectors, nano-materials, and ceramic scintillators); purification techniques; and growth methods; - Characterization: experimental results; methodologies; defect structure; surface and bulk effects; and interfacial phenomena (contacting, contact adhesion, crystallographic polarity, Schottky barrier, and surface passivation); - Physical and mechanical properties: electric charge compensation mechanisms, charge collection, and thermal transport; hardness; and plasticity; - New and innovative characterization techniques: optical spectroscopy; microscopy (SEM, TEM, STM, AFM, etc.); synchrotron mapping and X-ray diffraction; rocking curves; and spectroscopy (IR, Raman, NMR, XPS, Auger, and other applicable approaches); - Theoretical studies: bandgap calculations; mobility calculations; scintillator material physics; thermal modeling; crystal growth; processes in material matrices; and processes in amorphous and crystalline matrices.

  20. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Policy for Submitting of PII information Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems ... Guide. PDF icon Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting ...

  1. NNSA Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    application of nuclear science. NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, reliability and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing; works ...

  2. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  3. RADIATION PRESSURE DETECTION AND DENSITY ESTIMATE FOR 2011 MD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micheli, Marco; Tholen, David J.; Elliott, Garrett T. E-mail: tholen@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-06-10

    We present our astrometric observations of the small near-Earth object 2011 MD (H ? 28.0), obtained after its very close fly-by to Earth in 2011 June. Our set of observations extends the observational arc to 73days, and, together with the published astrometry obtained around the Earth fly-by, allows a direct detection of the effect of radiation pressure on the object, with a confidence of 5?. The detection can be used to put constraints on the density of the object, pointing to either an unexpectedly low value of ?=(640330)kg m{sup ?3} (68% confidence interval) if we assume a typical probability distribution for the unknown albedo, or to an unusually high reflectivity of its surface. This result may have important implications both in terms of impact hazard from small objects and in light of a possible retrieval of this target.

  4. Methods and systems for remote detection of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-09-18

    Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

  5. Methods and systems for remote detection of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Timothy J.

    2007-11-27

    Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

  6. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annala, Wayne C. (Durango, CO)

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  7. Methods for radiation detection and characterization using a multiple detector probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas William; Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2014-11-04

    Apparatuses, methods, and systems relating to radiological characterization of environments are disclosed. Multi-detector probes with a plurality of detectors in a common housing may be used to substantially concurrently detect a plurality of different radiation activities and types. Multiple multi-detector probes may be used in a down-hole environment to substantially concurrently detect radioactive activity and contents of a buried waste container. Software may process, analyze, and integrate the data from the different multi-detector probes and the different detector types therein to provide source location and integrated analysis as to the source types and activity in the measured environment. Further, the integrated data may be used to compensate for differential density effects and the effects of radiation shielding materials within the volume being measured.

  8. ARM Installs Aircraft Detection Radar System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Installs Aircraft Detection Radar System For improved safety in and around the ARM SGP CART site, the ARM Program recently purchased and installed an aircraft detection radar system at the central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma. The new system will enhance safety measures already in place at the central facility. The SGP CART site, especially the central facility, houses several instruments employing laser technology. These instruments are designed to be eye-safe and are not a hazard to

  9. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mc Fee, Matthew C.; Kirkham, Tim J.; Johnson, Tippi H.

    1994-01-01

    A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

  10. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

  11. Radiation portal monitor system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Green, J. Andrew; Hogan, Gary E.; Makela, Mark F.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Sossong, Michael J.

    2009-12-15

    A portal monitoring system has a cosmic ray charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray muons, whilst also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  12. A Decision Theoretic Approach to Evaluate Radiation Detection Algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobles, Mallory A.; Sego, Landon H.; Cooley, Scott K.; Gosink, Luke J.; Anderson, Richard M.; Hays, Spencer E.; Tardiff, Mark F.

    2013-07-01

    There are a variety of sensor systems deployed at U.S. border crossings and ports of entry that scan for illicit nuclear material. In this work, we develop a framework for comparing the performance of detection algorithms that interpret the output of these scans and determine when secondary screening is needed. We optimize each algorithm to minimize its risk, or expected loss. We measure an algorithms risk by considering its performance over a sample, the probability distribution of threat sources, and the consequence of detection errors. While it is common to optimize algorithms by fixing one error rate and minimizing another, our framework allows one to simultaneously consider multiple types of detection errors. Our framework is flexible and easily adapted to many different assumptions regarding the probability of a vehicle containing illicit material, and the relative consequences of a false positive and false negative errors. Our methods can therefore inform decision makers of the algorithm family and parameter values which best reduce the threat from illicit nuclear material, given their understanding of the environment at any point in time. To illustrate the applicability of our methods, in this paper, we compare the risk from two families of detection algorithms and discuss the policy implications of our results.

  13. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  14. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  15. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [14]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%) presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  16. Lanthanum halide nanoparticle scintillators for nuclear radiation detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Paul; Guise, Ronald; O'Brien, Robert; Lowe, Daniel; Kang Zhitao; Menkara, Hisham; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2013-02-14

    Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated and characterized for their nanocomposite radiation detector properties. This work investigated the properties of several nanostructured radiation scintillators, in order to determine the viability of using scintillators employing nanostructured lanthanum trifluoride. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with the idea that these materials have an intrinsic response to nuclear radiation that may be correlated to the energy of the incident radiation.

  17. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Oldaker, Mark E.

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  18. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 C. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011?-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 ?Ci), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the CZT nanowire arrays can be used as a potential X-ray and low energy gamma ray detector material at room temperature with a much low bias potential (0.7 4V) as against 300 500 V applied in the commercial bulk detector materials.

  19. System and method for assaying radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DiPrete, David P; Whiteside, Tad; Pak, Donald J; DiPrete, Cecilia C

    2013-11-12

    A system for assaying radiation includes a sample holder configured to hold a liquid scintillation solution. A photomultiplier receives light from the liquid scintillation solution and generates a signal reflective of the light. A control circuit biases the photomultiplier and receives the signal from the photomultiplier reflective of the light. A light impermeable casing surrounds the sample holder, photomultiplier, and control circuit. A method for assaying radiation includes placing a sample in a liquid scintillation solution, placing the liquid scintillation solution in a sample holder, and placing the sample holder inside a light impermeable casing. The method further includes positioning a photomultiplier inside the light impermeable casing and supplying power to a control circuit inside the light impermeable casing.

  20. Automated macromolecular crystal detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, Allen T.; Segelke, Brent; Rupp, Bernard; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-06-05

    An automated macromolecular method and system for detecting crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected from the images by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency-based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete line segments, which are subsequently geometrically evaluated with respect to each other to identify any crystal-like qualities such as, for example, parallel lines, facing each other, similarity in length, and relative proximity. And from the evaluation a determination is made as to whether crystals are present in each image.

  1. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmoredegraded.less

  2. Method for increased sensitivity of radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. Reduced background is accomplished by more thorough annealing and enhanced radiation induced luminescence is obtained by treating the crystalline material to coalesce primary damage centers into secondary damage centers.

  3. Method for detecting moisture in soils using secondary cosmic radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth

    2003-12-16

    Water content in a soil is determined by measuring the attenuation of secondary background cosmic radiation as this radiation propagates through a layer of soil and water. By measuring the attenuation of secondary cosmic radiation in the range of 5 MeV-15 MeV it is possible to obtain a relative measure of the water content in a soil layer above a suitable radiation detector and thus establish when and how much irrigation is needed. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power.

  4. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John; Collins, Leland F.; Kuklo, Thomas C.; Micali, James V.

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  5. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  6. System for particle concentration and detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  7. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  8. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  9. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic Title: Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and ...

  10. Radiation detector having a multiplicity of individual detecting elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whetten, Nathan R. (Burnt Hills, NY); Kelley, John E. (Albany, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A radiation detector has a plurality of detector collection element arrays immersed in a radiation-to-electron conversion medium. Each array contains a multiplicity of coplanar detector elements radially disposed with respect to one of a plurality of positions which at least one radiation source can assume. Each detector collector array is utilized only when a source is operative at the associated source position, negating the necessity for a multi-element detector to be moved with respect to an object to be examined. A novel housing provides the required containment of a high-pressure gas conversion medium.

  11. Apparatus and method for detecting full-capture radiation events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, Daniel M. C. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sampling the output signal of a radiation detector and distinguishing full-capture radiation events from Compton scattering events. The output signal of a radiation detector is continuously sampled. The samples are converted to digital values and input to a discriminator where samples that are representative of events are identified. The discriminator transfers only event samples, that is, samples representing full-capture events and Compton events, to a signal processor where the samples are saved in a three-dimensional count matrix with time (from the time of onset of the pulse) on the first axis, sample pulse current amplitude on the second axis, and number of samples on the third axis. The stored data are analyzed to separate the Compton events from full-capture events, and the energy of the full-capture events is determined without having determined the energies of any of the individual radiation detector events.

  12. Apparatus and method for detecting full-capture radiation events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1994-10-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for sampling the output signal of a radiation detector and distinguishing full-capture radiation events from Compton scattering events. The output signal of a radiation detector is continuously sampled. The samples are converted to digital values and input to a discriminator where samples that are representative of events are identified. The discriminator transfers only event samples, that is, samples representing full-capture events and Compton events, to a signal processor where the samples are saved in a three-dimensional count matrix with time (from the time of onset of the pulse) on the first axis, sample pulse current amplitude on the second axis, and number of samples on the third axis. The stored data are analyzed to separate the Compton events from full-capture events, and the energy of the full-capture events is determined without having determined the energies of any of the individual radiation detector events. 4 figs.

  13. Detection of coincident radiations in a single transducer by pulse shape analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, William K.; Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang

    2008-03-11

    Pulse shape analysis determines if two radiations are in coincidence. A transducer is provided that, when it absorbs the first radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a shorter time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed first radiation and, when it absorbs the second radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a longer time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed second radiation. When radiation is absorbed, the output pulse is detected and two integrals are formed, the first over a time period representative of the first time constant and the second over a time period representative of the second time constant. The values of the two integrals are examined to determine whether the first radiation, the second radiation, or both were absorbed in the transducer, the latter condition defining a coincident event.

  14. Portable chemical detection system with intergrated preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Mark J.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2005-12-27

    A portable system for the detection of chemical particles such as explosive residue utilizes a metal fiber substrate that may either be swiped over a subject or placed in a holder in a collection module which can shoot a jet of gas at the subject to dislodge residue, and then draw the air containing the residue into the substrate. The holder is then placed in a detection module, which resistively heats the substrate to evolve the particles, and provides a gas flow to move the particles to a miniature detector in the module.

  15. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  16. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  17. Solving Inverse Detection Problems Using Passive Radiation Signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.; Armstrong, Jerawan C.; Vaquer, Pablo A.

    2012-08-15

    The ability to reconstruct an unknown radioactive object based on its passive gamma-ray and neutron signatures is very important in homeland security applications. Often in the analysis of unknown radioactive objects, for simplicity or speed or because there is no other information, they are modeled as spherically symmetric regardless of their actual geometry. In these presentation we discuss the accuracy and implications of this approximation for decay gamma rays and for neutron-induced gamma rays. We discuss an extension of spherical raytracing (for uncollided fluxes) that allows it to be used when the exterior shielding is flat or cylindrical. We revisit some early results in boundary perturbation theory, showing that the Roussopolos estimate is the correct one to use when the quantity of interest is the flux or leakage on the boundary. We apply boundary perturbation theory to problems in which spherically symmetric systems are perturbed in asymmetric nonspherical ways. We apply mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) algorithms to object reconstructions. We present a benchmark test set that may be used to quantitatively evaluate inverse detection methods.

  18. Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

    2013-02-12

    A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

  19. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  20. Ultra-high sensitivity radiation detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Valentine, John D. (Cincinnati, OH); Markum, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary (Rouses Point, NY); Dickerman, Charles (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided to concentrate and detect very low levels of radioactive noble gases from the atmosphere. More specifically the invention provides a method and apparatus to concentrate xenon, krypton and radon in an organic fluid and to detect these gases by the radioactive emissions.

  1. Time Series Evaluation of Radiation Portal Monitor Data for Point Source Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Bender, Sarah E.; Flumerfelt, Eric L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2009-12-08

    The time series of data from a Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) system are evaluated for the presence of point sources by isolating the contribution of anomalous radiation. Energy-windowed background spectra taken from the RPM are compared with the observed spectra at each time step during a vehicle drive-through. The total signal is turned into a spectral distance index using this method. This provides a time series with reduced systematic fluctuations due to background attenuation by the vehicle, and allows for point source detection by time-series analyses. The anomalous time series is reanalyzed by using a wavelet filter function of similar size to the expected source profile. A number of real drive-through data sets taken at a U.S. port of entry are analyzed in this way. A set of isotopes are injected into the data set, and the resultant benign and injected data sets are analyzed with gross-counting, spectral-ratio, and time-based algorithms. Spectral and time methods together offer a significant increase to detection performance.

  2. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined detection of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiles, M.M.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1987-02-27

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation event count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  3. Compact endocavity diagnostic probes for nuclear radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph; Bolotnikov, Aleksey

    2014-08-26

    This invention relates to the field of radiation imaging. In particular, the invention relates to an apparatus and a method for imaging tissue or an inanimate object using a novel probe that has an integrated solid-state semiconductor detector and complete readout electronics circuitry.

  4. System and method for detecting gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  5. Method and system for determining depth distribution of radiation-emitting material located in a source medium and radiation detector system for use therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benke, Roland R.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2003-03-04

    A method, system and a radiation detector system for use therein are provided for determining the depth distribution of radiation-emitting material distributed in a source medium, such as a contaminated field, without the need to take samples, such as extensive soil samples, to determine the depth distribution. The system includes a portable detector assembly with an x-ray or gamma-ray detector having a detector axis for detecting the emitted radiation. The radiation may be naturally-emitted by the material, such as gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, or emitted when the material is struck by other radiation. The assembly also includes a hollow collimator in which the detector is positioned. The collimator causes the emitted radiation to bend toward the detector as rays parallel to the detector axis of the detector. The collimator may be a hollow cylinder positioned so that its central axis is perpendicular to the upper surface of the large area source when positioned thereon. The collimator allows the detector to angularly sample the emitted radiation over many ranges of polar angles. This is done by forming the collimator as a single adjustable collimator or a set of collimator pieces having various possible configurations when connected together. In any one configuration, the collimator allows the detector to detect only the radiation emitted from a selected range of polar angles measured from the detector axis. Adjustment of the collimator or the detector therein enables the detector to detect radiation emitted from a different range of polar angles. The system further includes a signal processor for processing the signals from the detector wherein signals obtained from different ranges of polar angles are processed together to obtain a reconstruction of the radiation-emitting material as a function of depth, assuming, but not limited to, a spatially-uniform depth distribution of the material within each layer. The detector system includes detectors having different properties (sensitivity, energy resolution) which are combined so that excellent spectral information may be obtained along with good determinations of the radiation field as a function of position.

  6. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steadman, P.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-09-02

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure is disclosed. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. 4 figs.

  7. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steadman, Peter; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1997-09-02

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure.

  8. Theoretical foundations of detection of terahertz radiation in laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frolov, A. A.

    2013-02-15

    A theory is developed enabling one to calculate the temporal profile and spectrum of a terahertz wave packet from the energy of the second harmonic of optical radiation generated during the nonlinear interaction between terahertz and circularly polarized laser pulses in the skin layer of an overdense plasma. It is shown that the spectral and temporal characteristics of the envelope of the second harmonic of optical radiation coincide with those of the terahertz pulse only at small durations of the detecting laser radiation. For long laser pulses, the temporal profile and spectrum of the second harmonic are mainly determined by the characteristics of optical radiation at the carrier frequency.

  9. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  10. Drone Detection, Video Feed Interception and Pilot Locating System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drone Detection, Video Feed Interception and Pilot Locating System The invention provides the capability of detecting commercially available and custom homemade remotely operated...

  11. Systems and methods for detecting and processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael M. (Livermore, CA); Yoshimura, Ann S. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-03-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provides systems and method for detecting. Sensing modules are provided in communication with one or more detectors. In some embodiments, detectors are provided that are sensitive to chemical, biological, or radiological agents. Embodiments of sensing modules include processing capabilities to analyze, perform computations on, and/or run models to predict or interpret data received from one or more detectors. Embodiments of sensing modules form various network configurations with one another and/or with one or more data aggregation devices. Some embodiments of sensing modules include power management functionalities.

  12. Solid-State Photomultiplier Development for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Stuart; Brown, Kristina; Curtis, Alden; Young, Jason; Guise, Ronald

    2012-06-12

    We are pursuing the sensitivity of back-thinned silicon (BT Si) with the gain of an SSPM (Baker 2011). Working in collaboration with Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., we are designing and fabricating prototype devices. Our original idea spurred from hybrid designs of advanced image sensors that use the sensitivity of BT Si that is then bump bonded to a CMOS readout device. As shown in the graph below (right), the BT Si has a far superior quantum efficiency (QE) than the standard photocathode response available in photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Collecting as many scintillation photons as possible is the first objective. There has been major concern that the prototype could not deliver the ~105 electronic gain of a PMT. However, recently developed SSPMs do provide the electronic gain needed. We are now pursuing the design of a BTSSPM. With a smaller footprint, the SSPM can potentially lead to a simple, compact deployment package. Because the SSPM can be pixelated and tiled, we foresee developing an imaging detector. Pinhole imaging of radiation sources is a well-exercised technology. Our implementation of the coded aperture (Marks 2010) imager provides a high throughput pinhole imager. We intend to apply miniature coded apertures to minimal pixel count SSPMs to evaluate image quality.

  13. System level latchup mitigation for single event and transient radiation effects on electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimbrough, Joseph Robert; Colella, Nicholas John

    1997-01-01

    A "blink" technique, analogous to a person blinking at a flash of bright light, is provided for mitigating the effects of single event current latchup and prompt pulse destructive radiation on a micro-electronic circuit. The system includes event detection circuitry, power dump logic circuitry, and energy limiting measures with autonomous recovery. The event detection circuitry includes ionizing radiation pulse detection means for detecting a pulse of ionizing radiation and for providing at an output terminal thereof a detection signal indicative of the detection of a pulse of ionizing radiation. The current sensing circuitry is coupled to the power bus for determining an occurrence of excess current through the power bus caused by ionizing radiation or by ion-induced destructive latchup of a semiconductor device. The power dump circuitry includes power dump logic circuitry having a first input terminal connected to the output terminal of the ionizing radiation pulse detection circuitry and having a second input terminal connected to the output terminal of the current sensing circuitry. The power dump logic circuitry provides an output signal to the input terminal of the circuitry for opening the power bus and the circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential to remove power from the power bus. The energy limiting circuitry with autonomous recovery includes circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential. The circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential includes a series FET and a shunt FET. The invention provides for self-contained sensing for latchup, first removal of power to protect latched components, and autonomous recovery to enable transparent operation of other system elements.

  14. System level latchup mitigation for single event and transient radiation effects on electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.

    1997-09-30

    A ``blink`` technique, analogous to a person blinking at a flash of bright light, is provided for mitigating the effects of single event current latchup and prompt pulse destructive radiation on a micro-electronic circuit. The system includes event detection circuitry, power dump logic circuitry, and energy limiting measures with autonomous recovery. The event detection circuitry includes ionizing radiation pulse detection means for detecting a pulse of ionizing radiation and for providing at an output terminal thereof a detection signal indicative of the detection of a pulse of ionizing radiation. The current sensing circuitry is coupled to the power bus for determining an occurrence of excess current through the power bus caused by ionizing radiation or by ion-induced destructive latchup of a semiconductor device. The power dump circuitry includes power dump logic circuitry having a first input terminal connected to the output terminal of the ionizing radiation pulse detection circuitry and having a second input terminal connected to the output terminal of the current sensing circuitry. The power dump logic circuitry provides an output signal to the input terminal of the circuitry for opening the power bus and the circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential to remove power from the power bus. The energy limiting circuitry with autonomous recovery includes circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential. The circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential includes a series FET and a shunt FET. The invention provides for self-contained sensing for latchup, first removal of power to protect latched components, and autonomous recovery to enable transparent operation of other system elements. 18 figs.

  15. Enhancing international radiation/nuclear detection training opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Thomas L.; Bersell, Bridget M.; Booker, Paul M.; Anderson, Gerald E.; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Meagher, John B.; Siefken, Rob R.; Spracklen, James L.

    2015-09-23

    The United States has worked domestically to develop and provide radiological and nuclear detection training and education initiatives aimed at interior law enforcement, but the international community has predominantly focused efforts at border and customs officials. The interior law enforcement officials of a State play a critical role in maintaining an effective national-level nuclear detection architecture. To meet this vital need, DNDO was funded by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to create and deliver a 1-week course at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary to inform interior law enforcement personnel of the overall mission, and to provide an understanding of how the participants can combat the threats of radiological and nuclear terrorism through detection efforts. Two courses, with approximately 20 students in each course, were delivered in fiscal year (FY) 2013, two were delivered in FY 2014 and FY 2015, and as of this report’s writing more are planned in FY 2016. However, while the ILEA courses produced measurable success, DNDO requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research potential avenues to further increase the course impact.In a multi-phased approach, PNNL researched and analyzed several possible global training locations and venues, and other possible ways to increase the impact of the course using an agreed-to data-gathering format.

  16. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  17. Low dose ionizing radiation detection using conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, E.A.B.; Borin, J.F.; Nicolucci, P.; Graeff, C.F.O.; Netto, T. Ghilardi; Bianchi, R.F.

    2005-03-28

    In this work, the effect of gamma radiation on the optical properties of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{sup '}-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) is studied. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with different doses from 0 Gy to 152 Gy using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source. For thin films, significant changes in the UV-visible spectra were only observed at high doses (>1 kGy). In solution, shifts in absorption peaks are observed at low doses (<10 Gy), linearly dependent on dose. The shifts are explained by conjugation reduction, and possible causes are discussed. Our results indicate that MEH-PPV solution can be used as a dosimeter adequate for medical applications.

  18. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  19. Emergency Exercise to Focus on Aerial Radiation Detection and Measuring

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Systems at Nevada National Security Site | National Nuclear Security Administration and on Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, YouTube and Flickr

  20. Emergency Exercise to Focus on Aerial Radiation Detection and Measuring

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Systems at Nevada National Security Site | National Nuclear Security Administration and on Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, YouTube and Flickr

  1. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  2. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Monitoring records are required to be reported to the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiation Records Repository by March 31 under DOE Order 231.1B and in accordance with the REMS Reporting Guide.

  3. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohanick, J.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and {approximately}450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem.

  4. Method and system for turbomachinery surge detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faymon, David K.; Mays, Darrell C.; Xiong, Yufei

    2004-11-23

    A method and system for surge detection within a gas turbine engine, comprises: measuring the compressor discharge pressure (CDP) of the gas turbine over a period of time; determining a time derivative (CDP.sub.D ) of the measured (CDP) correcting the CDP.sub.D for altitude, (CDP.sub.DCOR); estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2 ; estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR ; and determining a short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change (CDP.sub.roc) based upon the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR and the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2. The method and system then compares the short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change with a pre-determined threshold (CDP.sub.proc) and signals an output when CDP.sub.roc >CDP.sub.proc. The method and system provides a signal of a surge within the gas turbine engine when CDP.sub.roc remains>CDP.sub.proc for pre-determined period of time.

  5. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  6. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  7. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    information | Department of Energy Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII information Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII information ‎December 17, ‎2015 The REMS Program Policy for submitting of PII information in accordance with the Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) under DOE Order 231.1B and the REMS Reporting Guide. PDF icon Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of

  8. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for...

  9. Apparatus and method for the simultaneous detection of neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W.

    2000-01-01

    A sensor for simultaneously detecting neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation comprising: a sensor for the detection of gamma radiation, the sensor defining a sensing head; the sensor further defining an output end in communication with the sensing head; and an exterior neutron-sensitive material configured to form around the sensing head; wherein the neutron-sensitive material, subsequent to the capture of the neutron, fissions into an alpha-particle and a .sup.7 Li ion that is in a first excited state in a majority of the fissions, the first excited state decaying via the emission of a single gamma ray at 478 keV which can in turn be detected by the sensing head; and wherein the sensing head can also detect the ionizing electromagnetic radiation from an incident radiation field without significant interference from the neutron-sensitive material. A method for simultaneously detecting neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation comprising the steps of: providing a gamma ray sensitive detector comprising a sensing head and an output end; conforming an exterior neutron-sensitive material configured to form around the sensing head of the detector; capturing neutrons by the sensing head causing the neutron-sensitive material to fission into an alpha-particle and a .sup.7 Li ion that is in a first excited state in a majority of the fissions, the state decaying via the emission of a single gamma ray at 478 keV; sensing gamma rays entering the detector through the neutron-sensitive material; and producing an output through a readout device coupled to the output end; wherein the detector provides an output which is proportional to the energy of the absorbed ionizing electromagnetic radiation.

  10. Investigation into Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P., Guise, R., Mukhopadhyay, S., Yuan, D.

    2011-06-22

    This slide-show presents work on radiation detection with nanostructured lanthanum halides and CeBr{sub 3}. The goal is to extend the gamma energy response on both low and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy x-rays and relatively high-energy activation prompt gamma rays simultaneously using the nano-structured lanthanum bromide, lanthanum fluoride, cerium bromide, or other nanocrystal material. Homogeneous and nano structure cases are compared.

  11. Prototype demonstration of radiation therapy planning code system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, R.C.; Adams, K.J.; Estes, G.P.; Hughes, L.S. III; Waters, L.S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiation therapy planning is the process by which a radiation oncologist plans a treatment protocol for a patient preparing to undergo radiation therapy. The objective is to develop a protocol that delivers sufficient radiation dose to the entire tumor volume, while minimizing dose to healthy tissue. Radiation therapy planning, as currently practiced in the field, suffers from inaccuracies made in modeling patient anatomy and radiation transport. This project investigated the ability to automatically model patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in advanced Los Alamos radiation transport codes (such as MCNP), and to efficiently generate accurate radiation dose profiles in these geometries via sophisticated physics modeling. Modem scientific visualization techniques were utilized. The long-term goal is that such a system could be used by a non-expert in a distributed computing environment to help plan the treatment protocol for any candidate radiation source. The improved accuracy offered by such a system promises increased efficacy and reduced costs for this important aspect of health care.

  12. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  13. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirtland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-14

    Water Best Management Practice #3 Fact Seet: Outlines how a leak detection and repair program helped Kirtland Air Force Base perform distribution system audits, leak detection, and repair to conserve water site-wide.

  14. Engine throttle valve position detecting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamai, K.; Kikuchi, T.

    1987-03-31

    This patent describes an engine throttle valve position detecting system including: a throttle switch including a rotary detector member adapted to be rotated in accordance with the rotation of an engine throttle valve and having a guide portion including a section offset radially relative to the direction of rotation of the rotary detector member. A movable contact is movable by the rotation of the rotary detector member and a stationary contact disposed in opposed relationship to the movable contact. The stationary and movable contacts have opened and closed positions which are changed over at two different predetermined rotational positions of the rotary detector member; means for producing a signal related to the operation of the engine; means for comparing a temperature representative of the engine operating condition with a predetermined reference level; and judgment means operative, when the engine operating condition temperature is judged by the comparing means as being higher than predetermined reference level, to judge the position of the throttle valve based on one of the positions of the movable and stationary contacts and on the signal.

  15. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Repair | Department of Energy 3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair A distribution system audit, or leak detection and repair program, may help federal facilities identify and reduce water losses and be better stewards of water as a resource. Overview Federal facilities in large campuses with expansive distribution systems can lose a significant amount of total water production and

  16. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Doyle, Robert T.; Grubisha, Desiree S.; Rahman, Salma

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  17. radiation detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, United Kingdom, on the growing...

  18. Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from ...

  19. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    enzymatic agent (Patent) | SciTech Connect Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence

  20. Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Kross, Brian J. (Yorktown, VA); Zorn, Carl J. (Yorktown, VA); Majewski, Lukasz A. (Grafton, VA)

    1996-01-01

    An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray.RTM. (RGX.RTM.) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging.

  1. Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, S.; Kross, B.J.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

    1996-10-22

    An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray{trademark} (RGX{trademark}) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging. 5 figs.

  2. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-08-22

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the inaugural Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from June 11 22, 2012. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. The first week of the summer school focused on the foundational knowledge required by technology practitioners; the second week focused on contemporary applications. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security.

  3. Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and an associated method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.; Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator assembly for use in conjunction with a photomultiplier or the like in the detection of alpha radiation utilizes a substrate or transparent yttrium aluminum garnet and a relatively thin film of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet coated upon the substrate. The film material is applied to the substrate in a sputtering process, and the applied film and substrate are annealed to effect crystallization of the film upon the substrate. The resultant assembly provides relatively high energy resolution during use in a detection instrument and is sufficiently rugged for use in field environments.

  4. Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and an associated method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McElhaney, S.A.; Bates, J.B.

    1994-07-26

    A scintillator assembly for use in conjunction with a photomultiplier or the like in the detection of alpha radiation utilizes a substrate or transparent yttrium aluminum garnet and a relatively thin film of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet coated upon the substrate. The film material is applied to the substrate in a sputtering process, and the applied film and substrate are annealed to effect crystallization of the film upon the substrate. The resultant assembly provides relatively high energy resolution during use in a detection instrument and is sufficiently rugged for use in field environments. 4 figs.

  5. Apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation using electron photoemission in a micromechanical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis G. (Knoxville, TN); Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskou, Irene C. (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A micromechanical sensor and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation involve producing photoelectrons from a metal surface in contact with a semiconductor. The photoelectrons are extracted into the semiconductor, which causes photo-induced bending. The resulting bending is measured, and a signal corresponding to the measured bending is generated and processed. A plurality of individual micromechanical sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional matrix for imaging applications.

  6. Project 8 Detects Individual Electrons by their Cyclotron Radiation | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Project 8 Detects Individual Electrons by their Cyclotron Radiation Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 11.01.15 Project 8

  7. Request for Travel Funds for Systems Radiation Biology Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2014-03-22

    The 3rd International Systems Radiation Biology Workshop brought together the major European, US and Japanese research programs on radiation risk as well as selected experts representing systems biological approaches to discuss how the new methodologies could be best exploited for low dose research. A significant part of the workshop was devoted to discussions organised as breakout group sessions. To facilitate discussions number of participants was limited to 60 persons. To achieve the goals of this symposium in this international conference, support from DOE is vital. Hence, this proposal requested support in the amount of $15,000 to cover the travel expenses of international experts and radiation biology scientists from the United States. This supporting mechanism was clearly identified to the selected US participants as a conference support award from the DOE (See attached PDF). The workshop was an outstanding opportunity to strengthen interactions between leading experts in the emerging areas of radiation sciences, and will also provide opportunities for younger scientists to meet with experts and discuss their results. This workshop was designed to endorse active engagement in international collaboration. A major objective of this conference was to effectively communicate research results, in order to ensure that current thinking reflects sound science of radiation biology. Further, this international event addressed the use and success of scientific initiatives in radiation biology for policymakers, standard-setters, and the general public.

  8. All row, planar fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  9. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  10. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  11. Upconverting nanoparticles for optimizing scintillator based detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kross, Brian; McKisson, John E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zom, Carl

    2013-09-17

    An upconverting device for a scintillation detection system is provided. The detection system comprises a scintillator material, a sensor, a light transmission path between the scintillator material and the sensor, and a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles particles positioned in the light transmission path.

  12. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  13. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dzenitis, John M. (Danville, CA); Hertzog, Claudia K. (Houston, TX); Makarewicz, Anthony J. (Livermore, CA); Henderer, Bruce D. (Livermore, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  14. Radiation collimator and systems incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Daren R.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Jones, James L.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Bennett, Brion D.; Tschaggeny, Charles W.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-09-13

    A collimator including a housing having disposed therein a shield element surrounding a converter core in which a photon beam is generated from electrons emanating from a linear accelerator. A beam channeler longitudinally adjacent the shield element has a beam aperture therethrough coaxially aligned with, and of the same diameter as, an exit bore of the converter core. A larger entry bore in the converter core is coaxial with, and longitudinally separated from, the exit bore thereof. Systems incorporating the collimator are also disclosed.

  15. Method, apparatus and system for low-energy beta particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W.; Drigert, Mark W.

    2012-09-25

    An apparatus, method, and system relating to radiation detection of low-energy beta particles are disclosed. An embodiment includes a radiation detector with a first scintillator and a second scintillator operably coupled to each other. The first scintillator and the second scintillator are each structured to generate a light pulse responsive to interaction with beta particles. The first scintillator is structured to experience full energy deposition of low-energy beta particles, and permit a higher-energy beta particle to pass therethrough and interact with the second scintillator. The radiation detector further includes a light-to-electrical converter operably coupled to the second scintillator and configured to convert light pulses generated by the first scintillator and the second scintillator into electrical signals. The first scintillator and the second scintillator have at least one mutually different characteristic to enable an electronic system to determine whether a given light pulse is generated in the first scintillator or the second scintillator.

  16. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markham, James R. (Middlefield, CT)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  17. Method for detecting water equivalent of snow using secondary cosmic gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1997-01-14

    Water equivalent of accumulated snow determination by measurement of secondary background cosmic radiation attenuation by the snowpack. By measuring the attenuation of 3-10 MeV secondary gamma radiation it is possible to determine the water equivalent of snowpack. The apparatus is designed to operate remotely to determine the water equivalent of snow in areas which are difficult or hazardous to access during winter, accumulate the data as a function of time and transmit, by means of an associated telemetry system, the accumulated data back to a central data collection point for analysis. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power. 4 figs.

  18. Method for detecting water equivalent of snow using secondary cosmic gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    Water equivalent of accumulated snow determination by measurement of secondary background cosmic radiation attenuation by the snowpack. By measuring the attentuation of 3-10 MeV secondary gamma radiation it is possible to determine the water equivalent of snowpack. The apparatus is designed to operate remotely to determine the water equivalent of snow in areas which are difficult or hazardous to access during winter, accumulate the data as a function of time and transmit, by means of an associated telemetry system, the accumulated data back to a central data collection point for analysis. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power.

  19. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  20. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  1. Occupancy change detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, David J. [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-01

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes instructions for producing an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scanning the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converting the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. The instructions also include processing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map. Within the processing of each grid cell, the instructions include comparing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map to a corresponding grid cell in the current occupancy grid map. For grid cells with a difference, the instructions include defining a change vector for each changed grid cell, wherein the change vector includes a direction from the robot to the changed grid cell and a range from the robot to the changed grid cell.

  2. Method and system for determining depth distribution of radiation-emitting material located in a source medium and radiation detector system for use therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benke, Roland R.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2004-04-27

    A radiation detector system includes detectors having different properties (sensitivity, energy resolution) which are combined so that excellent spectral information may be obtained along with good determinations of the radiation field as a function of position.

  3. Online Monitoring System for Performance Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-05-19

    To achieve the exaFLOPS performance within a contain power budget, next supercomputers will feature hundreds of millions of components operating at low- and near-threshold voltage. As the probability that at least one of these components fails during the execution of an application approaches certainty, it seems unrealistic to expect that any run of a scientific application will not experience some performance faults. We believe that there is need of a new generation of light-weight performance and debugging tools that can be used online even during production runs of parallel applications and that can identify performance anomalies during the application execution. In this work we propose the design and implementation of a monitoring system that continuously inspects the evolution of run

  4. Systems and methods for detection of blowout precursors in combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Tim C.; Nair, Suraj

    2006-08-15

    The present invention comprises systems and methods for detecting flame blowout precursors in combustors. The blowout precursor detection system comprises a combustor, a pressure measuring device, and blowout precursor detection unit. A combustion controller may also be used to control combustor parameters. The methods of the present invention comprise receiving pressure data measured by an acoustic pressure measuring device, performing one or a combination of spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis on received pressure data, and determining the existence of a blowout precursor based on such analyses. The spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis further comprise their respective sub-methods to determine the existence of blowout precursors.

  5. Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via System Call Sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaver, Justin M; Jewell, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    The host-based detection of malicious data exfiltration activities is currently a sparse area of research and mostly limited to methods that analyze network traffic or signature based detection methods that target specific processes. In this paper we explore an alternative method to host-based detection that exploits sequences of system calls and new collection methods that allow us to catch these activities in real time. We show that system calls sequences can be found to reach a steady state across processes and users, and explore the viability of new methods as heuristics for profiling user behaviors.

  6. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Jenno, Diana M.

    2014-09-30

    Executive Summary The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the 3rd Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from 16 – 27 June 2014. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security. In fact, we are beginning to see previous students both enroll in graduate programs (former undergraduates) and complete internships at agencies like the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  7. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follum, James D.

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  8. Precursors to cold fusion phenomenon and the detection of energetic charged particles in deuterium/solid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, S.Y.; Wang, K.L.; Feng, Y.Y.; Chang, L.; Luo, C.M.; Hu, R.Y.; Zhou, P.L.; Mo, D.W.; Zhu, Y.F.; Song, C.L.; Chen, Y.T.; Yao, M.Y.; Ren, C.; Chen, Q.K.; Li, X.Z. )

    1991-11-01

    A precursor to the cold fusion phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems is sought in order to solve the problem of reproducibility. The results of the first experiments are discussed. Electromagnetic radiation and energetic charged particles have been detected. In this paper it is shown that the surface condition has an important effect on this phenomenon.

  9. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  10. Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and method of making the assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhaney, Stephanie A.; Bauer, Martin L.; Chiles, Marion M.

    1992-01-01

    A scintillator assembly for use in the detection of alpha radiation includes a body of optically-transparent epoxy and an amount of phosphor particles embedded within the body adjacent one surface thereof. When making the body, the phosphor particles are mixed with the epoxy when in an uncured condition and permitted to settle to the bottom surface of a mold within which the epoxy/phosphor mixture is contained. When the mixture subsequently cures to form a hardened body, the one surface of the body which cured against the bottom surface of the mold is coated with a thin layer of opaque material for preventing ambient light form entering the body through the one surface. The layer of opaque material is thereafter coated with a layer of protective material to provide the assembly with a damage-resistant entrance window.

  11. Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and method of making the assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhaney, S.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Chiles, M.M.

    1992-09-22

    A scintillator assembly for use in the detection of alpha radiation includes a body of optically-transparent epoxy and an amount of phosphor particles embedded within the body adjacent one surface thereof. When making the body, the phosphor particles are mixed with the epoxy when in an uncured condition and permitted to settle to the bottom surface of a mold within which the epoxy/phosphor mixture is contained. When the mixture subsequently cures to form a hardened body, the one surface of the body which cured against the bottom surface of the mold is coated with a thin layer of opaque material for preventing ambient light form entering the body through the one surface. The layer of opaque material is thereafter coated with a layer of protective material to provide the assembly with a damage-resistant entrance window. 6 figs.

  12. High-frequency detection of the formation and stabilization of a radiation-induced defect cluster in semiconductor structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puzanov, A. S.; Obolenskiy, S. V. Kozlov, V. A.; Volkova, E. V.; Paveliev, D. G.

    2015-12-15

    The processes of the formation and stabilization of a radiation-induced defect cluster upon the arrival of a fast neutron to the space-charge region of a semiconductor diode are analyzed. The current pulse formed by secondary electrons is calculated and the spectrum of the signal generated by the diode (detector) under the action of an instantaneous neutron flux of the fission spectrum is determined. The possibility of experimental detection of the picosecond radiation-induced transition processes is discussed.

  13. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the

  14. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the

  15. Design of radiation resistant metallic multilayers for advanced nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Gill, Simerjeet E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Stanic, Vesna; DiMasi, Elaine; Kisslinger, Kim; Ecker, Lynne; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Misra, Amit; Demkowicz, M. J.

    2014-06-16

    Helium implantation from transmutation reactions is a major cause of embrittlement and dimensional instability of structural components in nuclear energy systems. Development of novel materials with improved radiation resistance, which is of the utmost importance for progress in nuclear energy, requires guidelines to arrive at favorable parameters more efficiently. Here, we present a methodology that can be used for the design of radiation tolerant materials. We used synchrotron X-ray reflectivity to nondestructively study radiation effects at buried interfaces and measure swelling induced by He implantation in Cu/Nb multilayers. The results, supported by transmission electron microscopy, show a direct correlation between reduced swelling in nanoscale multilayers and increased interface area per unit volume, consistent with helium storage in Cu/Nb interfaces in forms that minimize dimensional changes. In addition, for Cu/Nb layers, a linear relationship is demonstrated between the measured depth-dependent swelling and implanted He density from simulations, making the reflectivity technique a powerful tool for heuristic material design.

  16. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  17. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Struven, Warren C.

    1984-01-01

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  18. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  19. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent (Shelley, ID) [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  20. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

  1. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  2. Review of Current Neutron Detection Systems for Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Maurer, R.; Guss, P.; Kruschwitz, C.

    2014-09-01

    Neutron detectors are used in a myriad of applicationsfrom safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Modern micro-fabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  3. Gamma-Ray Signatures for State-Of-Health Analysis and Monitoring of Widely-Arrayed Radiation Portal Monitor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Angel, Linda K.; Wright, Ingrid H.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Pospical, A. Jill; Ellis, John E.

    2008-05-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has deployed a large array of radiation portal monitors for the Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection. These portal monitors scan incoming vehicles crossing the U.S. border and shipping containers leaving international ports for radioactive material via gamma-ray and neutron detection. Data produced and captured by these systems are recorded for every vehicle related to radiation signature, sensor/system status, and local background, as well as a host of other variables. Within the Radiation Portal Monitor Project at PNNL, state-of-health observation and analysis for the whole RPM system using these data to determine functionality and performance is being developed. (PIET-43741-TM-492)

  4. Detection of embedded radiation sources using temporal variation of gamma spectral data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the isotopes present in a measurement. For low energy resolution detectors, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the isotopes present in the measurement. When many isotopes are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many trial solutions by highly skilled spectroscopists. This report investigates the potential of a new analysis method which uses spatial/temporal information from multiple low energy resolution measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other isotopes present. This method is referred to as targeted principal component analysis (TPCA). For radiation portal monitor applications, multiple measurements of gamma spectra are taken at equally spaced time increments as a vehicle passes through the portal and the TPCA method is directly applicable to this type of measurement. In this report we describe the method and investigate its application to the problem of detection of a radioactive localized source that is embedded in a distributed source in the presence of an ambient background. Examples using simulated spectral measurements indicate that this method works very well and has the potential for automated analysis for RPM applications. This method is also expected to work well for isotopic detection in the presence of spectrally and spatially varying backgrounds as a result of vehicle-induced background suppression. Further work is needed to include effects of shielding, to understand detection limits, setting of thresholds, and to estimate false positive probability.

  5. Systems and methods for neutron detection using scintillator nano-materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2016-03-08

    In one embodiment, a neutron detector includes a three dimensional matrix, having nanocomposite materials and a substantially transparent film material for suspending the nanocomposite materials, a detector coupled to the three dimensional matrix adapted for detecting a change in the nanocomposite materials, and an analyzer coupled to the detector adapted for analyzing the change detected by the detector. In another embodiment, a method for detecting neutrons includes receiving radiation from a source, converting neutrons in the radiation into alpha particles using converter material, converting the alpha particles into photons using quantum dot emitters, detecting the photons, and analyzing the photons to determine neutrons in the radiation.

  6. All-to-all sequenced fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus, program product and method enable nodal fault detection by sequencing communications between all system nodes. A master node may coordinate communications between two slave nodes before sequencing to and initiating communications between a new pair of slave nodes. The communications may be analyzed to determine the nodal fault.

  7. Sensor integration study for a shallow tunnel detection system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Mark L.; Abbott, Robert E.; Bonal, Nedra; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    During the past several years, there has been a growing recognition of the threats posed by the use of shallow tunnels against both international border security and the integrity of critical facilities. This has led to the development and testing of a variety of geophysical and surveillance techniques for the detection of these clandestine tunnels. The challenges of detection of these tunnels arising from the complexity of the near surface environment, the subtlety of the tunnel signatures themselves, and the frequent siting of these tunnels in urban environments with a high level of cultural noise, have time and again shown that any single technique is not robust enough to solve the tunnel detection problem in all cases. The question then arises as to how to best combine the multiple techniques currently available to create an integrated system that results in the best chance of detecting these tunnels in a variety of clutter environments and geologies. This study utilizes Taguchi analysis with simulated sensor detection performance to address this question. The analysis results show that ambient noise has the most effect on detection performance over the effects of tunnel characteristics and geological factors.

  8. Definition of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of...

  9. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  10. Multi Optical Transition Radiation System for ATF2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alabau-Gonzalvo, Javier; /Valencia U., IFIC; Blanch Gutierrez, Cesar; /Valencia U., IFIC; Civera, Jose Vicente; /Valencia U., IFIC; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; /Valencia U., IFIC; Garcia-Garrigos, Juan; /Valencia U., IFIC; Cruz, Juan; /SLAC; McCormick, Douglas; /SLAC; White, Glen; /SLAC

    2012-07-13

    In this paper we describe the design, installation and first calibration tests of a Multi Optical Transition Radiation System in the beam diagnostic section of the Extraction (EXT) line of ATF2, close to the multi wire scanner system. This system will be a valuable tool for measuring beam sizes and emittances coming from the ATF Damping Ring. With an optical resolution of about 2 {micro}m an original OTR design (OTR1X) located after the septum at the entrance of the EXT line demonstrated the ability to measure a 5.5 {micro}m beam size in one beam pulse and to take many fast measurements. This gives the OTR the ability to measure the beam emittance with high statistics, giving a low error and a good understanding of emittance jitter. Furthermore the nearby wire scanners will be a definitive test of the OTR as a beam emittance diagnostic device. The multi-OTR system design proposed here is based on the existing OTR1X.

  11. ANSI and IEC standards for, and evaluation of, radiation detection instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2008-01-01

    During the last quarter of 2002, an effort was started to develop performance requirements for radiation instrumentation used for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material. Coordinated by the US National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST), a team was formed to establish writing committees for the development of these requirements as American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. The core of the new area was developed as ANSI N42, Homeland Security Instruments. A series of standards were developed followed by testing and evaluation (T&E) protocols that would be used for specific testing. Four US National Laboratories provided T&E support and work commenced to test instruments provided by manufacturers at no cost. During this time, discussions began regarding the formation of a new work group within the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This new work group would be located within technical committee (TC) 45 which addresses nuclear instrumentation. This new work group, 15B, also began developing international standards to address the same instrument types. Following development of ANSI standards, the testing and evaluation process began, running for two distinct rounds. The results of the work was consolidated by NIST and released back to individual companies as well as the user community in a controlled manner. This document will provide details regarding the standards and their basis and status, as well as some information regarding the T&E process used in the USA.

  12. Self-filling and self-purging apparatus for detecting spontaneous radiation from substances in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, I. Lauren; Chiles, Marion M.; Miller, V. Clint

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a radiation detector providing for the in situ automatic sampling of fluids containing substances emitting radiation, especially Cerenkov radiation. The detector permits sampling within well casings and is self-purging such that no additional provisions must be established for the storage and disposal of contaminated fluids.

  13. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  14. System of laser pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate optical recording process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu; Osawa, Hitoshi; Kimura, Shigeru; Ito, Kiminori; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Rie; Hisada, Kazuya; Tsuchino, Akio; Birukawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Noboru; Sekiguchi, Koji; Fujiie, Kazuhiko; Kawakubo, Osamu; Takata, Masaki

    2013-06-15

    We have developed a system of laser-pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate the phase-change process on a nanosecond time scale of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film embedded in multi-layer structures, which corresponds to real optical recording media. The measurements were achieved by combining (i) the pump-laser system with a pulse width of 300 ps, (ii) a highly brilliant focused microbeam with wide peak-energy width ({Delta}E/E {approx} 2%) made by focusing helical undulator radiation without monochromatization, and (iii) a precise sample rotation stage to make repetitive measurements. We successfully detected a very weak time-resolved diffraction signal by using this system from 100-nm-thick Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase-change layers. This enabled us to find the dependence of the crystal-amorphous phase change process of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} layers on laser power.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  16. Detect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detect Detect Scientists and engineers develop detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive under a variety of scenarios. v Detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive Los Alamos scientists and engineers develop detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive under a variety of scenarios. Detection methods range from trace and signature characterization to bulk detection and new methods that address homemade or esoteric explosives. Los Alamos

  17. SciFri AM: Mountain 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ; Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A; Brolo, AG

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF{sub 2} = 0.57 and MCF7, SF{sub 2} = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF{sub 2} = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments.

  18. Trace detection of analytes using portable raman systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alam, M. Kathleen; Hotchkiss, Peter J.; Martin, Laura E.; Jones, David Alexander

    2015-11-24

    Apparatuses and methods for in situ detection of a trace amount of an analyte are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the present disclosure provides a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) insert including a passageway therethrough, where the passageway has a SERS surface positioned therein. The SERS surface is configured to adsorb molecules of an analyte of interest. A concentrated sample is caused to flow over the SERS surface. The SERS insert is then provided to a portable Raman spectroscopy system, where it is analyzed for the analyte of interest.

  19. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  20. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-05

    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  1. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  2. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time are disclosed. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos[l brace]2[phi](t)[r brace]. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase [phi](t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of [phi][prime](t). 10 figs.

  3. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Shie; Dunham, Mark E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos{2.phi.(t)}. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase .phi.(t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of .phi.'(t).

  4. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2010-12-14

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  5. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2009-03-17

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  6. System and method for the identification of radiation in contaminated rooms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2015-09-29

    Devices and methods for the characterization of areas of radiation in contaminated rooms are provided. One such device is a collimator with a collimator shield for reducing noise when measuring radiation. A position determination system is provided that may be used for obtaining position and orientation information of the detector in the contaminated room. A radiation analysis method is included that is capable of determining the amount of radiation intensity present at known locations within the contaminated room. Also, a visual illustration system is provided that may project images onto the physical objects, which may be walls, of the contaminated room in order to identify the location of radioactive materials for decontamination.

  7. A Multi-Layer Phoswich Radioxenon Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-07-14

    Laboratory radioactive sources were used to characterize the phoswich detector. The CaF{sub 2} scintillator has a low light-yield and slow decay time, thus produces very small signals due to low-energy gamma rays or X-rays. Therefore, detection of 30 keV X-rays (from the xenon radioisotopes) using this layer and discriminating its very small signals from electronic noise was a challenging task. Several solutions were considered and experimentally evaluated. We found that the best solution would be extending the fast triangular filter from 10 taps to 30 taps. This will extend the peaking time of this filter from 25 nsec to 75 nsec. The digital filter is implemented in FPGA on our DPP2.0 and is used to trigger the detection system. Functionality of the new filter in capturing and discriminating 30 keV X-rays was confirmed by using a {sup 133}Ba gamma-ray source. Development of the DPP GUI software has continued with the addition of two new panels to display histograms of beta/gamma and beta/x-ray coincidence events. This includes coincidence events from a single channel, as well as two-channel, coincidence event. A pileup rejection algorithm has been implemented in the FPGA code, and controls to adjust its sensitivity have been added to the GUI. Work has begun on a new prototype system to develop a USB host interface between the PC and the FPGA to end reliance on Opal Kelly prototyping boards; the hardware for this system has been completely assembled, and the PC-side software is currently in development.

  8. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  9. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  10. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  11. Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr3 for Nuclear Radiation and Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Guss, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Ron Guise, Ding Yuan

    2010-06-09

    Scintillator materials are used to detect, and in some cases identify, gamma rays. Higher performance scintillators are expensive, hard to manufacture, fragile, and sometimes require liquid nitrogen or cooling engines. But whereas lower-quality scintillators are cheap, easy to manufacture, and more rugged, their performance is lower. At issue: can the desirable qualities of high-and low-performance scintillators be combined to achieve better performance at lower cost? Preliminary experiments show that a LaF{sub 3}:Ce oleic acid-based nanocomposite exhibits a photopeak when exposed to {sup 137}Cs source gamma-radiation. The chemical synthesis of the cerium-doped lanthanum halide nanoparticles are scalable and large quantities of material can be produced at a time, unlike typical crystal growth processes such as the Bridgeman process. Using a polymer composite (Figure 1), produced by LANL, initial measurements of the unloaded and 8% LaF{sub 3}:Ce-loaded sample have been made using {sup 137}Cs sources. Figure 2 shows an energy spectrum acquired for CeF{sub 3}. The lighter plot is the measured polymer-only spectrum and the black plot is the spectrum from the nanocomposite scintillator. As the development of this material continues, the energy resolution is expected to improve and the photopeak-to-Compton ratio will become greater at higher loadings. These measurements show the expected Compton edge in the polymer-only sample, and the Compton edge and photo-peak expected in the nanophosphor composites that LANL has produced. Using a porous VYCORR with CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, Letant has demonstrated that he has obtained signatures of the 241Am photopeak with energy resolution as good at NaI (Figure 3). We begin with the fact that CeBr{sub 3} crystals do not have a self-activity component as strong as the lanthanum halides. The radioactive 0.090% {sup 138}La component of lanthanum leads to significant self-activity, which will be a problem for very large detector volumes. Yet a significant strength of the nanostructure detector concept is the ability to create extremely large detector volumes by mixing nanoparticles into a transparent matrix. This would argue for use of nanoparticles other than lanthanum halides. Nanocomposites are easy to prepare; it is much less costly to use nanocomposites than to grow large whole crystals of these materials. The material can be fabricated at an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This material potentially offers the performance of $300/cc material (e.g., lanthanum bromide) at a cost of $1/cc. Because the material acts as a plastic, it is rugged and flexible, and can be made in large sheets, increasing the sensitivity of a detector using it. It would operate at ambient temperatures. Very large volumes of detector may be produced at greatly reduced cost, enhancing the non-proliferation posture of the nation for the same dollar value.

  12. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  13. Method and system for imaging a radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myjak, Mitchell J. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Seifert, Carolyn E. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA; Morris, Scott J. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA

    2011-04-19

    A method for imaging a radiation source, and a device that utilizes these methods that in one embodiment include the steps of: calculating at least one Compton cone of a first parameter of a radiation emission from information received from a sensor occurrence; and tracing this Compton cone on to a unit sphere having preselected characteristics using an estimated angular uncertainty to limit at least a portion of said tracing. In another embodiment of the invention at least two Compton cones are calculated and then intersected upon a predefined surface such as a sphere. These intersection points can then be iterated over a preselected series of prior events.

  14. Systems and methods for forming defects on graphitic materials and curing radiation-damaged graphitic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryu, Sunmin; Brus, Louis E.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Liu, Haitao

    2012-09-25

    Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.

  15. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  16. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  17. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  18. Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry System | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Public-Private Partnerships for Clean Energy Manufacturing Fact Sheet Public-Private Partnerships for Clean Energy Manufacturing Fact Sheet PDF icon Public-Private Partnerships for Clean Energy Manufacturing More Documents & Publications Introduction to CEMI Fact Sheet Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Workshop Before the Subcommittee on Energy - House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology Energy

    Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry

  19. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M

    2014-10-07

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  20. Hybrid Radiator-Cooling System (ANL-IN-11-096) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Hybrid Radiator-Cooling System (ANL-IN-11-096) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Coolant radiators in highway trucks are designed to transfer maximum heat at a "design condition." The current standard design condition is a fully-loaded truck climbing up Baker Grade on the hottest summer day. The coolant system, including radiator, is sized to remove 100% of the required heat from the engine

  1. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA, the FOMs indicated Mo/Mo (grid out) as optimal while W/Rh (grid in) was the optimal configuration at 40, 60, and 70 mm PMMA. For the Hologic, the FOMs pointed to W/Rh (grid in) at 20 and 40 mm of PMMA while W/Ag (grid in) gave the highest FOM at 60 and 70 mm PMMA. Finally, DQE at 1 mm{sup −1} averaged for the four beam qualities studied was 0.44 ± 0.02 and 0.55 ± 0.03 for the Siemens and Hologic detectors, respectively, indicating only a small influence of energy on detector DQE.Conclusions: Both the DQE and eDQE data showed only a small sensitivity to T/F setting for these two systems. The eDQE showed clear preferences in terms of scatter reduction, being highest for the grid-in geometry for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above. The SdNR and d′ based figures of merit, which contain additional weighting for contrast and dose, pointed to specific T/F settings for both systems.

  2. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  3. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  4. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  5. Opportunities for Decay Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes Using Ultra-low-background Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Moran, James J.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary We present results from a scoping study whose intent was to define challenge measurements to be pursued on the Ultra-Sensitive Nuclear Measurements Initiative. Potential challenge measurements using new radiation detection technology in the shallow underground laboratory that would have substantial impact in environmental science were the focus of this study.

  6. Multiple cell radiation detector system, and method, and submersible sonde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Larry O. (Island Park, ID); McIsaac, Charles V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lawrence, Robert S. (Shelley, ID); Grafwallner, Ervin G. (Arco, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A multiple cell radiation detector includes a central cell having a first cylindrical wall providing a stopping power less than an upper threshold; an anode wire suspended along a cylindrical axis of the central cell; a second cell having a second cylindrical wall providing a stopping power greater than a lower threshold, the second cylindrical wall being mounted coaxially outside of the first cylindrical wall; a first end cap forming a gas-tight seal at first ends of the first and second cylindrical walls; a second end cap forming a gas-tight seal at second ends of the first and second cylindrical walls; and a first group of anode wires suspended between the first and second cylindrical walls.

  7. SNM Movement Detection/Radiation Sensors and Advanced Materials Portfolio Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James,R.

    2008-06-19

    The project objectives are: (1) determine for the first time the properties limiting the performance of CZT detectors; (2) develop efficient, non-destructive techniques to measure the quality of detector materials; and (3) provide rapid feedback to crystal growers and, in conjunction with suppliers, improve CZT detector performance as measured by device energy resolution, efficiency, stability and cost. The goal is a stable commercial supply of low-cost, high energy resolution (0.5% FWHM at 662 keV) CZT crystals for detecting, characterizing and imaging nuclear and radiological materials in a wide variety of field conditions.

  8. Scientific system for high-resolution measurement of the circumsolar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrott, Simeon Schmidt, Thomas Hornung, Thorsten Nitz, Peter

    2014-09-26

    We developed a camera based system for measurements of the circumsolar radiation with a high angular resolution of 0.1 mrad. Subsequent measurements may be taken at intervals as short as 15 s. In this publication we describe the optical system in detail and discuss some aspects of the measurement method. First results from two days of measurement at Freiburg i. Br., Germany, are presented and compared to data from literature. The good results encourage us to perform longer measurement campaigns in future to better understand the influence of circumsolar radiation on the power yield of concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  9. System and method for automated object detection in an image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; George, John S.; Paiton, Dylan M.; Schultz, Peter F.

    2015-10-06

    A contour/shape detection model may use relatively simple and efficient kernels to detect target edges in an object within an image or video. A co-occurrence probability may be calculated for two or more edge features in an image or video using an object definition. Edge features may be differentiated between in response to measured contextual support, and prominent edge features may be extracted based on the measured contextual support. The object may then be identified based on the extracted prominent edge features.

  10. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  11. Method and device for predicting wavelength dependent radiation influences in thermal systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kee, Robert J. (864 Lucille St., Livermore, CA 94550); Ting, Aili (7329 Stonedale Dr., Pleasanton, CA 94558)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for predicting the spectral (wavelength-dependent) radiation transport in thermal systems including interaction by the radiation with partially transmitting medium. The predicted model of the thermal system is used to design and control the thermal system. The predictions are well suited to be implemented in design and control of rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactors. The method involves generating a spectral thermal radiation transport model of an RTP reactor. The method also involves specifying a desired wafer time dependent temperature profile. The method further involves calculating an inverse of the generated model using the desired wafer time dependent temperature to determine heating element parameters required to produce the desired profile. The method also involves controlling the heating elements of the RTP reactor in accordance with the heating element parameters to heat the wafer in accordance with the desired profile.

  12. Circuitry, systems and methods for detecting magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K. [Shelley, ID; Spencer, David F. [Idaho Falls, ID; Roybal, Lyle G. [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-14

    Circuitry for detecting magnetic fields includes a first magnetoresistive sensor and a second magnetoresistive sensor configured to form a gradiometer. The circuitry includes a digital signal processor and a first feedback loop coupled between the first magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor. A second feedback loop which is discrete from the first feedback loop is coupled between the second magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor.

  13. Camera selection for real-time in vivo radiation treatment verification systems using Cherenkov imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M. Glaser, Adam K.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To identify achievable camera performance and hardware needs in a clinical Cherenkov imaging system for real-time, in vivo monitoring of the surface beam profile on patients, as novel visual information, documentation, and possible treatment verification for clinicians. Methods: Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), charge-coupled device (CCD), intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), and electron multiplying-intensified charge coupled device (EM-ICCD) cameras were investigated to determine Cherenkov imaging performance in a clinical radiotherapy setting, with one emphasis on the maximum supportable frame rate. Where possible, the image intensifier was synchronized using a pulse signal from the Linac in order to image with room lighting conditions comparable to patient treatment scenarios. A solid water phantom irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam was imaged by the cameras to evaluate the maximum frame rate for adequate Cherenkov detection. Adequate detection was defined as an average electron count in the background-subtracted Cherenkov image region of interest in excess of 0.5% (327 counts) of the 16-bit maximum electron count value. Additionally, an ICCD and an EM-ICCD were each used clinically to image two patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy to compare clinical advantages and limitations of each system. Results: Intensifier-coupled cameras were required for imaging Cherenkov emission on the phantom surface with ambient room lighting; standalone CMOS and CCD cameras were not viable. The EM-ICCD was able to collect images from a single Linac pulse delivering less than 0.05 cGy of dose at 30 frames/s (fps) and pixel resolution of 512 × 512, compared to an ICCD which was limited to 4.7 fps at 1024 × 1024 resolution. An intensifier with higher quantum efficiency at the entrance photocathode in the red wavelengths [30% quantum efficiency (QE) vs previous 19%] promises at least 8.6 fps at a resolution of 1024 × 1024 and lower monetary cost than the EM-ICCD. Conclusions: The ICCD with an intensifier better optimized for red wavelengths was found to provide the best potential for real-time display (at least 8.6 fps) of radiation dose on the skin during treatment at a resolution of 1024 × 1024.

  14. SU-E-T-524: Web-Based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System (ROIRLS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M; Grover, S; Malik, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Describe a Web-based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: The VA National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and near miss data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. Software used for this program is deployed on the VAs intranet as a Website. All data entry forms (adverse event or near miss reports, work product reports) utilize standard causal, RT process step taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM and ASTRO reports on error reporting (AAPM Work Group Report on Prevention of Errors and ASTROs safety is no accident report). All reported incidents are investigated by the radiation oncology domain experts. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The operational workflow is similar to that of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. This system is also synergistic with ROSIS and SAFRON. Results: The ROIRLS facilitates the collection of data that help in tracking adverse events and near misses and develop new interventions to prevent such incidents. The ROIRLS electronic infrastructure is fully integrated with each registered facility profile data thus minimizing key strokes and multiple entries by the event reporters. Conclusions: OIRLS is expected to improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in the VA and fulfills our goal of Effecting Quality While Treating Safely The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations Inc. and is deployed on the VA intranet as a Website. The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations Inc. and is deployed on the VA intranet as a Website.

  15. Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Rassuchine, Jennifer

    2009-06-30

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.

  16. Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

  17. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  18. Power System Extreme Event Detection: The VulnerabilityFrontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Pinar, Ali; Roy, Sandip

    2007-10-17

    In this work we apply graph theoretic tools to provide aclose bound on a frontier relating the number of line outages in a gridto the power disrupted by the outages. This frontier describes theboundary of a space relating the possible severity of a disturbance interms of power disruption, from zero to some maximum on the boundary, tothe number line outages involved in the event. We present the usefulnessof this analysis with a complete analysis of a 30 bus system, and presentresults for larger systems.

  19. Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2013-08-20

    Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

  20. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  1. A measurement technique to determine the calibration accuracy of an electromagnetic tracking system to radiation isocenter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Gallagher, Ian; Masi, Kathryn J.; Lee, Choonik; Prisciandaro, Joann I.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Ritter, Timothy; Lam, Kwok L.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To present and characterize a measurement technique to quantify the calibration accuracy of an electromagnetic tracking system to radiation isocenter.Methods: This technique was developed as a quality assurance method for electromagnetic tracking systems used in a multi-institutional clinical hypofractionated prostate study. In this technique, the electromagnetic tracking system is calibrated to isocenter with the manufacturers recommended technique, using laser-based alignment. A test patient is created with a transponder at isocenter whose position is measured electromagnetically. Four portal images of the transponder are taken with collimator rotations of 45 135, 225, and 315, at each of four gantry angles (0, 90, 180, 270) using a 3 6 cm{sup 2} radiation field. In each image, the center of the copper-wrapped iron core of the transponder is determined. All measurements are made relative to this transponder position to remove gantry and imager sag effects. For each of the 16 images, the 50% collimation edges are identified and used to find a ray representing the rotational axis of each collimation edge. The 16 collimator rotation rays from four gantry angles pass through and bound the radiation isocenter volume. The center of the bounded region, relative to the transponder, is calculated and then transformed to tracking system coordinates using the transponder position, allowing the tracking system's calibration offset from radiation isocenter to be found. All image analysis and calculations are automated with inhouse software for user-independent accuracy. Three different tracking systems at two different sites were evaluated for this study.Results: The magnitude of the calibration offset was always less than the manufacturer's stated accuracy of 0.2 cm using their standard clinical calibration procedure, and ranged from 0.014 to 0.175 cm. On three systems in clinical use, the magnitude of the offset was found to be 0.053 0.036, 0.121 0.023, and 0.093 0.013 cm.Conclusions: The method presented here provides an independent technique to verify the calibration of an electromagnetic tracking system to radiation isocenter. The calibration accuracy of the system was better than the 0.2 cm accuracy stated by the manufacturer. However, it should not be assumed to be zero, especially for stereotactic radiation therapy treatments where planning target volume margins are very small.

  2. Communications system using a mirror kept in outer space by electromagnetic radiation pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Csonka, Paul L.

    1981-01-01

    A method and system are described for transmitting electromagnetic radiation by using a communications mirror located between about 100 kilometers and about 200 kilometers above ground. The communications mirror is kept aloft above the atmosphere by the pressure of the electromagnetic radiation which it reflects, and which is beamed at the communications mirror by a suitably constructed transmitting antenna on the ground. The communications mirror will reflect communications, such as radio, radar, or television waves up to about 1,100 kilometers away when the communications mirror is located at a height of about 100 kilometers.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF A NOVEL FAST TRANSIENTS DETECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of a new incoherent dedispersion algorithm optimized for FPGA-based architectures intended for deployment on the Australian SKA Pathfinder and other Square Kilometre Array precursors for fast transients surveys. Unlike conventional CPU- and GPU-optimized incoherent dedispersion algorithms, this algorithm has the freedom to maximize the S/N by way of programmable dispersion profiles that enable the inclusion of different numbers of time samples per spectral channel. This allows, for example, more samples to be summed at lower frequencies where intra-channel dispersion smearing is larger, or it could even be used to optimize the dedispersion sum for steep spectrum sources. Our analysis takes into account the intrinsic pulse width, scatter broadening, spectral index and dispersion measure of the signal, and the system's frequency range, spectral and temporal resolution, and number of trial dedispersions. We show that the system achieves better than 80% of the optimal S/N where the temporal resolution and the intra-channel smearing time are smaller than a quarter of the average width of the pulse across the system's frequency band (after including scatter smearing). Coarse temporal resolutions suffer a {Delta}t {sup -1/2} decay in S/N, and coarse spectral resolutions cause a {Delta}{nu}{sup -1/2} decay in S/N, where {Delta}t and {Delta}{nu} are the temporal and spectral resolutions of the system, respectively. We show how the system's S/N compares with that of matched filter and boxcar filter detectors. We further present a new algorithm for selecting trial dispersion measures for a survey that maintains a given minimum S/N performance across a range of dispersion measures.

  4. Electronic system for data acquisition to study radiation effects on operating MOSFET transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves de Oliveira, Juliano; Assis de Melo, Marco Antnio; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    In this work we present the development of an acquisition system for characterizing transistors under X-ray radiation. The system is able to carry out the acquisition and to storage characteristic transistor curves. To test the acquisition system we have submitted polarized P channel MOS transistors under continuous 10-keV X-ray doses up to 1500 krad. The characterization system can operate in the saturation region or in the linear region in order to observe the behavior of the currents or voltages involved during the irradiation process. Initial tests consisted of placing the device under test (DUT) in front of the X-ray beam direction, while its drain current was constantly monitored through the prototype generated in this work, the data are stored continuously and system behavior was monitored during the test. In order to observe the behavior of the DUT during the radiation tests, we used an acquisition system that consists of an ultra-low consumption16-bit Texas Instruments MSP430 microprocessor. Preliminary results indicate linear behavior of the voltage as a function of the exposure time and fast recovery. These features may be favorable to use this device as a radiation dosimeter to monitor low rate X-ray.

  5. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed. Similarly, if a fire were to break out anywhere in the D-ZERO Hall, fire sensors would stop the output of all flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed, by unpowering electrically controlled solenoid valves that are normally closed in the event of a power failure. Fire sensor contacts have not yet been installed.

  6. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu

    2012-12-31

    Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

  7. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  8. Design and evaluation of the ReKon : an integrated detection and assessment perimeter system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabling, Jeffrey Glenn; Andersen, Jason Jann; McLaughlin, James O.

    2013-02-01

    Kontek Industries (Kannapolis, NC) and their subsidiary, Stonewater Control Systems (Kannapolis, NC), have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement with Sandia to jointly develop and evaluate an integrated perimeter security system solution, one that couples access delay with detection and assessment. This novel perimeter solution was designed to be configurable for use at facilities ranging from high-security military sites to commercial power plants, to petro/chemical facilities of various kinds. A prototype section of the perimeter has been produced and installed at the Sandia Test and Evaluation Center in Albuquerque, NM. This prototype system integrated fiber optic break sensors, active infrared sensors, fence disturbance sensors, video motion detection, and ground sensors. This report documents the design, testing, and performance evaluation of the developed ReKon system. The ability of the system to properly detect pedestrian or vehicle attempts to bypass, breach, or otherwise defeat the system is characterized, as well as the Nuisance Alarm Rate.

  9. Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Robert H.; Rogomentich, Fran J.

    1996-10-08

    The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.

  10. Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vilim, Richard B.; Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Frederick W.

    2002-03-02

    An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

  11. Ultrasonic imaging system for in-process fabric defect detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Lawrence, William P.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1997-01-01

    An ultrasonic method and system are provided for monitoring a fabric to identify a defect. A plurality of ultrasonic transmitters generate ultrasonic waves relative to the fabric. An ultrasonic receiver means responsive to the generated ultrasonic waves from the transmitters receives ultrasonic waves coupled through the fabric and generates a signal. An integrated peak value of the generated signal is applied to a digital signal processor and is digitized. The digitized signal is processed to identify a defect in the fabric. The digitized signal processing includes a median value filtering step to filter out high frequency noise. Then a mean value and standard deviation of the median value filtered signal is calculated. The calculated mean value and standard deviation are compared with predetermined threshold values to identify a defect in the fabric.

  12. Harsh conditions can't contain researchers' efforts to test radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harsh conditions can't contain researchers' efforts to test radiation detection systems | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People...

  13. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Sethi, Roshan V.; Kuhlthau, Karen A.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.

  14. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  15. Prototype Radiation Detector Positioning System For The Automated Nondestructive Assay Of Uf6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.

    2011-08-07

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of efficiency and assay accuracy. This paper describes an approach denoted the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) that supports 100% cylinder verification, provides volume-averaged cylinder enrichment assay, and reduces inspector manpower needs. To allow field measurements to be collected to validate data collection algorithms, a prototype radiation detector positioning system was constructed. The system was designed to accurately position an array of radiation detectors along the length of a cylinder to measure UF6 enrichment. A number of alternative radiation shields for the detectors were included with the system. A collimated gamma-ray spectrometer module that allows translation of the detectors in the surrounding shielding to adjust the field of view, and a collimating plug in the end to further reduce the low-energy field of view, were also developed. Proof-of-principle measurements of neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, using moderated neutron detectors and large-volume spectrometers in a fixed-geometry, portal-like configuration, supported an early assessment of the viability of the concept. The system has been used successfully on two testing campaigns at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant to scan over 30 product cylinders. This paper will describe the overall design of the detector positioning system and provide an overview of the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) approach.

  16. Extraterrestrial Materials: The Role of Synchrotron Radiation Analyses in the Study of Our Solar System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sutton, Stephen R. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2010-01-08

    Sample-return missions and natural collection processes have provided us with a surprisingly extensive collection of matter from Solar System bodies other than the Earth. These collections include samples from the Moon, Mars, asteroids, interplanetary dust, and, recently, from the Sun (solar wind) and a comet. This presentation will describe some of these materials, how they were collected, and what we have learned from them. Synchrotron radiation analyses of these materials are playing an increasingly valuable role in unraveling the histories and properities of the parent Solar System bodies.

  17. Design study and comparative evaluation of JSFR failed fuel detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aizawa, K.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Kubo, S.; Okazaki, H.; Mito, M.; Tozawa, K.; Hayashi, M.

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual design study of an advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor JSFR has progressed in the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) 'project in Japan. JSFR has two failed fuel detection systems in the core. One is a failed fuel detection (FFD) system which continuously monitors a fission product from failed fuel subassembly. The other is a failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system which locates when it receives signals from FFD. The FFD system consists of a FFD-DN which detects delayed neutron (DN) in sodium and a FFD-CG which detects fission products in the cover gas of the reactor vessel. In this study, requirements to the FFD-DN and the FFD-DN design to meet the requirements were investigated for the commercial and demonstration JSFR. In the commercial JSFR, a sampling type FFD which collects sodium from the reactor vessel by sampling lines for DN detectors was adopted. The performances have been investigated and confirmed by a fluid analysis in the reactor upper plenum. In the demonstration JSFR, the performance of DN detectors installed on the primary cold-leg piping has been confirmed. For the FFDL systems, experiences in the previous fast reactors and the R and D of FFDL system for JSFR were investigated. This study focuses on the Selector-Valve and the Tagging-Gas FFDL systems. Operation experiences of the Selector-valve FFDL system were accumulated in PFR and Phenix. Tagging-gas system experiences were accumulated in EBR-II and FFTF. The feasibility of both FFDL systems for JSFR was evaluated. (authors)

  18. Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. ); Silverstein, C.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.

  19. Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Silverstein, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.

  20. Fault Detection and Isolation in Low-Voltage DC Distribution System -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Fault Detection and Isolation in Low-Voltage DC Distribution System University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2941D-3222D (DC Microgrid) Marketing Summary.pdf (172 KB) Conceptual diagram of a DC distribution system Conceptual diagram of a DC distribution system Technology

  1. Method and apparatus for detecting timing errors in a system oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gliebe, Ronald J.; Kramer, William R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of detecting timing errors in a system oscillator for an electronic device, such as a power supply, includes the step of comparing a system oscillator signal with a delayed generated signal and generating a signal representative of the timing error when the system oscillator signal is not identical to the delayed signal. An LED indicates to an operator that a timing error has occurred. A hardware circuit implements the above-identified method.

  2. Method and apparatus for operating a powertrain system upon detecting a stuck-closed clutch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, R. Anthony

    2014-02-18

    A powertrain system includes a multi-mode transmission having a plurality of torque machines. A method for controlling the powertrain system includes identifying all presently applied clutches including commanded applied clutches and the stuck-closed clutch upon detecting one of the torque-transfer clutches is in a stuck-closed condition. A closed-loop control system is employed to control operation of the multi-mode transmission accounting for all the presently applied clutches.

  3. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  4. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  5. SU-E-P-07: Evaluation of Productivity Systems for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, C; Usynin, A [Thompson Cancer Survival Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Health systems throughout the United States are under increased financial pressure to reduce operating cost. As a result, productivity models developed by third-party consultants are being used to optimize staff to treatment volumes. The purpose of this study was to critically evaluate productivity systems for radiation oncology. Methods: Staffing efficiency was evaluated using multiple productivity models. The first model evaluated staffing levels using equal weighting of procedure codes and hours worked. A second productivity model was developed using hours worked by job class and relative value units for each procedure code. A third model was developed using the measured procedure times extracted from the electronic medical record, which tracks the wait and treatment times for each patient for each treatment fraction. A MatLab program was developed to query and analyze the daily treatment data. A model was then created to determine any theoretical gains in treatment productivity. Results: Productivity was evaluated for six radiation therapy departments operating nine linear accelerators delivering over 40,000 treatment fractions per year. Third party productivity models that do not take into consideration the unique nature of radiation therapy can be counterproductive. For example, other outpatient departments can compress their daily schedule to decrease the worked hours. This approach was tested using the treatment schedule evaluation tool developed as part of this study. It was determined that the maximum possible savings for treatment schedule compression was $32,000 per year per linac. All annual cost savings would be lost if only two patients per year choose to be treated elsewhere because of limited or restricted appointment times. Conclusion: The use of productivity models in radiation therapy can easily result in a loss of treatment revenue that is greater than any potential cost savings in reduced hours worked by staff.

  6. An analysis of weep holes as a product detection device for underground compensated LPG storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarica, C.; Demir, H.M.; Brill, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Weep holes have been used widely to detect the presence of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in brine for underground compensated storage systems. When the brine level drops below the weep hole, LPG product enters the brine production system causing an increase in both tubing head pressure and flow rate. To prevent cavern overfill, a cavern shutdown is initiated upon detection of LPG in the surface brine system by pressure or flow instruments at the tubing head. In this study, we have investigated the multiphase flow characteristics of weep hole LPG detection systems to correctly estimate the operating limits. A simple and easy to use model has been developed to predict the tubing head pressure and flow rate increases. The model can be used to implement safer and more efficient operation procedures for underground compensated LPG storage systems. The model predictions for a typical field case are presented. An analysis of weep holes as product detection devices for LPG storage reservoirs has been carried out. It was found that the increases in pressure and flow rates at the tubing head change as a function of injection flow rate of the product. Therefore, a thorough consideration of cavern operating parameters is necessary to evaluate the use constant pressure and flow rate values to initiate emergency shut down of the cavern.

  7. Radiation Effects of n-type, Low Resistivity, Spiral Silicon Drift Detector Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen W.; De Geronimo G.; Carini, G.A.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Siddons, D.P.; Smith, G.C.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2011-11-15

    We have developed a new thin-window, n-type, low-resistivity, spiral silicon drift detector (SDD) array - to be used as an extraterrestrial X-ray spectrometer (in varying environments) for NASA. To achieve low-energy response, a thin SDD entrance window was produced using a previously developed method. These thin-window devices were also produced on lower resistivity, thinner, n-type, silicon material, effectively ensuring their radiation hardness in anticipation of operation in potentially harsh radiation environments (such as found around the Jupiter system). Using the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility beam line RERS1, we irradiated a set of suitable diodes up to 5 Mrad and the latest iteration of our ASICs up to 12 Mrad. Then we irradiated two hybrid detectors consisting of newly, such-produced in-house (BNL) SDD chips bonded with ASICs with doses of 0.25 Mrad and 1 Mrad. Also we irradiated another hybrid detector consisting of previously produced (by KETEK) on n-type, high-resistivity SDD chip bonded with BNL's ASICs with a dose of 1 Mrad. The measurement results of radiated diodes (up to 5 Mrad), ASICs (up to 12 Mrad) and hybrid detectors (up to 1 Mrad) are presented here.

  8. A prototype implementation of a network-level intrusion detection system. Technical report number CS91-11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.F.; Maccabe, A.B.; Servilla, M.; Sturtevant, J.

    1991-05-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype network level intrusion detection system. The prototype system monitors base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, time, and network protocol), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  9. Methods, systems and devices for detecting threatening objects and for classifying magnetic data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Spencer, David F.

    2012-01-24

    A method for detecting threatening objects in a security screening system. The method includes a step of classifying unique features of magnetic data as representing a threatening object. Another step includes acquiring magnetic data. Another step includes determining if the acquired magnetic data comprises a unique feature.

  10. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  11. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  12. Detection of a concealed object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Paul E [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  13. Detection of a concealed object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Paul E. (Richland, WA); Hall, Thomas E. (Kennewick, WA); McMakin, Douglas L. (Richland, WA)

    2008-04-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  14. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSON RL

    2008-07-18

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the authors interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  16. Systems and methods for selective detection and imaging in coherent Raman microscopy by spectral excitation shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Freudiger, Christian; Min, Wei

    2016-03-15

    A microscopy imaging system is disclosed that includes a light source system, a spectral shaper, a modulator system, an optics system, an optical detector and a processor. The light source system is for providing a first train of pulses and a second train of pulses. The spectral shaper is for spectrally modifying an optical property of at least some frequency components of the broadband range of frequency components such that the broadband range of frequency components is shaped producing a shaped first train of pulses to specifically probe a spectral feature of interest from a sample, and to reduce information from features that are not of interest from the sample. The modulator system is for modulating a property of at least one of the shaped first train of pulses and the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of a train of pulses of interest transmitted or reflected through the common focal volume. The processor is for detecting a modulation at the modulation frequency of the integrated intensity of substantially all of the optical frequency components of the train of pulses of interest due to the non-linear interaction of the shaped first train of pulses with the second train of pulses as modulated in the common focal volume, and for providing an output signal for a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

  17. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Meiye; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Hatch, Anson

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  18. Method Apparatus And System For Detecting Seismic Waves In A Borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sumstine, Roger L. (St. George, UT)

    2006-03-14

    A method, apparatus and system for detecting seismic waves. A sensing apparatus is deployed within a bore hole and may include a source magnet for inducing a magnetic field within a casing of the borehole. An electrical coil is disposed within the magnetic field to sense a change in the magnetic field due to a displacement of the casing. The electrical coil is configured to remain substantially stationary relative to the well bore and its casing along a specified axis such that displacement of the casing induces a change within the magnetic field which may then be sensed by the electrical coil. Additional electrical coils may be similarly utilized to detect changes in the same or other associated magnetic fields along other specified axes. The additional sensor coils may be oriented substantially orthogonally relative to one another so as to detect seismic waves along multiple orthogonal axes in three dimensional space.

  19. A Tutorial on Detection and Characterization of Special Behavior in Large Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2004-08-20

    The objective of this document is to report results in the detection and characterization of special behavior in large electric power systems. Such behavior is usually dynamic in nature, but not always. This is also true for the underlying sources of special behavior. At the device level, a source of special behavior might be an automatic control system, a dynamic load, or even a manual control system that is operated according to some sharply defined policy. Other possible sources include passive system conditions, such as the state of a switched device or the amount of power carried on some critical line. Detection and characterization are based upon “signature information” that is extracted from the behavior observed. Characterization elements include the signature information itself, the nature of the behavior and its likely causes, and the associated implications for the system or for the public at large. With sufficient data and processing, this characterization may directly identify a particular condition or device at a specific location. Such conclusive results cannot always be done from just one observation, however. Information environments that are very sparse may require multiple observations, comparative model studies, and even direct testing of the system.

  20. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  1. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Twerdochlib, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature.

  2. System and method for bearing fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Harley, Ronald G.; Theisen, Peter J.

    2010-08-17

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from the operating motor and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  3. System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Nowak, Michael P.; Dimino, Steven A.

    2010-12-07

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  4. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  5. Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

    2005-03-18

    Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al. 1999), and the E13 site at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility.

  6. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  7. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore » larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  8. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Benzel, David M.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Spiridon, Alex

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  9. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  10. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, Hal O.; Martin, Donn C.; Lampton, Michael L.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

  11. A Wide Temperature, Radiation Tolerant, CMOS-compatible Precision Voltage Reference for Extreme Environment Instrumentation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCue, Mr. Benjamin; Blalock, Benjamin; Potts, J.; Kemerling, Mr. James; Isihara, Mr. Kyoshi; Leines, Capt. Matt; Britton Jr, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Many design techniques have been incorporated into modern CMOS design practices to improve radiation tolerance of integrated circuits. Annular-gate NMOS structures have been proven to be significantly more radiation tolerant than the standard straight-gate variety. Many circuits can be designed using the annular-gate NMOS and the inherently radiation tolerant PMOS. Band-gap reference circuits, however, typically require p-n junction diodes. These p-n junction diodes are the dominating factor in radiation degradation in band-gap reference circuits. This paper proposes a different approach to band-gap reference design to alleviate the radiation susceptibility presented by the p-n junction diodes.

  12. Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack on a digital processing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Li, Wei-Jen; Keromylis, Angelos D.; Androulaki, Elli

    2014-07-22

    Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include: comparing at least part of a document to a static detection model; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the comparison of the document to the static detection model; executing at least part of the document; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the execution of the at least part of the document; and if attacking code is determined to be included in the document based on at least one of the comparison of the document to the static detection model and the execution of the at least part of the document, reporting the presence of an attack. In some embodiments, the methods include: selecting a data segment in at least one portion of an electronic document; determining whether the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered without causing the electronic document to result in an error when processed by a corresponding program; in response to determining that the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered, arbitrarily altering the data segment in the at least one portion of the electronic document to produce an altered electronic document; and determining whether the corresponding program produces an error state when the altered electronic document is processed by the corresponding program.

  13. Near-Surface CO2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-01-19

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability of containing geothermal CO2 anomalies can be further sampled and analyzed using more expensive chemical and isotopic methods. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The suitability of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be determined based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

  14. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  15. Optical methods and systems for detecting a constituent in a gas containing oxygen in harsh environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Michael A. (Scotia, NY); Sirinakis, George (Bronx, NY)

    2011-01-04

    A method for detecting a gas phase constituent such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrocarbons in a gas comprising oxygen such as air, includes providing a sensing material or film having a metal embedded in a catalytically active matrix such as gold embedded in a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The method may include annealing the sensing material at about 900.degree. C., exposing the sensing material and gas to a temperature above 400.degree. C., projecting light onto the sensing material, and detecting a change in the absorption spectrum of the sensing material due to the exposure of the sensing material to the gas in air at the temperature which causes a chemical reaction in the sensing material compared to the absorption spectrum of the sensing material in the absence of the gas. Systems employing such a method are also disclosed.

  16. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  17. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  18. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF DEPOSIT DETECTION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OF THE STEELWORKS USING CS-137 GAMMA-RAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-28

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  20. A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balmain, Allan; Song, Ihn Young

    2013-05-15

    The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a ??Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

  1. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

  2. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-10-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence of an active target agent. A SNAP25 sequence is described, for example, that may be cleaved in the presence of Botulinum Neurotoxin. The substrate molecule includes a reporter moiety. The substrate molecule is exposed to the sample, and resulting reaction products separated using electrophoretic separation. The elution time of the reporter moiety may be utilized to identify the presence or absence of the active target agent.

  3. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linearmore » or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.« less

  4. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.

  5. System for detecting and limiting electrical ground faults within electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1990-01-01

    An electrical ground fault detection and limitation system for employment with a nuclear reactor utilizing a liquid metal coolant. Elongate electromagnetic pumps submerged within the liquid metal coolant and electrical support equipment experiencing an insulation breakdown occasion the development of electrical ground fault current. Without some form of detection and control, these currents may build to damaging power levels to expose the pump drive components to liquid metal coolant such as sodium with resultant undesirable secondary effects. Such electrical ground fault currents are detected and controlled through the employment of an isolated power input to the pumps and with the use of a ground fault control conductor providing a direct return path from the affected components to the power source. By incorporating a resistance arrangement with the ground fault control conductor, the amount of fault current permitted to flow may be regulated to the extent that the reactor may remain in operation until maintenance may be performed, notwithstanding the existence of the fault. Monitors such as synchronous demodulators may be employed to identify and evaluate fault currents for each phase of a polyphase power, and control input to the submerged pump and associated support equipment.

  6. Real-time self-networking radiation detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Edward; Lemley, James; Tsang, Thomas Y.; Milian, Laurence W.

    2007-06-12

    The present invention is for a radiation detector apparatus for detecting radiation sources present in cargo shipments. The invention includes the features of integrating a bubble detector sensitive to neutrons and a GPS system into a miniaturized package that can wirelessly signal the presence of radioactive material in shipping containers. The bubble density would be read out if such indicated a harmful source.

  7. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  8. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  9. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A.; Hogle, Richard E.

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  10. System and method for radiation dose calculation within sub-volumes of a monte carlo based particle transport grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergstrom, Paul M.; Daly, Thomas P.; Moses, Edward I.; Patterson, Jr., Ralph W.; Schach von Wittenau, Alexis E.; Garrett, Dewey N.; House, Ronald K.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L.; Cox, Lawrence J.; Fujino, Donald H.

    2000-01-01

    A system and method is disclosed for radiation dose calculation within sub-volumes of a particle transport grid. In a first step of the method voxel volumes enclosing a first portion of the target mass are received. A second step in the method defines dosel volumes which enclose a second portion of the target mass and overlap the first portion. A third step in the method calculates common volumes between the dosel volumes and the voxel volumes. A fourth step in the method identifies locations in the target mass of energy deposits. And, a fifth step in the method calculates radiation doses received by the target mass within the dosel volumes. A common volume calculation module inputs voxel volumes enclosing a first portion of the target mass, inputs voxel mass densities corresponding to a density of the target mass within each of the voxel volumes, defines dosel volumes which enclose a second portion of the target mass and overlap the first portion, and calculates common volumes between the dosel volumes and the voxel volumes. A dosel mass module, multiplies the common volumes by corresponding voxel mass densities to obtain incremental dosel masses, and adds the incremental dosel masses corresponding to the dosel volumes to obtain dosel masses. A radiation transport module identifies locations in the target mass of energy deposits. And, a dose calculation module, coupled to the common volume calculation module and the radiation transport module, for calculating radiation doses received by the target mass within the dosel volumes.

  11. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  12. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  13. Multi-sensor system for the detection and characterization of unexploded ordnance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Frank H.; Gasperikova, Erika

    2011-08-16

    To fully characterize the inductive response of an isolated conductive object, such as buried unexploded ordinance, one needs to measure its response to stimulation by primary magnetic fields in three linearly independent (e.g., approximately orthogonal) directions. In one embodiment this is achieved by measuring the response to magnetic fields of three independent transmitters arranged to have magnetic fields that are linearly independent. According to the apparatus and methods employing the system of this invention, multiple transmitters and receivers of known relative position and orientation on a single platform are used. In a preferred embodiment, matched sets of receiver pairs connected in gradient mode are positioned adjacent to closely spaced pairs of transmitting coils, such that a minor displacement of one or both of the receiver coil pairs relative to the paired transmitting coils will not affect the detected secondary signals emitted by a buried metallic object.

  14. Method and system for early detection of incipient faults in electric motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parlos, Alexander G; Kim, Kyusung

    2003-07-08

    A method and system for early detection of incipient faults in an electric motor are disclosed. First, current and voltage values for one or more phases of the electric motor are measured during motor operations. A set of current predictions is then determined via a neural network-based current predictor based on the measured voltage values and an estimate of motor speed values of the electric motor. Next, a set of residuals is generated by combining the set of current predictions with the measured current values. A set of fault indicators is subsequently computed from the set of residuals and the measured current values. Finally, a determination is made as to whether or not there is an incipient electrical, mechanical, and/or electromechanical fault occurring based on the comparison result of the set of fault indicators and a set of predetermined baseline values.

  15. Systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2007-10-16

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  16. Methods and systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2006-07-18

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  17. Physics-based, Bayesian sequential detection method and system for radioactive contraband

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V; Axelrod, Michael C; Breitfeller, Eric F; Chambers, David H; Guidry, Brian L; Manatt, Douglas R; Meyer, Alan W; Sale, Kenneth E

    2014-03-18

    A distributed sequential method and system for detecting and identifying radioactive contraband from highly uncertain (noisy) low-count, radionuclide measurements, i.e. an event mode sequence (EMS), using a statistical approach based on Bayesian inference and physics-model-based signal processing based on the representation of a radionuclide as a monoenergetic decomposition of monoenergetic sources. For a given photon event of the EMS, the appropriate monoenergy processing channel is determined using a confidence interval condition-based discriminator for the energy amplitude and interarrival time and parameter estimates are used to update a measured probability density function estimate for a target radionuclide. A sequential likelihood ratio test is then used to determine one of two threshold conditions signifying that the EMS is either identified as the target radionuclide or not, and if not, then repeating the process for the next sequential photon event of the EMS until one of the two threshold conditions is satisfied.

  18. Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2004-12-15

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include (1) the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for measurement of concentrations at point locations, (2) the accumulation chamber (AC) method for measuring soil CO2 fluxes at point locations, (3) the eddy covariance (EC) method for measuring net CO2 flux over a given area, (4) hyperspectral imaging of vegetative stress resulting from elevated CO2 concentrations, and (5) light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that can measure CO2 concentrations over an integrated path. Technologies currently in developmental stages that have the potential to be used for CO2 monitoring include tunable lasers for long distance integrated concentration measurements and micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) that can make widespread point measurements. To address the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring methodologies with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. Within the area targeted for geothermal exploration, point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations using the AC method and a portable IRGA, respectively, and measurements of net surface flux using EC should be made. Also, the natural spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes and subsurface CO2 concentrations should be quantified within a background area with similar geologic, climatic, and ecosystem characteristics to the area targeted for geothermal exploration. Statistical analyses of data collected from both areas should be used to guide sampling strategy, discern spatial patterns that may be indicative of geothermal CO2 emissions, and assess the presence (or absence) of geothermal CO2 within the natural background variability with a desired confidence level. Once measured CO2 concentrations and fluxes have been determined to be of anomalous geothermal origin with high confidence, more expensive vertical subsurface gas sampling and chemical and isotopic analyses can be undertaken. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The appropriateness of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be decided based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

  19. SU-E-T-200: IBA ProteusOne Compact Proton Therapy System Radiation Survey Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J; Syh, J; Syh, J; White, M; Patel, B; Song, X; Wu, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study summarizes the results of an initial radiation survey of the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center in Shreveport, Louisiana. The facility houses an IBA ProteusOne compact single room proton therapy unit coupled with a C230 cyclotron that operates at a maximum energy of 230 MeV. Methods: A calibrated survey meter was used for the photon measurements to obtain reliable results. A neutron detector was used as the measuring instrument for neutrons. The locations of the survey and measurements were planned carefully in order to get a proper evaluation of the facility shielding configuration. The walls, ceiling, vault entrance, and the adjacent environment were each surveyed with suitable measurement instruments. A total of 22 locations were chosen for radiation survey. Dose equivalent values were calculated for both the photon and the neutron radiation using measured data. Results: All measured dose values are presented in millisievert per year. The highest dose measured at the vault entrance is 0.34 mSv/year. A dedicated shielding door was not present at the time of the measurement. The vault entrance area is considered as a controlled area. The shielding design goals are not to exceed 5 mSv/year for the controlled area and 1 mSv/year the uncontrolled area. The total combined neutron and photon dose equivalent values were found to be compliant with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality radiation protection regulatory codes. Conclusion: In our efforts to evaluate the radiation levels at the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center proton treatment facility, we have found that all the measured values of the radiation shielding are below the critical radiation limits per year. Since the total dose measured at the vault entrance is below the shielding design goal, a shielding door is not required at this proton treatment vault.

  20. ON THE DETECTION OF IONIZING RADIATION ARISING FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT z {approx} 3-4: LOOKING FOR ANALOGS OF 'STELLAR RE-IONIZERS'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanzella, Eros; Cristiani, Stefano; Nonino, Mario; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey; Dickinson, Mark; Faber, S. M.; Newman, Jeffrey; Siana, Brian D.

    2012-05-20

    We use the spatially resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z {approx} 3.7 identified using ultradeep imaging below the Lyman limit (1{sigma} limit of Almost-Equal-To 30 AB in a 2'' diameter aperture). In 19 candidates out of a sample of 20 with flux detected at >3{sigma} level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) by up to 1.''5. We fit the spectral energy distribution of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f{sub esc}) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these findings, we argue that the majority of similar measurements reported in the literature need further investigation before it can be firmly concluded that LyC emission is detected. Our only surviving LyC candidate is an LBG at z = 3.795, which shows the bluest (B - V) color among LBGs at similar redshift, a stellar mass of M {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, weak interstellar absorption lines, and a flat UV spectral slope with no Ly{alpha} in emission. We estimate its f{sub esc} to be in the range 25%-100%, depending on the dust and intergalactic attenuation.

  1. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  2. Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing

  3. The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 4. Separation of the Trivalent Actinides and Considerations for Radiation-Resistant Solvent Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2010-07-01

    The separation of the minor actinides from dissolved nuclear fuel is one of the more formidable challenges associated with the design of the advanced fuel cycle. The partitioning of americium and its transmutation in fast reactor fuel would reduce high-level-waste long-term storage requirements by as much as two orders of magnitude. However, the lanthanides have very similar chemistry. They also have large neutron capture cross sections and poor metal alloy properties and thus they can not be incorporated into fast reactor fuel. A separation amenable to currently existing aqueous solvent extraction processes is therefore desired, and research is underway in Europe, Asia and the USA toward this end. Current concepts for this final separation rely on the use of soft-donor nitrogen or sulfur-containing ligands that favor complexation with the 5f orbitals of the actinides. In the USA, the most developed process is the TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) process, based upon the competition between bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in the organic phase and lactate-buffered diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. In Europe and Japan, current investigation is focused on the BTP diamide mixtures or dithiophosphinic acids. Any process eventually adopted must be robust under conditions of high-radiation dose-rates and acid hydrolysis. The effects of irradiation on solvent extraction formulations may result in: 1) decreased ligand concentrations resulting in lower metal distribution ratios, 2) decreased selectivity due to the generation of ligand radiolysis products that are complexing agents, 3) decreased selectivity due to the generation of diluent radiolysis products that are complexing agents, and 4) altered solvent performance due to films, precipitates, and increased viscocity. Many of the ligands associated with minor actinide/lanthanide separations are relatively new. Unlike their predecessors, many have been designed with radiation chemical principals in mind. The evolution of the BTPs and diamides show attention to these details, and a series of structural modifications have evolved that are meant to address them. In this fourth and final part in the series we report on the radiation chemistry of the minor actinide separations processes. We also provide a summary of the general radiolysis reactions that have implications for all ligand and diluent systems.

  4. Gamma and neutron detection modeling in the nuclear detection figure of merit (NDFOM) portal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroud, Phillip D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Detection Figure Of Merit (NDFOM) portal is a database of objects and algorithms for evaluating the performance of radiation detectors to detect nuclear material. This paper describes the algorithms used to model the physics and mathematics of radiation detection. As a first-principles end-to-end analysis system, it starts with the representation of the gamma and neutron spectral fluxes, which are computed with the particle and radiation transport code MCNPX. The gamma spectra emitted by uranium, plutonium, and several other materials of interest are described. The impact of shielding and other intervening material is computed by the method of build-up factors. The interaction of radiation with the detector material is computed by a detector response function approach. The construction of detector response function matrices based on MCNPX simulation runs is described in detail. Neutron fluxes are represented in a three group formulation to treat differences in detector sensitivities to thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons.

  5. Detecting extrasolar moons akin to solar system satellites with an orbital sampling effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, Ren

    2014-05-20

    Despite years of high accuracy observations, none of the available theoretical techniques has yet allowed the confirmation of a moon beyond the solar system. Methods are currently limited to masses about an order of magnitude higher than the mass of any moon in the solar system. I here present a new method sensitive to exomoons similar to the known moons. Due to the projection of transiting exomoon orbits onto the celestial plane, satellites appear more often at larger separations from their planet. After about a dozen randomly sampled observations, a photometric orbital sampling effect (OSE) starts to appear in the phase-folded transit light curve, indicative of the moons' radii and planetary distances. Two additional outcomes of the OSE emerge in the planet's transit timing variations (TTV-OSE) and transit duration variations (TDV-OSE), both of which permit measurements of a moon's mass. The OSE is the first effect that permits characterization of multi-satellite systems. I derive and apply analytical OSE descriptions to simulated transit observations of the Kepler space telescope assuming white noise only. Moons as small as Ganymede may be detectable in the available data, with M stars being their most promising hosts. Exomoons with the ten-fold mass of Ganymede and a similar composition (about 0.86 Earth radii in radius) can most likely be found in the available Kepler data of K stars, including moons in the stellar habitable zone. A future survey with Kepler-class photometry, such as Plato 2.0, and a permanent monitoring of a single field of view over five years or more will very likely discover extrasolar moons via their OSEs.

  6. System and method for constructing filters for detecting signals whose frequency content varies with time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

    1996-11-12

    A system and method are disclosed for constructing a bank of filters which detect the presence of signals whose frequency content varies with time. The present invention includes a novel system and method for developing one or more time templates designed to match the received signals of interest and the bank of matched filters use the one or more time templates to detect the received signals. Each matched filter compares the received signal x(t) with a respective, unique time template that has been designed to approximate a form of the signals of interest. The robust time domain template is assumed to be of the order of w(t)=A(t)cos(2{pi}{phi}(t)) and the present invention uses the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) as an approximation of the instantaneous frequency function {phi}{prime}(t). First, numerous data samples of the received signal x(t) are collected. A joint time frequency representation is then applied to represent the signal, preferably using the time frequency distribution series. The joint time-frequency transformation represents the analyzed signal energy at time t and frequency f, P(t,f), which is a three-dimensional plot of time vs. frequency vs. signal energy. Then P(t,f) is reduced to a multivalued function f(t), a two dimensional plot of time vs. frequency, using a thresholding process. Curve fitting steps are then performed on the time/frequency plot, preferably using Levenberg-Marquardt curve fitting techniques, to derive a general instantaneous frequency function {phi}{prime}(t) which best fits the multivalued function f(t). Integrating {phi}{prime}(t) along t yields {phi}{prime}(t), which is then inserted into the form of the time template equation. A suitable amplitude A(t) is also preferably determined. Once the time template has been determined, one or more filters are developed which each use a version or form of the time template. 7 figs.

  7. System and method for constructing filters for detecting signals whose frequency content varies with time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Shie; Dunham, Mark E.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for constructing a bank of filters which detect the presence of signals whose frequency content varies with time. The present invention includes a novel system and method for developing one or more time templates designed to match the received signals of interest and the bank of matched filters use the one or more time templates to detect the received signals. Each matched filter compares the received signal x(t) with a respective, unique time template that has been designed to approximate a form of the signals of interest. The robust time domain template is assumed to be of the order of w(t)=A(t)cos{2.pi..phi.(t)} and the present invention uses the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) as an approximation of the instantaneous frequency function {.phi.'(t). First, numerous data samples of the received signal x(t) are collected. A joint time frequency representation is then applied to represent the signal, preferably using the time frequency distribution series (also known as the Gabor spectrogram). The joint time-frequency transformation represents the analyzed signal energy at time t and frequency .function., P(t,f), which is a three-dimensional plot of time vs. frequency vs. signal energy. Then P(t,f) is reduced to a multivalued function f(t), a two dimensional plot of time vs. frequency, using a thresholding process. Curve fitting steps are then performed on the time/frequency plot, preferably using Levenberg-Marquardt curve fitting techniques, to derive a general instantaneous frequency function .phi.'(t) which best fits the multivalued function f(t), a trajectory of the joint time-frequency domain representation of x(t). Integrating .phi.'(t) along t yields .phi.(t), which is then inserted into the form of the time template equation. A suitable amplitude A(t) is also preferably determined. Once the time template has been determined, one or more filters are developed which each use a version or form of the time template.

  8. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  9. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  10. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING RADIATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeder, S.D.

    1962-04-17

    A chemical dosimeter for measuring the progress of a radiation-induced oxidation-reduction reaction is described. The dosimeter comprises a container filled with an aqueous chemical oxidation-reduction system which reacts quantitatively to the radiation. An anode of the group consisting of antimony and tungsten and a cathode of the group consisting of gold and platnium are inserted into the system. Means are provided to stir the system and a potential sensing device is connected across the anode and cathode to detect voltage changes. (AEC)

  11. Stragegies to Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based on Monitoringand Analysis of CO2 in the Near-Surface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-03-29

    We investigate the potential for CO2 monitoring in thenear-surface environment as an approach to exploration for hiddengeothermal systems. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration from a modelhidden geothermal system show that CO2 concentrations can reach highlevels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low CO2 fluxes.Therefore, subsurface measurements offer an advantage over above-groundmeasurements which are affected by winds that rapidly disperse CO2. Tomeet the challenge of detecting geothermal CO2 emissions within thenatural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach thatintegrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statisticalanalysis and modeling.

  12. A comparison of portable and permanent landfill liner leak detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, S.B.; White, C.C.; Barker, R.D.

    1999-07-01

    Monitoring of the integrity of electrically non-conductive geomembrane liners installed at waste sites using electrical geophysical techniques has been carried out for a number of years using above-liner leak location surveys and, more recently, below-liner monitoring systems. The authors compare the theoretical response of both types of survey to a hole in a liner and then compare with measurements made in the field. The theoretical leak response indicates that above-liner surveys are sensitive to leaks over a greater area, though both responses result in comparable leak detectability. However, field data suggest that in practice, measurements made on a sparse grid below the liner have the greater sensitivity to certain leaks. This may be due to the differing leak geometries and background conditions present above and below the liner. The results indicate that a sparse below-liner monitoring grid, with its long-term monitoring capabilities, combined with above-liner surveys to pinpoint leaks accurately offer a successful approach to ensuring liner integrity throughout the lifetime of a lined waste site.

  13. Fiber optic sensor system for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick J.; Forman, Peter R.; Monahan, Russell E.; Adler, Jonathan M.

    1997-01-01

    An improved fiber optic sensor system and integrated sensor bearing assembly for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing having a multi-pole tone ring which produces an alternating magnetic field indicative of movement and position of the rotating member. A magneto-optical material, such as a bismuth garnet iron (B.I.G.) crystal, having discrete magnetic domains is positioned in the vicinity of the tone ring so that the domains align themselves to the magnetic field generated by the tone ring. A single fiber optic cable, preferably single mode fiber, carries light generated by a source of light to the B.I.G. crystal. The light passes through the B.I.G. crystal and is refracted at domain boundaries in the crystal. The intensity of the refracted light is indicative of the amount of alignment of the domains and therefore the strength of the magnetic field. The refracted light is carried by the fiber optic cable to an optic receiver where the intensity is measured and an electrical signal is generated and sent to a controller indicating the frequency of the changes in light intensity and therefore the rotational speed of the rotating wheel bearing.

  14. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by squid gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overton, Jr., William C.; Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  15. Bridgman Growth of Large SrI2:Eu2+ Single Crystals: A High-performance Scintillator for Radiation Detection Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Hawrami, Rastgo; Higgins, William; Van Loef, Edgar; Glodo, J.; Shah, Kanai; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Single-crystal strontium iodide (SrI2) doped with relatively high levels (e.g., 3 - 6 %) of Eu2+ exhibits characteristics that make this material superior, in a number of respects, to other scintillators that are currently used for radiation detection. Specifically, SrI2:Eu2+ has a light yield that is significantly higher than LaBr3:Ce3+ -a currently employed commercial high-performance scintillator. Additionally, SrI2:Eu2+ is characterized by an energy resolution as high as 2.6% at the 137Cs gamma-ray energy of 662 keV, and there is no radioactive component in SrI2:Eu2+ - unlike LaBr3:Ce3+ that contains 138La. The Ce3+-doped LaBr3 decay time is, however, faster (30 nsec) than the 1.2 sec decay time of SrI2:Eu2+. Due to the relatively low melting point of strontium iodide (~515 oC), crystal growth can be carried out in quartz crucibles by the vertical Bridgman technique. Materials-processing and crystal-growth techniques that are specific to the Bridgman growth of europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators are described here. These techniques include the use of a porous quartz frit to physically filter the molten salt from a quartz antechamber into the Bridgman growth crucible and the use of a bent or bulb grain selector design to suppress multiple grain growth. Single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators with good optical quality and scintillation characteristics have been grown in sizes up to 5.0 cm in diameter by applying these techniques. Other aspects of the SrI2:Eu2+ crystal-growth methods and of the still unresolved crystal-growth issues are described here.

  16. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  17. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Dunxiong; Krafft, Geoffrey Arthur

    1999-01-01

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control.

  18. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, D.; Krafft, G.A.

    1999-06-22

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser is disclosed. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control. 1 fig.

  19. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wamsley, Paula R.; Weimer, Carl S.; Nelson, Loren D.; O'Brien, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  3. Method of analyzing multiple sample simultaneously by detecting absorption and systems for use in such a method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Gong, Xiaoyi

    2004-09-07

    The present invention provides a method of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously by absorption detection. The method comprises: (i) providing a planar array of multiple containers, each of which contains a sample comprising at least one absorbing species, (ii) irradiating the planar array of multiple containers with a light source and (iii) detecting absorption of light with a detetion means that is in line with the light source at a distance of at leaat about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container in the planar array of multiple containers. The absorption of light by a sample indicates the presence of an absorbing species in it. The method can further comprise: (iv) measuring the amount of absorption of light detected in (iii) indicating the amount of the absorbing species in the sample. Also provided by the present invention is a system for use in the abov metho.The system comprises; (i) a light source comrnpising or consisting essentially of at leaat one wavelength of light, the absorption of which is to be detected, (ii) a planar array of multiple containers, and (iii) a detection means that is in line with the light source and is positioned in line with and parallel to the planar array of multiple contiainers at a distance of at least about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container.

  4. The Anopheles punctulatus complex: DNA probes for identifying the Australian species using isotopic, chromogenic, and chemiluminescence detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, L.; Cooper, R.D.; Burkot, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Isotopic and enzyme-labeled species-specific DNA probes were made for the three known members of the Anopheles punctulatus complex of mosquitoes in Australia (Anopheles farauti Nos. 1, 2, and 3). Species-specific probes were selected by screening total genomic libraries made from the DNA of individual species with 32P-labeled DNA of homologous and heterologous mosquito species. The 32P-labeled probes for A. farauti Nos. 1 and 2 can detect less than 0.2 ng of DNA while the 32P-labeled probe for A. farauti No. 3 has a sensitivity of 1.25 ng of DNA. Probes were then enzyme labeled for chromogenic and chemiluminescence detection and compared to isotopic detection using 32P-labeled probes. Sequences of the probe repeat regions are presented. Species identifications can be made from dot blots or squashes of freshly killed mosquitoes or mosquitoes stored frozen, dried, and held at room temperature or fixed in isopropanol or ethanol with isotopic, chromogenic, or chemiluminescence detection systems. The use of nonisotopic detection systems will enable laboratories with minimal facilities to identify important regional vectors.

  5. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)] [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' 'RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation)] [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' 'RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation)] [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)] [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data over three years - from March 2009 to February 2012. (authors)

  6. DETECTABILITY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS IN CIRCUMSTELLAR HABITABLE ZONES OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS WITH SUN-LIKE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-02-20

    Given the considerable percentage of stars that are members of binaries or stellar multiples in the solar neighborhood, it is expected that many of these binaries host planets, possibly even habitable ones. The discovery of a terrestrial planet in the {alpha} Centauri system supports this notion. Due to the potentially strong gravitational interaction that an Earth-like planet may experience in such systems, classical approaches to determining habitable zones (HZ), especially in close S-type binary systems, can be rather inaccurate. Recent progress in this field, however, allows us to identify regions around the star permitting permanent habitability. While the discovery of {alpha} Cen Bb has shown that terrestrial planets can be detected in solar-type binary stars using current observational facilities, it remains to be shown whether this is also the case for Earth analogs in HZs. We provide analytical expressions for the maximum and rms values of radial velocity and astrometric signals, as well as transit probabilities of terrestrial planets in such systems, showing that the dynamical interaction of the second star with the planet may indeed facilitate the planets' detection. As an example, we discuss the detectability of additional Earth-like planets in the averaged, extended, and permanent HZs around both stars of the {alpha} Centauri system.

  7. Comparison of an electro-optical system and photo-conducting antenna employed as detectors of pulsed terahertz radiation by means of a new method for measuring spectral width

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grachev, Ya V; Osipova, M O; Bespalov, V G

    2014-12-31

    Two detection systems, electro-optical system and photoconducting system, are tested by the method suggested previously for determining the boundaries of broadband terahertz radiation in time-domain spectroscopy. From a series of measurements the error in determining the operation ranges is calculated. The terahertz spectrometer with an electro-optical detector based on a ZnTe (110) crystal of thickness 2 mm has the operation spectral range of 0.059 1.092 THz. The detector utilizing an iPCA-21-05-1000-800-h photo-conducting antenna with the same source of signal demonstrates a wider operation band ranging from 0.017 to 1.6 THz. The method developed makes it possible to experimentally compare the parameters of the considered terahertz spectrometers obtained under the same quality of adjustment. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ``false negative or false positive`` indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments.

  9. Compact Detection System for High Sensitivity Hydrogen Profiling of Materials by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marble, Daniel Keith; Urban, Ben; Pacheco, Jose

    2009-03-10

    Hydrogen is a ubiquitous contaminant that is known to have dramatic effects on the electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties of many types of materials in even minute quantities. Thus, the detection of hydrogen in materials is of major importance. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is a powerful technique for nondestructive profiling hydrogen in materials. However, NRA has found only limited use in many applications because of poor sensitivity due to cosmic ray background (CSRB). Most attempts to eliminate CSRB to achieve ppm detection levels using higher energy nuclear reactions or tons of passive shielding are not compatible with commercial ion beam analysis space and equipment requirements Zimmerman, et al. have previously reported upon a coincidence detector that meets IBA space requirements and reduces the cosmic ray background, but the detector suffers from lower detection efficiency and small sample size. We have replaced the BGO well detector in the Zimmerman coincidence detection scheme with a larger Nal well detector and used faster timing electronics to produce a detector that can handle larger samples with higher detection efficiency, and still eliminate cosmic ray background.

  10. Area X-ray or UV camera system for high-intensity beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Sasa; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Hau-Riege, Stefan , Marchesini, Stefano

    2010-03-02

    A system in one embodiment includes a source for directing a beam of radiation at a sample; a multilayer mirror having a face oriented at an angle of less than 90 degrees from an axis of the beam from the source, the mirror reflecting at least a portion of the radiation after the beam encounters a sample; and a pixellated detector for detecting radiation reflected by the mirror. A method in a further embodiment includes directing a beam of radiation at a sample; reflecting at least some of the radiation diffracted by the sample; not reflecting at least a majority of the radiation that is not diffracted by the sample; and detecting at least some of the reflected radiation. A method in yet another embodiment includes directing a beam of radiation at a sample; reflecting at least some of the radiation diffracted by the sample using a multilayer mirror; and detecting at least some of the reflected radiation.

  11. SU-E-J-47: Development of a High-Precision, Image-Guided Radiotherapy, Multi- Purpose Radiation Isocenter Quality-Assurance Calibration and Checking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C; Yan, G; Helmig, R; Lebron, S; Kahler, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a system that can define the radiation isocenter and correlate this information with couch coordinates, laser alignment, optical distance indicator (ODI) settings, optical tracking system (OTS) calibrations, and mechanical isocenter walkout. Methods: Our team developed a multi-adapter, multi-purpose quality assurance (QA) and calibration device that uses an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and in-house image-processing software to define the radiation isocenter, thereby allowing linear accelerator (Linac) components to be verified and calibrated. Motivated by the concept that each Linac component related to patient setup for image-guided radiotherapy based on cone-beam CT should be calibrated with respect to the radiation isocenter, we designed multiple concentric adapters of various materials and shapes to meet the needs of MV and KV radiation isocenter definition, laser alignment, and OTS calibration. The phantom's ability to accurately define the radiation isocenter was validated on 4 Elekta Linacs using a commercial ball bearing (BB) phantom as a reference. Radiation isocenter walkout and the accuracy of couch coordinates, ODI, and OTS were then quantified with the device. Results: The device was able to define the radiation isocenter within 0.3 mm. Radiation isocenter walkout was within 1 mm at 4 cardinal angles. By switching adapters, we identified that the accuracy of the couch position digital readout, ODI, OTS, and mechanical isocenter walkout was within sub-mm. Conclusion: This multi-adapter, multi-purpose isocenter phantom can be used to accurately define the radiation isocenter and represents a potential paradigm shift in Linac QA. Moreover, multiple concentric adapters allowed for sub-mm accuracy for the other relevant components. This intuitive and user-friendly design is currently patent pending.

  12. Systems and methods of monitoring acoustic pressure to detect a flame condition in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Krull, Anthony Wayne; Healy, Timothy Andrew , Yilmaz, Ertan

    2011-05-17

    A method may detect a flashback condition in a fuel nozzle of a combustor. The method may include obtaining a current acoustic pressure signal from the combustor, analyzing the current acoustic pressure signal to determine current operating frequency information for the combustor, and indicating that the flashback condition exists based at least in part on the current operating frequency information.

  13. System for detecting operating errors in a variable valve timing engine using pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Matthew A.; Marriot, Craig D

    2013-07-02

    A method and control module includes a pressure sensor data comparison module that compares measured pressure volume signal segments to ideal pressure volume segments. A valve actuation hardware remedy module performs a hardware remedy in response to comparing the measured pressure volume signal segments to the ideal pressure volume segments when a valve actuation hardware failure is detected.

  14. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  15. Testing and Performance Validation of a Sensitive Gamma Ray Camera Designed for Radiation Detection and Decommissioning Measurements in Nuclear Facilities-13044

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Creed, Richard; Pancake, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the measurements, testing and performance validation of a sensitive gamma ray camera designed for radiation detection and quantification in the environment and decommissioning and hold-up measurements in nuclear facilities. The instrument, which is known as RadSearch, combines a sensitive and highly collimated LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector with an optical (video) camera with controllable zoom and focus and a laser range finder in one detector head. The LaBr{sub 3} detector has a typical energy resolution of between 2.5% and 3% at the 662 keV energy of Cs-137 compared to that of NaI detectors with a resolution of typically 7% to 8% at the same energy. At this energy the tungsten shielding of the detector provides a shielding ratio of greater than 900:1 in the forward direction and 100:1 on the sides and from the rear. The detector head is mounted on a pan/tile mechanism with a range of motion of ±180 degrees (pan) and ±90 degrees (tilt) equivalent to 4 π steradians. The detector head with pan/tilt is normally mounted on a tripod or wheeled cart. It can also be mounted on vehicles or a mobile robot for access to high dose-rate areas and areas with high levels of contamination. Ethernet connects RadSearch to a ruggedized notebook computer from which it is operated and controlled. Power can be supplied either as 24-volts DC from a battery or as 50 volts DC supplied by a small mains (110 or 230 VAC) power supply unit that is co-located with the controlling notebook computer. In this latter case both power and Ethernet are supplied through a single cable that can be up to 80 metres in length. If a local battery supplies power, the unit can be controlled through wireless Ethernet. Both manual operation and automatic scanning of surfaces and objects is available through the software interface on the notebook computer. For each scan element making up a part of an overall scanned area, the unit measures a gamma ray spectrum. Multiple radionuclides may be selected by the operator and will be identified if present. In scanning operation the unit scans a designated region and superimposes over a video image the distribution of measured radioactivity. For the total scanned area or object RadSearch determines the total activity of operator selected radionuclides present and the gamma dose-rate measured at the detector head. Results of hold-up measurements made in a nuclear facility are presented, as are test measurements of point sources distributed arbitrarily on surfaces. These latter results are compared with the results of benchmarked MCNP Monte Carlo calculations. The use of the device for hold-up and decommissioning measurements is validated. (authors)

  16. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihailescu, Lucian (Livermore, CA); Vetter, Kai M. (Alameda, CA)

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  17. System and method for the detection of anomalies in an image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Lakshman; Swaminarayan, Sriram

    2013-09-03

    Preferred aspects of the present invention can include receiving a digital image at a processor; segmenting the digital image into a hierarchy of feature layers comprising one or more fine-scale features defining a foreground object embedded in one or more coarser-scale features defining a background to the one or more fine-scale features in the segmentation hierarchy; detecting a first fine-scale foreground feature as an anomaly with respect to a first background feature within which it is embedded; and constructing an anomalous feature layer by synthesizing spatially contiguous anomalous fine-scale features. Additional preferred aspects of the present invention can include detecting non-pervasive changes between sets of images in response at least in part to one or more difference images between the sets of images.

  18. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  19. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  20. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Fu, Tao; Seim, Thomas A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-05-26

    In Part 1 of this paper [1], we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the 31 dams in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.05 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the case study at John Day Dam during 2008, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more fish-friendly hydroelectric facilities.

  1. Anomaly Detection for Resilient Control Systems Using Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-08-01

    Resilient control systems in critical infrastructures require increased cyber-security and state-awareness. One of the necessary conditions for achieving the desired high level of resiliency is timely reporting and understanding of the status and behavioral trends of the control system. This paper describes the design and development of a neural-network based data-fusion system for increased state-awareness of resilient control systems. The proposed system consists of a dedicated data-fusion engine for each component of the control system. Each data-fusion engine implements three-layered alarm system consisting of: (1) conventional threshold-based alarms, (2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing maps, and (3) prediction error based alarms using neural network based signal forecasting. The proposed system was integrated with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory Hytest facility, which is a testing facility for hybrid energy systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the implemented data fusion system provides timely plant performance monitoring and cyber-state reporting.

  2. Underwater radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W.; McKnight, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

  3. A dual neutron/gamma source for the Fissmat Inspection for Nuclear Detection (FIND) system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Barney Lee; King, Michael; Rossi, Paolo; McDaniel, Floyd Del; Morse, Daniel Henry; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Raber, Thomas N.

    2008-12-01

    Shielded special nuclear material (SNM) is very difficult to detect and new technologies are needed to clear alarms and verify the presence of SNM. High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded SNM, such as highly enriched uranium (HEU), since neutrons can penetrate gamma-ray shielding and gamma-rays can penetrate neutron shielding. Both source particles then induce unique detectable signals from fission. In this LDRD, we explored a new type of interrogation source that uses low-energy proton- or deuteron-induced nuclear reactions to generate high fluxes of mono-energetic gammas or neutrons. Accelerator-based experiments, computational studies, and prototype source tests were performed to obtain a better understanding of (1) the flux requirements, (2) fission-induced signals, background, and interferences, and (3) operational performance of the source. The results of this research led to the development and testing of an axial-type gamma tube source and the design/construction of a high power coaxial-type gamma generator based on the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction.

  4. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S.; Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2014-10-15

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  5. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Combine geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization with rock physics measurements made under in-situ conditions (up to 350⁰C) for development of geothermal systems.

  6. Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems 2010 Peer Review Presentations- Vulnerability and Intrusion Detection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    National lab researchers, industry partners, and academia from the Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program in the DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability held a 2-day...

  7. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  8. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  9. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  10. HST/COS detection of deuterated molecular hydrogen in a damped Ly? system at z = 0.18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, Cristina M.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O'Meara, John, E-mail: oliveira@stsci.edu [Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We report on the detection of deuterated molecular hydrogen, HD, at z = 0.18. HD and H{sub 2} are detected in HST/COS data of a low-metallicity (Z ? 0.07 Z {sub ?}) damped Ly? (DLA) system at z = 0.18562 toward QSO B012028, with log N(H I) = 20.50 0.10. Four absorption components are clearly resolved in H{sub 2}, while two components are resolved in HD; the bulk of the molecular hydrogen is associated with the components traced by HD. We find total column densities log N(HD) = 14.82 0.15 and log N(H{sub 2}) = 20.00 0.10. This system has a high molecular fraction, f(H{sub 2}) = 0.39 0.10, and a low HD-to-H{sub 2} ratio, log (HD/2H{sub 2}) = 5.5 0.2 dex. The excitation temperature, T {sub 01} = 65 2 K, in the component containing the bulk of the molecular gas is lower than in other DLAs. These properties are unlike those in other higher redshift DLA systems known to contain HD, but are consistent with what is observed in dense clouds in the Milky Way.

  11. Performance of the moving voxel image reconstruction (MVIR) method in the fixed site detection system (FSDS) prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estep, Robert J.

    2012-05-31

    We have developed a dynamic image reconstruction method called MVIR (Moving Voxel Image Reconstruction) for lane detection in multilane portal monitor systems. MVIR was evaluated for use in the Fixed Site Detection System, a prototype three-lane portal monitor system for EZ-pass toll plazas. As a baseline, we compared MVIR with a static image reconstruction method in analyzing the same real and simulated data sets. Performance was judged by the distributions of image intensities for source and no-source vehicles over many trials as a function of source strength. We found that MVIR produced significantly better results in all cases. The performance difference was greatest at low count rates, where source/no-source distributions were well separated with the MVIR method, allowing reliable source vehicle identification with a low probability of false positive identifications. Static reconstruction of the same data produced overlapping distributions that made source vehicle identification unreliable. The performance of the static method was acceptable at high count rates. Both algorithms reliably identified two strong sources passing through at nearly the same time.

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  13. TOPOS: A new topometric patient positioning and tracking system for radiation therapy based on structured white light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindl, Bastian L.; Mueller, Reinhold G.; Lang, Stephanie; Herraiz Lablanca, Maria D.; Kloeck, Stephan

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: A patient positioning system for radiation therapy based on structured white light and using off-the-shelf hardware components for flexibility and cost-effectiveness has been developed in house. Increased accuracy, patient comfort, abandonment of any skin marks, accelerated workflow, objective reading/recording, better usability and robust sensor design, compared to other positioning approaches, were the main goals of this work. Another aim was the application of a 6 degrees of freedom tracking system working without dose deposition. Methods: Two optical sensors are the main parts of the TOPOS Registered-Sign system (Topometrical Positioning, cyberTECHNOLOGIES, Germany). The components: cameras, projectors, and computers are commercial off-the-shelf products, allowing for low production costs. The black/white cameras of the prototype are capable of taking up to 240 frames per second (resolution: 640 Multiplication-Sign 488 pixels). The projector has a resolution of 1024 Multiplication-Sign 768 and a refresh rate of 120 Hz. The patient's body surface is measured continuously and registered to a reference surface, providing a transformation to superimpose the patient's surface to the reference (planning CT) surface as best as possible. The execution of the calculated transformation provides the correct patient position before the treatment starts. Due to the high-speed acquisition of the surfaces, a surveillance of the patient's (respiration) motion during treatment is also accomplished. The accuracy of the system was determined using a male mannequin. Two treatment sites were evaluated: one simulating a head and neck treatment and the other simulating a thoracic wall treatment. The mannequin was moved to predefined positions, and shift vectors given by the surface registration were evaluated. Additionally manual positioning using a color-coding system was evaluated. Results: Two prototypes have been developed, each allowing a continuous high density scan of a 500 Multiplication-Sign 500 Multiplication-Sign 400 mm{sup 3} (L Multiplication-Sign W Multiplication-Sign D) large volume with a refresh rate of 10 Hz (extendible to 20 Hz for a single sensor system). Surface and position correction display, as well as respiratory motion, is shown in real-time (delay < 200 ms) using present graphical hardware acceleration. For an intuitive view of the patient's misalignment, a fast surface registration algorithm has been developed and tested and a real-time color-coding technique is proposed and verified that allows the user to easily verify the position of the patient. Using first the surface registration and then the color coding the best results were obtained: for the head and neck case, the mean difference between the actual zero position and the final match was 0.1 {+-} 0.4, -0.2 {+-} 0.7, and -0.1 {+-} 0.3 mm in vertical, longitudinal, and lateral direction. For the thoracic case, the mean differences were 0.3 {+-} 0.5, -0.6 {+-} 1.9, 0.0 {+-} 0.4 mm. Conclusions: The presented system copes with the increasing demand for more accurate patient positioning due to more precise irradiation technologies and minimizes the preparation times for correct patient alignment, therefore optimizing the treatment workflow. Moreover, TOPOS is a versatile and cost effective image guided radiation therapy device. It allows an objective rating of the patient's position before and during the irradiation and could also be used for respiratory gating or tracking.

  14. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  15. E-Smart System for In-Situ Detection of Environmental Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Leffler

    2000-03-01

    A team of industrial, academic, and government organizations participated in the development of the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting Network (E-SMART). E-SMART integrates diverse monitoring and control technologies by means of a modular, ''building block'' design approach to allow for flexible system configuration. The E-SMART network treats each smart device-whether a sensor, sampler, or actuator- as a black box that obeys the standard communication protocols and electrical interfaces for the network. This approach allows multiple vendors to produce different sensors which meet the same functional specification and which can be interchanged on the network without affecting operation. The project further developed and advanced the E-SMART standardized network protocol to include new sensors, sampling systems, and graphical user interfaces. Specifically, the E-SMART team developed the following three system elements: (1) Base technology for a new class of smart , highly sensitive, chemically-specific, in-situ, multichannel microsensors utilizing integrated optical interferometry technology, (2) A set of additional E-SMART-compatible sensors adapted from commercial off-the-shelf technologies, and (3) A Data Management and Analysis System (DMAS), including network management components and the user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for data evaluation and visualization.

  16. Application of a model-based fault detection system to nuclear plant signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Wegerich, S.W.; Herzog, J.P.; VanAlstine, R.; Bockhorst, F.

    1997-05-01

    To assure the continued safe and reliable operation of a nuclear power station, it is essential that accurate online information on the current state of the entire system be available to the operators. Such information is needed to determine the operability of safety and control systems, the condition of active components, the necessity of preventative maintenance, and the status of sensory systems. To this end, ANL has developed a new Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) which utilizes advanced pattern recognition methods to enhance sensor and component operational validation for commercial nuclear reactors. Operational data from the Crystal River-3 (CR-3) nuclear power plant are used to illustrate the high sensitivity, accuracy, and the rapid response time of MSET for annunciation of a variety of signal disturbances.

  17. An Assessment of Remote Visual Testing System Capabilities for the Detection of Service Induced Cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-09-01

    Remote visual testing is typically employed to ascertain the condition of materials in components that are inaccessible for direct examination. In the power and petrochemical industries, remote visual testing is used to assess whether service-related degradation is being manifested that, if left unchecked, may eventually impair the structural reliability of a component. Several codes and standards require that visual examinations be periodically conducted. Many of these inspections must be performed remotely due to harsh environments or design geometries of the subject components. This paper describes the attributes and limitations of remote visual testing, performance demonstration standards for camera systems, typical dimensions for service-induced cracking phenomena, and an assessment of the reliability of remote video camera systems at finding cracks. Because many forms of service-induced cracks have very small crack opening dimensions, the reliability of remote visual testing may not be adequate to ensure component integrity, given the capabilities of current camera systems and application practices.

  18. Aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2011-11-15

    The present invention provides aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneously determining the presence and optionally the concentration of multiple analytes in a sample. Methods of utilizing the system and kits that include the sensor components are also provided. The system includes a first reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a first analyte; a second reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a second analyte; a third polynucleotide; a fourth polynucleotide; a first particle, coupled to the third polynucleotide; a second particle, coupled to the fourth polynucleotide; and at least one quencher, for quenching emissions of the first and second quantum dots, coupled to the first and second reactive polynucleotides. The first particle includes a quantum dot having a first emission wavelength. The second particle includes a second quantum dot having a second emission wavelength different from the first emission wavelength. The third polynucleotide and the fourth polynucleotide are different.

  19. RDS-SL VS Communication System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-12

    The RDS-SL VS Communication System is a component of the Radiation Detection System for Strategic, Low-Volume Seaports. Its purpose is to acquire real-time data from radiation portal monitors and cameras, record that data in a database, and make it available to system operators and administrators via a web interface. The software system contains two components: a standalone data acquisition and storage component and an ASP.NETweb application that implements the web interface.

  20. Apparatus and method to achieve high-resolution microscopy with non-diffracting or refracting radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Bingham, Philip R.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2012-11-06

    An imaging system employing a coded aperture mask having multiple pinholes is provided. The coded aperture mask is placed at a radiation source to pass the radiation through. The radiation impinges on, and passes through an object, which alters the radiation by absorption and/or scattering. Upon passing through the object, the radiation is detected at a detector plane to form an encoded image, which includes information on the absorption and/or scattering caused by the material and structural attributes of the object. The encoded image is decoded to provide a reconstructed image of the object. Because the coded aperture mask includes multiple pinholes, the radiation intensity is greater than a comparable system employing a single pinhole, thereby enabling a higher resolution. Further, the decoding of the encoded image can be performed to generate multiple images of the object at different distances from the detector plane. Methods and programs for operating the imaging system are also disclosed.

  1. SU-E-T-111: Development of Proton Dosimetry System Using Fiber-Optic Cerenkov Radiation Sensor Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, J; Kim, M; Shin, D; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J; Kim, J; Hwang, U; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We had developed and evaluated a new dosimetric system for proton therapy using array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) which can measure a percent depth dose (PDD) instantly. In this study, the Bragg peaks and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) of the proton beams measured by FOCRS array were compared with those measured by an ion chamber. Methods and Method: We fabricated an optical fiber array of FOCRS in a handmade phantom which is composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). There are 75 holes of 1mm diameter inside the phantom which is designed to be exposed in direction of beam when it is emerged in water phantom. The proton beam irradiation was carried out using IBA cyclotron PROTEUS 235 at national cancer center in Korea and a commercial data acquisition system was used to digitize the analog signal. Results: The measured Bragg peak and SOBP for the proton ranges of 7? 20 cm were well matched with the result from ion chamber. The comparison results show that the depth of proton beam ranges and the width of SOBP measured by array of FOCRS are comparable with the measurement from multi-layer ion chamber (MLIC) although there are some uncertainty in the measurement of FOCRS array for some specific beam ranges. Conclusion: The newly developed FOCRS array based dosimetric system for proton therapy can efficiently reduce the time and effort needed for proton beam range measurement compared to the conventional method and has the potential to be used for the proton pencil beam application.

  2. Enhanced radiation detectors using luminescent materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vardeny, Zeev V.; Jeglinski, Stefan A.; Lane, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    A radiation detecting device comprising a radiation sensing element, and a layer of luminescent material to expand the range of wavelengths over which the sensing element can efficiently detect radiation. The luminescent material being selected to absorb radiation at selected wavelengths, causing the luminescent material to luminesce, and the luminescent radiation being detected by the sensing element. Radiation sensing elements include photodiodes (singly and in arrays), CCD arrays, IR detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Luminescent materials include polymers, oligomers, copolymers and porphyrines, Luminescent layers include thin films, thicker layers, and liquid polymers.

  3. Modular optical detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  4. Nuclear reactor with internal thimble-type delayed neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenny C.; Poloncsik, John; Lambert, John D. B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention teaches improved apparatus for the method of detecting a breach in cladded fuel used in a nuclear reactor. The detector apparatus is located in the primary heat exchanger which conveys part of the reactor coolant past at least three separate delayed-neutron detectors mounted in this heat exchanger. The detectors are spaced apart such that the coolant flow time from the core to each detector is different, and these differences are known. The delayed-neutron activity at the detectors is a function of the delay time after the reaction in the fuel until the coolant carrying the delayed-neutron emitter passes the respective detector. This time delay is broken down into separate components including an isotopic holdup time required for the emitter to move through the fuel from the reaction to the coolant at the breach, and two transit times required for the emitter now in the coolant to flow from the breach to the detector loop and then via the loop to the detector. At least two of these time components are determined during calibrated operation of the reactor. Thereafter during normal reactor operation, repeated comparisons are made by the method of regression approximation of the third time component for the best-fit line correlating measured delayed-neutron activity against activity that is approximated according to specific equations. The equations use these time-delay components and known parameter values of the fuel and of the part and emitting daughter isotopes.

  5. Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kieper, Douglas Arthur; Majewski, Stanislaw; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2012-07-03

    An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

  6. Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kieper, Douglas Arthur; Majewski, Stanislaw; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2008-10-28

    An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

  7. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  8. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R. E-mail: mattjoss@mit.edu; and others

    2014-06-20

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ?3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P {sub rot}, of <2 days, and 110 with P {sub rot} < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ?5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ?3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  9. Development of Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversion at Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewji, Shaheen A; Lee, Denise L; Croft, Stephen; McElroy, Robert Dennis; Hertel, Nolan; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Cleveland, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on some source term modeling of uranyl nitrate (UN) as part of a comprehensive validation effort employing gamma-ray detector instrumentation for the detection of diversion from declared conversion activities. Conversion, the process by which natural uranium ore (yellowcake) is purified and converted through a series of chemical processes into uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6), has historically been excluded from the nuclear safeguards requirements of the 235U-based nuclear fuel cycle. The undeclared diversion of this product material could potentially provide feedstock for a clandestine weapons program for state or non-state entities. Given the changing global political environment and the increased availability of dual-use nuclear technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency has evolved its policies to emphasize safeguarding this potential feedstock material in response to dynamic and evolving potential diversion pathways. To meet the demand for instrumentation testing at conversion facilities, ORNL developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant. This work investigates gamma-ray signatures of UN circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluates detector instrumentation sensitivity to UN for safeguards applications. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the UN gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10-90g U/L of naturally enriched UN will be presented. A range of gamma-ray lines was examined and self-attenuation factors were calculated, in addition to attenuation for transmission measurement of density, concentration and enrichment. A detailed uncertainty analysis will be presented providing insights into instrumentation limitations to spoofing.

  10. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, John A.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  11. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction inmore » background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  12. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.

  13. Systematic Fast Neutron Background Measurement Fluctuations in an Urban Area Using a Mobile Detection System

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha S; Beach, Matthew R; Newby, Jason; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Hayward, J P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10 min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reductionmore » in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  14. Beta Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

  15. Uniform Laser Excitation And Detection In Capillary Array Electrophoresis System And Method.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Qingbo; Zhou, Songsan; Liu, Changsheng

    2003-10-07

    A capillary electrophoresis system comprises capillaries positioned in parallel to each other forming a plane. The capillaries are configured to allow samples to migrate. A light source is configured to illuminate the capillaries and the samples therein. This causes the samples to emit light. A lens is configured to receive the light emitted by the samples and positioned directly over a first group of the capillaries and obliquely over a second group of the capillaries. The light source is further configured to illuminate the second group of capillaries more than the first group of the capillaries such that amount of light received by the lens from the first group of capillaries is substantially identical to amount of light received from the second group of capillaries when an identical amount of the samples is migrating through the first and second group capillaries.

  16. Real-Time Detection Method And System For Identifying Individual Aerosol Particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric Evan; Fergenson, David Philip

    2005-10-25

    A method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are compared against and identified with substantially matching known particle types by producing positive and negative test spectra of an individual aerosol particle using a bipolar single particle mass spectrometer. Each test spectrum is compared to spectra of the same respective polarity in a database of predetermined positive and negative spectra for known particle types and a set of substantially matching spectra is obtained. Finally the identity of the individual aerosol particle is determined from the set of substantially matching spectra by determining a best matching one of the known particle types having both a substantially matching positive spectrum and a substantially matching negative spectrum associated with the best matching known particle type.

  17. Physics based model for online fault detection in autonomous cryogenic loading system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashani, Ali; Ponizhovskaya, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Patterson-Hine, Anna; Sass, Jared; Brown, Barbara

    2014-01-29

    We report the progress in the development of the chilldown model for a rapid cryogenic loading system developed at NASA-Kennedy Space Center. The nontrivial characteristic feature of the analyzed chilldown regime is its active control by dump valves. The two-phase flow model of the chilldown is approximated as one-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow with no slip condition for the interphase velocity. The model is built using commercial SINDA/FLUINT software. The results of numerical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental time traces. The obtained results pave the way to the application of the SINDA/FLUINT model as a verification tool for the design and algorithm development required for autonomous loading operation.

  18. Real-time detection method and system for identifying individual aerosol particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric E. (San Francisco, CA); Coffee, Keith R. (Patterson, CA); Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Tobias, Herbert J. (Kensington, CA); Fergenson, David P. (Alamo, CA); Madden, Norm (Livermore, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Steele, Paul T. (Livermore, CA); Woods, Bruce W. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-08-21

    An improved method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are collimated, tracked, and screened to determine which ones qualify for mass spectrometric analysis based on predetermined qualification or selection criteria. Screening techniques include one or more of determining particle size, shape, symmetry, and fluorescence. Only qualifying particles passing all screening criteria are subject to desorption/ionization and single particle mass spectrometry to produce corresponding test spectra, which is used to determine the identities of each of the qualifying aerosol particles by comparing the test spectra against predetermined spectra for known particle types. In this manner, activation cycling of a particle ablation laser of a single particle mass spectrometer is reduced.

  19. DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http:energy.govehssoccupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii MATTHEW B....

  20. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Apparatus, systems, and methods for...

  1. SU-F-18C-01: Minimum Detectability Analysis for Comprehensive Sized Based Optimization of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Across CT Protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smitherman, C; Chen, B; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work involved a comprehensive modeling of task-based performance of CT across a wide range of protocols. The approach was used for optimization and consistency of dose and image quality within a large multi-vendor clinical facility. Methods: 150 adult protocols from the Duke University Medical Center were grouped into sub-protocols with similar acquisition characteristics. A size based image quality phantom (Duke Mercury Phantom) was imaged using these sub-protocols for a range of clinically relevant doses on two CT manufacturer platforms (Siemens, GE). The images were analyzed to extract task-based image quality metrics such as the Task Transfer Function (TTF), Noise Power Spectrum, and Az based on designer nodule task functions. The data were analyzed in terms of the detectability of a lesion size/contrast as a function of dose, patient size, and protocol. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to predict image quality and dose to achieve a minimum level of detectability. Results: Image quality trends with variations in dose, patient size, and lesion contrast/size were evaluated and calculated data behaved as predicted. The GUI proved effective to predict the Az values representing radiologist confidence for a targeted lesion, patient size, and dose. As an example, an abdomen pelvis exam for the GE scanner, with a task size/contrast of 5-mm/50-HU, and an Az of 0.9 requires a dose of 4.0, 8.9, and 16.9 mGy for patient diameters of 25, 30, and 35 cm, respectively. For a constant patient diameter of 30 cm, the minimum detected lesion size at those dose levels would be 8.4, 5, and 3.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The designed CT protocol optimization platform can be used to evaluate minimum detectability across dose levels and patient diameters. The method can be used to improve individual protocols as well as to improve protocol consistency across CT scanners.

  2. System and method for ultrafast optical signal detecting via a synchronously coupled anamorphic light pulse encoded laterally

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heebner, John E.

    2010-08-03

    In one general embodiment, a method for ultrafast optical signal detecting is provided. In operation, a first optical input signal is propagated through a first wave guiding layer of a waveguide. Additionally, a second optical input signal is propagated through a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide. Furthermore, an optical control signal is applied to a top of the waveguide, the optical control signal being oriented diagonally relative to the top of the waveguide such that the application is used to influence at least a portion of the first optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide. In addition, the first and the second optical input signals output from the waveguide are combined. Further, the combined optical signals output from the waveguide are detected. In another general embodiment, a system for ultrafast optical signal recording is provided comprising a waveguide including a plurality of wave guiding layers, an optical control source positioned to propagate an optical control signal towards the waveguide in a diagonal orientation relative to a top of the waveguide, at least one optical input source positioned to input an optical input signal into at least a first and a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide, and a detector for detecting at least one interference pattern output from the waveguide, where at least one of the interference patterns results from a combination of the optical input signals input into the first and the second wave guiding layer. Furthermore, propagation of the optical control signal is used to influence at least a portion of the optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide.

  3. Development of a System for Rapid Detection of Contaminants in Water Supplies Using Magnetic Resonance and Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowery, Thomas J; Neely, Lori; Chepin, James; Wellman, Parris; Toso, Ken; Murray, Paul; Audeh, Mark; Demas, Vasiliki; Palazzolo, Robert; Min, Michael; Phung, Nu; Blanco, Matt; Raphel, Jordan; O'Neil, Troy

    2010-09-14

    To keep the water supply safe and to ensure a swift and accurate response to a water supply contamination event, rapid and robust methods for microbial testing are necessary. Current technologies are complex, lengthy and costly and there is a need for rapid, reliable, and precise approaches that can readily address this fundamental security and safety issue. T2 Biosystems is focused on providing solutions to this problem by making breakthroughs in nanotechnology and biosensor techniques that address the current technical restrictions facing rapid, molecular analysis in complex samples. In order to apply the T2 Biosystems nucleic acid detection procedure to the analysis of nucleic acid targets in unprocessed water samples, Bacillus thuringeinsis was selected as a model organism and local river water was selected as the sample matrix. The initial assay reagent formulation was conceived with a manual magnetic resonance reader, was optimized using a high throughput system, and transferred back to the MR reader for potential field use. The final assay employing the designed and manufactured instruments was capable of detecting 10 CFU/mL of B. thuringiensis directly within the environmental water sample within 90 minutes. Further, discrimination of two closely related species of Bacilli was accomplished using the methods of this project; greater than 3-fold discrimination between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis at a concentrations spanning 10 CFU/mL to 10{sup 5} CFU/mL was observed.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE DOUBLE PULSAR SYSTEM J07373039 IN THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G. E-mail: kargaltsev@email.gwu.edu

    2014-03-01

    We report on detection of the double pulsar system J07373039 in the far-UV with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar-blind Channel detector aboard Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the energy flux F = (4.6 1.0) 10{sup 17}ergcm{sup 2} s{sup 1} in the 1250-1550 band, which corresponds to the extinction-corrected luminosity L ? 1.5 10{sup 28}ergs{sup 1} for the distance d = 1.1kpc and a plausible reddening E(B V) = 0.1. If the detected emission comes from the entire surface of one of the neutron stars with a 13km radius, the surface blackbody temperature is in the range T ? (2-5) 10{sup 5}K for a reasonable range of interstellar extinction. Such a temperature requires an internal heating mechanism to operate in old neutron stars, or, less likely, it might be explained by heating of the surface of the less energetic Pulsar B by the relativistic wind of Pulsar A. If the far-ultraviolet emission is non-thermal (e.g., produced in the magnetosphere of Pulsar A), its spectrum exhibits a break between the UV and X-rays.

  5. Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y.; James, Ralph B.

    2002-01-01

    An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

  6. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification December 17, 2015 Monitoring records are required to be reported to the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiation Records Repository by March 31 under DOE Order 231.1B and in accordance with the REMS Reporting Guide. These records form the basis for the analysis presented in the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure annual report. In July of 2007,

  7. SLD | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    SLD Proliferation Detection NNSA, Argentina Transition Radiation Detection System NNSA, Djibouti Transition Radiation Detection System NNSA Transitions Radiation Detection System ...

  8. QSO ABSORPTION SYSTEMS DETECTED IN Ne VIII: HIGH-METALLICITY CLOUDS WITH A LARGE EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Werk, J. K.; Prochaska, J. X. [University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Howk, J. C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jenkins, E. B. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, N.; Sembach, K. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ultraviolet spectra of the z{sub em} = 0.9754 quasar PG1148+549 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we study the physical conditions and abundances of Ne VIII+O VI absorption line systems at z{sub abs} = 0.68381, 0.70152, 0.72478. In addition to Ne VIII and O VI, absorption lines from multiple ionization stages of oxygen (O II, O III, O IV) are detected and are well aligned with the more highly ionized species. We show that these absorbers are multiphase systems including hot gas (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5.7} K) that produces Ne VIII and O VI, and the gas metallicity of the cool phase ranges from Z = 0.3 Z{sub Sun} to supersolar. The cool ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} K) phases have densities n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} and small sizes (<4 kpc); these cool clouds are likely to expand and dissipate, and the Ne VIII may be within a transition layer between the cool gas and a surrounding, much hotter medium. The Ne VIII redshift density, dN/dz{approx}7{sup +7}{sub -3}, requires a large number of these clouds for every L > 0.1 L* galaxy and a large effective absorption cross section ({approx}> 100 kpc), and indeed, we find a star-forming {approx}L {sup *} galaxy at the redshift of the z{sub abs} = 0.72478 system, at an impact parameter of 217 kpc. Multiphase absorbers like these Ne VIII systems are likely to be an important reservoir of baryons and metals in the circumgalactic media of galaxies.

  9. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2005-05-03

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  10. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick H. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-18

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  11. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-02-23

    An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  12. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  13. Bisectional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2008-11-11

    An apparatus, program product and method logically divides a group of nodes and causes node pairs comprising a node from each section to communicate. Results from the communications may be analyzed to determine performance characteristics, such as bandwidth and proper connectivity.

  14. Bisectional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2012-02-14

    An apparatus, program product and method logically divide a group of nodes and causes node pairs comprising a node from each section to communicate. Results from the communications may be analyzed to determine performance characteristics, such as bandwidth and proper connectivity.

  15. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2012-02-07

    An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  16. Bisectional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-08-04

    An apparatus and program product logically divide a group of nodes and causes node pairs comprising a node from each section to communicate. Results from the communications may be analyzed to determine performance characteristics, such as bandwidth and proper connectivity.

  17. Fission gas detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  18. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E.

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  19. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  20. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  1. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  2. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  3. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  4. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  5. Radiation Control on Uzbekistan Borders - Results and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrenko, Vitaliy; Yuldashev, Bekhzod; Ismailov, Ulughbek; Shipilov, Nikolay; Chipizubov, Sergey; Avezov, Anvar

    2009-12-02

    The measures and actions on prevention, detection and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving radioactive materials in Uzbekistan are presented. In frames of program of radiation monitoring to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials main customs border checkpoints were equipped with commercial radiation portal monitors. Special radiation monitors elaborated and manufactured in INP AS RU are installed in INP(main gates, research reactor and laboratory building) to provide nuclear security of Institute facilities. The experience of Uzbekistan in establishing radiation monitoring systems on its borders, their operation and maintenance would be useful for realization of proposed plan of strengthening measures to prevent illicit trafficking in Republics of Central Asia region.

  6. Apparatus and method for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overton, W.C. Jr.; Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1981-05-22

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  7. Cherenkov Video Imaging Allows for the First Visualization of Radiation Therapy in Real Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, Lesley A.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.; Jiang, Shudong; Hitchcock, Whitney; Friedman, Oscar D.; Glaser, Adam K.; Jermyn, Michael; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Cherenkov light imaging can visualize radiation therapy in real time during breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: An intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was synchronized to the 3.25-μs radiation pulses of the clinical linear accelerator with the intensifier set × 100. Cherenkov images were acquired continuously (2.8 frames/s) during fractionated whole breast irradiation with each frame an accumulation of 100 radiation pulses (approximately 5 monitor units). Results: The first patient images ever created are used to illustrate that Cherenkov emission can be visualized as a video during conditions typical for breast radiation therapy, even with complex treatment plans, mixed energies, and modulated treatment fields. Images were generated correlating to the superficial dose received by the patient and potentially the location of the resulting skin reactions. Major blood vessels are visible in the image, providing the potential to use these as biological landmarks for improved geometric accuracy. The potential for this system to detect radiation therapy misadministrations, which can result from hardware malfunction or patient positioning setup errors during individual fractions, is shown. Conclusions: Cherenkoscopy is a unique method for visualizing surface dose resulting in real-time quality control. We propose that this system could detect radiation therapy errors in everyday clinical practice at a time when these errors can be corrected to result in improved safety and quality of radiation therapy.

  8. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  9. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder; Paul L.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  10. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  11. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  12. System and method of reducing motion-induced noise in the optical detection of an ultrasound signal in a moving body of material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; LaFond, Emmanuel F.; Brodeur, Pierre; Gerhardstein, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a system and method to reduce motion-induced noise in the detection of ultrasonic signals in a moving sheet or body of material. An ultrasonic signal is generated in a sheet of material and a detection laser beam is moved along the surface of the material. By moving the detection laser in the same direction as the direction of movement of the sheet of material the amount of noise induced in the detection of the ultrasonic signal is reduced. The scanner is moved at approximately the same speed as the moving material. The system and method may be used for many applications, such in a paper making process or steel making process. The detection laser may be directed by a scanner. The movement of the scanner is synchronized with the anticipated arrival of the ultrasonic signal under the scanner. A photodetector may be used to determine when a ultrasonic pulse has been directed to the moving sheet of material so that the scanner may be synchronized the anticipated arrival of the ultrasonic signal.

  13. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  14. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  15. Effects of chronic gamma radiation on seed production in an oak...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of radiation, but were sporadic in appearance. It more is suggested that many of the radiation damaged acorns abscised from the tree and thus escaped detection. (auth) less...

  16. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Home MSDS Search MSDS Help Safety Training and Tests Contact Links LSU Campus Safety Glossary Radiation Safety Manual Radiation Safety Test NOTE: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ONLY! **Please allow two weeks for your badge to be processed.** Regulations and Hierarchy The CAMD Safety Officer reports to two separate individuals regarding safety. These are the Radiation Safety Officer for the University, and the Campus Safety Officer in all other matters. Thus safety

  17. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping

  18. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons ...

  19. Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of fluorescent nanoparticles embedded in a transparent matrix. The invention addresses needs in research, security, and industry for detectors with improved light output and...

  20. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.