Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Study of CSR Effects in the Jefferson Laboratory FEL Driver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a recent experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL driver the effects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR chicane. This experiment also provides a valuable opportunity to benchmark existing CSR models in a system that may not be fully represented by a 1-D CSR model. Here we present results from this experiment and compare to initial simulations of CSR in the magnetic compression chicane of the machine. Finally, we touch upon the possibility for CSR induced microbunching gain in the magnetic compression chicane, and show that parameters in the machine are such that it should be thoroughly damped.

Hall, C. C. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. [Colorado State U.; Burleson, Theodore A. [Colorado State U.; Milton, Stephen V. [Colorado State U.; Morin, Auralee L. [Colorado State U.; Benson, Stephen V. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Evtushenko, Pavel E. [JLAB; Hannon, Fay E. [JLAB; Li, Rui [JLAB; Tennant, Christopher D. [JLAB; Zhang, Shukui [JLAB; Carlsten, Bruce E. [LANL; Lewellen, John W. [LANL

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cyclotron subharmonics resonant (CSR) heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cyclotron subharmonics resonant (CSR) heating mechanism is studied using particle simulation codes with an emphasis on the relationship between CSR and the nonlinear Landua damping.

Abe, H.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Solar Radiation Modeling and Measurements for Renewable Energy Applications: Data and Model Quality; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software and for outdoor pyranometer calibrations is outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data.

Myers, D. R.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

CSR Press Release Submitted by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CSR Press Release Submitted by: Categories: Posted: Energy Efficiency Listed as the Top important to their work. Across all five sectors included in the survey, energy efficiency was listed as by far the most important sustainability issue at hand, with water and land & soil falling to the bottom

5

CSR Press Release Submitted by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as of this writing include the Business Council for Sustainable Energy, the Carbon Disclosure Project, Carbon Offset Responsibility Officers Association, GHG Management Institute, International Carbon Reduction and Offset AllianceCSR Press Release Submitted by: Categories: Posted: Carbon TradeEx American Speakers List Featuring

6

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia Robert D. Stewart, Ph.D.Robert D. Stewart, Ph

Stewart, Robert D.

7

Modeling radiation characteristics of semitransparent media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Viskanta8 have proposed a model for the effective radiation characteristics of glass foams. Their analysis

Pilon, Laurent

8

Modelling of Radiative Transfer in Light Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.4 Transport equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.2 The equation for radiative transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3Modelling of Radiative Transfer in Light Sources PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

9

July 10, 2014 CSR Computer Policy Statement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and/or administrator access to all computers on the CSR network. Users cannot be allowed to have root to a computer account for the purpose of doing professional research, administrative tasks, or other work and/or administrator access unless it can be specifically shown that it is necessary for them to carry

Lightsey, Glenn

10

June 23, 2008 CSR Computer Policy Statement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and/or administrator access to all computers on the CSR network. Users cannot be allowed to have root to a computer account for the purpose of doing professional research, administrative tasks, or other work and/or administrator access unless it can be specifically shown that it is necessary for them to carry

Lightsey, Glenn

11

affairs adjustment csr: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CSR Microbunching Zhirong Huang and Kwang302 Advanced Photon Source Derivation: KJK Application: ZRH Based on ZRH & KJK Main References SSY (Saldin, Schneidmiller,...

12

The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

Reeves, Geoffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koller, Josef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tokar, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Yue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friedel, Reiner H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

14

Effects of CSR Generated from Upstream Bends in a Laser Plasma Storage Ring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent proposal [1] of a Laser Plasma Storage Ring (LPSR) envisions the use of a laser-plasma (LP) acceleration module to inject an electron beam into a compact 500 MeV storage ring. Electron bunches generated by LP methods are naturally very short (tens of femtoseconds), presenting peak currents on the order of 10 kA or higher. Of obvious concern is the impact of collective effects and in particular Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on the beam dynamics in the storage ring. Available simulation codes (e.g. Elegant [2]) usually include transient CSR effects but neglect the contribution of radiation emitted from trailing magnets. In a compact storage ring, with dipole magnets close to each other, cross talking between different magnets could in principle be important.In this note we investigate this effect for the proposed LPSR and show that, in fact, this effect is relatively small. However our analysis also indicates that CSR effects in general would be quite strong and deserve a a careful study.

Mitchell, C.; Qiang, J.; Venturini, M.

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

15

The greenwashing machine: Is CSR more than communication?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the huge challenge raised by climate change may explain a rising concern by the consumers and thus a newThe greenwashing machine: Is CSR more than communication? Rémi BAZILLIER and Julien VAUDAY July to their sales and/or profits. However, it could be that communicating on CSR represents by itself a good

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage S.L. Dudarev EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, DFT Abstract Density functional theory models developed over the past decade provide unique phenomena. Density functional theory models have effectively created a new paradigm for the scientific

17

Coherent radiation diagnostics Bernhard Schmidt -FLA-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)exp(-it)dt - normalized charge density spectral energy density source characteristics (CSR,CTR,CER,CDR,SP..) - integral, 'longitudinal fingerprint' #12;CR ports at FLASH BC2 CSR port feeding "TOSYLAB" Beamline beeing `revised' new optics, vacuum BC2 CDR port -5-10 mm diffraction radiator - cryst. quartz window - two pyro detectors

18

Much to tell to consumers about CSR, but who should talk or not talk about it?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

communication on corporate brand attitude, even when negative third-parties information is available. CSR words: CSR communication, corporate brand attitude, greenwahsing, third-parties, experiment Track it beneficial to corporate image to proactively communicate about CSR activities?" is still controversial. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

A BAYESIAN MODEL COMMITTEE APPROACH TO FORECASTING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A BAYESIAN MODEL COMMITTEE APPROACH TO FORECASTING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION in the realm of solar radiation forecasting. In this work, two forecasting models: Autoregressive Moving. The very first results show an improvement brought by this approach. 1. INTRODUCTION Solar radiation

Boyer, Edmond

20

Longitudinal pulse shaping for the suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation-induced emittance growth  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The damaging effect of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the emittance and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. We propose a mitigation approach in which the dynamical effect of the longitudinal component of CSR is suppressed by appropriately preparing the initial longitudinal current profile of the beam. In a chicane, a linear theory for the mechanism of CSR-induced emittance growth is used to demonstrate how this procedure can produce a beam whose core experiences suppressed transverse emittance growth. The dynamics of such a beam is illustrated for the Berlin-Zeuthen CSR benchmark chicane.

Mitchell, Chad; Qiang, Ji; Emma, Paul

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Canopy radiation transmission for an energy balance snowmelt model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

January 2012. [1] To better estimate the radiation energy within and beneath the forest canopy for energy the energy balance and snowmelt beneath the forest canopy. Parsimony in terms of model complexity and dataCanopy radiation transmission for an energy balance snowmelt model Vinod Mahat1 and David G

Tarboton, David

22

3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

Howard Barker; Jason Cole

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

23

adjustment csr 1975-2005: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

not used in the official experiment, including experiments with perplexity minimization, Maximum Entropy mod- eling and parsing. 1. Introduction This paper 18 Proceedings CSR...

24

Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, ngstrm's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms.

Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana [Physics Department, West University of Timisoara, V Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Pop, Nicolina [Department of Physical Foundations of Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara, V Parvan 2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Calinoiu, Delia [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Politehnica University of Timisoara, Mihai Viteazu 1, 300222 Timisoara (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult cancer csr Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adult cancer csr Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 C. Jessie Jones, Roberta E. Rikli, Julie Max, and...

26

IKNO, a user facility for coherent terahertz and UV synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IKNO (Innovation and KNOwledge) is a proposal for a multi-user facility based on an electron storage ring optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range, and of broadband incoherent synchrotron radiation (SR) ranging from the IR to the VUV. IKNO can be operated in an ultra-stable CSR mode with photon flux in the terahertz frequency region up to nine orders of magnitude higher than in existing 3rd generation light sources. Simultaneously to the CSR operation, broadband incoherent SR up to VUV frequencies is available at the beamline ports. The main characteristics of the IKNO storage and its performance in terms of CSR and incoherent SR are described in this paper. The proposed location for the infrastructure facility is in Sardinia, Italy.

Sannibale, Fernando; Marcelli, Augusto; Innocenzi, Plinio

2008-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

27

Geosynchronous orbit determination using space surveillance network observations and improved radiative force modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correct modeling of the space environment, including radiative forces, is an important aspect of space situational awareness for geostationary (GEO) spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure has traditionally been modeled using ...

Lyon, Richard Harry, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Spreader-Bar Radiation Detection System Enhancements: A Modeling and Simulation Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the modeling and simulation results of the investigation of enhanced spreader bar radiation detection systems.

Ely, James H.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Baciak, James E.; Hensley, Walter K.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Schweppe, John E.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

29

Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

A radiation transport coupled particle-in-cell simulation. I. Description of the model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A radiation transport coupled particle-in-cell simulation. I. Description of the model Hae June-dimensional radiation transport model is coupled with a particle-in-cell simulation in order to incorporate such as ground, radiative, and metastable state atoms are treated with a fluid model combined with the Holstein

Lee, Hae June

31

PARALLELIZATION OF THE P-1 RADIATION MODEL Gautham Krishnamoorthy, Rajesh Rawat, and Philip J. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation model is spatially decomposed to solve the radiative transport equation on parallel computers describes the paralle- lization of the P-1 approximation to the radiative transport equation (RTE to the discretized transport equations consumes the maximum time in most radiation algorithms. Therefore, the speed

Utah, University of

32

A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery; published 30 January 2004. [1] Solar radiation assessment by satellite is constrained by physical Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation; KEYWORDS: solar radiation, satellite

33

APPLICATIONS OF THE PHOTONUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL TO RADIATION PROTECTION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to provide radiation protection systems for high energy electron accelerators it is necessary to define the yields of hadrons produced when the electron beam interacts with a fixed target. In practical terms this will occur when any beam or fraction of the beam is lost from the accelerator orbit or when any fraction of the beam is intercepted by a target inserted in the path of the beam or when the beam is totally absorbed by a beam dump. The electron and gamma yields from these interactions are well characterized and amenable to calculation utilizing Monte Carlo shower codes. However, the yield of hadrons has been less well defined. Neutron production has received most attention because of its importance to radiation shielding. Production mechanisms such as the giant dipole and the quasi-deuteron resonances have provided valuable information for total neutron yields for electron beams at energies less than about 400 MeV. For electron beams at energies extending to 10 GeV it is necessary to include the higher energy resonance structures and the various intranuclear production channels that are available for the production of higher energy neutrons. The production model described in this paper permits the calculation of laboratory angle and energy of all hadrons produced when an electron beam of energy between 100 MeV and 10 GeV interacts with a fixed target. This model can be used as an event generator for Monte Carlo codes used for many radiation protection purposes including calculation of radiation shielding.

Pavel Degtiarenko

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Radiation Modeling In Fluid Flow Iain D. Boyd  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Closing remarks #12;3 Radiation In Fluid Flows · Radiation transport is an important phenomenon in many 5800 K #12;7 Fundamentals of Radiation Transport · Radiation does not require a medium !!! dI (s, ! ) ds +(p +g )I (s, ! )+ p I (s, ! ) Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) - spectral intensity

Wang, Wei

35

A dynamic multi-scale model for transient radiative transfer calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the radiative transfer equation (RTE) or the diffusion equation (DE). The RTE is a kinetic transport equation-scale model which couples the transient radiative transfer equation (RTE) and the diffusion equation (DE: transient radiative transfer, multi-scale model, finite volume method, diffusion equation, domain

Boyer, Edmond

36

Validation of 3D Radiative Transfer in Coastal-Ocean Water Systems as Modeled by DIRSIG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Validation of 3D Radiative Transfer in Coastal-Ocean Water Systems as Modeled by DIRSIG FOR IMAGING SCIENCE Title of Dissertation: Validation of 3D Radiative Transfer in Coastal-Ocean Water Systems. Signature Date 3 #12;Validation of 3D Radiative Transfer in Coastal-Ocean Water Systems as Modeled by DIRSIG

Salvaggio, Carl

37

Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters in the upper ocean, the vertical distribution of solar radiation (ESR) in the shortwave domain plays (2005), Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal

Lee, Zhongping

38

Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Introduction Meaningful simulations of radiation transport applications require realistic definitions of material composition and densities. When seeking that information for applications in fields such as homeland security, radiation shielding and protection, and criticality safety, researchers usually encounter a variety of materials for which elemental compositions are not readily available or densities are not defined. Publication of the Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling, Revision 0, in 2006 was the first step toward mitigating this problem. Revision 0 of this document listed 121 materials, selected mostly from the combined personal libraries of staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and thus had a scope that was recognized at the time to be limited. Nevertheless, its creation did provide a well-referenced source of some unique or hard-to-define material data in a format that could be used directly in radiation transport calculations being performed at PNNL. Moreover, having a single common set of material definitions also helped to standardize at least one aspect of the various modeling efforts across the laboratory by providing separate researchers the ability to compare different model results using a common basis of materials. The authors of the 2006 compendium understood that, depending on its use and feedback, the compendium would need to be revised to correct errors or inconsistencies in the data for the original 121 materials, as well as to increase (per users suggestions) the number of materials listed. This 2010 revision of the compendium has accomplished both of those objectives. The most obvious change is the increased number of materials from 121 to 372. The not-so-obvious change is the mechanism used to produce the data listed here. The data listed in the 2006 document were compiled, evaluated, entered, and error-checked by a group of individuals essentially by hand, providing no library file or mechanism for revising the data in a consistent and traceable manner. The authors of this revision have addressed that problem by first compiling all of the information (i.e., numbers and references) for all the materials into a single database, maintained at PNNL, that was then used as the basis for this document.

McConn, Ronald J.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Rucker, Robert A.; Williams III, Robert

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

39

Multi-model Preconditioning for Radiative Transfer Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, multigrid, radiative transfer, neutron transport, linear Boltzmann equation 2000 MSC: 65N22, 85A25, 65N30 1 and radiation dominated regions must be combined. Since the character of the equation is very different in those of the monochromatic radiative transfer problem leads to a diffusion equation, approximating the radiative transfer

40

Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of estimating these frequencies for future work. Modeling of nuisance source populations is only useful if it helps in understanding detector system performance in real operational environments. Examples of previous studies in which nuisance source models played a key role are briefly discussed. These include screening of in-bound urban traffic and monitoring of shipping containers in transit to U.S. ports.

Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

OUMBE, Armel, WALD, Lucien, BLANC, Philippe, and SCHROEDTER-HOMSCHEIDT, Marion. Exploitation of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric constituents, Germany * Corresponding Author, armel.oumbe@ensmp.fr Abstract Solar radiation is modified in its way: solar radiation, atmospheric optics, satellite images, Heliosat method 1. Introduction A wealth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

Stone, J. V.

43

Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary satellites data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary global solar radiation. In this paper, we use geostationary satellites data to generate 2-D time series of solar radiation for the next hour. The results presented in this paper relate to a particular territory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

USING LEARNING MACHINES TO CREATE SOLAR RADIATION MAPS FROM NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION MODELS,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

USING LEARNING MACHINES TO CREATE SOLAR RADIATION MAPS FROM NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION MODELS to develop a methodology to generate solar radiation maps using information from different sources. First with conclusions and next works in the last section. Keywords: Solar Radiation maps, Numerical Weather Predictions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and hybrid ARMA/ANN model to predict global radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and hybrid ARMA/ANN model to predict global radiation Cyril a hybrid ARMA/ANN model and data issued from a numerical weather prediction model (ALADIN). We particularly@gmail.com #12;Abstract. We propose in this paper an original technique to predict global radiation using

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Are firms with different CSR profiles equally innovative? An empirical analysis with survey data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and innovation from a firm strategic perspective. KEYWORDS: Corporate Social Responsibility, Innovation, Product, Process, Strategic Profiles halshs-00737698 innovation and competitiveness on the one hand and social inclusion on the other) and, with a few exceptions

Boyer, Edmond

47

Research SummaryForest Research Monitoring and evaluating Quality of Life for CSR 07  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Target 1), and increases management activities), quality of experience and personal in visitsResearch SummaryForest Research Monitoring and evaluating Quality of Life for CSR 07 As part corporate Quality of Life (QoL) targets, giving rise to the Monitoring and Evaluating Quality of Life

48

Compensating effect of the coherent synchrotron radiation in bunch compressors  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Typical bunch compression for a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) requires a large compression ratio. Frequently, this compression is distributed in multiple stages along the beam transport line. However, for a high-gain FEL driven by an energy recovery linac (ERL), compression must be accomplished in a single strong compressor located at the beam lines end; otherwise the electron beam would be affected severely by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the ERLs arcs. In such a scheme, the CSR originating from the strong compressors could greatly degrade the quality of the electron beam. In this paper, we present our design for a bunch compressor that will limit the effect of CSR on the e-beams quality. We discuss our findings from a study of such a compressor, and detail its potential for an FEL driven by a multipass ERL developed for the electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

Jing, Yichao; Hao, Yue; Litvinenko, Vladimir N.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal tissue complication probability models showed a parallel architecture for the thyroid. The mean dose model can be used as the best model to describe the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism complication.

Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Development of a combined model of tissue kinetics and radiation response of human bronchiolar epithelium with single cell resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lack of accurate data for epidemiological studies of low dose radiation effects necessitates development of dosimetric models allowing prediction of cancer risks for different organs. The objective of this work is to develop a model of the radiation...

Ostrovskaya, Natela Grigoryevna

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

51

Economic analysis: impact of CS/R process on benzene market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contract No. DE-AC01-78ET10159 (formerly ET-78-C-01-3117) between UOP/SDC and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) requires UOP/SDC to provide specific engineering and technical services to the DOE Office of Coal Processing in support of the Coal Gasification Program. This report covers an economic study on the projected price of benzene through the next decade based on the market factors and production costs. The impact of the CS/R process on the benzene market was evaluated. In addition, the cost of gas from the CS/R process was determined as a function of the byproduct credit for benzene.

Spielberger, L.; Klein, J.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

International technology transfer (ITT) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) : A study in the interaction of two business functions within the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??I study Statoil?s use of international technology transfer (ITT) and corporate social responsibility (CSR), and ways in which the two business functions interact within Statoil. (more)

Bakken, Bent Egil Roalkvam

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a NarrowBand Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, France (\\Phi) now at the Institute of Energy and Power Plant Technology, TH Darmstadt, 64287 DarmstadtMonte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a Narrow­Band Model and a Net is used for simulation of radiative heat transfers in non­gray gases. The proposed procedure is based

Dufresne, Jean-Louis

54

A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ?40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.

Yannam, Govardhana Rao [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Han, Bing [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi (China); Setoyama, Kentaro [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamamoto, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzman-Lepe, Jorge [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Galambos, Csaba [Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Fong, Jason V. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamanouchi, Kosho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro [Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

Zarkadoula, Evangelia [Queen Mary, University of London] [Queen Mary, University of London; Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J [ORNL] [ORNL; Seaton, M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK] [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Todorov, I T [Daresbury Laboratory, UK] [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki] [University of Helsinki; Dove, Martin T [Queen Mary, University of London] [Queen Mary, University of London; Trachenko, Kostya [Queen Mary, University of London] [Queen Mary, University of London

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Radiation Reaction Effects in the BMT Model of Spinning Charge and the Radiation Polarization Phenomenon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of radiation polarization attended with the motion of spinning charge in the magnetic field could be viewed through the classical theory of self-interaction. The quantum expression for the polarization time follows from the semiclassical relation $T_{QED}\\sim \\hbar c^{3}/\\mu_{B}^2\\omega_{c}^3$, and needs quantum explanation neither for the orbit nor for the spin motion. In our approach the polarization emerges as a result of natural selection in the ensenmble of elastically scattered electrons among which the group of particles that bear their spins in the 'right' directions has the smaller probability of radiation. The evidence of non-complete polarization degree is also obtained.

S. L. Lebedev

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

57

Radiation transport modeling using extended quadrature method of moments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiative transfer equation describes the propagation of radiation through a material medium. While it provides a highly accurate description of the radiation field, the large phase space on which the equation is defined makes it numerically challenging. As a consequence, significant effort has gone into the development of accurate approximation methods. Recently, an extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) has been developed to solve univariate population balance equations, which also have a large phase space and thus face similar computational challenges. The distinct advantage of the EQMOM approach over other moment methods is that it generates moment equations that are consistent with a positive phase space density and has a moment inversion algorithm that is fast and efficient. The goal of the current paper is to present the EQMOM method in the context of radiation transport, to discuss advantages and disadvantages, and to demonstrate its performance on a set of standard one-dimensional benchmark problems that encompass optically thin, thick, and transition regimes. Special attention is given in the implementation to the issue of realizabilitythat is, consistency with a positive phase space density. Numerical results in one dimension are promising and lay the foundation for extending the same framework to multiple dimensions.

Vikas, V., E-mail: vvikas@iastate.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2271 Howe Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hauck, C.D., E-mail: hauckc@ornl.gov [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, Z.J., E-mail: zjw@ku.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2120 Learned Hall, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Fox, R.O., E-mail: rofox@iastate.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 2114 Sweeney Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A physical model of radiated enhancement of plasma-surrounded antenna  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A phenomenon that the radiated power may be enhanced when an antenna is surrounded by a finite plasma shell has been found in numerical and experimental studies. In this paper, a physical model was built to express the mechanism of the radiated enhancement. In this model, the plasma shell is treated as a parallel connection of a capacitance and a conductance whose parameters change with the system parameters (plasma density, collision frequency, and antenna frequency). So, the radiated enhancement can be explained by the resonance between the plasma shell and the infinite free space. Furthermore, the effects of system parameters on the radiated power are given and effects corresponding to mechanisms are performed based on the physical model.

Gao, Xiaotian; Wang, Chunsheng, E-mail: wangcs@hit.edu.cn; Jiang, Binhao; Zhang, Zhonglin [Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Nan Gang District, 150001 Harbin (China)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be attainable, thus affecting public policy decisions with great impact to public life.

Dr. Lazaros Oreopoulos and Dr. Peter M. Norris

2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

60

Modeling of the radiation belt megnetosphere in decisional timeframes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for calculating L* in the magnetosphere with essentially the same accuracy as with a physics based model at many times the speed by developing a surrogate trained to be a surrogate for the physics-based model. The trained model can then beneficially process input data falling within the training range of the surrogate model. The surrogate model can be a feedforward neural network and the physics-based model can be the TSK03 model. Operatively, the surrogate model can use parameters on which the physics-based model was based, and/or spatial data for the location where L* is to be calculated. Surrogate models should be provided for each of a plurality of pitch angles. Accordingly, a surrogate model having a closed drift shell can be used from the plurality of models. The feedforward neural network can have a plurality of input-layer units, there being at least one input-layer unit for each physics-based model parameter, a plurality of hidden layer units and at least one output unit for the value of L*.

Koller, Josef; Reeves, Geoffrey D; Friedel, Reiner H.W.

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Improvements to the SHDOM Radiative Transfer Modeling Package  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300 219Improvements to the SHDOM Radiative

62

EVALUATION OF NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION IN MODELING CLOUD-RADIATION INTERACTIONS OVER THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION IN MODELING CLOUD- RADIATION INTERACTIONS OVER.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is the basis for present-day weather forecasts, and NWP for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, the US North American Model, and the US Global Forecast System. Attempts

Johnson, Peter D.

63

The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.

Feingold, Graham [NOAA ESRL; McComiskey, Allison [CIRES, University of Colorado

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

64

THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADIATION EMBRITTLEMENT MODELS FOR U.S. POWER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL STEELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The information fusion technique is used to develop radiation embrittlement prediction models for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels from U.S. power reactors, including boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. The Charpy transition temperature-shift data is used as the primary index of RPV radiation embrittlement in this study. Six parameters {Cu, Ni, P, neutron fluence, irradiation time, and irradiation temperature {are used in the embrittlement prediction models. The results indicate that this new embrittlement predictor achieved reductions of about 49.5% and 52% in the uncertainties for plate and weld data, respectively, for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor data, compared with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.99, Rev. 2. The implications of dose-rate effect and irradiation temperature effects for the development of radiation embrittlement models are also discussed.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

A Simplified Model of the Walker Circulation with an Interactive Ocean Mixed Layer and Cloud-Radiative Feedbacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Simplified Model of the Walker Circulation with an Interactive Ocean Mixed Layer and Cloud-Radiative, to leading order, these are set by the horizontally varying ocean heat transport and clear-sky radiative on the radiation budget, are strongly coupled to the large-scale circulation of both the atmosphere and ocean

Bretherton, Chris

66

RAMI4PILPS: An intercomparison of formulations for the partitioning of solar radiation in land surface models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RAMI4PILPS: An intercomparison of formulations for the partitioning of solar radiation in land for the partitioning of solar radiation in land surface models, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G02019, doi:10.1029/2010JG001511 [e.g., Zeng et al., 2000; Dai et al., 2004]. The partitioning of solar radiation between

Ni-Meister, Wenge

67

New formulae to evaluate the atmospheric layers of precipitable water and gases, applicable in solar radiation computing models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in solar radiation computing models V. B0103descu Energetica, Centrale Electrice, Polytechn. Inst irradiance. In this context, the relatively low density of solar radiation recording stations favoured measurements. Reviews and classifications of the main calculations procedures of solar radiation have been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Radiative hydrodynamics in the highly super adiabatic layer of stellar evolution models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results of three dimensional simulations of the uppermost part of the sun, at 3 stages of its evolution. Each model includes physically realistic radiative-hydrodynamics (the Eddington approximation is used in the optically thin region), varying opacities and a realistic equation of state (full treatment of the ionization of H and He). In each evolution model, we investigate a domain, which starts at the top of the photosphere and ends just inside the convection zone (about 2400 km in the sun model). This includes all of the super-adiabatic layer (SAL). Due to the different positions of the three models in the $log (g) $ vs $log T_{eff}$ plane, the more evolved models have lower density atmospheres. The reduction in density causes the amount of overshoot into the radiation layer, to be greater in the more evolved models.

F. J. Robinson; P. Demarque; S. Sofia; K. L. Chan; Y. -C. Kim; D. B. Guenther

2000-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

69

Barotropic Rossby wave radiation from a model Gulf Stream1 Arthur J. Miller and Douglas J. Neilson2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the ocean.7 One process that remains particularly obscure in WBC dynamics is the radiation of8 barotropic1 Barotropic Rossby wave radiation from a model Gulf Stream1 Arthur J. Miller and Douglas J in the North Atlantic Ocean is studied in an14 eddy-resolving ocean model simulation. The meandering model Gulf

Frandsen, Jannette B.

70

Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional models. One fruitful strategy for evaluating advances in parameterizations has turned out to be using short-range numerical weather prediction as a test-bed within which to implement and improve parameterizations for modeling and predicting climate variability. The global models we have used to date are the CAM atmospheric component of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CCSM climate model as well as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) numerical weather prediction model, thus allowing testing in both climate simulation and numerical weather prediction modes. We present detailed results of these tests, demonstrating the sensitivity of model performance to changes in parameterizations.

Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

71

Broadband Model Performance for an Updated National Solar Radiation Database in the United States of America: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Updated review of broadband model performance in a project being done to update the existing United States National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB).

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S.; Marion, W.; George, R.; Anderberg, M.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Model calculations of radiative capture of nucleons in MeV region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We address calculations of the neutron and the proton radiative capture at incident energies up to 20 MeV on medium and heavy nuclei. The main formalism used is the pre-equilibrium (exciton) model of {gamma} emission. A link to the Consistent Direct-Semidirect model is noticed as well. The resulting pre-equilibrium (plus equilibrium) calculations of the radiative capture excitation functions are compared to experimental data and also some cross section trends important for possible production of therapeutic radioisotopes are extracted.

Betak, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Acad. Sciences, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Philosophy and Sciences, Silesian Univ., 74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Los Alamos dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM) for space weather specification and forecasting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to assess, quantify, and predict the hazards from the natural space environment and the anthropogenic environment produced by high altitude nuclear explosions (HANE). DREAM was initially developed as a basic research activity to understand and predict the dynamics of the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. It uses Kalman filter techniques to assimilate data from space environment instruments with a physics-based model of the radiation belts. DREAM can assimilate data from a variety of types of instruments and data with various levels of resolution and fidelity by assigning appropriate uncertainties to the observations. Data from any spacecraft orbit can be assimilated but DREAM was designed to function with as few as two spacecraft inputs: one from geosynchronous orbit and one from GPS orbit. With those inputs, DREAM can be used to predict the environment at any satellite in any orbit whether space environment data are available in those orbits or not. Even with very limited data input and relatively simple physics models, DREAM specifies the space environment in the radiation belts to a high level of accuracy. DREAM has been extensively tested and evaluated as we transition from research to operations. We report here on one set of test results in which we predict the environment in a highly-elliptical polar orbit. We also discuss long-duration reanalysis for spacecraft design, using DREAM for real-time operations, and prospects for 1-week forecasts of the radiation belt environment.

Reeves, Geoffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friedel, Reiner H W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Yue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koller, Josef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Evaluation of the Multi-scale Modeling Framework Using Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is to provide long-term observations for evaluating and improving cloud and radiation treatment in global climate models. Unfortunately, the traditional parametric approach of diagnosing cloud and radiation properties for gridcells that are tens to hundreds kilometers across from large-scale model fields is not well suited for comparison with time series of ground based observations at selected locations. A recently emerging approach called a multi-scale modeling framework (MMF) has shown promise to bridge the scale gap. The MMF consists of a two-dimensional or small three-dimensional cloud resolving model (CRM) embedded into each grid column of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM), thereby computing cloud properties at a scale that is more consistent with observations. We present a comparison of data from two ARM sites, one at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in Oklahoma and one at Nauru Island in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region, with output from both the CAM and MMF. Two sets of one year long simulations are considered: one using climatological sea surface temperatures (SST) and another using 1999 SST. Each set includes a run with the MMF as well as the CAM run with traditional or standard cloud and radiation treatment. Time series of cloud fraction, precipitation intensity, and downwelling solar radiation flux at the surface are statistically analyzed. For the TWP site, nearly all parameters of frequency distributions of these variables from the MMF run are shown to be more consistent with observation than those from the CAM run. This change is attributed to the improved representation of convective clouds in the MMF compared to the conventional climate model. For the SGP, the MMF shows little to no improvement in predicting the same quantities. Possible causes of this lack of improvement are discussed.

Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Khairoutdinov, Marat

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Measurements and modeling of soot formation and radiation in microgravity jet diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. On modeling, the authors have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed {beta}-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude-Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar flames and turbulent jet flames. Predicted soot volume fraction results also agree with the data for 1-g and 0-g laminar jet flames as well as 1-g turbulent jet flames.

Ku, J.C.; Tong, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Greenberg, P.S. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Microgravity Combustion Branch

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL FOR GASEOUS EXOPLANETS WITH DOUBLE-GRAY RADIATIVE TRANSFER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new version of our code for modeling the atmospheric circulation on gaseous exoplanets, now employing a 'double-gray' radiative transfer scheme, which self-consistently solves for fluxes and heating throughout the atmosphere, including the emerging (observable) infrared flux. We separate the radiation into infrared and optical components, each with its own absorption coefficient, and solve standard two-stream radiative transfer equations. We use a constant optical absorption coefficient, while the infrared coefficient can scale as a power law with pressure; however, for simplicity, the results shown in this paper use a constant infrared coefficient. Here we describe our new code in detail and demonstrate its utility by presenting a generic hot Jupiter model. We discuss issues related to modeling the deepest pressures of the atmosphere and describe our use of the diffusion approximation for radiative fluxes at high optical depths. In addition, we present new models using a simple form for magnetic drag on the atmosphere. We calculate emitted thermal phase curves and find that our drag-free model has the brightest region of the atmosphere offset by {approx}12 Degree-Sign from the substellar point and a minimum flux that is 17% of the maximum, while the model with the strongest magnetic drag has an offset of only {approx}2 Degree-Sign and a ratio of 13%. Finally, we calculate rates of numerical loss of kinetic energy at {approx}15% for every model except for our strong-drag model, where there is no measurable loss; we speculate that this is due to the much decreased wind speeds in that model.

Rauscher, Emily [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

77

A stochastic model for tumor geometry evolution during radiation therapy in cervical cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To develop mathematical models to predict the evolution of tumor geometry in cervical cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: The authors develop two mathematical models to estimate tumor geometry change: a Markov model and an isomorphic shrinkage model. The Markov model describes tumor evolution by investigating the change in state (either tumor or nontumor) of voxels on the tumor surface. It assumes that the evolution follows a Markov process. Transition probabilities are obtained using maximum likelihood estimation and depend on the states of neighboring voxels. The isomorphic shrinkage model describes tumor shrinkage or growth in terms of layers of voxels on the tumor surface, instead of modeling individual voxels. The two proposed models were applied to data from 29 cervical cancer patients treated at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and then compared to a constant volume approach. Model performance was measured using sensitivity and specificity. Results: The Markov model outperformed both the isomorphic shrinkage and constant volume models in terms of the trade-off between sensitivity (target coverage) and specificity (normal tissue sparing). Generally, the Markov model achieved a few percentage points in improvement in either sensitivity or specificity compared to the other models. The isomorphic shrinkage model was comparable to the Markov approach under certain parameter settings. Convex tumor shapes were easier to predict. Conclusions: By modeling tumor geometry change at the voxel level using a probabilistic model, improvements in target coverage and normal tissue sparing are possible. Our Markov model is flexible and has tunable parameters to adjust model performance to meet a range of criteria. Such a model may support the development of an adaptive paradigm for radiation therapy of cervical cancer.

Liu, Yifang; Lee, Chi-Guhn [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)] [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y., E-mail: tcychan@mie.utoronto.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)] [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Cho, Young-Bin [Department of Radiation Physics, Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Physics, Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Islam, Mohammad K. [Department of Radiation Physics, Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada) [Department of Radiation Physics, Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Testing Radiative Neutrino Mass Models at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Large Hadron Collider provides us new opportunities to search for the origin of neutrino mass. Beyond the minimal see-saw models a plethora of models exist which realise neutrino mass at tree- or loop-level, and it is important to be sure that these possibilities are satisfactorily covered by searches. The purpose of this paper is to advance a systematic approach to this problem. Majorana neutrino mass models can be organised by SM-gauge-invariant operators which violate lepton number by two units. In this paper we write down the minimal ultraviolet completions for all of the mass-dimension 7 operators. We predict vector-like quarks, vector-like leptons, scalar leptoquarks, a charged scalar, and a scalar doublet, whose properties are constrained by neutrino oscillation data. A detailed collider study is presented for $O_3=LLQ\\bar dH$ and $O_8 = L\\bar d\\bar e^\\dagger \\bar u^\\dagger H$ completions with a vector-like quark $\\chi\\sim(3, 2, -\\frac{5}{6})$ and a leptoquark $\\phi\\sim(\\bar 3,1,\\frac{1}{3})$. The existing LHC limits extracted from searches for vector-like fermions and sbottoms/stops are $m_\\chi \\gtrsim 620$ GeV and $m_\\phi\\gtrsim 600$ GeV.

Yi Cai; Jackson D. Clarke; Michael A. Schmidt; Raymond R. Volkas

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

79

Testing Radiative Neutrino Mass Models at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Large Hadron Collider provides us new opportunities to search for the origin of neutrino mass. Beyond the minimal see-saw models a plethora of models exist which realise neutrino mass at tree- or loop-level, and it is important to be sure that these possibilities are satisfactorily covered by searches. The purpose of this paper is to advance a systematic approach to this problem. Majorana neutrino mass models can be organised by SM-gauge-invariant operators which violate lepton number by two units. In this paper we write down the minimal ultraviolet completions for all of the mass-dimension 7 operators. We predict vector-like quarks, vector-like leptons, scalar leptoquarks, a charged scalar, and a scalar doublet, whose properties are constrained by neutrino oscillation data. A detailed collider study is presented for $O_3=LLQ\\bar dH$ and $O_8 = L\\bar d\\bar e^\\dagger \\bar u^\\dagger H$ completions with a vector-like quark $\\chi\\sim(3, 2, -\\frac{5}{6})$ and a leptoquark $\\phi\\sim(\\bar 3,1,\\frac{1}{3})$. The existing LHC limits extracted from searches for vector-like fermions and sbottoms/stops are $m_\\chi \\gtrsim 620$ GeV and $m_\\phi\\gtrsim 600$ GeV.

Yi Cai; Jackson D. Clarke; Michael A. Schmidt; Raymond R. Volkas

2015-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Combined Treatment Effects of Radiation and Immunotherapy: Studies in an Autochthonous Prostate Cancer Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To optimize the combination of ionizing radiation and cellular immunotherapy using a preclinical autochthonous model of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Transgenic mice expressing a model antigen under a prostate-specific promoter were treated using a platform that integrates cone-beam CT imaging with 3-dimensional conformal therapy. Using this technology we investigated the immunologic and therapeutic effects of combining ionizing radiation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer in mice bearing autochthonous prostate tumors. Results: The combination of ionizing radiation and immunotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in pathologic tumor grade and gross tumor bulk that was not evident with either single-modality therapy. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy resulted in improved overall survival in a preventive metastasis model and in the setting of established micrometastases. Mechanistically, combined therapy resulted in an increase of the ratio of effector-to-regulatory T cells for both CD4 and CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Conclusions: Our preclinical model establishes a potential role for the use of combined radiation-immunotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, which warrants further exploration in a clinical setting.

Wada, Satoshi [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Harris, Timothy J.; Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yoshimura, Kiyoshi [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zeng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yen, Hung-Rong; Getnet, Derese; Grosso, Joseph F.; Bruno, Tullia C. [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); De Marzo, Angelo M. [Department of Pathology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

MODELLING RADIATIVELY ACTIVE WATER-ICE CLOUDS: IMPACT ON THE THERMAL STRUCTURE AND WATER CYCLE.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELLING RADIATIVELY ACTIVE WATER-ICE CLOUDS: IMPACT ON THE THERMAL STRUCTURE AND WATER CYCLE. J. The essential role of water-ice clouds in shaping the thermal structure of the martian atmosphere has been long presumed [1] but neglected in GCMs because of the lack of observations and difficulty to predict

Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

82

BTRAM: An Interactive Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model I.M. Chapman1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiance incident on the spectrometer/radiometer. Computer simulations, known as radiative transfer models source of opacity at submillimetre wavelengths where many objects emit most of their energy. Although high altitude observatories (such as the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii and the Atacama

Naylor, David A.

83

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, and Buildings Systems Integration Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 July 2009 SOLAR SYSTEM POTENTIAL/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Estimates the electrical energy

84

Radiative Models of Sagittarius A* and M87 from Relativistic MHD Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative Models of Sagittarius A* and M87 from Relativistic MHD Simulations Jason Dexter of this dissertation may be referred to Proquest Information and Learning, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 Simulations Jason Dexter Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Professor Eric Agol Department of Astronomy

Militzer, Burkhard

85

Thoughts on entropic gravity in the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this letter, we use the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation to illustrate that a reformulation of Verlinde's entropic gravity is needed to derive the Newton's law for a temperature-varying screen, demanded by the conservation of energy. Furthermore, the entropy stored in the holographic screen is shown to be additive and its temperature dependence can be obtained.

Wen-Yu Wen

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the range of possibilities. Once an object is generated, its radiation signature is calculated using a 1-dimensional deterministic transport code. Objects that do not make sense based on physics principles or other constraints are rejected. Thus, the model can be used to generate a population of spectral signatures that spans a large space, including smuggled nuclear material and nuclear weapons.

Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

87

Evaluation of the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework using Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was to provide long-term observations for evaluation of cloud and radiation treatment in global climate models. Unfortunately, traditional parametric approach of diagnosing cloud and radiation properties from large-scale model fields is not well suited for comparison with observed time series at selected locations. A recently emerging approach called the multi-scale modeling framework (MMF) has shown promise to bridge the gap. MMF consists of a two-dimensional cloud system resolving model (CSRM) embedded into each CAM grid column of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM), thereby computing cloud properties at a scale that is more consistent with observations. Because the approach is computationally expensive only limited simulations have been carried out. In this presentation, we will present a comparison of data from two ARM sites, one at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in Oklahoma and one at Nauru island in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region, with output from both CAM and MMF. Two sets of one year long simulations are considered: one using climatological sea surface temperatures (SST) and another using 1999 SST. Each set includes a run with MMF as well as CAM run with traditional or standard cloud and radiation treatment. Time series of cloud fraction, precipitation intensity, and downwelling solar radiation flux at the surface are statistically analyzed. For the TWP site, nearly all parameters of frequency distributions of these variables from MMF run are shown to be more consistent with observation than those from CAM run. For the SGP, the improvements are marginal.

Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Khairoutdinov, Marat

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Simulation and modeling for the stand-off radiation detection system (SORDS) using GEANT4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Stand-Off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) is being developed through a joint effort by Raytheon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bubble Technology Industries, Radiation Monitoring Devices, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The system is a mobile truck-based platform performing detection, imaging, and spectroscopic identification of gamma-ray sources. A Tri-Modal Imaging (TMI) approach combines active-mask coded aperture imaging, Compton imaging, and shadow imaging techniques. Monte Carlo simulation and modeling using the GEANT4 toolkit was used to generate realistic data for the development of imaging algorithms and associated software code.

Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Galassi, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Shawn [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A unified model for radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1-MeV electron irradiation effects on MBE-grown InGaAs and AlGaAs solar cells have been examined in comparison with previous results for radiation damage of InP and GaAs solar cells in order to clarify radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells. Moreover, 1-MeV electron irradiation results of several space solar cells such as InP, InGaP, InGaAsP, GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, Si, Ge, and CuInSe{sub 2} cells have also been analyzed by considering their damage constants, bandgap energies and optical absorption coefficients. The authors believe that this study will provide a unified model for radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells.

Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technical Inst., Nagoya (Japan); Katsumoto, Shingo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Amano, Chikara [NTT Opto-Electrical Labs., Kanagawa (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Automotive Underhood Thermal Management Analysis Using 3-D Coupled Thermal-Hydrodynamic Computer Models: Thermal Radiation Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of work in section F.

Pannala, S; D'Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

91

Modelling of radiative divertor operation towards detachment in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to actively control power load on the divertor target plates and study the effect of radiative divertor on plasma parameters in divertor plasmas and heat fluxes to the targets, dedicated experiments with Ar impurity seeding have been performed on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak in typical L-mode discharge with single null divertor configuration, ohmic heating power of 0.5 MW, and lower hybrid wave heating power of 1.0 MW. Ar is puffed into the divertor plasma at the outer target plate near the separatrix strike point with the puffing rate 1.26 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} s{sup -1}. The radiative divertor is formed during the Ar puffing. The SOL/divertor plasma in the L-mode discharge with radiative divertor has been modelled by using SOLPS5.2 code package [V. Rozhansky et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 025007 (2009)]. The modelling shows the cooling of the divertor plasma due to Ar seeding and is compared with the experimental measurement. The changes of peak electron temperature and heat fluxes at the targets with the shot time from the modelling results are similar to the experimental measurement before and during the Ar impurity seeding, but there is a major difference in time scales when Ar affects the plasma in between experiment and modelling.

Chen Yiping; Wang, F. Q.; Hu, L. Q.; Guo, H. Y.; Wu, Z. W.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Zha, X. J. [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05Wm?2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17Wm?2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, ?0.05 and ?0.17Wm?2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

Robert G. Ellingson

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and hybrid ARMA/ANN model to predict global radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose in this paper an original technique to predict global radiation using a hybrid ARMA/ANN model and data issued from a numerical weather prediction model (ALADIN). We particularly look at the Multi-Layer Perceptron. After optimizing our architecture with ALADIN and endogenous data previously made stationary and using an innovative pre-input layer selection method, we combined it to an ARMA model from a rule based on the analysis of hourly data series. This model has been used to forecast the hourly global radiation for five places in Mediterranean area. Our technique outperforms classical models for all the places. The nRMSE for our hybrid model ANN/ARMA is 14.9% compared to 26.2% for the na\\"ive persistence predictor. Note that in the stand alone ANN case the nRMSE is 18.4%. Finally, in order to discuss the reliability of the forecaster outputs, a complementary study concerning the confidence interval of each prediction is proposed

Voyant, Cyril; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Hyperspectral Aquatic Radiative Transfer Modeling Using a High-Performance Cluster Computing-Based Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract For aquatic studies, radiative transfer (RT) modeling can be used to compute hyperspectral above-surface remote sensing reflectance that can be utilized for inverse model development. Inverse models can provide bathymetry and inherent-and bottom-optical property estimation. Because measured oceanic field/organic datasets are often spatio-temporally sparse, synthetic data generation is useful in yielding sufficiently large datasets for inversion model development; however, these forward-modeled data are computationally expensive and time-consuming to generate. This study establishes the magnitude of wall-clock-time savings achieved for performing large, aquatic RT batch-runs using parallel computing versus a sequential approach. Given 2,600 simulations and identical compute-node characteristics, sequential architecture required ~100 hours until termination, whereas a parallel approach required only ~2.5 hours (42 compute nodes) a 40x speed-up. Tools developed for this parallel execution are discussed.

Filippi, Anthony M [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; King, Amy L [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL; Guneralp, Inci [Texas A& M University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Hyperspectral Aquatic Radiative Transfer Modeling Using a High-Performance Cluster Computing Based Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For aquatic studies, radiative transfer (RT) modeling can be used to compute hyperspectral above-surface remote sensing reflectance that can be utilized for inverse model development. Inverse models can provide bathymetry and inherent- and bottom-optical property estimation. Because measured oceanic field/organic datasets are often spatio-temporally sparse, synthetic data generation is useful in yielding sufficiently large datasets for inversion model development; however, these forward-modeled data are computationally expensive and time-consuming to generate. This study establishes the magnitude of wall-clock-time savings achieved for performing large, aquatic RT batch-runs using parallel computing versus a sequential approach. Given 2,600 simulations and identical compute-node characteristics, sequential architecture required {approx}100 hours until termination, whereas a parallel approach required only {approx}2.5 hours (42 compute nodes) - a 40x speed-up. Tools developed for this parallel execution are discussed.

Fillippi, Anthony [Texas A& M University; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; King, Amy L [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL; Guneralp, Inci [Texas A& M University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Handbook of Anatomical Models for Radiation Dosimetry (To be published in 2009 in "Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering")  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. George Xu Chapter 24 Nuclear Medicine Imaging and Dosimetry Involving MCAT, NCAT, and MOBY ComputerHandbook of Anatomical Models for Radiation Dosimetry (To be published in 2009 in "Series, USA Preface Chapter 1 Computational Phantoms for Radiation Dosimetry: A 40-Year History of Evolution X

Linhardt, Robert J.

98

Time-dependent Radiation Transfer in the Internal Shock Model Scenario for Blazar Jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the time-dependent radiation transfer in blazar jets, within the internal shock model. We assume that the central engine, which consists of a black hole and an accretion disk, spews out relativistic shells of plasma with different velocity, mass, and energy. We consider a single inelastic collision between a faster (inner) and a slower (outer) moving shell. We study the dynamics of the collision and evaluate the subsequent emission of radiation via the synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton (SSC) processes after the interaction between the two shells has begun. The collision results in the formation of a forward shock (FS) and a reverse shock (RS) that convert the ordered bulk kinetic energy of the shells into magnetic field energy and accelerate the particles, which then radiate. We assume a cylindrical geometry for the emission region of the jet. We treat the self-consistent radiative transfer by taking into account the inhomogeneity in the photon density throughout the region. In this paper, we focus on understanding the effects of varying relevant input parameters on the simulated spectral energy distribution (SED) and spectral variability patterns.

Manasvita Joshi; Markus Boettcher

2010-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

99

Radiation Pneumonitis After Hypofractionated Radiotherapy: Evaluation of the LQ(L) Model and Different Dose Parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the linear quadratic (LQ) model for hypofractionated radiotherapy within the context of predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP) and to investigate the effect if a linear (L) model in the high region (LQL model) is used. Methods and Materials: The radiation doses used for 128 patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy were converted to the equivalent doses given in fractions of 2 Gy for a range of {alpha}/{beta} ratios (1 Gy to infinity) according to the LQ(L) model. For the LQL model, different cut-off values between the LQ model and the linear component were used. The Lyman model parameters were fitted to the events of RP grade 2 or higher to derive the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The lung dose was calculated as the mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume (V) receiving doses higher than a threshold dose of xGy (V{sub x}). Results: The best NTCP fit was found if the mean lung dose, or V{sub x}, was calculated with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The NTCP fit of other {alpha}/{beta} ratios and the LQL model were worse but within the 95% confidence interval of the NTCP fit of the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The V{sub 50} NTCP fit was better than the NTCP fit of lower threshold doses. Conclusions: For high fraction doses, the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy was the best method for converting the physical lung dose to predict RP.

Borst, Gerben R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ishikawa, Masayori [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nijkamp, Jasper [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Including radiative heat transfer and reaction quenching in modeling a Claus plant waste heat boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to increasingly stringent sulfur emission regulations, improvements are necessary in the modified Claus process. A recently proposed model by Nasato et al. for the Claus plant waste heat boiler (WHB) is improved by including radiative heat transfer, which yields significant changes in the predicted heat flux and the temperature profile along the WHB tube, leading to a faster quenching of chemical reactions. For the WHB considered, radiation accounts for approximately 20% of the heat transferred by convection alone. More importantly, operating the WHB at a higher gas mass flux is shown to enhance reaction quenching, resulting in a doubling of the predicted hydrogen flow rate. This increase in hydrogen flow rate is sufficient to completely meet the hydrogen requirement of the H[sub 2]S recovery process considered, which would eliminate the need for a hydrogen plant.

Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Incorporating Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms Into the Lyman Model to Improve Prediction of Radiation Pneumonitis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with DNA repair, cell cycle, transforming growth factor-{beta}, tumor necrosis factor and receptor, folic acid metabolism, and angiogenesis can significantly improve the fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen SNPs from 10 different genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX1, MDM2, TGF{beta}, TNF{alpha}, TNFR, MTHFR, MTRR, and VEGF) were genotyped in 141 NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy. The LKB model was used to estimate the risk of severe (grade {>=}3) RP as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with SNPs and patient smoking status incorporated into the model as dose-modifying factors. Multivariate analyses were performed by adding significant factors to the MLD model in a forward stepwise procedure, with significance assessed using the likelihood-ratio test. Bootstrap analyses were used to assess the reproducibility of results under variations in the data. Results: Five SNPs were selected for inclusion in the multivariate NTCP model based on MLD alone. SNPs associated with an increased risk of severe RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, TNF{alpha}, XRCC1 and APEX1. With smoking status included in the multivariate model, the SNPs significantly associated with increased risk of RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, and XRCC3. Bootstrap analyses selected a median of 4 SNPs per model fit, with the 6 genes listed above selected most often. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that SNPs can significantly improve the predictive ability of the Lyman MLD model. With a small number of SNPs, it was possible to distinguish cohorts with >50% risk vs <10% risk of RP when they were exposed to high MLDs.

Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li Minghuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xu Ting; Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yuan Xianglin [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)] [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yu Jinming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu Zhensheng; Yin Ming; Guan Xiaoxiang; Wang Lie; Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Martel, Mary [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A parametric study of shock jump chemistry, electron temperature, and radiative heat transfer models in hypersonic flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SHOCK JUMP CHEMISTRY, ELECTRON TEMPERATURE, AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT BRIAN GREENDYKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SHOCK JUMP CHEMISTRY, ELECTRON TEMPERATURE, AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT BRIAN...

Greendyke, Robert Brian

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

103

Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

104

Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Satellite-observed radiance is a nonlinear functional of surface properties and atmospheric temperature and absorbing gas profiles as described by the radiative transfer equation (RTE). In the era of hyperspectral sounders with thousands of high-resolution channels, the computation of the radiative transfer model becomes more time-consuming. The radiative transfer model performance in operational numerical weather prediction systems still limits the number of channels we can use in hyperspectral sounders to only a few hundreds. To take the full advantage of such high-resolution infrared observations, a computationally efficient radiative transfer model is needed to facilitate satellite data assimilation. In recent years the programmable commodity graphics processing unit (GPU) has evolved into a highly parallel, multi-threaded, many-core processor with tremendous computational speed and very high memory bandwidth. The radiative transfer model is very suitable for the GPU implementation to take advantage of the hardware's efficiency and parallelism where radiances of many channels can be calculated in parallel in GPUs. In this paper, we develop a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched in 2006 onboard the first European meteorological polar-orbiting satellites, METOP-A. Each IASI spectrum has 8461 spectral channels. The IASI radiative transfer model consists of three modules. The first module for computing the regression predictors takes less than 0.004% of CPU time, while the second module for transmittance computation and the third module for radiance computation take approximately 92.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Our GPU-based IASI radiative transfer model is developed to run on a low-cost personal supercomputer with four GPUs with total 960 compute cores, delivering near 4 TFlops theoretical peak performance. By massively parallelizing the second and third modules, we reached 364x speedup for 1 GPU and 1455x speedup for all 4 GPUs, both with respect to the original CPU-based single-threaded Fortran code with the -O{sub 2} compiling optimization. The significant 1455x speedup using a computer with four GPUs means that the proposed GPU-based high-performance forward model is able to compute one day's amount of 1,296,000 IASI spectra within nearly 10 min, whereas the original single CPU-based version will impractically take more than 10 days. This model runs over 80% of the theoretical memory bandwidth with asynchronous data transfer. A novel CPU-GPU pipeline implementation of the IASI radiative transfer model is proposed. The GPU-based high-performance IASI radiative transfer model is suitable for the assimilation of the IASI radiance observations into the operational numerical weather forecast model.

Huang Bormin, E-mail: bormin@ssec.wisc.ed [Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Mielikainen, Jarno [Department of Computer Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Oh, Hyunjong; Allen Huang, Hung-Lung [Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

105

Validation of the Poisson Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model Against Cloud Cascade Models  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-InducedCloudPoisson Stochastic Radiative

106

Modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in expanding flows by means of a collisional-radiative model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of non-equilibrium in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow are investigated by means of a collisional-radiative model. The gas undergoing the expansion is an air plasma and consists of atoms, molecules, and free electrons. In the present analysis, the electronic excited states of atomic and molecular species are treated as separate pseudo-species. Rotational and vibrational energy modes are assumed to be populated according to Boltzmann distributions. The coupling between radiation and gas dynamics is accounted for, in simplified manner, by using escape factors. The flow governing equations for the steady quasi-one-dimensional flow are written in conservative form and discretized in space by means of a finite volume method. Steady-state solutions are obtained by using a fully implicit time integration scheme. The analysis of the evolution of the electronic distribution functions reveals a substantial over-population of the high-lying excited levels of atoms and molecules in correspondence of the nozzle exit. The influence of optical thickness is also studied. The results clearly demonstrate that the radiative transitions, within the optically thin approximation, drastically reduce the over-population of high-lying electronic levels.

Munaf, A.; Lani, A. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chausse de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Gense (Belgium)] [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chausse de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Gense (Belgium); Bultel, A. [CORIA, UMR CNRS 6614, Universit de Rouen, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l'Universit 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France)] [CORIA, UMR CNRS 6614, Universit de Rouen, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l'Universit 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Panesi, M. [Aerospace Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Aerospace Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Friedmann-like collapsing model of a radiating sphere with heat flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper considers a spherical body consisting of a fluid with heat flow which radiates in its exterior a null fluid described by the outgoing Vaidya's metric. A Friedmann-like exact solution of the interior Einstein field equations is given. It is proved that this solution, matched with the outgoing Vaidya matric, represents a physically reasonble collapsing model which, when the heat flow is switched off, reduces to the well-known collapsing model with dust. The proposed model has the remarkable property that even if the heat flow is small, the horizon will never be formed because, before this happens, the collapsing body will be destroyed by opposite gradients of pressure. 6 references.

Kolassis, C.A.; Santos, N.O.; Tsoubelis, D.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Modelling electron distributions within ESA's Gaia satellite CCD pixels to mitigate radiation damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2012. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its unprecedented positional accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. At L2, protons cause displacement damage in the silicon of CCDs. The resulting traps capture and emit electrons from passing charge packets in the CCD pixel, distorting the image PSF and biasing its centroid. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate this effect. The key to calculating the probability of an electron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for the Gaia CCD pixels. In Seabroke, Holland & Cropper (2008), the first paper of this series, we motivated the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outlined how its future resu...

Seabroke, G M; Burt, D; Robbins, M S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors. Building andEFFECTS OF SHORT-WAVE SOLAR RADIATION INDOORS Edward ARENSK. The effects of solar radiation on thermal comfort.

Arens, Edward; Huang, Li; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Schiavon, Stefano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Radiation-MHD models of elephant trunks and globules in H II regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the formation and evolution of pillars of dense gas, known as elephant trunks, at the boundaries of H II regions, formed by shadowing of ionising radiation by dense clumps. The effects of magnetic fields on this process are investigated using 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulations. For a simulation in which an initially uniform magnetic field of strength |B|=50 uG is oriented perpendicular to the radiation propagation direction, the field is swept into alignment with the pillar during its dynamical evolution, in agreement with observations of the "Pillars of Creation" in M16, and of some cometary globules. This effect is significantly enhanced when the simulation is re-run with a weaker field of 18 uG. A stronger field with |B|=160 uG is sufficient to prevent this evolution completely, also significantly affecting the photoionisation process. Using a larger simulation domain it is seen that the pillar formation models studied in Mackey & Lim (2010) ultimately evolve to cometary structures ...

Mackey, Jonathan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Radiation Parameterization for Three-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Cirrus Clouds Applied to ARM Data and Climate Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 (a) We developed a 3D radiative transfer model to simulate the transfer of solar and thermal infrared radiation in inhomogeneous cirrus clouds. The model utilized a diffusion approximation approach (four-term expansion in the intensity) employing Cartesian coordinates. The required single-scattering parameters, including the extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor, for input to the model, were parameterized in terms of the ice water content and mean effective ice crystal size. The incorporation of gaseous absorption in multiple scattering atmospheres was accomplished by means of the correlated k-distribution approach. In addition, the strong forward diffraction nature in the phase function was accounted for in each predivided spatial grid based on a delta-function adjustment. The radiation parameterization developed herein is applied to potential cloud configurations generated from GCMs to investigate broken clouds and cloud-overlapping effects on the domain-averaged heating rate. Cloud inhomogeneity plays an important role in the determination of flux and heating rate distributions. Clouds with maximum overlap tend to produce less heating than those with random overlap. Broken clouds show more solar heating as well as more IR cooling as compared to a continuous cloud field (Gu and Liou, 2001). (b) We incorporated a contemporary radiation parameterization scheme in the UCLA atmospheric GCM in collaboration with the UCLA GCM group. In conjunction with the cloud/radiation process studies, we developed a physically-based cloud cover formation scheme in association with radiation calculations. The model clouds were first vertically grouped in terms of low, middle, and high types. Maximum overlap was then used for each cloud type, followed by random overlap among the three cloud types. Fu and Liou's 1D radiation code with modification was subsequently employed for pixel-by-pixel radiation calculations in the UCLA GCM. We showed that the simulated cloud cover and OLR fields without special tuning are comparable to those of ISCCP dataset and the results derived from radiation budget experiments. Use of the new radiation and cloud schemes enhances the radiative warming in the middle to upper tropical troposphere and alleviates the cold bias in the UCLA atmospheric GCM. We also illustrated that ice crystal size and cloud inhomogeneous are significant factors affecting the radiation budgets at the top of the atmosphere and the surface (Gu et al. 2003). (c) An innovative approach has been developed to construct a 3D field of inhomogeneous clouds in general and cirrus in particular in terms of liquid/ice water content and particle size on the basis of a unification of satellite and ground-based cloud radar data. Satellite remote sensing employing the current narrow-band spectro-radiometers has limitation and only the vertically integrated cloud parameters (optical depth and mean particle size) can be determined. However, by combining the horizontal cloud mapping inferred from satellites with the vertical structure derived from the profiling Doppler cloud radar, a 3D cloud field can be constructed. This represents a new conceptual approach to 3D remote sensing and imaging and offers a new perspective in observing the cloud structure. We applied this novel technique to AVHRR/NOAA satellite and mm-wave cloud radar data obtained from the ARM achieve and assessed the 3D cirrus cloud field with the ice crystal size distributions independently derived from optical probe measurements aboard the University of North Dakota Citation. The retrieved 3D ice water content and mean effective ice crystal size involving an impressive cirrus cloud occurring on April 18, 1997, are shown to be comparable to those derived from the analysis of collocated and coincident in situ aircraft measurements (Liou et al. 2002). (d) Detection of thin cirrus with optical depths less than 0.5, particularly those occurring i n the tropics remains a fundamental problem in remote sensing. We developed a new detection scheme for the

Kuo-Nan Liou

2003-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

112

Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary satellites data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a territory is poorly instrumented, geostationary satellites data can be useful to predict global solar radiation. In this paper, we use geostationary satellites data to generate 2-D time series of solar radiation for the next hour. The results presented in this paper relate to a particular territory, the Corsica Island, but as data used are available for the entire surface of the globe, our method can be easily exploited to another place. Indeed 2-D hourly time series are extracted from the HelioClim-3 surface solar irradiation database treated by the Heliosat-2 model. Each point of the map have been used as training data and inputs of artificial neural networks (ANN) and as inputs for two persistence models (scaled or not). Comparisons between these models and clear sky estimations were proceeded to evaluate the performances. We found a normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) close to 16.5% for the two best predictors (scaled persistence and ANN) equivalent to 35-45% related to ground measurements. F...

Voyant, Cyril; Muselli, Marc; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESL-PA-13-11-01 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Evaluation of Meteorological Base Models... for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han Kima,b*, Juan-Carlos Baltazarb, and Jeff S. Haberla,b aDepartment of Architecture, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3137, U.S.A. bEnergy Systems Laboratory, Texas A...

Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S

114

Polarization of high-energy pulsar radiation in the striped wind model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Stokes parameters of the pulsed synchrotron radiation produced in the striped pulsar wind model are computed and compared with optical observations of the Crab pulsar. We assume the main contribution to the wind emissivity comes from a thin transition layer where the dominant toroidal magnetic field reverses its polarity. The radial component of the field is neglected, but a small meridional component is added. The resulting radiation is linearly polarized (Stokes V=0). In the off-pulse region, the electric vector lies in the direction of the projection on the sky of the rotation axis of the pulsar. This property is unique to the wind model and in good agreement with the data. Other properties such as a reduced degree of polarization and a characteristic sweep of the polarization angle within the pulses are also reproduced. These properties are qualitatively unaffected by variations of the wind Lorentz factor, the electron injection power law index and the inclination of the line of sight.

J. Petri; J. Kirk

2005-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

Validated Models for Radiation Response and Signal Generation in Scintillators: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Report presents work carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled Validated Models for Radiation Response and Signal Generation in Scintillators (Project number: PL10-Scin-theor-PD2Jf) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project was divided into four tasks: 1) Electronic response functions (ab initio data model) 2) Electron-hole yield, variance, and spatial distribution 3) Ab initio calculations of information carrier properties 4) Transport of electron-hole pairs and scintillation efficiency Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the four tasks is provided in this Final Report. Furthermore, published peer-reviewed articles based on the work carried under this project are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Wang, Zhiguo; Prange, Micah P.; Wu, Dangxin

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Modeling marrow damage from response data: Morphallaxis from radiation biology to benzene toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consensus principles from radiation biology were used to describe a generic set of nonlinear, first-order differential equations for modeling of toxicity-induced compensatory cell kinetics in terms of sublethal injury, repair, direct killing, killing of cells with unrepaired sublethal injury, and repopulation. This cellular model was linked to a probit model of hematopoietic mortality that describes death from infection and/or hemorrhage between {approximately} 5 and 30 days. Mortality data from 27 experiments with 851 doseresponse groups, in which doses were protracted by rate and/or fractionation, were used to simultaneously estimate all rate constants by maximum-likelihood methods. Data used represented 18,940 test animals distributed according to: (mice, 12,827); (rats, 2,925); (sheep, 1,676); (swine, 829); (dogs, 479); and (burros, 204). Although a long-term, repopulating hematopoietic stem cell is ancestral to all lineages needed to restore normal homeostasis, the dose-response data from the protracted irradiations indicate clearly that the particular lineage that is ``critical`` to hematopoietic recovery does not resemble stem-like cells with regard to radiosensitivity and repopulation rates. Instead, the weakest link in the chain of hematopoiesis was found to have an intrinsic radioresistance equal to or greater than stromal cells and to repopulate at the same rates. Model validation has been achieved by predicting the LD{sub 50} and/or fractional group mortality in 38 protracted-dose experiments (rats and mice) that were not used in the fitting of model coefficients.

Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Hasan, J.S.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Multi-Dimensional Broadband IR Radiative Forcing of Marine Stratocumulus in a Large Eddy Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to address the interactive and evolutionary nature of the cloud-radiation interaction, we have coupled to a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model the sophisticated multi-dimensional radiative transfer (MDRT) scheme of Evans (Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method; 1998). Because of computational expense, we are at this time only able to run 2D experiments. Preliminary runs consider only the broadband longwave component, in large part because IR cloud top cooling is the significant forcing mechanism for marine stratocumulus. Little difference is noted in the evolution of unbroken stratocumulus between three-hour runs using MDRT and independent pixel approximation (IPA) for 2D domains of 50 km in the horizontal and 1.5 km in the vertical. Local heating rates differ slightly near undulating regions of cloud top, and a slight bias in mean heating rate from 1 to 3 h is present, yet the differences are never strong enough to result in a pronounced evolutionary bias in typical boundary layer metrics (e.g. inversion height, vertical velocity variance, TKE). Longer integration times may eventually produce a physical response to the bias in radiative cooling rates. A low-CCN case, designed to produce significant drizzle and induce cloud breakup does show subtle differences between MDRT and IPA. Over the course of the 6 hour simulations, entrainment is slightly less in the MDRT case, and the transition to the surface-based trade cumulus regime is delayed. Mean cooling rates appear systematically weaker in the MDRT case, indicative of a less energetic PBL and reflected in profiles of vertical velocity variance and TKE.

Mechem, David B.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Kogan, Y. L.; Davis, Anthony B; Cahalan, Robert F.; Takara, Ezra E.; Ellingson, Robert G.

2002-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

118

Impact of subgrid-scale radiative heating variability on the stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus transition in climate models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subgrid-scale interactions between turbulence and radiation are potentially important for accurately reproducing marine low clouds in climate models. To better understand the impact of these interactions, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is configured for large eddy simulation (LES) to study the stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus (Sc-to-Cu) transition. Using the GEWEX Atmospheric System Studies (GASS) composite Lagrangian transition case and the Atlantic Trade Wind Experiment (ATEX) case, it is shown that the lack of subgrid-scale turbulence-radiation interaction, as is the case in current generation climate models, accelerates the Sc-to-Cu transition. Our analysis suggests that in cloud-topped boundary layers subgrid-scale turbulence-radiation interactions contribute to stronger production of temperature variance, which in turn leads to stronger buoyancy production of turbulent kinetic energy and helps to maintain the Sc cover.

Xiao, Heng; Gustafson, William I.; Wang, Hailong

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

119

An Analytical Model of Radiation-Induced Charge Transfer Inefficiency for CCD Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The European Space Agency's Gaia mission is scheduled for launch in 2013. It will operate at L2 for 5 years, rotating slowly to scan the sky so that its two optical telescopes will repeatedly observe more than one billion stars. The resulting data set will be iteratively reduced to solve for the position, parallax and proper motion of every observed star. The focal plane contains 106 large area silicon CCDs continuously operating in a mode where the line transfer rate and the satellite rotation are in synchronisation. One of the greatest challenges facing the mission is radiation damage to the CCDs which will cause charge deferral and image shape distortion. This is particularly important because of the extreme accuracy requirements of the mission. Despite steps taken at hardware level to minimise the effects of radiation, the residual distortion will need to be calibrated during the pipeline data processing. Due to the volume and inhomogeneity of data involved, this requires a model which describes the effec...

Short, Alexander; de Bruijne, Jos H J; Prod'homme, Thibaut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Radiative Generation of Quark Masses and Mixing Angles in the Two Higgs Doublet Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a framework to generate the quark mass hierarchies and mixing angles by extending the Standard Model with one extra Higgs doublet. The charm and strange quark masses are generated by small quantum effects, thus explaining the hierarchy between the second and third generation quark masses. All the mixing angles are also generated by small quantum effects: the Cabibbo angle is generated at zero-th order in perturbation theory, while the remaining off-diagonal entries of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix are generated at first order, hence explaining the observed hierarchy $|V_{ub}|,|V_{cb}|\\ll |V_{us}|$. The values of the radiatively generated parameters depend only logarithmically on the heavy Higgs mass, therefore this framework can be reconciled with the stringent limits on flavor violation by postulating a sufficiently large new physics scale.

Alejandro Ibarra; Ana Solaguren-Beascoa

2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

122

Modeling radiation-induced mixing at interfaces between low solubility metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis studies radiation-induced mixing at interfaces between low solubility metals using molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. It provides original contributions on the fundamental mechanisms of radiation-induced ...

Zhang, Liang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the enhancement of radiation belt electrons yet leaves a significant portion of the variance unaccounted for. We

Li, Xinlin

124

Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Comparison between Model Simulations and Measurements of Hyperspectral Far- infrared Radiation from FIRST during the RHUBC-II Campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for its dry, cold, and dominantly clear atmosphere, which is optimal for studying the effects, that water vapor and cirrus clouds have on the far-IR. Comparisons with Line-By-Line Discrete Ordinants Radiative Transfer model, LBLDIS, show that FIRST...

Baugher, Elizabeth

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

126

Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode approach yields weaker dust absorptivity. Overall, on quasi-global average, the three size parameterizations result in a significant difference of a factor of 2~3 in dust surface cooling (-1.02~-2.87 W m-2) and atmospheric warming (0.39~0.96 W m-2) and in a tremendous difference of a factor of ~10 in dust TOA cooling (-0.24~-2.20 W m-2). An uncertainty of a factor of 2 is quantified in dust emission estimation due to the different size parameterizations. This study also highlights the uncertainties in modeling dust mass and number loading, deposition fluxes, and radiative forcing resulting from different size parameterizations, and motivates further investigation of the impact of size parameterizations on modeling dust impacts on air quality, climate, and ecosystem.

Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

127

A new time-dependent analytic model for radiation-induced photocurrent in finite 1D epitaxial diodes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photocurrent generated by ionizing radiation represents a threat to microelectronics in radiation environments. Circuit simulation tools such as SPICE [1] can be used to analyze these threats, and typically rely on compact models for individual electrical components such as transistors and diodes. Compact models consist of a handful of differential and/or algebraic equations, and are derived by making simplifying assumptions to any of the many semiconductor transport equations. Historically, many photocurrent compact models have suffered from accuracy issues due to the use of qualitative approximation, rather than mathematically correct solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation. A practical consequence of this inaccuracy is that a given model calibration is trustworthy over only a narrow range of operating conditions. This report describes work to produce improved compact models for photocurrent. Specifically, an analytic model is developed for epitaxial diode structures that have a highly doped subcollector. The analytic model is compared with both numerical TCAD calculations, as well as the compact model described in reference [2]. The new analytic model compares well against TCAD over a wide range of operating conditions, and is shown to be superior to the compact model from reference [2].

Verley, Jason C.; Axness, Carl L.; Hembree, Charles Edward; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Global Climate Modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative effects of water ice clouds have noteworthy consequences on the Martian atmosphere, its thermal structure and circulation. Accordingly, the inclusion of such effects in the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) greatly modifies the simulated Martian water cycle. The intent of this paper is to address the impact of radiatively active clouds on atmospheric water vapor and ice in the GCM and improve its representation. We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice. This physical modeling is based on tunable parameters. This new version of the GCM is compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of the water cycle. Satisfying results are reached for both vapor and cloud opacities. However, simulations yield a lack of water vapor in the tropics after Ls=180{\\deg} which is persistent in simulations compared to observations, as a consequence of aphelion c...

Navarro, Thomas; Forget, Franois; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Montmessin, Franck

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Multi-horizon solar radiation forecasting for Mediterranean locations using time series models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considering the grid manager's point of view, needs in terms of prediction of intermittent energy like the photovoltaic resource can be distinguished according to the considered horizon: following days (d+1, d+2 and d+3), next day by hourly step (h+24), next hour (h+1) and next few minutes (m+5 e.g.). Through this work, we have identified methodologies using time series models for the prediction horizon of global radiation and photovoltaic power. What we present here is a comparison of different predictors developed and tested to propose a hierarchy. For horizons d+1 and h+1, without advanced ad hoc time series pre-processing (stationarity) we find it is not easy to differentiate between autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). However we observed that using exogenous variables improves significantly the results for MLP . We have shown that the MLP were more adapted for horizons h+24 and m+5. In summary, our results are complementary and improve the existing prediction techniques ...

Voyant, Cyril; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

THE PHOTOSPHERIC RADIATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: INTERPRETING FOUR OBSERVED CORRELATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the empirical E{sub p}-L, {Gamma}-L, E{sub p}-{Gamma}, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}}-E{sub p} correlations (where L is the time-averaged luminosity of the prompt emission, E{sub p} is the spectral peak energy, {Gamma} is the bulk Lorentz factor, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}} is the emission efficiency of gamma-ray bursts, GRBs) are well consistent with the relations between the analogous parameters predicted in the photospheric radiation model of the prompt emission of GRBs. The time-resolved thermal radiation of GRB 090902B does follow the E{sub p}-L and {Gamma}-L correlations. A reliable interpretation of the four correlations in alternative models is still lacking. These may point toward a photospheric origin of prompt emission of some GRBs.

Fan Yizhong; Wei Daming; Zhang Fuwen [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang Binbin, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: bbzhang@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

131

Space radiation-induced bystander signaling in 2D and 3D skin tissue models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space radiation poses a significant hazard to astronauts on long-duration missions, and the low fluences of charged particles characteristic of this field suggest that bystander effects, the phenomenon in which a greater ...

Lumpkins, Sarah B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Tritium: a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The somatic, cytogenetic and genetic effects of single and chronic tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice was investigated. This study serves not only as an evaluation of tritium toxicity (TRITOX) but due to its design involving long-term low concentration ingestion of HTO may serve as a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure in general. Long-term studies involved animals maintained on HTO at concentrations of 0.3 ..mu..Ci/ml, 1.0 ..mu..Ci/ml, 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml or depth dose equivalent chronic external exposures to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays. Maintenance on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml resulted in no effect on growth, life-time shortening or bone marrow cellularity, but did result in a reduction of bone marrow stem cells, an increase in DLM's in second generation animals maintained on this regimen and cytogenetic effects as indicated by increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells, increased chromosome aberrations in the regenerating liver and an increase in micronuclei in red blood cells. Biochemical and microdosimetry studies showed that animals placed on the HTO regimen reached tritium equilibrium in the body water in approximately 17 to 21 days with a more gradual increase in bound tritium. When animals maintained for 180 days on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml HTO were placed on a tap water regimen, the tritium level in tissue dropped from the equilibrium value of 2.02 ..mu..Ci/ml before withdrawal to 0.001 ..mu..Ci/ml at 28 days. 18 references.

Carsten, A.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Proposal for an ACE-CSR Doctoral Studentship Section A: Title of the proposed studentship and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiated electric or magnetic fields, as well as signals that find their way into cables or radio to TEMPEST equipment manufacturers. ­ 1 ­ 1 MG Kuhn: Compromising emanations: eavesdropping risks of computer are emissions of serial data interfaces, such as USB or keyboard cables, video signals used to drive displays

Kuhn, Markus

135

Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

136

Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiologic Adaptive Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF doseresponse functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. Results: The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=?0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). Conclusions: 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment strategies to maximize tumor control and minimize the risk of liver damage.

Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Frey, Kirk A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: ?11.6%23.8%) and 14.6% (range: ?7.3%27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: ?6.8%40.3%) and 13.1% (range: ?1.5%52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: ?11.1%20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography images and facilitate improved treatment management.

Yock, Adam D., E-mail: ADYock@mdanderson.org; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

A revised model of the kidney for medical internal radiation dose calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are frequently the organs receiving the highest level of radioactivity and, therefore, the largest radiation dose. Short lived radiopharmaceuticals, that are now injected in millicurie quantities in nuclear medicine for rapid-sequence imaging of the brain... radionuclides (Appendix B). 17 These include the following radionuclides presently used in nuclear medicine: P-32, Cr-51, Co-57, Ga-67, Tc-99m, In-ill, I-123, Xe-127, I-131, Xe-133, and T1-201. If the radionuclide emits penetrating radiation, the code...

Patel, Jyoti Shivabhai

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Optimization in the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation for Kerr-Newman Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this short report, we investigate the mutual information hidden in the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation for Kerr-Newman black holes. By assuming the radiation as an optimization process, we discuss its effect on time evolution of rotating (charged and uncharged) black holes. For uncharged rotating black holes evaporating under the maximum mutual information optimization, their scale invariant rotation parameter $a_*=a/M$ is almost constant at the early stage but rapidly increase at the very last stage of the evaluation process. The value of rotation parameter at the final state of evaporation depends on the initial condition of the black hole. We also found that the presence of electric charge can cause the black holes lose their angular momentum more rapidly than they lose mass. The charged-rotating black holes asymptotically approach a state which is described by $a_*= 0$ and $Q/M = 1$.

Auttakit Chatrabhuti; Khem Upathambhakul

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

140

Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cloud Fraction (CF) is the dominant modulator of radiative fluxes. In this study, we evaluate CF simulations in the IPCC AR4 GCMs against ARM ground measurements, with a focus on the vertical structure, total amount of cloud and its effect on cloud shortwave transmissivity, for both inter-model deviation and model-measurement discrepancy. Our intercomparisons of three CF or sky-cover related dataset reveal that the relative differences are usually less than 10% (5%) for multi-year monthly (annual) mean values, while daily differences are quite significant. The results also show that the model-observation and the inter-model deviations have a similar magnitude for the total CF (TCF) and the normalized cloud effect, and they are twice as large as the surface downward solar radiation and cloud transmissivity. This implies that the other cloud properties, such as cloud optical depth and height, have a similar magnitude of disparity to TCF among the GCMs, and suggests that a better agreement among the GCMs in solar radiative fluxes could be the result of compensating errors in either cloud vertical structure, cloud optical depth or cloud fraction. Similar deviation pattern between inter-model and model-measurement suggests that the climate models tend to generate larger bias against observations for those variables with larger inter-model deviation. The simulated TCF from IPCC AR4 GCMs are very scattered through all seasons over three ARM sites: Southern Great Plains (SGP), Manus, Papua New Guinea and North Slope of Alaska (NSA). The GCMs perform better at SGP than at Manus and NSA in simulating the seasonal variation and probability distribution of TCF; however, the TCF in these models is remarkably underpredicted and cloud transmissivity is less susceptible to the change of TCF than the observed at SGP. Much larger inter-model deviation and model bias are found over NSA than the other sites in estimating the TCF, cloud transmissivity and cloud-radiation interaction, suggesting that the Arctic region continues to challenge cloud simulations in climate models. Most of the GCMs tend to underpredict CF and fail to capture the seasonal variation of CF at middle and low levels in the tropics. The high altitude CF is much larger in the GCMs than the observation and the inter-model variability of CF also reaches maximum at high levels in the tropics. Most of the GCMs tend to underpredict CF by 50-150% relative to the measurement average at low and middle levels over SGP. While the GCMs generally capture the maximum CF in the boundary layer and vertical variability, the inter-model deviation is largest near surface over the Arctic. The internal variability of CF simulated in ensemble runs with the same model is very minimal.

Qian, Yun; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Hailong; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Xie, Shaocheng

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Measurement and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Climate Change (IPCC), 2001]. Among the different aerosol types, mineral dust is one of the major to their scattering and absorbing properties that affect the solar radiation, they also perturb the terrestrial but they still represent one of the largest uncer- tainties in climate change studies [Intergovernmental Panel

Highwood, Ellie

142

Rigollier C., Bauer O., Wald L., 2000. On the clear sky model of the 4th European Solar Radiation Atlas with respect to the Heliosat method. Solar Energy, 68(1), 33-48.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rigollier C., Bauer O., Wald L., 2000. On the clear sky model of the 4th European Solar Radiation Paris - Armines 1 ON THE CLEAR SKY MODEL OF THE ESRA - EUROPEAN SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS WITH RESPECT, which has been developed in the framework of the new digital European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

A physical model of the photo- and radiation-induced degradation of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a model to describe the photo- or/and the radiation-induced darkening of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers. This model accounts for the well-established experimental features of photo-darkening. Degradation behaviors predicted for fibers pumped in harsh environments are also fully confirmed by experimental data reported in the work by Duchez et al. (this proceeding), which gives a detailed characterization of the interplay between the effects of the pump and those of a superimposed ionizing irradiation (actual operation conditions in space-based applications for instance). In particular, dependences of the darkening build-up on the pump power, the total ionizing dose and the dose rate are all correctly reproduced. The presented model is a sufficient one, including the minimal physical ingredients required to reproduce experimental features. Refinements could be proposed to improve, e.g., quantitative kinetics.

Mady, Franck, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr; Duchez, Jean-Bernard, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr; Mebrouk, Yasmine, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr; Benabdesselam, Mourad, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr [University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matire Condense (LPMC), CNRS UMR 7336, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

On the electrodynamic model of ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interactions caused by radiation reaction effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple electrodynamic model is developed to define plasma-field structures in self-consistent ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interactions when the radiation reaction effects come into play. An exact analysis of a circularly polarized laser interacting with plasmas is presented. We define fundamental notions, such as nonlinear dielectric permittivity, ponderomotive and dissipative forces acting in a plasma. Plasma-field structures arising during the ultra-relativisitc interactions are also calculated. Based on these solutions, we show that about 50% of laser energy can be converted into gamma-rays in the optimal conditions of laser-foil interaction.

Bashinov, A. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kim, A. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation) [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); University of Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Millimeter radiation from a 3D model of the solar atmosphere I. Diagnosing chromospheric thermal structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aims. We use advanced 3D NLTE radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere to carry out detailed tests of chromospheric diagnostics at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Methods. We focused on the diagnostics of the thermal structure of the chromosphere in the wavelength bands from 0.4 mm up to 9.6 mm that can be accessed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and investigated how these diagnostics are affected by the instrumental resolution. Results. We find that the formation height range of the millimeter radiation depends on the location in the simulation domain and is related to the underlying magnetic structure. Nonetheless, the brightness temperature is a reasonable measure of the gas temperature at the effective formation height at a given location on the solar surface. There is considerable scatter in this relationship, but this is significantly reduced when very weak magnetic fields are avoided. Our results indicate that although instrumental smearin...

Loukitcheva, Maria; Carlsson, Mats; White, Stephen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A new algorithm for modelling photoionising radiation in smoothed particle hydrodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new fast algorithm which allows the simulation of ionising radiation emitted from point sources to be included in high-resolution three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of star cluster formation. We employ a Str\\"omgren volume technique in which we use the densities of particles near the line-of-sight between the source and a given target particle to locate the ionisation front in the direction of the target. Along with one--dimensional tests, we present fully three--dimensional comparisons of our code with the three--dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, MOCASSIN, and show that we achieve good agreement, even in the case of highly complex density fields.

James Dale; Barbara Ercolano; Cathie Clarke

2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

147

Radiation Damping with Inhomogeneous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Damping with Inhomogeneous Broadening: Limitations of the Single Bloch Vector Model of inhomoge- neous broadening on radiation damping of free precession signals have been described using 13: 1 7, 2001 KEY WORDS: radiation damping; FID shape; inhomogeneous broadening The phenomenon

Augustine, Mathew P.

148

Effect of Fractionation in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using the Linear Quadratic Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To examine the fractionation effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy with a heterogeneous dose distribution. Methods: Derived from the linear quadratic formula with measurements from a hypothetical 2-cm radiosurgical tumor, the threshold percentage was defined as (?/?{sub tissue}/?/?{sub tumor}), the balance ?/? ratio was defined as (prescription dose/tissue tolerance*?/?{sub tumor}), and the balance dose was defined as (tissue tolerance/threshold percentage). Results: With increasing fractions and equivalent peripheral dose to the target, the biological equivalent dose of hot spots in a target decreases. The relative biological equivalent doses of serial organs decrease only when the relative percentage of its dose to the prescription dose is above the threshold percentage. The volume of parallel organs at risk decreases only when the tumor's ?/? ratio is above the balance ?/? ratio and the prescription dose is lower than balance dose. Conclusions: The potential benefits of fractionation in stereotactic body radiation therapy depend on the complex interplay between the total dose, ?/? ratios, and dose differences between the target and the surrounding normal tissues.

Yang, Jun, E-mail: JunBME@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Lamond, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Fowler, Jack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Lanciano, Rachelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Feng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Brady, Luther [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earth??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

150

Ab initio Based Modeling of Radiation Effects in Multi-Component Alloys: Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project began March 13, 2006, allocated for three years, and received a one year extension from March 13, 2009 to March 12, 2010. It has now completed 48 of 48 total months. The project was focused on using ab initio methods to gain insights into radiation induced segregation (RIS) in Ni-Fe-Cr alloys. The project had the following key accomplishments Development of a large database of ab initio energetics that can be used by many researchers in the future for increased understanding of this system. For example, we have the first calculations showing a dramatic stabilization effect of Cr-Cr interstitial dumbbells in Ni. Prediction of both vacancy and interstitial diffusion constants for Ni-Cr and Ni-Fe for dilute Cr and Fe. This work included generalization of widely used multifrequency models to make use of ab initio derived energetics and thermodynamics. Prediction of qualitative trends of RIS from vacancy and interstitial mechanisms, suggesting the two types of defect fluxes drive Cr RIS in opposite directions. Detailed kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of diffusion by vacancy mechanism in Ni-Cr as a function of Cr concentration. The results demonstrate that Cr content can have a significant effect on RIS. Development of a quantitative RIS transport model, including models for thermodynamic factors and boundary conditions.

Dane Morgan

2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

151

Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

Feister, Uwe [German Meteorological Service, Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg - Richard-Assmann-Observatory, Am Observatorium 12, 15848 Lindenberg (Germany); Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich [German Social Accident Insurance Institution for Transport and Traffic, Ottenser Hauptstrasse 54, 22765 Hamburg (Germany)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

152

Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

Lee, In Young

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Electrodynamic model of the field effect transistor application for THz/subTHz radiation detection: Subthreshold and above threshold operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developed in this work is an electrodynamic model of field effect transistor (FET) application for THz/subTHz radiation detection. It is based on solution of the Maxwell equations in the gate dielectric, expression for current in the channel, which takes into account both the drift and diffusion current components, and the equation of current continuity. For the regimes under and above threshold at the strong inversion the response voltage, responsivity, wave impedance, power of ohmic loss in the gate and channel have been found, and the electrical noise equivalent power (ENEP) has been estimated. The responsivity is orders of magnitude higher and ENEP under threshold is orders of magnitude less than these values above threshold. Under the threshold, the electromagnetic field in the gate oxide is identical to field of the plane waves in free-space. At the same time, for strong inversion the charging of the gate capacitance through the resistance of channel determines the electric field in oxide.

Dobrovolsky, V., E-mail: vdobrovolsky@voliacable.com [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Nauki Av., 41, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

154

Spherical Shell Cosmological Model and Uniformity of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considered is spherical shell as a model for visible universe and parameters that such model must have to comply with the observable data. The topology of the model requires that motion of all galaxies and light must be confined inside a spherical shell. Consequently the observable universe cannot be defined as a sphere centered on the observer, rather it is an arc length within the volume of the spherical shell. The radius of the shell is 4.46 $\\pm$ 0.06 Gpc, which is for factor $\\pi$ smaller than radius of a corresponding 3-sphere. However the event horizon, defined as the arc length inside the shell, has the size of 14.0 $\\pm$ 0.2 Gpc, which is in agreement with the observable data. The model predicts, without inflation theory, the isotropy and uniformity of the CMB. It predicts the correct value for the Hubble constant $H_0$ = 67.26 $\\pm$ 0.90 km/s/Mpc, the cosmic expansion rate $H(z)$, and the speed of the event horizon in agreement with observations. The theoretical suport for shell model comes from general relativity, curvature of space by mass, and from holographic principle. The model explains the reason for the established discrepancy between the non-covariant version of the holographic principle and the calculated dimensionless entropy $(S/k)$ for the visible universe, which exceeds the entropy of a black hole. The model is in accordance with the distribution of radio sources in space, type Ia data, and data from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field optical and near-infrared survey.

Branislav Vlahovic

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

155

Modeling of the $\\gamma$-ray pulsed spectra of Geminga, Crab, and Vela with synchro-curvature radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

$\\gamma$-ray spectra of pulsars have been mostly studied in a phenomenological way, by fitting them to a cut-off power-law function. Here, we analyze a model where pulsed emission comes from synchro-curvature processes in a gap. We calculate the variation of kinetic energy of magnetospheric particles along the gap and the associated radiated spectra, considering an effective particle distribution. We fit the phase-averaged and phase-resolved {\\em Fermi}-LAT spectra of the three brightest $\\gamma$-ray pulsars: Geminga, Crab, and Vela, and constrain the three free parameters we leave free in the model. Our best-fit models well reproduce the observed data, apart from residuals above a few GeV in some cases, range for which the inverse Compton scattering likely becomes the dominant mechanism. In any case, the flat slope at low-energy ($\\lesssim$ GeV) seen by {\\it Fermi}-LAT both in the phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra of most pulsars, including the ones we studied, requires that most of the detected radi...

Vigan, Daniele

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon in snow (BCS) simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is evaluated against measurements over Northern China and the Arctic, and its sensitivity to atmospheric deposition and two parameters that affect post-depositional enrichment is explored. The BCS concentration is overestimated (underestimated) by a factor of two in Northern China (Arctic) in the default model, but agreement with observations is good over both regions in the simulation with improvements in BC transport and deposition. Sensitivity studies indicate that uncertainty in the melt-water scavenging efficiency (MSE) parameter substantially affects BCS and its radiative forcing (by a factor of 2-7) in the Arctic through post-depositional enrichment. The MSE parameter has a relatively small effect on the magnitude of BCS seasonal cycle but can alter its phase in Northern China. The impact of the snow aging scaling factor (SAF) on BCS, partly through the post-depositional enrichment effect, shows more complex latitudinal and seasonal dependence. Similar to MSE, SAF affects more significantly the magnitude (phase) of BCS season cycle over the Arctic (Northern China). While uncertainty associated with the representation of BC transport and deposition processes in CAM5 is more important than that associated with the two snow model parameters in Northern China, the two uncertainties have comparable effect in the Arctic.

Qian, Yun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, Philip J.

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

157

Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera. III. Immunology and immunopathology in rapidly induced models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) frequently develops in the long-term rat radiation chimera, we present three additional models in which a histologically similar disease is rapidly induced. These include adoptive transfer of spleen and bone marrow from rats with spontaneous chronic GVHD into lethally irradiated rats of the primary host strain; sublethal irradiation of stable chimeras followed by a booster transplant; and transfer of spleen cells of chimeras recovering from acute GVHD into second-party (primary recipient strain) or third-party hosts. Some immunopathologic and immune abnormalities associated with spontaneous chronic GVHD were not observed in one or more of the induced models. Thus, IgM deposition in the skin, antinuclear antibodies, and vasculitis appear to be paraphenomena. On the other hand, lymphoid hypocellularity of the thymic medulla, immaturity of splenic follicles, and nonspecific suppressor cells were consistently present in the long term chimeras, and in all models. These abnormalities therefore may be pathogenetically important, or closely related to the development of chronic GVHD.

Beschorner, W.E.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bakule, Pavel [STFC, ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Yokoyama, Koji [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

160

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

CROSS VALIDATION OF SATELLITE RADIATION TRANSFER MODELS DURING SWERA PROJECT IN BRAZIL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project. SWERA is a multinational project financed by UNEP-GEF aimed at performing a detailed survey of solar and wind energy resources of various developing satellite data and climatological information; (2) SUNY-Albany model: a statistical satellite method based

Heinemann, Detlev

162

Modeling of multicomponent radiatively driven stellar winds using a Newton-Raphson method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a simple method for the solution of one-component and multicomponent hydrodynamic equations based on the Newton-Raphson method. We show that this method can be used for the solution of stationary hydrodynamic equations. This method has been used for the calculation of the low density stellar wind models for which the multicomponent nature of the wind influences the overall wind structure.

J. Krticka

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

163

ORBITAL MIGRATION OF LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE MODELS: AVOIDING CATASTROPHIC INFALL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Outward migration of low-mass planets has recently been shown to be a possibility in non-barotropic disks. We examine the consequences of this result in evolutionary models of protoplanetary disks. Planet migration occurs toward equilibrium radii with zero torque. These radii themselves migrate inwards because of viscous accretion and photoevaporation. We show that as the surface density and temperature fall the planet orbital migration and disk depletion timescales eventually become comparable, with the precise timing depending on the mass of the planet. When this occurs, the planet decouples from the equilibrium radius. At this time, however, the gas surface density is already too low to drive substantial further migration. A higher mass planet, of 10 M {sub +}, can open a gap during the late evolution of the disk, and stops migrating. Low-mass planets, with 1 or 0.1 M {sub +}, released beyond 1 AU in our models avoid migrating into the star. Our results provide support for the reduced migration rates adopted in recent planet population synthesis models.

Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan, E-mail: wlyra@amnh.or, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Pulsed Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy in Combination With Temozolomide in a Murine Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed low-dose radiation therapy (PLRT) combined with temozolomide (TMZ) as a novel treatment approach for radioresistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a murine model. Methods and Materials: Orthotopic U87MG hGBM tumors were established in Nu-Foxn1{sup nu} mice and imaged weekly using a small-animal micropositron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) system. Tumor volume was determined from contrast-enhanced microCT images and tumor metabolic activity (SUVmax) from the F18-FDG microPET scan. Tumors were irradiated 7 to 10 days after implantation with a total dose of 14 Gy in 7 consecutive days. The daily treatment was given as a single continuous 2-Gy dose (RT) or 10 pulses of 0.2 Gy using an interpulse interval of 3 minutes (PLRT). TMZ (10 mg/kg) was given daily by oral gavage 1 hour before RT. Tumor vascularity and normal brain damage were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Radiation therapy with TMZ resulted in a significant 3- to 4-week tumor growth delay compared with controls, with PLRT+TMZ the most effective. PLRT+TMZ resulted in a larger decline in SUVmax than RT+TMZ. Significant differences in survival were evident. Treatment after PLRT+TMZ was associated with increased vascularization compared with RT+TMZ. Significantly fewer degenerating neurons were seen in normal brain after PLRT+TMZ compared with RT+TMZ. Conclusions: PLRT+TMZ produced superior tumor growth delay and less normal brain damage when compared with RT+TMZ. The differential effect of PLRT on vascularization may confirm new treatment avenues for GBM.

Lee, David Y.; Chunta, John L.; Park, Sean S.; Huang, Jiayi; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Grills, Inga S.; Krueger, Sarah A.; Wilson, George D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian, E-mail: brian.marples@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

NA22 Model Cities Project - LL244T An Intelligent Transportation System-Based Radiation Alert and Detection System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was twofold: first, provide an understanding of the technical foundation and planning required for deployment of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)-based system architectures for the protection of New York City from a terrorist attack using a vehicle-deployed nuclear device; second, work with stakeholders to develop mutual understanding of the technologies and tactics required for threat detection/identification and establish guidelines for designing operational systems and procedures. During the course of this project we interviewed and coordinated analysis with people from the New Jersey State Attorney General's office, the New Jersey State Police, the Port Authority of New York/New Jersey, the Counterterrorism Division of the New York City Police Department, the New Jersey Transit Authority, the State of New Jersey Department of Transportation, TRANSCOM and a number of contractors involved with state and federal intelligent transportation development and implementation. The basic system architecture is shown in the figure below. In an actual system deployment, radiation sensors would be co-located with existing ITS elements and the data will be sent to the Traffic Operations Center. A key element of successful system operation is the integration of vehicle data, such as license plate, EZ pass ID, vehicle type/color and radiation signature. A threat data base can also be implemented and utilized in cases where there is a suspect vehicle identified from other intelligence sources or a mobile detector system. Another key aspect of an operational architecture is the procedures used to verify the threat and plan interdiction. This was a major focus of our work and discussed later in detail. In support of the operational analysis, we developed a detailed traffic simulation model that is described extensively in the body of the report.

Peglow, S

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

A preliminary model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Advisory Committee: Dr. John W. Poston Currently, there is a need for a dosimetric model to describe the circulatory system in an adult human. This need exists because of the increasing number of radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine which... Administered Activity for Indium-113m-labeled Blood Platelets for Selected Organs biological data on blood volume and distribution in the circulatory system (A163, Ba61, Co71, Fo71, Sm84, Mc74) . Only major organs that contain large amounts of blood were...

Hui, Tsz-Yik Edmond

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in Climate Models:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun1 Table 1.14 SalesWorkerWorkforce1: Model4:97

168

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

CSR SHIELDING EXPERIMENT  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6Energy,MUSEUM DISPLAY STATUS ANDComputers » DiscussionCSCCSR

170

ARM - Campaign Instrument - csr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation DesertgovInstrumentsap-surf Comments? We would love tocryo

171

ORBITAL MIGRATION OF INTERACTING LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE TURBULENT MODELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The torques exerted by a locally isothermal disk on an embedded planet lead to rapid inward migration. Recent work has shown that modeling the thermodynamics without the assumption of local isothermality reveals regions where the net torque on an embedded planet is positive, leading to outward migration of the planet. When a region with negative torque lies directly exterior to this, planets in the inner region migrate outward and planets in the outer region migrate inward, converging where the torque is zero. We incorporate the torques from an evolving non-isothermal disk into an N-body simulation to examine the behavior of planets or planetary embryos interacting in the convergence zone. We find that mutual interactions do not eject objects from the convergence zone. Small numbers of objects in a laminar disk settle into near resonant orbits that remain stable over the 10 Myr periods that we examine. However, either or both increasing the number of planets or including a correlated, stochastic force to represent turbulence drives orbit crossings and mergers in the convergence zone. These processes can build gas giant cores with masses of order 10 Earth masses from sub-Earth mass embryos in 2-3 Myr.

Horn, Brandon; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lyra, Wladimir [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Sandor, Zsolt, E-mail: bhorn@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: wlyra@amnh.org, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: zsolt.sandor@uibk.ac.at [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

On the evolution of the momentarily static radiation free data in the Apostolatos - Thorne cylindrical shell model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the evolution of the "Momentarily Static and Radiation Free" (MSRF) initial data for the Apostolatos - Thorne cylindrical shell model. We analyze the relation between the parameters characterizing the MSRF data those for the corresponding final static configuration, and show that there is a priori no conflict for any choice of initial MSRF data, in contrast with some recent results of Nakao, Ida and Kurita. We also consider the problem in the linear approximation, and show that the evolution is stable in all cases. We find that the approach to the final state is very slow, with an inverse logarithmic dependence on time at fixed radius. To complement these results we introduce a numerical computation procedure that allows us to visualize the explicit form of the evolution of the shell and of the gravitational field up to large times. The results are in agreement with the qualitative behaviour conjectured by Apostolatos and Thorne, with an initial damped oscillatory stage, but with oscillations about a position that approaches slowly that of the static final state, as indicated by our analysis. We also include an Appendix, where we prove the existence of solutions of the cylindrical wave equation with vanishing initial value for $r > R_0$, ($R_0 > 0$ some finite constant), that approach a constant value for large times. This result is crucial for the proof of compatibility of arbitrary MSRF initial data and a final static configuration for the system.

Reinaldo J. Gleiser; Daniel E. Barraco

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

173

Numerical modeling of radiation-dominated and quantum-electrodynamically strong regimes of laser-plasma interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra-strong laser pulses can be so intense that an electron in the focused beam loses significant energy due to {gamma}-photon emission while its motion deviates via the radiation back-reaction. Numerical methods and tools designed to simulate radiation-dominated and quantum-electrodynamically strong laser-plasma interactions are summarized here.

Sokolov, Igor V. [Space Physics Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Naumova, Natalia M. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR 7639 ENSTA, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Nees, John A. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar observations to evaluate model simulations In cooperation with Profs. Bob Houze at University of Washington and Steven Rutledge at Colorado State University, numerical model results were evaluated with observations from W- and C-band radars and CloudSat/TRMM satellites. These studies exhibited some shortcomings of current numerical models, such as too little of thin anvil clouds, directing the future improvement of cloud microphysics parameterization in CRMs. Two papers of Powell et al (2012) and Zeng et al. (2013), summarizing these studies, were published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 4. Analyzed the water budgets of MCSs Using ARM data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP and other field campaigns, the Goddard CRM simulations were carried out to analyze the water budgets of clouds from TWP-ICE and AMMA. The simulations generated a set of datasets on clouds and radiation, which are available http://cloud.gsfc.nasa.gov/. The cloud datasets were available for modelers and other researchers aiming to improve the representation of cloud processes in multi-scale modeling frameworks, GCMs and climate models. Special datasets, such as 3D cloud distributions every six minutes for TWP-ICE, were requested and generated for ARM/ASR investigators. Data server records show that 86,206 datasets were downloaded by 120 users between April of 2010 and January of 2012. 5. MMF simulations The Goddard MMF (multi-scale modeling framework) has been improved by coupling with the Goddard Land Information System (LIS) and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GOES5). It has also been optimized on NASA HEC supercomputers and can be run over 4000 CPUs. The improved MMF with high horizontal resolution (1 x 1 degree) is currently being applied to cases covering 2005 and 2006. The results show that the spatial distribution pattern of precipitation rate is well simulated by the MMF through comparisons with satellite retrievals from the CMOPRH and GPCP data sets. In addition, the MMF results were compared with three reanalyses (MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR). Although the MMF tends

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

175

Primate polonium metabolic models and their use in estimation of systemic radiation doses from bioassay data. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Polonium metabolic model was derived and incorporated into a Fortran algorithm which estimates the systemic radiation dose from {sup 210}Po when applied to occupational urine bioassay data. The significance of the doses estimated are examined by defining the degree of uncertainty attached to them through comprehensive statistical testing procedures. Many parameters necessary for dosimetry calculations (such as organ partition coefficients and excretion fractions), were evaluated from metabolic studies of {sup 210}Po in non-human primates. Two tamarins and six baboons were injected intravenously with {sup 210}Po citrate. Excreta and blood samples were collected. Five of the baboons were sacrificed at times ranging from 1 day to 3 months post exposure. Complete necropsies were performed and all excreta and the majority of all skeletal and tissue samples were analyzed radiochemically for their {sup 210}Po content. The {sup 210}Po excretion rate in the baboon was more rapid than in the tamarin. The biological half-time of {sup 210}Po excretion in the baboon was approximately 15 days while in the tamarin, the {sup 210}Po excretion rate was in close agreement with the 50 day biological half-time predicted by ICRP 30. Excretion fractions of {sup 210}Po in the non-human primates were found to be markedly different from data reported elsewhere in other species, including man. A thorough review of the Po urinalysis procedure showed that significant recovery losses resulted when metabolized {sup 210}Po was deposited out of raw urine. Polonium-210 was found throughout the soft tissues of the baboon but not with the partition coefficients for liver, kidneys, and spleen that are predicted by the ICRP 30 metabolic model. A fractional distribution of 0.29 for liver, 0.07 for kidneys, and 0.006 for spleen was determined. Retention times for {sup 210}Po in tissues are described by single exponential functions with biological half-times ranging from 15 to 50 days.

Cohen, N. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Analysis of tropical radiative heating profiles: A comparison...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tropical radiative heating profiles: A comparison of models and observations . Analysis of tropical radiative heating profiles: A comparison of models and observations . Abstract:...

177

Prediction of radiation-induced liver disease by Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for primary liver carcinoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe the probability of RILD by application of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal-tissue complication (NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 109 PLC patients treated by 3D-CRT were followed for RILD. Of these patients, 93 were in liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 16 were in Child-Pugh Grade B. The Michigan NTCP model was used to predict the probability of RILD, and then the modified Lyman NTCP model was generated for Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients by maximum-likelihood analysis. Results: Of all patients, 17 developed RILD in which 8 were of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 9 were of Child-Pugh Grade B. The prediction of RILD by the Michigan model was underestimated for PLC patients. The modified n, m, TD{sub 5} (1) were 1.1, 0.28, and 40.5 Gy and 0.7, 0.43, and 23 Gy for patients with Child-Pugh A and B, respectively, which yielded better estimations of RILD probability. The hepatic tolerable doses (TD{sub 5}) would be MDTNL of 21 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, for Child-Pugh A and B patients. Conclusions: The Michigan model was probably not fit to predict RILD in PLC patients. A modified Lyman NTCP model for RILD was recommended.

Xu ZhiYong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liang Shixiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhu Ji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhao Jiandong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Lu Haijie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Yang Yunli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Chen Long [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Wang Anyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Fu Xiaolong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Jiang Guoliang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China) and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: jianggl@21cn.com

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le confrencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrle des zones et les prcautions prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

179

Modeling of plasma-controlled evaporation and surface condensation of Al induced by 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m laser radiations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase transition on the surface of an aluminum target and vapor plasma induced by laser irradiation in the nanosecond regime at the wavelengths of 1.06 {mu}m in the infrared range and 0.248 {mu}m in the ultraviolet range with an intensity of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2} in vacuum are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the wavelength dependence of the observed phenomena and the non-one-dimensional effects caused by the nonuniform (Gaussian) laser intensity distribution and the lateral expansion of the plasma plume. A transient two-dimensional model is used which includes conductive heat transfer in the condensed phase, radiative gas dynamics, and laser radiation transfer in the plasma as well as surface evaporation and back condensation at the phase interface. It was shown that distinctions in phase transition dynamics for the 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m radiations result from essentially different characteristics of the laser-induced plasmas. For the 1.06 {mu}m radiation, evaporation stops after the formation of hot optically thick plasma, can occasionally resume at a later stage of the pulse, and proceeds nonuniformly in the spot area, and the major contribution to the mass removal occurs in the outer part of the irradiated region. Plasma induced by the 0.248 {mu}m laser is colder and partially transparent since it transmits 30%-70% of the incident radiation; therefore evaporation does not stop but continues in the subsonic regime with the Mach number of about 0.1. The amount of evaporated matter that condenses back to the surface is as high as 15%-20% and less than 10% for the 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m radiations, respectively. For a beam radius smaller than {approx}100 {mu}m, the screening and retarding effect of the plasma weakens because of the lateral expansion, thickness of the removed layer increases, and condensation after the end of the pulse is not observed. Comparison of the numerical and experimental results on the removed layer thickness has shown, in particular, the importance of accounting for the plasma effect to predict the correct trends for radiation intensity and beam radius.

Mazhukin, V. I.; Nossov, V. V.; Smurov, I. [Institute of Mathematical Modeling of RAS, 4a Miusskaya Square, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

HYDRODYNAMIC AND RADIATIVE MODELING OF TEMPORAL H{alpha} EMISSION V/R VARIATIONS CAUSED BY DISCONTINUOUS MASS TRANSFER IN BINARIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

H{alpha} emission V/R variations caused by discontinuous mass transfer in interacting binaries with a rapidly rotating accreting star are modeled qualitatively for the first time. The program ZEUS-MP was used to create a non-linear three-dimensional hydrodynamical model of a development of a blob of gaseous material injected into an orbit around a star. It resulted in the formation of an elongated disk with a slow prograde revolution. The LTE radiative transfer program SHELLSPEC was used to calculate the H{alpha} profiles originating in the disk for several phases of its revolution. The profiles have the form of a double emission and exhibit V/R and radial velocity variations. However, these variations should be a temporal phenomenon since imposing a viscosity in the given model would lead to a circularization of the disk and fading-out of the given variations.

Chadima, Pavel; Harmanec, Petr; Wolf, Marek [Astronomical Institute of the Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Firt, Roman [Mathematical Institute, University of Bayreuth, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Ruzdjak, Domagoj; Bozic, Hrvoje [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Koubsky, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.chadima@gmail.com [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Summary of photochemical and radiative data used in the LLNL one-dimensional transport-kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere: 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the contents and sources of the photochemical and radiative segment of the LLNL one-dimensional transport-kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere. Data include the solar flux incident at the top of the atmosphere, absorption spectra for O/sub 2/, O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/, and effective absorption coefficients for about 40 photolytic processes as functions of wavelength and, in a few cases, temperature and pressure. The current data set represents understanding of atmospheric photochemical processes as of late 1982 and relies largely on NASA Evaluation Number 5 of Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, JPL Publication 82-57 (DeMore et al., 1982). Implementation in the model, including the treatment of multiple scattering and cloud cover, is discussed in Wuebbles (1981).

Connell, P.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Development and testing of parameterizations for continental and tropical ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties in GCM and mesoscale models. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this research was to exploit measurements in clouds sampled during several field programs, especially from experiments in tropical regions, in a four-component study to develop and validate cloud parameterizations for general circulation models, emphasizing ice clouds. The components were: (1) parameterization of basic properties of mid- and upper-tropospheric clouds, such as condensed water content, primarily with respect to cirrus from tropical areas; (2) the second component was to develop parameterizations which express cloud radiative properties in terms of basic cloud microphysical properties, dealing primarily with tropical oceanic cirrus clouds and continental thunderstorm anvils, but also including altocumulus clouds; (3) the third component was to validate the parameterizations through use of ground-based measurements calibrated using existing and planned in-situ measurements of cloud microphysical properties and bulk radiative properties, as well as time-resolved data collected over extended periods of time; (4) the fourth component was to implement the parameterizations in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) community climate model (CCM) II or in the NOAA-GFDL model (by L. Donner GFDL) and to perform sensitivity studies.

Heymsfield, A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, B.T.

1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

185

Radiation transport in inhomogeneous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calculations of radiation transport in heated materials are greatly complicated by the presence of regions in which two or more materials are inhomogeneously mixed. This phenomenon is important in many systems, such as astrophysical systems where density clumps can be found in star-forming regions and molecular clouds. Laboratory experiments have been designed to test the modeling of radiation transport through inhomogeneous plasmas. A laser-heated hohlraum is used as a thermal source to drive radiation through polymer foam containing randomly distributed gold particles. Experimental measurements of radiation transport in foams with gold particle sizes ranging from 5-9 {mu}m to submicrometer diameters as well as the homogeneous foam case are presented. The simulation results of the radiation transport are compared to the experiment and show that an inhomogeneous transport model must be applied to explain radiation transport in foams loaded with 5 {mu}m diameter gold particles.

Keiter, Paul; Gunderson, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Foster, John; Rosen, Paula; Comley, Andrew; Taylor, Mark [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Perry, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in external galaxies.

Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Solar Radiation Atlas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This atlas provides a record of monthly mean solar radiation generated by a Climatological Solar Radiation model, using quasi-climatological inputs of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, and atmospheric pressure.

NREL

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

188

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22N and 95 to 107E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

191

Radiation damping, noncommutativity and duality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, our main objective is to construct a N=2 supersymmetric extension of the nonrelativistic $(2+1)$-dimensional model describing the radiation damping on the noncommutative plane with scalar (electric) and vector (magnetic) interactions by the N=2 superfield technique. We also introduce a dual equivalent action to the radiation damping one using the Noether procedure.

E. M. C. Abreu; A. C. R. Mendes; C. Neves; W. Oliveira

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Modeling near-field radiative heat transfer from sharp objects using a general 3d numerical scattering technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the non-equilibrium radiative heat transfer between a plate and finite cylinders and cones, making the first accurate theoretical predictions for the total heat transfer and the spatial heat flux profile for three-dimensional compact objects including corners or tips. We find qualitatively different scaling laws for conical shapes at small separations, and in contrast to a flat/slightly-curved object, a sharp cone exhibits a local \\emph{minimum} in the spatially resolved heat flux directly below the tip. The method we develop, in which a scattering-theory formulation of thermal transfer is combined with a boundary-element method for computing scattering matrices, can be applied to three-dimensional objects of arbitrary shape.

McCauley, Alexander P; Krger, Matthias; Johnson, Steven G

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office 130 DeSoto Street G-7 Parran with sources of ionizing radiation are required to be instructed in the basic principles of radiation protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide

Sibille, Etienne

194

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

195

Evaluation of Radiometric Measurements from the NASA Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR): Two- and Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Modeling of an Inhomogeneous Stratocumulus Cloud Deck  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 1999, NASA launched the Terra satellite. This platform carries five instruments that measure important properties of the Earth climate system. One of these instruments is the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MISR. This instrument measures light reflected from the Earth at a spatial resolution of 275-1100 m, at four wavelengths (446, 558, 672, and 866 nm), and at nine different viewing angles that vary from +70 to -70 degrees along the direction of flight [Diner et al., 2002]. These multiangle data have the potential to provide information on aerosols, surface, and cloud characteristics that compliments traditional single-view-direction satellite measurements. Before this potential can be realized, the accuracy of the satellite radiance measurements must be carefully assessed, and the implications of the radiometric accuracy on remote-sensing algorithms must be evaluated. In this article, we compare MISR multiangle measurements against two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D radiative transfer calculations from an inhomogeneous cloud scene. Inputs to the radiative transfer code are based entirely on independently gathered data (ground-based radar, lidar, microwave radiometer, in situ aircraft data, etc.). The 2-D radiative transfer calculations compare favorably near nadir and in most of the forward scattering directions, but differ by as much as 10% in the backscattering directions. Using 3-D radiative transfer modeling, we show that this difference is due to the 3-D structure of the cloud deck, including variations in the cloud top height on scales less than 275 m, which are not resolved in the 2-D simulations. Comparison of the 2-D calculations to the MISR measurements, after accounting for the 3-D structure, show residual differences that are less than 4% at all angles at the MISR blue and green wavelengths. The comparison also reveals that the MISR measurements at the red and near-infrared wavelengths are too bright relative to measurements in the blue and green bands. On the basis of the results of this study, along with results from five other comparisons, the MISR calibration is being adjusted to reduce the red and nearinfrared Radiances.

Marchand, Roger T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

196

Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

Flores, Alejandro N.

197

Gravitational radiation of a vibrating physical string as a model for the gravitational emission of an astrophysical plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The vibrating string is a source of gravitational waves which requires novel computational techniques, based on the explicit construction of a conserved and renormalized (in a classical sense) energy-momentum tensor. The renormalization is necessary to take into account the effect of external constraints, which affect the emission considerably. Vibrating media offer in general a testing ground for reconciling conflicts between General Relativity and other branches of physics; however, constraints are absent in sources like the Weber bar, for which the standard covariant formalism for elastic bodies can also be applied. Our solution method is based on the linearized Einstein equations, but relaxes other usual assumptions like far-field approximation, spherical or plane wave symmetry, TT gauge and source without internal interference. The string solution is then adapted to give the radiation field of a transversal Alfven wave in a rarefied plasma, where the tension is produced by an external static magnetic field. Like for the string, the field strength turns out to be independent from the frequency. We give a preliminary example of a numerical solution based on parameters referred to Alfven waves in the solar corona. Further astrophysical applications require an extension of the solution procedure to second order in the amplitude, and consideration of border effects. Future work will also address numerical and analytical near-field solutions.

R. A. Lewis; G. Modanese

2015-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

198

Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The dynamics of the early universe and the initial conditions for inflation in a model with radiation and a Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The modeling of the early universe is done through the quantization of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with positive curvature. The material content consists of two fluids: radiation and Chaplygin gas. The quantization of these models is made by following the Wheeler and DeWitt's prescriptions. Using the Schutz formalism, the time notion is recovered and the Wheeler-DeWitt equation transforms into a time dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, which rules the dynamics of the early universe, under the action of an effective potential $V_{ef}$. Using a finite differences method and the Crank-Nicholson scheme, in a code implemented in the program OCTAVE, we solve the corresponding time dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation and obtain the time evolution of a initial wave packet. This wave packet satisfies appropriate boundary conditions. The calculation of the tunneling probabilities shows that the universe may emerge from the Planck era to an inflationary phase. It also shows that, the tunneling probability is a function of the mean energy of the initial wave packet and of two parameters related to the Chaplygin gas. We also show a comparison between these results and those obtained by the WKB approximation.

G. A. Monerat; G. Oliveira-Neto; E. V. Corra Silva; L. G. Ferreira Filho; P. Romildo Jr.; J. C. Fabris; R. Fracalossi; F. G. Alvarenga; S. V. B. Gonalves

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

200

Using Satellite Ocean Color Data to Derive an Empirical Model for the Penetration Depth of Solar Radiation (Hp) in the Tropical Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the climate through the penetration depth of solar radiation in the upper ocean (Hp), a primary parameter on penetrative solar radiation in the tropical Pacific, demonstrating the dynamical implication of remotely in which incident solar radiation is absorbed in the mixed layer and the verti- cal penetration down

Chen, .Dake

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The NCI Radiation Research Program: Grant portfolio and radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

models (89 animals no human subject material, 21 use both) ­ 109 utilize rodent models ­ 2 have canine and R37s). Of those that utilize radiation: · 6 use tissue culture models only · 110 utilize animal subjects · 39 use human subjects or human subject materials only. #12;Dose and Dosimetry · The majority

202

Quantitative photoacoustic imaging in radiative transport regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, radiative transport equation, inverse transport problem, interior data, Born approximation, iterative is accurately modeled by the radiative transport equation which describes the distribution of photons . The radiative transport equation for photon density u(x, v) can then be written as [9, 11, 77]: v · u(x, v) + a

Ren, Kui

203

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

204

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

ILC phenomenology in a TeV scale radiative seesaw model for neutrino mass, dark matter and baryon asymmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss phenomenology in a new TeV scale model which would explain neutrino oscillation, dark matter, and baryon asymmetry of the Universe simultaneously by the dynamics of the extended Higgs sector and TeV-scale right-handed neutrinos. Tiny neutrino masses are generated at the three-loop level due to the exact $Z_2$ symmetry, by which the stability of the dark matter candidate is guaranteed. The model provides various discriminative predictions in Higgs phenomenology, which can be tested at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider.

Mayumi Aoki; Shinya Kanemura; Osamu Seto

2010-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

7, 72357275, 2007 Adaptive radiative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discussions Two adaptive radiative transfer schemes for numerical weather prediction models V. Venema 1 , A numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models. The atmosphere and the land surface are complex-stream approximation. In most weather prediction models these parameterisation schemes are therefore called infre

Boyer, Edmond

207

DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at the Gordon Conference on Modern Development in Thermodynamics. The results obtained are very encouraging for the development of the RCSC as a commercial burner for significant reduction of NO{sub x} emissions, and highly warrants further study and development.

Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

NEW SOURCES OF RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project Report No. 75/07.IBL 79M0733 Fig. 20. Radiation emission pattern by electronsWinick, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Fig. 21.

Schimmerling, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1a Figure 1b Figure 1. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma in afollowing completion of radiation therapy. Figure 2a Figurecell histiocytosis after radiation for breast carcinoma: can

Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

211

On the influence of the companion star in Eta Carinae: 2D radiative transfer modeling of the ultraviolet and optical spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present 2D radiative transfer modeling of the Eta Carinae binary system accounting for the presence of a wind-wind collision (WWC) cavity carved in the optically-thick wind of the primary star. By comparing synthetic line profiles with HST/STIS spectra obtained near apastron, we show that the WWC cavity has a strong influence on multi-wavelength diagnostics. This influence is regulated by the modification of the optical depth in the continuum and spectral lines. We find that H-alpha, H-beta, and Fe II lines are the most affected by the WWC cavity, since they form over a large volume of the primary wind. These spectral lines depend on latitude and azimuth since, according to the orientation of the cavity, different velocity regions of a spectral line are affected. For 2D models with orientation corresponding to orbital inclination angle 110deg < i < 140deg and longitude of periastron 210deg < omega < 330deg, the blueshifted and zero-velocity regions of the line profiles are the most affected. Th...

Groh, Jose H; Madura, Thomas I; Weigelt, Gerd

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites: Utility of Trajectory Clustering for Characterizing Aerosol Climatology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape, Density,TiO2(110).Development of Aerosol Models

213

A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes (FNET) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to 16 selected uncertain parameters mainly related to the cloud microphysics and aerosol schemes in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). We adopted a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach to effectively explore the high dimensional parameter space. The output response variables (e.g., FNET) were simulated using CAM5 for each parameter set, and then evaluated using generalized linear model analysis. In response to the perturbations of these 16 parameters, the CAM5-simulated global annual mean FNET ranges from -9.8 to 3.5 W m-2 compared to the CAM5-simulated FNET of 1.9 W m-2 with the default parameter values. Variance-based sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbation to the global FNET variance. The results indicate that the changes in the global mean FNET are dominated by those of cloud forcing (CF) within the parameter ranges being investigated. The size threshold parameter related to auto-conversion of cloud ice to snow is confirmed as one of the most influential parameters for FNET in the CAM5 simulation. The strong heterogeneous geographic distribution of FNET variation shows parameters have a clear localized effect over regions where they are acting. However, some parameters also have non-local impacts on FNET variance. Although external factors, such as perturbations of anthropogenic and natural emissions, largely affect FNET variations at the regional scale, their impact is weaker than that of model internal parameters in terms of simulating global mean FNET in this study. The interactions among the 16 selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion of the total FNET variations over most regions of the globe. This study helps us better understand the CAM5 model behavior associated with parameter uncertainties, which will aid the next step of reducing model uncertainty via calibration of uncertain model parameters with the largest sensitivity.

Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; McFarlane, Sally A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Ma, Po-Lun; Yan, Huiping; Bao, Jie

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

214

FORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION -- PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH BASED UPON THE NATIONAL, and undertake a preliminary evaluation of, a simple solar radiation forecast model using sky cover predictions forecasts is 0.05o in latitude and longitude. Solar Radiation model: The model presented in this paper

Perez, Richard R.

215

Purely radiative perfect fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study `purely radiative' (div E = div H = 0) and geodesic perfect fluids with non-constant pressure and show that the Bianchi class A perfect fluids can be uniquely characterized --modulo the class of purely electric and (pseudo-)spherically symmetric universes-- as those models for which the magnetic and electric part of the Weyl tensor and the shear are simultaneously diagonalizable. For the case of constant pressure the same conclusion holds provided one also assumes that the fluid is irrotational.

B. Bastiaensen; H. R. Karimian; N. Van den Bergh; L. Wylleman

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

216

Information-geometric aspects of Hawking radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper illustrates the resemblance between the information-geometric structures of probability spaces and that of the discrete spectrum for Hawking radiation. The information geometry gives rise to a reconstruction of the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, while the discrete spectrum of Hawking radiation contributes to the semiclassical unitary evolution of Hawking radiation. If more realistic models of Hawking radiation are chosen, the information-geometric structures of the probability space for Hawking radiation can be constructed from some physical considerations. The constructed quantum formalism is consistent with both the unitary evolution of Hawking radiation in the semiclassical picture and the topology change of fuzzy horizon. These aspects of Hawking radiation can be connected to some general convictions of quantum gravity such as holography. A comparison with fuzzball propasal shows the limiation and effectiveness of this construction. We conclude that the infromation-geometric aspects show some possible ways bridging the gap between semiclassical models and quantum gravity.

Xiao-Kan Guo

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

CSR Press Release Submitted by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Oregon PSR's Project Director, "Artificial growth hormone is known to cause harm to cows and may very. The medical community has expressed deep concern that the use of these artificial hormones may also be harmful within a 150 mile radius of the cafes they serve. According to Food and Water Watch, while 54% of large

218

CSR Press Release Submitted by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd Clean Technology, Corporate Social Responsibility Jul 28, 2010 ­ 10:00 PM EST-friendly products; lowered emissions Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, a global leader in digital convergence technologies and device solutions, today announced the first year results of its sweeping Planet

219

CSR Press Release Submitted by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

customers' needs in a sustainable way." For example in 2009, UPS drivers logged 77.3 million more miles than% by 2020, for a cumulative reduction of 42 percent since 1990. The airline represents 53% of the company by providing financial support, in-kind transportation and logistics expertise. The company launched UPS Road

220

CSR Press Release Submitted by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Energy Efficiency Teradata is committed to offering environmentally-conscious, best-in-class products use of disposable paper and plastic cups. Social Responsibility Initiatives Energize Teradata was one

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn in 3:2 or 2:1 resonance in radiative disks: implications for the Grand Tack and Nice models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Embedded in the gaseous protoplanetary disk, Jupiter and Saturn naturally become trapped in 3:2 resonance and migrate outward. This serves as the basis of the Grand Tack model. However, previous hydrodynamical simulations were restricted to isothermal disks, with moderate aspect ratio and viscosity. Here we simulate the orbital evolution of the gas giants in disks with viscous heating and radiative cooling. We find that Jupiter and Saturn migrate outward in 3:2 resonance in modest-mass ($M_{disk} \\approx M_{MMSN}$, where MMSN is the "minimum-mass solar nebula") disks with viscous stress parameter $\\alpha$ between $10^{-3}$ and $10^{-2} $. In disks with relatively low-mass ($M_{disk} \\lesssim M_{MMSN}$) , Jupiter and Saturn get captured in 2:1 resonance and can even migrate outward in low-viscosity disks ($\\alpha \\le 10^{-4}$). Such disks have a very small aspect ratio ($h\\sim 0.02-0.03$) that favors outward migration after capture in 2:1 resonance, as confirmed by isothermal runs which resulted in a similar o...

Pierens, Arnaud; Nesvorny, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

Houze, Jr., Robert A. [University of Washington Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

223

Alpha Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OF RESEARCHThermal SolarAllocatioBasics of Radiation Gamma

224

E-Print Network 3.0 - anisotropic k-shell radiation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: media. Specifically, we provide: (i) an anisotropic version of the radiative transport equation (RTE... scattering model in section 4. 3 Anisotropic Radiative Transfer The...

225

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

226

Correlation between present-day model simulation of Arctic cloud radiative forcing and sea ice consistent with positive winter convective cloud feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A positive feedback on winter sea-ice loss, based on warming due to radiative forcing caused by the onset of convective clouds in response to sea-ice loss, has recently been proposed. This feedback has thus far been ...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

227

Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 94 (2005) 357371  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rights reserved. Keywords: Time dependent radiation transport; M1 approximation; Multigroup models; Mean that solve the radiative transfer equation at a low cost. Among these models, we find diffusion, flux this equation, see [3] and [4]. The first three angular moments of the radiative intensity are defined as Eðn

Coudière, Yves

228

Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

11th International Conference of Radiation Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

NONE

1999-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

230

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2. Radiation Safety Committee (RSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4. Radiation Safety Office (RSO

Rubloff, Gary W.

231

Geant4 applications in the heliospheric radiation environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high energy ionizing radiation environment in the solar system consists of three main sources: the radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. Geant4 is a Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation toolkit, with applications in areas as high energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics or medical physics research. In this poster, Geant4 applications to model and study the effects of the heliospheric radiation environment are presented. Specific applications are being developed to study the effect of the radiation environment on detector components, to describe the response and to optimise the design of radiation monitors for future space missions and to predict the radiation environment in Mars surface, orbits and moons.

Pedro Brogueira; Patrcia Gonalves; Ana Keating; Dalmiro Maia; Mrio Pimenta; Bernardo Tom

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

232

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

233

Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 72 (2002) 691713  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Equation of radiative transfer; Transport theory; Photon propagation; Scattering media; Discrete.elsevier.com/locate/jqsrt Optical tomography using the time-independent equation of radiative transfer -- Part 1: forward model optical tomographic imaging algorithm that is based on the equation of radiative transfer. Using

Hielscher, Andreas

234

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI-MONTE CARLO METHODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI-MONTE CARLO METHODS A. Kersch1 W. Moroko2 A. Schuster1 1Siemens of Quasi-Monte Carlo to this problem. 1.1 Radiative Heat Transfer Reactors In the manufacturing of the problems which can be solved by such a simulation is high accuracy modeling of the radiative heat transfer

235

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASIMONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI­MONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda A. Kersch 1 W. Morokoff 2 A accuracy modeling of the radiative heat transfer from the heater to the wafer. Figure 1 shows the draft Carlo simulation is often used to solve radiative transfer problems where complex physical phenomena

236

Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton K. M. Shell and R. Frouin Scripps the absorption of solar radiation, affecting upper ocean temperature and circulation. These changes, in turn: phytoplankton, atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), absorption of solar radiation, seasonal cycle, sea

Shell, Karen M.

237

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

238

ModelingLandBiogeochemistry Term Spring 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Earth system models and serve to represent exchange of energy (heat radiation momentum), water, carbon

Ma, Lena

239

Complete radiative terms for the electron/electronic energy equation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A derivation of the radiative terms in the electron/electronic energy equation is presented, properly accounting for the effects of absorption and emission of radiation on the individual energy modes of the gas. This electron/electronic energy equation with the complete radiative terms has successfully been used to model the radiation-dominated precursor ahead of the bow shock of a hypersonic vehicle entering the Earth`s atmosphere. 8 refs.

Stanley, S.A.; Carlson, L.A. [Univ of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

IKNO, a user facility for coherent terahertz and UV synchrotron radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sannibale, F. (2005). CERN Courier, Vol. 45, 7, 39-42. Byrd,2004; Byrd et al. , 2005, CERN Courier), a ring-based sourceByrd et al. , 2005, CERN Courier). THz CSR has been also

Sannibale, Fernando

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNLs ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

242

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

243

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Tachyons and Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND GRAVITATIONAL CHERENKOV RADIATION CHARLES SCHWARTZwould emit gravitational radiation. It is very small.gravitational waves; Cherenkov radiation. In a recent work,

Schwartz, Charles

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

246

WI Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

247

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

248

Radiation-Dominated Disks Are Thermally Stable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When the accretion rate is more than a small fraction of Eddington, the inner regions of accretion disks around black holes are expected to be radiation-dominated. However, in the alpha-model, these regions are also expected to be thermally unstable. In this paper, we report two 3-d radiation MHD simulations of a vertically-stratified shearing box in which the ratio of radiation to gas pressure is ~ 10, and yet no thermal runaway occurs over a timespan ~ 40 cooling times. Where the time-averaged dissipation rate is greater than the critical dissipation rate that creates hydrostatic equilibrium by diffusive radiation flux, the time-averaged radiation flux is held to the critical value, with the excess dissipated energy transported by radiative advection. Although the stress and total pressure are well-correlated as predicted by the alpha-model, we show that stress fluctuations precede pressure fluctuations, contrary to the usual supposition that the pressure controls the saturation level of the magnetic energy. This fact explains the thermal stability. Using a simple toy-model, we show that independently-generated magnetic fluctuations can drive radiation pressure fluctuations, creating a correlation between the two while maintaining thermal stability.

Shigenobu Hirose; Julian H. Krolik; Omer Blaes

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

249

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

250

astroph/9507030 Gravitational Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

astro­ph/9507030 10 Jul 95 Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry Ted Pyne of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein­de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

251

Radiation Processing -an overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

252

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection J. Kenneth Shultis Richard E. Faw Department@triad.rr.com Radiation Fields and Sources ................................................ . Radiation Field Variables........................................................... .. Direction and Solid Angle Conventions ......................................... .. Radiation Fluence

Shultis, J. Kenneth

253

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms Radiation Radiation is energy in transit in the form of high not carry enough energy to separate molecules or remove electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly

Vallino, Joseph J.

255

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

256

Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Planck's Radiation Law in the Quantized Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physical research looks for clues to quantum properties of the gravitational field. On the basis of the common Schr\\"odinger theory, a simple model of the quantization of a Friedmann universe comprising dust and radiation is investigated. With regard to energy quantization, the result suggests a universal limitation of the energy spacing between neighbouring quantum states by the Planck energy. Applied to black-body radiation, a modified Planck radiation law follows. If this could be verified in the laboratory, it would provide a direct hint at quantum properties of the space-time manifold.

Rainer Collier

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

ON THE SOLAR RADIATION BUDGET AND THE CLOUD ABSORPTION ANOMALY DEBATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON THE SOLAR RADIATION BUDGET AND THE CLOUD ABSORPTION ANOMALY DEBATE ZHANQING LI Department-of-the-art radiative transfer models. 1. Introduction Solar radiation is the ultimate source of energy for the planet of solar radiation, which is unfortunately still fraught with large uncertainties (Wild et al. 1995; Li et

Li, Zhanqing

259

Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar [UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain) and University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba); University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba)

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

260

Characterizing the hohlraum radiation via one-end driven experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new experiment is designed and performed on the Shenguang III laser facility with the first eight available beams to characterizing the hohlraum radiation, in which the hohlraum with laser entrance holes on both ends is driven through one-end only. The experiment enables us to identify the x-ray radiations originated from the hohlraum reemission wall and high-Z bubble plasmas utilizing their position and spectral characters, which provides a better test on the associated hohlraum models. The total and M-band x-ray radiation fluxes are measured with the flat response x-ray detectors and the filtered M-band x-ray detectors, respectively. Numerical simulations are conducted with the two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED-INTEGRATION using the multi-group radiation transfer and/or diffusion models. It is found that the experimentally measured temporal profiles and angular distributions of hohlraum radiation are in good agreement with the predictions of simulation using radiation transfer models, but differ significantly from the results obtained with the multi-group radiation diffusion calculations. We thus note that to accurately represent the hohlraum radiation, a true radiation transfer model is essential.

Zhao, Yiqing; Zou, Shiyang, E-mail: zou-shiyang@iapacm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational, Beijing 100094 (China); Li, Sanwei; Li, Zhichao; Guo, Liang [Research Center of Laser Fusion, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), UA Huntsville (United States); Space Radiation Analysis Group, NASA Johnson Space Center (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

262

The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1% per annum increase in CO2 concentra- tions as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on a rapid rate of global-mean warming following termination, accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and in plant net primary productivity, and decreases in sea-ice cover. While there is a considerable degree of consensus for the geographical distribution of warming, there is much less of an agreement regarding the patterns of change in the other quantities.

Jones, Andrew; Haywood, J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Schmidt, Hauke; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

263

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Satellite-based estimates of net radiation and modeling the role of topography and vegetation on inter-annual hydro-climatology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change acknowledged that the lack of relevant observations in various regions of the world is a crucial gap in understanding and modeling impacts of ...

Bisht, Gautam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Solar radiation intensity calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

Levine, Randolph Steven

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

268

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

269

Rotating bubble membrane radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

270

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

271

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

272

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

273

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

274

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

275

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Radiation Reaction in High-Intense Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After the development of the radiating electron model by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938, many authors have tried to reformulate this model so-called radiation reaction. Recently, this effects has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a method for the stabilization of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [PTEP 2014, 043A01 (2014), PTEP 2015, 023A01 (2015)]. In the other hand, the field modification by high-intense fields should be required under 10PW lasers, like ELI-NP facility. In this paper, I propose the combined method how to adopt the high-intense field correction with the stabilization by quantum vacuum as the extension from the model by Dirac.

Seto, Keita

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses and cancert-A T. w- - SIR- In February 1990, the Soviet. Nikipelov et al. published in g Priroda (Nature)' the radiation doses for each year, averaged over environmental impact on the Gulf waters is rapidly ex- ported to the Arabian Sea and then to the Indian Ocean

Shlyakhter, Ilya

278

Radiative Flux Analysis  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

Long, Chuck [NOAA

279

Radiation-resistant microorganism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

Fliermans, Carl B.

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Common Origin of 3.55 keV X-Ray Line and Galactic Center Gamma Ray Excess in a Radiative Neutrino Mass Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We attempt to simultaneously explain the recently observed 3.55 keV X-ray line in the analysis of XMM-Newton telescope data and the galactic center gamma ray excess observed by the Fermi gamma ray space telescope within an abelian gauge extension of standard model. We consider a two component dark matter scenario with a mass difference 3.55 keV such that the heavier one can decay into the lighter one and a photon with energy 3.55 keV. The lighter dark matter candidate is protected from decaying into the standard model particles by a remnant $Z_2$ symmetry into which the abelian gauge symmetry gets spontaneously broken. If the mass of the dark matter particle is chosen to be within $31-40$ GeV, then this model can also explain the galactic center gamma ray excess if the dark matter annihilation into $b\\bar{b}$ pairs has a cross section of $\\langle \\sigma v \\rangle \\simeq (1.4-2.0) \\times 10^{-26} \\; \\text{cm}^3/\\text{s}$. We constrain the model from the requirement of producing correct dark matter relic densit...

Borah, Debasish; Adhikari, Rathin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Coherent Radiation in an Undulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solving the particle-radiation system in a self-consistentto clarify the coherent radiation mechanism. References 1.the Proceedings Coherent Radiation in an Undulator Y,H. Chin

Chin, Y.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

The Properties of Undulator Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Dedicated Synchrotron Radiation Facility," IEEE Trans.1983), "Characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation and of itsHandbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E. -E. Koch.1A. 65-172,

Howells, M.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated December 2012 Stanford University, Stanford California #12; #12; Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated Environmental Health and Safety, Stanford University, Stanford California #12; CREDITS This Radiation Safety

Kay, Mark A.

286

Dissecting Soft Radiation with Factorization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It includes soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization-violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in $Z$+jet and $H$+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects, and we use a QCD factorization theorem to predict its dependence on the jet radius $R$, jet $p_T$, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. We prove that the nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of $R$, and the linear $R$ term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event, but this degeneracy is broken by dependence on the jet $p_T$. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for $gg\\to Hg$ and $gq\\to Zq$, but a negative interference contribution for $q\\bar q\\to Z g$. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

Iain W. Stewart; Frank J. Tackmann; Wouter J. Waalewijn

2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Synchrotron Radiation at Radio Frequencies from Cosmic Ray Air Showers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review some of the properties of extensive cosmic ray air showers and describe a simple model of the radio-frequency radiation generated by shower electrons and positrons as they bend in the Earth's magnetic field. We perform simulations by calculating the trajectory and radiation of a few thousand charged shower particles. The results are then transformed to predict the strength and polarization of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the whole shower.

Denis A. Suprun; Peter W. Gorham; Jonathan L. Rosner

2003-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

288

Synchrotron Radiation at Radio Frequencies from Cosmic Ray Air Showers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review some of the properties of extensive cosmic ray air showers and describe a simple model of the radio-frequency radiation generated by shower electrons and positrons as they bend in the Earth's magnetic field. We perform simulations by calculating the trajectory and radiation of a few thousand charged shower particles. The results are then transformed to predict the strength and polarization of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the whole shower.

Suprun, D A; Rosner, Jonathan L; Suprun, Denis A.; Gorham, Peter W.; Rosner, Jonathan L.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation governing the use of radioactive materials at Ames Laboratory is 10 CFR 835. To implement this...

291

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

292

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

295

Galaxy formation with radiative and chemical feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we introduce GAMESH, a novel pipeline which implements self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback in a computational model of galaxy formation. By combining the cosmological chemical-evolution model GAMETE with the radiative transfer code CRASH, GAMESH can post process realistic outputs of a N-body simulation describing the redshift evolution of the forming galaxy. After introducing the GAMESH implementation and its features, we apply the code to a low-resolution N-body simulation of the Milky Way formation and we investigate the combined effects of self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback. Many physical properties, which can be directly compared with observations in the Galaxy and its surrounding satellites, are predicted by the code along the merger-tree assembly. The resulting redshift evolution of the Local Group star formation rates, reionisation and metal enrichment along with the predicted Metallicity Distribution Function of halo stars are critically compared with observations. We dis...

Graziani, L; Schneider, R; Kawata, D; de Bennassuti, M; Maselli, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS & COMPLIANCE BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING

297

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

299

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Discrete Ordinate Method for Solving Inhomogeneous Vector Radiative Transfer Equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

paper.. This type of equation appears when modeling radiative transport in plane parallel media. WeDiscrete Ordinate Method for Solving Inhomogeneous Vector Radiative Transfer Equation We describe here a solution method for equations of the type given by: µ I(,µ) +I(,µ)- () 2 1 -1 Z(,µ,µ )I(,µ )dµ

Pattanaik, Sumanta N.

302

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 Table of Contents Introduction Chapter I: Radiation Safety Program A. Program

Grishok, Alla

304

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

305

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

306

Density matrix of black hole radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hawking's model of black hole evaporation is not unitary and leads to a mixed density matrix for the emitted radiation, while the Page model describes a unitary evaporation process in which the density matrix evolves from an almost thermal state to a pure state. We compare a recently proposed model of semiclassical black hole evaporation to the two established models. In particular, we study the density matrix of the outgoing radiation and determine how the magnitude of the off-diagonal corrections differs for the three frameworks. For Hawking's model, we find power-law corrections to the two-point functions that induce exponentially suppressed corrections to the off-diagonal elements of the full density matrix. This verifies that the Hawking result is correct to all orders in perturbation theory and also allows one to express the full density matrix in terms of the single-particle density matrix. We then consider the semiclassical theory for which the corrections, being non-perturbative from an effective field-theory perspective, are much less suppressed and grow monotonically in time. In this case, the R\\'enyi entropy for the outgoing radiation is shown to grow linearly at early times; but this growth slows down and the entropy eventually starts to decrease at the Page time. In addition to comparing models, we emphasize the distinction between the state of the radiation emitted from a black hole, which is highly quantum, and that of the radiation emitted from a typical classical black body at the same temperature.

Lasma Alberte; Ram Brustein; Andrei Khmelnitsky; A. J. M. Medved

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

307

Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

an implementation of a single-fluid inter- face model in the ALE-AMR code to simulate surface tension effects. The model does not require explicit information on the physical...

308

RADIATION PERMIT APPLICATION Western Human Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Model of Radiation Device (if applicable) Experimental Protocol Describe in detail your experimental the aspects that pertain to safety issues, describe any special hazards, and include the following: 1. Brief will be performed 7. Provide a waste disposal flow chart indicating approx. activities (mCi or MBq) for each type

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

309

Charmonium meson and hybrid radiative transitions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider the non-relativistic limit of the QCD Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge, to describe radiative transitions between conventional charmonium states and from the lowest multiplet of cc hybrids to charmonium mesons. The results are compared to potential quark models and lattices calculations.

Guo, Peng [Indiana U., JLAB; Ypez-Martnez, Tochtli [Indiana U.; Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana U., JLAB

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

Roybal, Lyle Gene

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

312

Scattering of particles by radiation fields: a comparative analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The features of the scattering of massive neutral particles propagating in the field of a gravitational plane wave are compared with those characterizing their interaction with an electromagnetic radiation field. The motion is geodesic in the former case, whereas in the case of an electromagnetic pulse it is accelerated by the radiation field filling the associated spacetime region. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term entering the equations of motion proportional to the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame. The corresponding classical scattering cross sections are evaluated too.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Maria Haney; Robert T. Jantzen

2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

313

GENII. Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Suite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GENII was developed to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) into the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. GENII is a coupled system of seven programs and the associated data libraries that comprise the Hanford Dosimetry System (Generation II) to estimate potential radiation doses to individuals or populations from both routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to air or water and residual contamination from spills or decontamination operations. The GENII system includes interactive menu-driven programs to assist the user with scenario generation and data input,internal and external dose factor generators, and environmental dosimetry programs. The programs analyze environmental contamination resulting from both far-field and near-field scenarios. A far-field scenario focuses outward from a source, while a near-field scenario focuses in toward a receptor. GENII can calculate annual dose, committed dose, and accumulated dose from acute and chronic releases from ground or elevated sources to air or water and from initial contamination of soil or surfaces and can evaluate exposure pathways including direct exposure via water, soil, air, inhalation pathways, and ingestion pathways. In addition, GENII can perform 10,000 years migration analyses and can be used for retrospective calculations of potential radiation doses resulting from routine emissions and for prospective dose calculations for purposes such as siting facilities, environmental impact statements, and safety analysis reports.

Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA, (United States)

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE University of California, Berkeley Adaptive radiation- tions and convergence of species groups on different land masses. Since then, adaptive radiation has diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage." There are radiations that are not adaptive

Gillespie, Rosemary

315

REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

316

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

317

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

318

Diffusion processes in general relativistic radiating spheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of diffusion processes on the dynamics of general relativistic radiating spheres is systematically studied by means of two examples. Differences between the streaming-out limit and the diffusion limit are exhibited, for both models, through the evolution curves of dynamical variables. In particular it is shown the Bondi mass decreases, for both models, in the diffusion limit as compared with its value at the streaming-out regime. 15 refs.

Barreto, W.; Herrera, L.; Santos, N.O. (Oriente Universidad, Cumana (Venezuela); Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Radiation from an accelerated quark via AdS/CFT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we investigate radiation by an accelerated quark in a strongly coupled gauge theory via AdS/CFT correspondence. According to AdS/CFT dictionary, we can read off energy density or energy flux of the radiation from asymptotic gravitational field in AdS bulk sourced by an accelerated string trailing behind the quark. In the case of an oscillating quark with frequency $\\Omega$, we show that the time averaged energy density is asymptotically isotropic and it falls off as $(g_{\\text{YM}}^2 N)^{1/2} \\Omega^4/R^{2}$ with distance $R$ from the source. In a toy model of a scattered quark by an external field, we simply estimate Poynting vector by the bremsstrahlung radiation and show that the energy flux is anisotropic outgoing radiation. Based on these investigations, we discuss the properties of strongly coupled gauge theory radiation in comparison with electromagnetic radiation.

Kengo Maeda; Takashi Okamura

2008-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

320

IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Standards Architect, CSR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications Managing charging at home: Smart Energy Profile Keeping the car: avoiding collisions with DSRC #12 types of collective behavior E.g. a local producer of power (like a person with some PV panels) could power could be informed This could enable instantaneous energy transactions and also encourage some

California at Davis, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Scattering of radiation in collisionless dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scattering of electromagnetic waves in collisionless dusty plasmas is studied in the framework of a multi-component kinetic model. The investigation focuses on the spectral distribution of the scattered radiation. Pronounced dust signatures are identified in the coherent spectrum due to scattering from the shielding cloud around the dust grains, dust acoustic waves, and dust-ion acoustic waves. The magnitude and shape of the scattered signal near these spectral regions are determined with the aid of analytical expressions and its dependence on the dust parameters is investigated. The use of radiation scattering as a potential diagnostic tool for dust detection is discussed.

Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S. [Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44 (Sweden)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term {\\it \\`a la} Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the electromagnetic wave, i.e., scalar (spin 0), massless spin $\\frac12$ and electromagnetic (spin 1) fields, is studied too.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

325

Detectable Signatures of Cosmic Radiative Feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a semi-analytical model to study the impact of reionization, and the associated radiative feedback, on galaxy formation. Two feedback models have been considered: (i) a standard prescription, according to which star formation is totally suppressed in galaxies with circular velocity below a critical threshold (model CF06) and (ii) a characterization based on the filtering scale (model G00), allowing for a gradual reduction of the gas available for star formation in low-mass galaxies. In model CF06 reionization starts at z ~ 15-20, is 85% complete by z ~ 10; at the same z, the ionized fraction is 16% in model G00. The models match SDSS constraints on the evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction at z feedback models. Deviations among radiative feedback prescriptions emerge when considering the expected HI 21 cm background signal, where a ~ 15 mK absorption feature in the range 75-100 MHz is present in model G00 and a global shift of the emission feature preceding reionization towards larger frequencies occurs in the same model. Single dish observations with existing or forthcoming low-frequency radio telescopes can achieve mK sensitivity, allowing the identification of these features provided that foregrounds can be accurately subtracted.

R. Schneider; R. Salvaterra; T. Roy Choudhury; A. Ferrara; C. Burigana; L. A. Popa

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

326

alpha particles radiative: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rate includes a constant term and a linear term of radiation dose, implying that the damage to some cell nuclei has a time accumulating effect. This model ... Liu, Longjian...

327

Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

Phelps, J.E.

1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

330

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

332

Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

Mather, James

333

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE TRANSPORT . The radiative transport equations, satisfied by the Wigner function for random acoustic waves, present#usive approximation of the radiative transport equation. 1. Introduction We consider a class of kinetic models

Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

334

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE TRANSPORT of the radiative transport equation. 1. Introduction We consider a class of kinetic models equipped with a single. A general compactness frame- work is obtained for the diffusive scaling in L1 . The radiative transport

Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

335

Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis products of downward surface solar radiation over East Asia: Spatial and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis products of downward surface solar radiation over East Asia Received 29 July 2012; revised 27 February 2013; accepted 18 March 2013. [1] Surface solar radiation plays hydrological models. In this study, the downward surface solar radiation (DSSR) from two satellite products

Dai, Aiguo

336

2008 European PV Conference, Valencia, Spain COMPARISON OF SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS FOR THE USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 European PV Conference, Valencia, Spain COMPARISON OF SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS FOR THE USA J models 1 INTRODUCTION Solar radiation and PV production forecasts are becoming increasingly important/) three teams of experts are benchmarking their solar radiation forecast against ground truth data

Perez, Richard R.

337

Negative radiation pressure exerted on kinks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The interaction of a kink and a monochromatic plane wave in one dimensional scalar field theories is studied. It is shown that in a large class of models the radiation pressure exerted on the kink is negative, i.e. the kink is {\\sl pulled} towards the source of the radiation. This effect has been observed by numerical simulations in the $\\phi^4$ model, and it is explained by a perturbative calculation assuming that the amplitude of the incoming wave is small. Quite importantly the effect is shown to be robust against small perturbations of the $\\phi^4$ model. In the sine-Gordon (sG) model the time averaged radiation pressure acting on the kink turns out to be zero. The results of the perturbative computations in the sG model are shown to be in full agreement with an analytical solution corresponding to the superposition of a sG kink with a cnoidal wave. It is also demonstrated that the acceleration of the kink satisfies Newton's law.

Pter Forgcs; rpd Lukcs; Tomasz Roma?czukiewicz

2008-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

338

Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during March 2002 Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb Model (CRM) of Community Climate Model 3 and the output of the fifth generation of meso-scale model (MM5 in the global climate system by changing atmospheric radiation balance (Tegen and Fung, 1994; Andreae, 1996; Li

Park, Rokjin

339

Tunable terahertz radiation source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

340

Wireless passive radiation sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method of controlling coherent synchroton radiation-driven degradation of beam quality during bunch length compression  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of avoiding CSR induced beam quality defects in free electron laser operation by a) controlling the rate of compression and b) using a novel means of integrating the compression with the remainder of the transport system: both are accomplished by means of dispersion modulation. A large dispersion is created in the penultimate dipole magnet of the compression region leading to rapid compression; this large dispersion is demagnified and dispersion suppression performed in a final small dipole. As a result, the bunch is short for only a small angular extent of the transport, and the resulting CSR excitation is small.

Douglas, David R. (Newport News, VA); Tennant, Christopher D. (Williamsburg, VA)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

Uzbekistan Radiation Portal Monnitoring System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work proposed in this presentation builds on the foundation set by the DTRA funded demonstration project begun in 2000 and completed in December of 2003. This previous work consisted of two phases whose overall objective was to install portal radiation monitors at four select ports-of-entry in Uzbekistan (Tashkent International Airport, Gisht-Kuprik (Kazakhstan border), Alat (Turkmenistan border), and Termez (Afghanistan border)) in order to demonstrate their effectiveness in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objectives also included developing and demonstrating capabilities in the design, installation, operation, training, and maintenance of a radiation portal monitoring system. The system and demonstration project has proved successful in many ways. An effective working relationship among the Uzbekistan Customs Services, Uzbekistan Border Guards, and Uzbekistan Institute of Nuclear Physics has been developed. There has been unprecedented openness with the sharing of portal monitor data with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The system has proved to be effective, with detection of illicit trafficking, and, at Alat, an arrest of three persons illegally transporting radioactive materials into Turkmenistan. The demonstration project has made Uzbekistan a model nonproliferation state in Central Asia and, with an expanded program, places them in a position to seal a likely transit route for illicit nuclear materials. These results will be described. In addition, this work is currently being expanded to include additional ports-of-entry in Uzbekistan. The process for deciding on which additional ports-of-entry to equip will also be described.

Richardson, J; Knapp, R; Loshak, A; Yuldashev, B; Petrenko, V

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

344

Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a single-fluid diffuse interface model in the ALE-AMR hydrodynamics code to simulate surface tension effects. We show simula- tions and compare them to other surface tension...

345

Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sion effects. We show the result of a test case, and compare it to the result without surface tension. The model describes droplet formation nicely. Application The ARRA-funded...

346

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, Eric [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

350

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

351

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction than 40years, the U.S. Government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford

353

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

354

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

RADIATION ALERT User Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Area Monitoring 16 Checking for Surface Contamination 16 5 Maintenance 17 Calibration 17 Monitoring possible radiation exposure while working with radionuclides Screening for environmental. Water can damage the circuitry and the mica surface of the Geiger tube. Do not put the Inspector

Haller, Gary L.

356

ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of external surfaces by naturally occurring atomic oxygen. CCD detectors are particularly vulnerable to damage damage. A comprehensive discussion of the types of radiation damage known to occur in CCDs is beyond1 ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment Michael R. Jones Space Telescope Science

Sirianni, Marco

357

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas K. Tathe resulting betatron radiation spectrum can therefore bepro?le, the betatron radiation emitted by theses electrons

Ta Phuoc, Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

359

Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A successful candidate in this position will serve as the Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist) senior subject matter expert for health physics/radiation safety at the sites. You will...

360

Acceleration and Classical Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Classical radiation from an accelerated charge is reviewed along with the reciprocal topic of accelerated observers detecting radiation from a static charge. This review commemerates Bahram Mashhoon's 60th birthday.

E. N. Glass

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data UO SOLAR MONITORING LAB Physics Department -- Solar Energy Center 1274 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1274 April 1, 1999 #12;Hourly solar radiation data

Oregon, University of

362

Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.

Jerry Y. Harrington

2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

363

DOE Radiation Records Contacts List  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

364

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

365

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

366

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

Spdtke, P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Progress Toward an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress is reported on an updated National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). Focus on this year's work was on preparing a test-year database for evaluating several solar radiation models that could be used to replace the METSTAT model used in the original 1961-1990 NSRDB. That model is no longer compatible with cloud observations reported by the National Weather Service. We have also included a satellite-based model that will increase the spatial resolution of solar radiation for GIS or mapping applications. Work also included development of improved estimates for aerosols, water vapor, and ozone. High-quality solar measurements were obtained for 33 sites near National Weather Service stations, and model runs were completed for test years 1999 and 2000.

Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

2007 Radiation & Climate GRC ( July 29-August 3, 2007)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The theme of the fifth Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate is 'Integrating multiscale measurements and models for key climate questions'. The meeting will feature lectures, posters, and discussion regarding these issues. The meeting will focus on insights from new types of satellite and in situ data and from new approaches to modeling processes in the climate system. The program on measurements will highlight syntheses of new satellite data on cloud, aerosols, and chemistry and syntheses of satellite and sub-orbital observations from field programs. The program on modeling will address both the evaluation of cloud-resolving and regional aerosol models using new types of measurements and the evidence for processes and physics missing from global models. The Conference will focus on two key climate questions. First, what factors govern the radiative interactions of clouds and aerosols with regional and global climate? Second, how well do we understand the interaction of radiation with land surfaces and with the cryosphere?

William Collins

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford The privilege to use ionizing radiation at Stanford University, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard with radioactive materials or radiation devices are responsible for knowing and adhering to applicable requirements

Kay, Mark A.

372

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212-305-0318 rso-clinical@columbia by more than 50 percent. #12;COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ #12;COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212-305-0318 rso-clinical@columbia

Jia, Songtao

373

Terahertz radiation mixer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

374

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

375

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

377

Time encoded radiation imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

378

National Ambient Radiation Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

379

Handheld CZT radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

380

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Photon Clusters in Thermal Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the framework of Bose-Einstein statistics, it is shown that the blackbody radiation, in addition to single photons, contains photon clusters, or coalescent photons. The probability to find a k-photon cluster versus radiation frequency and temperature is found, as well as the statistics of clusters. Spectra of photon-cluster radiation are calculated as functions of blackbody temperature. The Planck's radiation law is derived based on the existence of photon clusters. The possibility of experimental observation of photon clusters in thermal radiation is discussed.

Aleksey Ilyin

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations - Instructors Guide Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations - Instructors Guide COURSE...

383

POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a 45 angle. Radiation whose electric field (polarization)radiation field, it can be uniquely characterized by its electric

Lubin, Philip Lubin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

LIFETIME PREDICTION FOR MODEL 9975 O-RINGS IN KAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently storing plutonium materials in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility. The materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and transported and stored in KAMS in Model 9975 shipping packages, which include double containment vessels sealed with dual O-rings made of Parker Seals compound V0835-75 (based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT). The outer O-ring of each containment vessel is credited for leaktight containment per ANSI N14.5. O-ring service life depends on many factors, including the failure criterion, environmental conditions, overall design, fabrication quality and assembly practices. A preliminary life prediction model has been developed for the V0835-75 O-rings in KAMS. The conservative model is based primarily on long-term compression stress relaxation (CSR) experiments and Arrhenius accelerated-aging methodology. For model development purposes, seal lifetime is defined as a 90% loss of measurable sealing force. Thus far, CSR experiments have only reached this target level of degradation at temperatures {ge} 300 F. At lower temperatures, relaxation values are more tolerable. Using time-temperature superposition principles, the conservative model predicts a service life of approximately 20-25 years at a constant seal temperature of 175 F. This represents a maximum payload package at a constant ambient temperature of 104 F, the highest recorded in KAMS to date. This is considered a highly conservative value as such ambient temperatures are only reached on occasion and for short durations. The presence of fiberboard in the package minimizes the impact of such temperature swings, with many hours to several days required for seal temperatures to respond proportionately. At 85 F ambient, a more realistic but still conservative value, bounding seal temperatures are reduced to {approx}158 F, with an estimated seal lifetime of {approx}35-45 years. The actual service life for O-rings in a maximum wattage package likely lies higher than the estimates due to the conservative assumptions used for the model. For lower heat loads at similar ambient temperatures, seal lifetime is further increased. The preliminary model is based on several assumptions that require validation with additional experiments and longer exposures at more realistic conditions. The assumption of constant exposure at peak temperature is believed to be conservative. Cumulative damage at more realistic conditions will likely be less severe but is more difficult to assess based on available data. Arrhenius aging behavior is expected, but non-Arrhenius behavior is possible. Validation of Arrhenius behavior is ideally determined from longer tests at temperatures closer to actual service conditions. CSR experiments will therefore continue at lower temperatures to validate the model. Ultrasensitive oxygen consumption analysis has been shown to be useful in identifying non-Arrhenius behavior within reasonable test periods. Therefore, additional experiments are recommended and planned to validate the model.

Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

385

Global aspects of radiation memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

J. Winicour

2014-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

386

Method for microbeam radiation therapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

387

Anisotropic radiation elds: causality and quantum statistics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation transport 5 2.1 Radiation transport equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Closures The transport of radiation through a medium is described by the radiation transport equation for the radiative is used to describe anisotropic radiation. Because the two moment equations do not form a closed set

Honingh, Aline

388

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Planets and X-rays: a radiation diet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

According to theory, high energy emission from the coronae of cool stars can severely erode the atmosphere of orbiting planets. To test the long term effects of the erosion we study a large sample of planet-hosting stars observed in X-rays. The results reveal that massive planets (Mp sin i > 1.5 Mj) may survive only if exposed to low accumulated coronal radiation. The planet HD 209458 b might have lost more than 1 Mj already, and other cases, like tau Boo b, could be losing mass at a rate of 3.4 Earth masses per Gyr. The strongest erosive effects would take place during the first stages of the stellar life, when the faster rotation generates more energetic coronal radiation. The planets with higher density seem to resist better the radiation effects, as foreseen by models. Current models need to be improved to explain the observed distribution of planetary masses with the coronal radiation received.

Sanz-Forcada, J; Micela, G; Pollock, A; Garcia-Alvarez, D; Solano, E; Eiroa, C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

T violation in radiative $\\beta$ decay and electric dipole moments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In radiative $\\beta$ decay, $T$ violation can be studied through a spin-independent $T$-odd correlation. We consider contributions to this correlation by beyond the standard model (BSM) sources of $T$-violation, arising above the electroweak scale. At the same time such sources, parametrized by dimension-6 operators, can induce electric dipole moments (EDMs). As a consequence, the manifestations of the $T$-odd BSM physics in radiative $\\beta$ decay and EDMs are not independent. Here we exploit this connection to show that current EDM bounds already strongly constrain the spin-independent $T$-odd correlation in radiative $\\beta$ decay.

Dekens, W G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Chemical and kinetic equilibrations via radiative parton transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A hot and dense partonic system can be produced in the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. How it equilibrates is important for the extraction of Quark-Gluon Plasma properties. We study the chemical and kinetic equilibrations of the Quark-Gluon Plasma using a radiative transport model. Thermal and Color-Glass-Condensate motivated initial conditions are used. We observe that screened parton interactions always lead to partial pressure isotropization. Different initial pressure anisotropies result in the same asymptotic evolution. Comparison of evolutions with and without radiative processes shows that chemical equilibration interacts with kinetic equilibration and radiative processes can contribute significantly to pressure isotropization.

Bin Zhang; Warner A. Wortman

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

393

Radiative transfer with partial coherence in optically thick plasmas Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approach to address radiative transfer prob- lems involves a transport equation of Boltzmann-type, referred to as "radiative transfer equation", accounting for radiation-matter interaction processes such as spon- taneous the use of a transport theory for photons unavoidable. Opac- ity models for radiative transfer are widely

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

Spherically symmetric cosmological spacetimes with dust and radiation numerical implementation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present new numerical cosmological solutions of the Einstein Field Equations. The spacetime is spherically symmetric with a source of dust and radiation approximated as a perfect fluid. The dust and radiation are necessarily non-comoving due to the inhomogeneity of the spacetime. Such a model can be used to investigate non-linear general relativistic effects present during decoupling or big-bang nucleosynthesis, as well as for investigating void models of dark energy with isocurvature degrees of freedom. We describe the full evolution of the spacetime as well as the redshift and luminosity distance for a central observer. After demonstrating accuracy of the code, we consider a few example models, and demonstrate the sensitivity of the late time model to the degree of inhomogeneity of the initial radiation contrast.

Lim, Woei Chet [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Clarkson, Chris, E-mail: wclim@waikato.ac.nz, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: chris.clarkson@gmail.com [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Radiative Exchange Between Square Parallel Channels in a Concentric Monolith Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mean gas heat capacity (J mol \\Gamma1 K \\Gamma1 ) E Radiation view factor (multichannel model) F; d combustor for a gas turbine engine, where temperatures may be as high as 1550 K [3] and radiative exchange an important role. Initially, this paper derives the system of integral equations that is used to model radia

Bath, University of

396

Black holes and Hawking radiation in spacetime and its analogues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

These notes introduce the fundamentals of black hole geometry, the thermality of the vacuum, and the Hawking effect, in spacetime and its analogues. Stimulated emission of Hawking radiation, the trans-Planckian question, short wavelength dispersion, and white hole radiation in the setting of analogue models are also discussed. No prior knowledge of differential geometry, general relativity, or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is assumed.

Ted Jacobson

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric models testing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Tectonics (COMET) Collection: Geosciences 7 BTRAM: An Interactive Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model I.M. Chapman1 Summary: BTRAM: An Interactive Atmospheric Radiative...

398

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric test models Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Tectonics (COMET) Collection: Geosciences 7 BTRAM: An Interactive Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model I.M. Chapman1 Summary: BTRAM: An Interactive Atmospheric Radiative...

399

Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C[sub 24]Cs[r arrow]2C[sub 36]Cs+Cs[sub (g)] two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C[sub 24]Cs[r arrow]2C[sub 36]Cs+Cs[sub (g)] equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE.

Thayer, K.L.; Ramalingam, M.L. (UES, In., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432-1894 (United States)); Young, T.J. (Aerospace Power Division, Wright Laboratory/POOC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States))

1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

400

NINTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 270 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 F and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 F. The earliest 300 F GLT O-ring fixture failure was observed at 34 months. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 F have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 72 - 96 months, which bounds O-ring temperatures anticipated during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the 200 F fixtures will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at 270 F, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 F fixtures, thus providing additional time to failure data. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 F for 54 - 57 months. No additional O-ring failures have been observed since the last interim report was issued. Aging and periodic leak testing will continue for the remaining PCV fixtures. Additional irradiation of several fixtures is recommended to maintain a balance between thermal and radiation exposures similar to that experienced in storage, and to show the degree of consistency of radiation response between GLT and GLT-S O-rings.

Daugherty, W.

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Radiative ?(1S) decays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wW~ ii~ ~ + v~ 1''&WV'' V 0.20 0.45 0.70 ~y ~ EBFA~ 0.95 l.20 FIG. 4. Energy spectrum (normalized to beam energy) for Y~y2(h+h ) event candidates, with continuum data and ex- pected background from Y~m 2(h +h ) overplotted. 40 30 ~ 20 LLI IO hl...PHYSICAL REVIEW 0 VOLUME 41, NUMBER 5 Radiative T(lS) decays 1 MARCH 1990 R. Fulton, M. Hempstead, T. Jensen, D. R. Johnson, H. Kagan, R. Kass, F. Morrow, and J. Whitmore Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 W.-Y. Chen, J. Dominick, R. L. Mc...

Baringer, Philip S.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Radiation Field on Superspace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of multiwormhole configurations within the framework of the Euclidean Polyakov approach to string theory, incorporating a modification to the Hamiltonian which makes it impossible to interpret the Coleman Alpha parameters of the effective interactions as a quantum field on superspace, reducible to an infinite tower of fields on space-time. We obtain a Planckian probability measure for the Alphas that allows $\\frac{1}{2}\\alpha^{2}$ to be interpreted as the energy of the quanta of a radiation field on superspace whose values may still fix the coupling constants.

P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

1994-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

404

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Radiation.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115,Performance QualityRadiation August

406

Courses on Synchrotron Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases on &gamma;-Al2O3. |ID#:Synchrotron Radiation The following is

407

Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel \\v Cerenkov Radiator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel \\v Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the $B$-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8~MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3\\% and 0.001 at 90\\% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed.

S. K. Sahu et al

1996-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

409

Radiation Control Program and Radiation Control Act (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute authorizes the state to implement a regulatory program for sources of radiation, and contains rules for the Department, licensing and registration, and taxation of radioactive materials.

410

RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick 'adiabatic' regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

Jacquet, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Mineralogie et Cosmochimie de Museum (LMCM), CNRS and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7202, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr, E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL] [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Radiation Safety Work Control Form  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers...

413

Electromagnetic radiation by gravitating bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitating bodies in motion, regardless of their constitution, always produce electromagnetic radiation in the form of photon pairs. This phenomenon is an analog of the radiation caused by the motion of dielectric (or magnetic) bodies. It is a member of a wide class of phenomena named dynamical Casimir effects, and it may be viewed as the squeezing of the electromagnetic vacuum. Production of photon pairs is a purely quantum-mechanical effect. Unfortunately, as we show, the emitted radiation is extremely weak as compared to radiation produced by other mechanisms.

Iwo Bialynicki-Birula; Zofia Bialynicka-Birula

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

414

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer through this network, so building managers configure boiler systems to treat...

415

Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

416

Quality Services: Radiation (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations establish standards for protection against ionizing radiation resulting from the disposal and discharge of radioactive material to the environment. The regulations apply to any...

417

Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

418

Radiation transport and density effects in non-equilibrium plasmas Vladimir I. Fisher*, Dimitri V. Fisher, Yitzhak Maron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation transport and density effects in non-equilibrium plasmas Vladimir I. Fisher*, Dimitri V populations and the radiation field in transient non-equilibrium plasmas. In this model, the plasma density to a self-consistent treatment of the radiative transfer. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the atomic

419

ON THE KINETIC ENERGY AND RADIATIVE EFFICIENCY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Nicole M. Lloyd-Ronning1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON THE KINETIC ENERGY AND RADIATIVE EFFICIENCY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Nicole M. Lloyd-Ronning1 of 17 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during the afterglow phase and ac- counting for radiative losses, we the implications of these results for the GRB radiation and jet models. Subject headinggs: gamma rays: bursts

Zhang, Bing

420

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE Functions The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety; formulate campus radiation safety policies in compliance the Risk Manager) monitor the performance of the Radiation Safety Officer as it relates to implementation

Sze, Lawrence

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earths surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earths energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

Ackerman, T

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Whole-body radiation dosimetry of 2-[F-18]fluoro-A-85380 in human PET imaging studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R, Budinger T, Watson E. MIRD Primer for Absorbed DoseInternal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system [28]. To perform thesimplifications inherent in the MIRD phantom model, several

Obrzut, S L; Koren, A O; Mandelkern, M A; Brody, A L; Hoh, C K; London, E D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative transfer calculations, will be acquired using the aircraft and surface facilities available to ARESE. This document outlines the scientific approach and measurement requirements of the project.

Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

425

FY2008 Report on GADRAS Radiation Transport Methods.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary function of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) is the solution of inverse radiation transport problems, by which the con-figuration of an unknown radiation source is inferred from one or more measured radia-tion signatures. GADRAS was originally developed for the analysis of gamma spec-trometry measurements. During fiscal years 2007 and 2008, GADRAS was augmented to implement the simultaneous analysis of neutron multiplicity measurements. This report describes the radiation transport methods developed to implement this new capability. This work was performed at the direction of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development. It was executed as an element of the Proliferation Detection Program's Simulation, Algorithm, and Modeling element. Acronyms BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory CSD Continuous Slowing-Down DU depleted uranium ENSDF Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files GADRAS Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software HEU highly enriched uranium LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NA-22 Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development NNDC National Nuclear Data Center NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration ODE ordinary differential equation ONEDANT One-dimensional diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PARTISN Parallel time-dependent SN PDP Proliferation Detection Program RADSAT Radiation Scenario Analysis Toolkit RSICC Radiation Safety Information Computational Center SAM Simulation, Algorithms, and Modeling SNL Sandia National Laboratories SNM special nuclear material ToRI Table of Radioactive Isotopes URI uniform resource identifier XML Extensible Markup Language

Mattingly, John K.; Mitchell, Dean James; Harding, Lee; Varley, Eric S.; Hilton, Nathan R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Equivalent Neutrinos, Light WIMPs, and the Chimera of Dark Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

According to conventional wisdom, in the standard model (SM) of particle physics and cosmology the effective number of neutrinos is Neff=3 (more precisely, 3.046). In extensions of the standard model allowing for the presence of DeltaNnu equivalent neutrinos (or dark radiation), Neff is generally >3. The canonical results are reconsidered here, revealing that a measurement of Neff>3 can be consistent with DeltaNnu=0 (dark radiation without dark radiation). Conversely, a measurement consistent with Neff=3 is not inconsistent with the presence of dark radiation (DeltaNnu>0). In particular, if there is a light WIMP that annihilates to photons after the SM neutrinos have decoupled, the photons are heated beyond their usual heating from e+- annihilation, reducing the late time ratio of neutrino and photon temperatures (and number densities), leading to Neff3 even in the absence of equivalent neutrinos or dark radiation. A measurement of Neff>3 is thus no guarantee of the presence of equivalent neutrinos or dark radiation. In the presence of light WIMPs and/or equivalent neutrinos there are degeneracies among the light WIMP mass and its nature (fermion or boson, as well as its couplings to neutrinos or photons), the number and nature (fermion or boson) of the equivalent neutrinos, and their decoupling temperature (the strength of their interactions with the SM particles). There's more to a measurement of Neff than meets the eye.

Gary Steigman

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

427

Appendix F. Radiation Annual Site Environmental Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;Annual Site Environmental Report Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis

Pennycook, Steve

428

Parameterization and analysis of 3-D radiative transfer in clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of major accomplishments from the project. The project examines the impact of radiative interactions between neighboring atmospheric columns, for example clouds scattering extra sunlight toward nearby clear areas. While most current cloud models donâ??t consider these interactions and instead treat sunlight in each atmospheric column separately, the resulting uncertainties have remained unknown. This project has provided the first estimates on the way average solar heating is affected by interactions between nearby columns. These estimates have been obtained by combining several years of cloud observations at three DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites (in Alaska, Oklahoma, and Papua New Guinea) with simulations of solar radiation around the observed clouds. The importance of radiative interactions between atmospheric columns was evaluated by contrasting simulations that included the interactions with those that did not. This study provides lower-bound estimates for radiative interactions: It cannot consider interactions in cross-wind direction, because it uses two-dimensional vertical cross-sections through clouds that were observed by instruments looking straight up as clouds drifted aloft. Data from new DOE scanning radars will allow future radiative studies to consider the full three-dimensional nature of radiative processes. The results reveal that two-dimensional radiative interactions increase overall day-and-night average solar heating by about 0.3, 1.2, and 4.1 Watts per meter square at the three sites, respectively. This increase grows further if one considers that most large-domain cloud simulations have resolutions that cannot specify small-scale cloud variability. For example, the increases in solar heating mentioned above roughly double for a fairly typical model resolution of 1 km. The study also examined the factors that shape radiative interactions between atmospheric columns and found that local effects were often much larger than the overall values mentioned above, and were especially large for high sun and near convective clouds such as cumulus. The study also found that statistical methods such as neural networks appear promising for enabling cloud models to consider radiative interactions between nearby atmospheric columns. Finally, through collaboration with German scientists, the project found that new methods (especially one called â??stepwise krigingâ?) show great promise in filling gaps between cloud radar scans. If applied to data from the new DOE scanning cloud radars, these methods can yield large, continuous three-dimensional cloud structures for future radiative simulations.

Varnai, Tamas

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

429

Review Article RADIATION SHIELDING TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review Article RADIATION SHIELDING TECHNOLOGY J. Kenneth Shultis and Richard E. Faw* Abstract Physics Society INTRODUCTION THIS IS a review of the technology of shielding against the effects to the review. The first treats the evolution of radiation-shielding technology from the beginning of the 20th

Shultis, J. Kenneth

430

Hawking radiation and Quasinormal modes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spectrum of Hawking radiation by quantum fields in the curved spacetime is continuous, so the explanation of Hawking radiation using quasinormal modes can be suspected to be impossible. We find that quasinormal modes do not explain the relation between the state observed in a region far away from a black hole and the short distance behavior of the state on the horizon.

SangChul Yoon

2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

431

4, 699707, 2007 Radiation importance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and inactive convection. 1 Introduction Given that for much of the world ocean, the radiation termsOSD 4, 699­707, 2007 Radiation importance D. Nof and L. Yu Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussion EGU Ocean Sci. Discuss., 4, 699­707, 2007 www.ocean-sci-discuss.net/4/699/2007/ © Author(s) 2007

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

RADIATION AND CLOUD MONITORING STATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

how they affect the energy balance between incoming solar radiation and heat re-radiated from Earth, and moisture content; area cloud coverage; solar and terrestrial radia- tion; and standard meteorological region and the North Slope of Alaska. ARCS sites are a component of the Department of Energy

Reeves, Geoffrey D.

433

Integrating fiber optic radiation dosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research effort was to determine the feasibility of forming a radiation sensor coupled to an optical fiber capable of measuring gamma photon, x-ray, and beta particle dose rates and integrated dose, and to construct a prototype dosimeter read-out system utilizing the fiber optic sensor. The key component of the prototype dosimeter system is a newly developed radiation sensitive storage phosphor. When this phosphor is excited by energetic radiation, a proportionate population of electron-hole pairs are created which become trapped at specific impurities within the phosphor. Trapped electrons can subsequently be stimulated optically with near-infrared at approximately 1 micrometer wavelength; the electrons can recombine with holes at luminescent centers to produce a luminescence which is directly proportional to the trapped electron population, and thus to the radiation exposure. By attaching the phosphor to the end of an optical fiber, it is possible to transmit both the IR optical stimulation and the characteristic phosphor luminescence through the fiber to and from the read-out instrument, which can be located far (e.g., kilometers) from the radiation field. This document reports on the specific design of the prototype system and its operating characteristics, including its sensitivity to various radiation dose rates and energies, its dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio at various radiation intensities, and other system characteristics. Additionally, the radiation hardness of the phosphor and fiber are evaluated. 17 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs.

Soltani, P.K.; Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Creager, R.E.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Radiation Induced Instability Patrick Hagerty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Induced Instability Patrick Hagerty #3; Department of Mathematics University of Michigan of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 abloch@math.lsa.umich.edu Michael I. Weinstein z Fundamental Mathematics a central rigid body which can radiate energy through exible components such as solar panels and antennae

Bloch, Anthony

435

Transition Radiation in QCD matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions a finite size QCD medium is created. In this paper we compute radiative energy loss to zeroth order in opacity by taking into account finite size effects. Transition radiation occurs on the boundary between the finite size medium and the vacuum, and we show that it lowers the difference between medium and vacuum zeroth order radiative energy loss relative to the infinite size medium case. Further, in all previous computations of light parton radiation to zeroth order in opacity, there was a divergence caused by the fact that the energy loss is infinite in the vacuum and finite in the QCD medium. We show that this infinite discontinuity is naturally regulated by including the transition radiation.

Magdalena Djordjevic

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

436

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Radiation Safety Committee Laser Use Registration Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Committee Laser Use Registration Form Pulsed Duration (sec) Average Power: Pulse operating procedures and specific approval conditions required by the Radiation Safety Committee now of Radiation Safety Committee Chair Date #12;

de Lijser, Peter

439

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

incident radiation are distinguished, and albedos for oceanOceans using multiple satellite datasets in conjunction with MACR (Monte Carlo Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation)ocean temperature is coupled with the rest of the climate system, the dimming of surface radiation

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Tunable Radiation Source by Coupling Laser-Plasma-Generated Electrons to a Periodic Structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near-infrared radiation around 1000 nm generated from the interaction of a high-density MeV electron beam, obtained by impinging an intense ultrashort laser pulse on a solid target, with a metal grating is observed experimentally. Theoretical modeling and particle-in-cell simulation suggest that the radiation is caused by the Smith-Purcell mechanism. The results here indicate that tunable terahertz radiation with tens GV/m field strength can be achieved by using appropriate grating parameters.

Jin, Z. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Chen, Z. L.; Kon, A.; Nakatsutsumi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Zhuo, H. B. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); School of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Wang, H. B.; Zhang, B. H.; Gu, Y. Q.; Wu, Y. C.; Zhu, B.; Wang, L. [National Key Laboratory of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Sheng, Z. M. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Kodama, R. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

THE RADIATION CHEMISTRY OP AMINO ACIDS, PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS IN RELATION TO THE RADIATION STERILIZATION OF HIGH-PROTEIN FOODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Various Ionizing Radiations. Radiat. Res. , 22, 694 (1968). W. M. Garrison, Radiation Induced Reactions of AminoFrozen Aqueous Solutions, in Radiation Chemistry of Aqueous

Garrison, W.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Radiation-induced lung injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. (Yale Univ. Medical Center, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

444

10 CFR 835- Occupational Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

445

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

446

Standards for Protection Against Radiation (Michigan)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule establishes standards for protection against radiation hazards. In addition to complying with requirements set forth, every reasonable effort should be made to maintain radiation levels...

447

ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Accident Registries The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) maintains a number of radiation...

448

Radiation detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

Riedel, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Wintenberg, Alan L. (Knoxville, TN); Clonts, Lloyd G. (Knoxville, TN); Cooper, Ronald G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

449

Actively driven thermal radiation shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Sommerfeld radiation condition at threshold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove Besov space bounds of the resolvent at low energies in any dimension for a class of potentials that are negative and obey a virial condition with these conditions imposed at infinity only. We do not require spherical symmetry. The class of potentials includes in dimension $\\geq3$ the attractive Coulomb potential. There are two boundary values of the resolvent at zero energy which we characterize by radiation conditions. These radiation conditions are zero energy versions of the well-known Sommerfeld radiation condition.

Erik Skibsted

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

451

A Holographic Energy Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We suggest a holographic energy model in which the energy coming from spatial curvature, matter and radiation can be obtained by using the particle horizon for the infrared cut-off. We show the consistency between the holographic dark-energy model and the holographic energy model proposed in this paper. Then, we give a holographic description of the universe.

P. Huang; Yong-Chang Huang

2012-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

Influence of size effects on the radiation stability of nanocrystalline materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The data reported in publications are analyzed, and on this basis, problems arising in studies of the radiation stability of nanostructures and nanomaterials are formulated. A phenomenological model of the radiation stability of such objects is considered. The model is based on the concept of the behavior of close Frenkel pairs. To test the model proposed in the study, the effect of the size factor on the degree of structural degradation in nanoporous silicon samples when irradiated with phosphorus ions is studied. The effect of elastic strains on the radiation stability of the structures is established.

Gerasimenko, N. N.; Smirnov, D. I., E-mail: rmta@miee.ru [National Research University of Electronic Technology MIET (Russian Federation); Medetov, N. A. [Kostanai Social and Technical University (Kazakhstan); Zaporozhan, O. A. [National Research University of Electronic Technology MIET (Russian Federation)

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

453

Ultraviolet radiation in the southern seas in early spring 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Science Foundation research vessel Nathaniel B. Palmer carried out a cruise to Antarctica in early spring of 1993. It left Punta Arenas, Chile, close to the tip of South America on 11 August 1993. sailed south for 3 days to the tip of The Antarctic Peninsula, stopping at O`Higgens and Palmer Stations, and from there went southwest and into the Bellingshausen sea. On 10 September, it reached the most southerly position, 71{degrees}S, some distance north of the Thurston Island. From there, it went as far as 110{degrees}W before returning to Punta Arenas. The main purpose of the cruise was to investigate the snow- and sea-ice thickness, properties, and structures in this part of the southern oceans. It also allowed us to carry out continuous radiation measurements. We measured the following fluxes: global radiation (Eppley PSP), infrared incoming radiation (Eppley Pyrgeometer PIR), ultraviolet-A radiation (Eppley UV meter), ultraviolet-B radiation (Yankee Environmental Systems), and pitch and roll of the ship (Lucas Sensing Systems, Inc.). All instruments were sampled twice per second (Campbell Scientific, Model 21 X), and a notebook computer (ASI Patriot) stored 1-minute averages of the radiation data and 1-minute standard deviation of the ship`s pitch and roll. Visual observations of cloud cover were also recorded. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Wendler, G.; Quakenbush, T. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

Survivable pulse power space radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

1988-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

455

Georgia Radiation Control Act (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Georgia Radiation Control Act is designed to prevent any associated harmful effects upon the environment or the health and safety of the public through the institution and maintenance of a...

456

Ionizing Radiation Injury (South Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation applies to employers that have more than one employee who engages in activities which involve the presence of ionizing radiation. Employers with less than three employees can...

457

Texas Radiation Control Act (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to institute and maintain a regulatory program for radiation sources that is compatible with federal standards and regulatory programs, and, to the degree possible,...

458

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELING, for United States Government purposes. #12;AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC

459

Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to connect the energy re- lease process with the acceleration of electrons in solar flares, using a CA modelParticle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles

Anastasiadis, Anastasios

460

Scattering of terahertz radiation on a graphene-based nano-antenna  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scattering of terahertz radiation on a graphene-based nano-antenna Ignacio Llatser, , Christian. Scattering of the terahertz radiation on a graphene-based nano-antenna is considered. Different electromagnetic models of graphene are discussed and applied to calculate extinction, scattering and absorption

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiation csr model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

Yu, K.N.

462

On the approximation of local and linear radiative damping in the middle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atmosphere. In general, this damping is a nonlocal process in which heat is transferred to and from remote form 13 November 2009) ABSTRACT The validity of approximating radiative heating rates in the middle'') is investigated. Using radiative heating rate and temperature output from a chemistry­climate model with realistic

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

463

Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer Andrei G depend, to a large extent, on foams formed on the surface of the molten glass and of the batch due models for thermophysical and transport properties and heat, mass, and radiation transfer in glass foams

Pilon, Laurent

464

Radiation-Associated Liver Injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

Pan, Charlie C., E-mail: cpan@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

Jozef Klacka

2000-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

466

Mapping incident photosynthetically active radiation from MODIS data over China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of incident photosynthetically active radiation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer data. Journal, nitrogen and energy in different natural systems. Since photosynthesis is the core process for energy as an input for modeling photosynthesis from single plant leaves to complex plant communities. For example

Liang, Shunlin

467

Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: Mechanisms and seasonal dependence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence. The long-term globally integrated annual mean net forcing calculated here is approximately zero, related to the annual cycle in photochemistry; the O3 radiative forcing calculations also have a seasonal, although earlier work suggests a small net positive forcing. The model design (e.g., upper tropospheric