Sample records for radiation components global

  1. Global aspects of radiation memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Winicour

    2014-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

  2. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

  3. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of newly.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere Article Infrared Absorption Spectra, Radiative Efficiencies, and Global Warming Potentials of Newly of 600­1730 cm-1 . These spectra are then used to calculate the radiative efficiencies and global warming

  4. Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative of REs and global39 warming potentials (GWPs) for these compounds, mostly employing atmospheric lifetimes

  5. Correlation structure and principal components in global crude oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Yue-Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, George J; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article investigates the correlation structure of the global crude oil market using the daily returns of 71 oil price time series across the world from 1992 to 2012. We identify from the correlation matrix six clusters of time series exhibiting evident geographical traits, which supports Weiner's (1991) regionalization hypothesis of the global oil market. We find that intra-cluster pairs of time series are highly correlated while inter-cluster pairs have relatively low correlations. Principal component analysis shows that most eigenvalues of the correlation matrix locate outside the prediction of the random matrix theory and these deviating eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors contain rich economic information. Specifically, the largest eigenvalue reflects a collective effect of the global market, other four largest eigenvalues possess a partitioning function to distinguish the six clusters, and the smallest eigenvalues highlight the pairs of time series with the largest correlation coefficie...

  6. A BAYESIAN MODEL COMMITTEE APPROACH TO FORECASTING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A BAYESIAN MODEL COMMITTEE APPROACH TO FORECASTING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION in the realm of solar radiation forecasting. In this work, two forecasting models: Autoregressive Moving. The very first results show an improvement brought by this approach. 1. INTRODUCTION Solar radiation

  7. SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS Myles P. Murray 1 exposed photovoltaic materials, is defined as the rate of photodarkening or photobleaching of a material testing. The potential to predict power losses in a photovoltaic system over time caused

  8. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4 F10 , C5 F12 , C6 F14 , C7 F16 and C8 F18 Chemistry and Physics Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18): decafluorobu- tane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluo- rohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane

  9. Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds4599857392 CentAUR #7326E125C47E3E3C7E=472B43!E.E07D4 07D4:BE27B725CE9393BE647 #12;GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS. In addition, we provide a comprehensive and self-consistent set of new calculations of REs and global warming

  10. Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical. (2006), Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical frequencies are calculated using the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. The GEOS-3 global cloud optical

  11. Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey interactions radiative effects, i.e., the cloud cover, liquid water path (LWP) and cloud drop radius (Twomey negative radiative forcing on the global scale, mainly due to the cloud cover effect. © 2013 Elsevier B

  12. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Whitson, Barry G. (Corryton, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  13. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasullo, John

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly. T. Fasullo (2009), Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation, Geophys. Res. Lett

  14. Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary satellites data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary global solar radiation. In this paper, we use geostationary satellites data to generate 2-D time series of solar radiation for the next hour. The results presented in this paper relate to a particular territory

  15. Hybrid methodology for hourly global radiation forecasting in Mediterranean area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voyant, Cyril; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The renewable energies prediction and particularly global radiation forecasting is a challenge studied by a growing number of research teams. This paper proposes an original technique to model the insolation time series based on combining Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA) model. While ANN by its non-linear nature is effective to predict cloudy days, ARMA techniques are more dedicated to sunny days without cloud occurrences. Thus, three hybrids models are suggested: the first proposes simply to use ARMA for 6 months in spring and summer and to use an optimized ANN for the other part of the year; the second model is equivalent to the first but with a seasonal learning; the last model depends on the error occurred the previous hour. These models were used to forecast the hourly global radiation for five places in Mediterranean area. The forecasting performance was compared among several models: the 3 above mentioned models, the best ANN and ARMA for each location. In t...

  16. Perceptual Illumination Components: A New Approach to Efficient, High Quality Global Illumination Rendering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferwerda, James A.

    Rendering William A. Stokes James A. Ferwerda Bruce Walter Donald P. Greenberg Program of Computer Graphics, global illumination rendering. The metric is based on a rendering-by-components framework in which overhead to the rendering process. This perceptual met- ric should enable the development of an important

  17. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  18. 1504 OCTOBER 2004| straints the known global mean radiative forcing by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;1504 OCTOBER 2004| straints the known global mean radiative forcing by GHGs, the global average important to sepa- rate aerosol influences on cloud droplets from dy- namical effects associated of GHGs, making it critically important to improve and validate three-dimensional global models

  19. WHAT is the radiation budget? The Earth's radiation budget fundamentally comprises of two components. Incoming shortwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHAT is the radiation budget? · The Earth's radiation budget fundamentally comprises of two role in regulating the energy budget either by "resisting" the outflow of thermal energy term decadal variability. WHY study the radiation budget? · The net longwave emission is a "proxy

  20. Penetrating radiation impact on NIF final optic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C.D.; Speth, J.A.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

    1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to achieve thermonuclear ignition in a laboratory environment in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This will enable NIF to service the DOE stockpile stewardship management program, inertial fusion energy goals, and advance scientific frontiers. All of these applications will make use of the extreme conditions that the facility will create in the target chamber. In the case of a prospected 20 MJ yield scenario, NIF will produce 10{sup 19} neutrons with DT fusion 14 MeV energy per neutron. There will also be high-energy x rays as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous target debris produced either directly or indirectly by the inertial confinement fusion process. A critical design issue is the protection of the final optical components as well as sophisticated target diagnostics in such a harsh environment.

  1. Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect BINGQI YI,* PING YANG,* BRYAN A. BAUM,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect BINGQI YI,* PING locally by more than 10 W m22 over a range of effective diameters. The global-averaged SW cloud radiative but nonnegligible increase in the global LW cloud radiative effect. 1. Introduction Ice clouds significantly

  2. Correlation analysis of mean global radiation values with mean brightness values for one year 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolczynski, Edward Franklin

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quantities of global radiation, = kb. sin h i oi where i denotes the number of the month (1 to 12), Q. is the individual monthly quantity of global radiation, h . is the solar altitude relat- oi ed to noon of the middle day of the month, and k is the coei... which now exists in the data bank of this field. B. ~Db' t' The objective of the proposed research is to investigate a pos- sible relationship between global radiation, as measured from ground- based instruments, and mean brightness values...

  3. A statistical investigation of the temporal characteristics of global radiation at two selected stations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvell, Frank Joseph

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -term trends in radiation receipt on a regional or global scale. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This graduate program was sponsored and financed by the Air Force Institute of Technology (Air University), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Hy sincerest gratitude...A STATISTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBAL RADIATION AT TWO SELECTED STATIONS A Thesis by FRANK JOSEPH CARVELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  4. Climatic Impact of Global-Scale Deforestation: Radiative versus Nonradiative Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Climatic Impact of Global-Scale Deforestation: Radiative versus Nonradiative Processes EDOUARD L­ocean­atmosphere GCM is used to explore the biogeophysical impact of large-scale deforestation on surface climate that the surface albedo increase owing to deforestation has a cooling effect of 21.36 K globally. On the other hand

  5. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05Wm?2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17Wm?2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, ?0.05 and ?0.17Wm?2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

  6. FIRST SDO AIA OBSERVATIONS OF A GLOBAL CORONAL EUV 'WAVE': MULTIPLE COMPONENTS AND 'RIPPLES'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Department ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations of a global coronal EUV disturbance (so-called 'EIT wave') revealed in unprecedented detail. The disturbance observed on 2010 April 8 exhibits two components: one diffuse pulse superimposed, on which are multiple sharp fronts that have slow and fast components. The disturbance originates in front of erupting coronal loops and some sharp fronts undergo accelerations, both effects implying that the disturbance is driven by a coronal mass ejection. The diffuse pulse, propagating at a uniform velocity of 204-238 km s{sup -1} with very little angular dependence within its extent in the south, maintains its coherence and stable profile for {approx}30 minutes. Its arrival at increasing distances coincides with the onsets of loop expansions and the slow sharp front. The fast sharp front overtakes the slow front, producing multiple 'ripples' and steepening the local pulse, and both fronts propagate independently afterward. This behavior resembles the nature of real waves. Unexpectedly, the amplitude and FWHM of the diffuse pulse decrease linearly with distance. A hybrid model, combining both wave and non-wave components, can explain many, but not all, of the observations. Discoveries of the two-component fronts and multiple ripples were made possible for the first time thanks to AIA's high cadences ({<=}20 s) and high signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. A statistical investigation of the temporal characteristics of global radiation at two selected stations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvell, Frank Joseph

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to solar radiant energy, its equilibrium temperature is higher than that of magnesium oxide. The effect of the long-wave radiation is minimized since both surfaces have similar absorption properties with regard to these wave lengths. Thus... of the annual global radiation and the regression line of best fit for Newport 98 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. GENERAL Solar radiation is the ultimate source of virtually all the energy available to this planet. It is essential for the existence of plant...

  8. Field comparisons of direct and component measurements of net radiation under clear skies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duchon, C.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Wilk, G.E. [National Weather Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate measurements of net radiation are basic to all studies of the surface energy budget. In preparation for an energy budget experiment significant differences were found between direct and component measurement of net radiation, which prompted this investigation of their cause. The instruments involved were an all-black single-dome Fritschen-type net pyrradiometer, two Eppley model 8-48 pyranometers, and an Eppley model PIR pyrgeometer. Each had recently been calibrated. The accuracy of the component instruments was considered first. Comparisons of about one hour on each of three nights between the pyrgeometer and five empirical formulas showed that the average departure over all formulas from the pyrgeometer average was {minus}1%. Other comparisons between the pyrgeometer and an infrared thermometer viewing the surface yielded similar results. Alternate shading and unshading of the pyrgeometer looking upward during daytime resulted in a formula that was used to correct the downward longwave radiation under clear skies. The correction is dependent on wind speed, in contrast to a recent paper showing negligible dependence, but is in accord with earlier findings. Based on manufacturer`s specifications, the pyranometer calibrations were considered to be within 2% of the World Radiation Reference. Thus a series of experiments was carried out using what were believed to be reasonably accurate component measurements of net radiation and measurements from the net pyrradiometer.

  9. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote 2013. [1] Penetration of solar radiation in the ocean is determined by the attenuation coefficient (Kd. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin (2013), Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans

  10. Radiative cooling of two-component wire-array Z-pinch plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Mancini, R. C.; Papp, D.; Hakel, P.; Durmaz, T. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Florido, R. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wire-array two-component Z-pinch plasmas containing Al and other elements were studied experimentally and the observations interpreted with the help of theoretical modeling. Special attention was given to achieving reproducible implosions. Cascading implosions in star wire arrays mix components during the implosion phase and implosion dynamics were not affected by changes in concentration. A reduction in Al K-shell radiation and an increase in soft x-ray radiation emission were observed in Al-W plasma with 84% concentration of Al ions compared to only-Al plasma. Plasma with 84% of Al ions has radiative properties like those of W Z-pinches. The analysis of Al K-shell x-ray spectra with a collisional-radiative atomic kinetics model shows a drop of the electron temperature from 400?eV in pure Al plasma to below 300?eV in the Al-W mix. Al-Au Z-pinches present radiation features similar to Al-W plasma. This is indicative of a similar plasma cooling effect due to the presence of a high-Z element.

  11. The degradation of TPX components by oxygen, elevated temperature, and ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.

    1996-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    TPX is PMP or poly(4-methyl-1-pentene). It has several commercially important characteristics such as high optical transparency, high crystalline melting point, etc., leading to numerous applications including infrared windows, lenses, membranes, food packaging. The life components fabricated from this material may be limited by thermal oxidative and radiation-induced degradation. A preliminary review of the scientific literature was conducted to obtain relevant information on the effects of oxygen, moisture elevated temperature, and radiation on the chemical, thermodynamic, mechanical, and electrical properties of this material. Refs, figs, tabs.

  12. Local and Global Radiative Feedback from Population III Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Shea, Brian W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of recent work that focuses on understanding the radiative feedback processes that are potentially important during Population III star formation. Specifically, we examine the effect of the Lyman-Werner (photodissociating) background on the early stages of primordial star formation, which serves to delay the onset of star formation in a given halo but never suppresses it entirely. We also examine the effect that both photodissociating and ionizing radiation in I-fronts from nearby stellar systems have on the formation of primordial protostellar clouds. Depending on the strength of the incoming radiation field and the central density of the halos, Pop III star formation can be suppressed, unaffected, or even enhanced. Understanding these and other effects is crucial to modeling Population III star formation and to building the earliest generations of galaxies in the Universe.

  13. Using Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget dataUsing Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget data to evaluate global models and radiative processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cloud cover r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk© University of Reading 20108 #12;Radiative bias: climate models estimate radiative effect of contrail cirrus:contrail cirrus: LW ~ 40 Wm-2 SW up to 80 Wm-2 rUsing Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget dataUsing Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget data

  14. Well-posedness, global existence and blow-up phenomena for an integrable multi-component Camassa-Holm system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng Zhang; Zhaoyang Yin

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is concerned with a multi-component Camassa-Holm system, which has been proven to be integrable and has peakon solutions. This system includes many one-component and two-component Camassa-Holm type systems as special cases. In this paper, we first establish the local well-posedness and a continuation criterion for the system, then we present several global existence or blow-up results for two important integrable two-component subsystems. Our obtained results cover and improve recent results in \\cite{Gui,yan}.

  15. Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han Kima,b*, Juan-Carlos Baltazarb, and Jeff S. Haberla,b aDepartment of Architecture, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3137, U.S.A. bEnergy Systems Laboratory, Texas A... for measured solar radiation data and, as a result, rely on the values from typical meteorological years. Texas, in a similar fashion as other states in the US, does not have an active network for solar radiation data and has a variety of weather conditions...

  16. Global Small Solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell System in the Absence of Incoming Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Calogero

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a modified version of the Vlasov-Maxwell system in which the usual Maxwell fields are replaced by their retarded parts. We show that solutions of this modified system exist globally for a small number of particles and that they describe a system without incoming radiation

  17. Comparison of different global information sources used in surface radiative flux calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), the Laboratoire de Me´te´orologie Dynamique, NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer project Spectroradiometer product, the NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Surface Radiation Budget project surface albedos in the near-infrared remain poorly constrained (highly uncertain), they do not cause too

  18. Lecture 3 week 2/3 2012: Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....cycles of cold and warm climate. Averaged over the globe, sunlight falling on Earth in July (aphelion) is indeedLecture 3 week 2/3 2012: H 222c Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine http://en.wikipedia.org/ #12;#12;The 3 streams of this course (see syllabus) 1.Energy forms of energy concentrated, dilute

  19. The degradation of TPX components by oxygen, elevated temperature, and ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly(4-methyl-l-pentene), also known as PMP or TPX, has several commercially important characteristics such as high optical transparency, high crystalline melting point, low density, low electrical conductivity, and good heat resistance. Such characteristics have lead to numerous industrial applications including infrared windows, infrared lenses, membranes, and food packaging. The life components fabricated from this material may be limited bv thermal oxidative and radiation-induced degradation. A preliminary review of the scientific literature has been conducted to obtain relevant information on the effects of oxygen, moisture elevated temperature, and radiation on the chemical, thermodynamic, mechanical, and electrical properties of this important construction material. Key information from the literature has become especially important in light of decreased budgets for defense-related research and development, and the prolonged service life of existing systems.

  20. Radiation Hardness of Passive Fibre Optic Components for the Future Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Fernandez Fernandez F. Berghmans; A. Fern; Ez Fern; M. Decréton; P. Mégret; M. Blondel; A. Delchambre; Ez A; F. Berghmans A; B. Brichard; M. Van Uffelen

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermon uclearfusion reactor ITER will require remote-hanA#0 equipmen t to monNNfl its operation an to allow hazard-freemand-freexAN durin itsfrequen tmain ten3# periods. Heavy shielded umbilicals will be required tocon5N3 thesen2A5 an the actuators with theirinrx0flNj tation Multiplexin sen#0 signfl3 turn out to beessen tial to ease the umbilicalmancalx5 t. We arecon33NxF0# fibre optic technxfljN , with its in trinfl# wavelenflfl multiplexin (WDM) capabilities, tohanA5 these ITER multiplexin issues. We propose anA anAN2 data lin design for low-banjxF0N sennj an actuators basedon commercialo #-the-shelf (COTS) fiber optic compon5 ts. We relyon passive compon0 ts such as WDM couplersan fibre Bragggratin2 (FBG) to build a radiationfl0#NxnN t an5#j datalin0 WDM couplers remain operationx up to a 13 MGy gamma total dose. Aradiation53AxnA chan#/ drift is observed. The refractive inflNN han3 un33 ion33jj radiation is proposed as the degradation mechan30j FBG filters con tin ue to operate satisfactorily up to a 150 MGy total gamma dosean an505/3 fluen2 of about 10 15nx0 2 . Our resultson these COTS all-fibre passive compon5 ts open perspectives to build a radiation#A2/xn t an/5/ optical data lin compatible with the ITERrequiremen ts.

  1. Two Loop Radiative Seesaw and X-ray line Dark Matter with Global U(1) Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a two loop induced radiative neutrino model with global $U(1)$ symmetry at 0.1 GeV scale, in which we consider a keV scale of dark matter candidate recently reported by XMN-Newton X-ray observatory using data of various galaxy clusters and Andromeda galaxy. We also discuss the vacuum stability of singly charged bosons, lepton flavor violation processes, and a role of Goldstone boson.

  2. Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S

    ESL-PA-13-11-01 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Evaluation of Meteorological Base Models... for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han Kima,b*, Juan-Carlos Baltazarb, and Jeff S. Haberla,b aDepartment of Architecture, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3137, U.S.A. bEnergy Systems Laboratory, Texas A...

  3. Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, J. P.

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

  4. Radiative component and combined heat transfer in the thermal calculation of finned tube banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehlik, P. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For more exact calculation of combined heat transfer in the case of finned tube banks (e.g., in the convective section of a furnace), the radiative heat transfer cannot be neglected. A new method for relatively simple calculation of total heat flux (convection + radiation + conduction in fins) is fully compatible with that for bare tube banks/bundles developed earlier. It is based on the method of radiative coefficients. However, the resulting value of heat flux must be corrected due to fin thickness and especially due to the fin radiative influence. For this purpose the so-called multiplicator of heat flux was introduced. The applicability of this methods has been demonstrated on a tubular fired heater convective section. A developed computer program based on the method has also been used for an analysis of the influence of selected parameters to show the share of radiation on the total heat flux.

  5. Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary satellites data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voyant, Cyril; Muselli, Marc; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a territory is poorly instrumented, geostationary satellites data can be useful to predict global solar radiation. In this paper, we use geostationary satellites data to generate 2-D time series of solar radiation for the next hour. The results presented in this paper relate to a particular territory, the Corsica Island, but as data used are available for the entire surface of the globe, our method can be easily exploited to another place. Indeed 2-D hourly time series are extracted from the HelioClim-3 surface solar irradiation database treated by the Heliosat-2 model. Each point of the map have been used as training data and inputs of artificial neural networks (ANN) and as inputs for two persistence models (scaled or not). Comparisons between these models and clear sky estimations were proceeded to evaluate the performances. We found a normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) close to 16.5% for the two best predictors (scaled persistence and ANN) equivalent to 35-45% related to ground measurements. F...

  6. Parallel detection and elimination of strongly connected components for radiation transport sweeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLendon, William Clarence

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for useful discussions regarding this work. Also, I wish to thank Bruce Hendrickson, Steve Plimpton, and Kent Budge at Sandia National Laboratories; without their guidance this work would not have been accomplished. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I... to ensure scalable performance. In this thesis we will consider a prototypical radiation transport solver used in an ASCI multi-physics code, such as SnRad [11] from Sandia National Lab- oratories In this module the transport equations are solved using a...

  7. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) global model with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D ? PP (plane-parallel)] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization.more »We show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  8. Global Climate Modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Thomas; Forget, François; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Montmessin, Franck

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative effects of water ice clouds have noteworthy consequences on the Martian atmosphere, its thermal structure and circulation. Accordingly, the inclusion of such effects in the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) greatly modifies the simulated Martian water cycle. The intent of this paper is to address the impact of radiatively active clouds on atmospheric water vapor and ice in the GCM and improve its representation. We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice. This physical modeling is based on tunable parameters. This new version of the GCM is compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of the water cycle. Satisfying results are reached for both vapor and cloud opacities. However, simulations yield a lack of water vapor in the tropics after Ls=180{\\deg} which is persistent in simulations compared to observations, as a consequence of aphelion c...

  9. Global oceanic rainfall estimation from AMSR-E data based on a radiative transfer model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Kyoung-Wook

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved physically-based rainfall algorithm was developed using AMSR-E data based on a radiative transfer model. In addition, error models were designed and embedded in the algorithm to assess retrieval errors ...

  10. Clouds are integral to the climate system. They are a crucial component of the global water cycle, vital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    gives a value of 61.6% cloud cover over the period January 2001 to December 2010). These estimates were with the Earth's radiative energy balance. They cool the surface by shading it from the direct solar beam but almost as strongly enhance the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere by reducing the efficiency by which

  11. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model – CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-D–PP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance atmore »the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  12. Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

  13. Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Seinfeld

    2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

  14. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  15. Hourly global and diffuse radiation of Lagos, Nigeria-correlation with some atmospheric parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chendo, M.A.C.; Maduekwe, A.A.L. (Univ. of Lagos, Akoka (Nigeria))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of four climatic parameters on the hourly diffuse fraction in Lagos, Nigeria, has been studied. Using data for two years, new correlations were established. The standard error of the Liu and Jordan-type equation was reduced by 12.83% when solar elevation, ambient temperature, and relative humidity were used together as predictor variables for the entire data set. Ambient temperature and relative humidity proved to be very important variables for predicting the diffuse fraction of the solar radiation passing through the humid atmosphere of the coastal and tropic city of Lagos. Seasonal analysis carried out with the data showed improvements on the standard errors for the new seasonal correlations. In the case of the dry season, the improvement was 18.37%, whole for the wet season, this was 12.37%. Comparison with existing correlations showed that the performance of the one parameter model (namely K[sub t]), of Orgill and Hollands and Reindl, Beckman, and Duffie were very different from the Liu and Jordan-type model obtained for Lagos.

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 52, NO. 4, AUGUST 2005 1061 Radiation Qualification of Electronics Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 52, NO. 4, AUGUST 2005 1061 Radiation Qualification@comp.metro-u.ac.jp). T. Sakuma is with the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Engineering, Ko- ganei 183-8538, Japan

  17. Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Aerosol-Cloud Interactions: The Elusive Component particles ("aerosols") exert a net cooling effect by directly scattering and absorption of solar radiation (the "aerosol direct climatic effect"). Aerosols also affect clouds by acting as the seed for droplet

  18. Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

  19. Ab initio Based Modeling of Radiation Effects in Multi-Component Alloys: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dane Morgan

    2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The project began March 13, 2006, allocated for three years, and received a one year extension from March 13, 2009 to March 12, 2010. It has now completed 48 of 48 total months. The project was focused on using ab initio methods to gain insights into radiation induced segregation (RIS) in Ni-Fe-Cr alloys. The project had the following key accomplishments • Development of a large database of ab initio energetics that can be used by many researchers in the future for increased understanding of this system. For example, we have the first calculations showing a dramatic stabilization effect of Cr-Cr interstitial dumbbells in Ni. • Prediction of both vacancy and interstitial diffusion constants for Ni-Cr and Ni-Fe for dilute Cr and Fe. This work included generalization of widely used multifrequency models to make use of ab initio derived energetics and thermodynamics. • Prediction of qualitative trends of RIS from vacancy and interstitial mechanisms, suggesting the two types of defect fluxes drive Cr RIS in opposite directions. • Detailed kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of diffusion by vacancy mechanism in Ni-Cr as a function of Cr concentration. The results demonstrate that Cr content can have a significant effect on RIS. • Development of a quantitative RIS transport model, including models for thermodynamic factors and boundary conditions.

  20. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  1. DCE-MRI defined subvolumes of a brain metastatic lesion by principle component analysis and fuzzy-c-means clustering for response assessment of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farjam, Reza; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Med Inn Building C478, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic modelfree framework to analyze the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data for assessment of response of brain metastases to radiation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with 45 analyzable brain metastases had MRI scans prior to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and at the end of the 2-week therapy. The volumetric DCE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner with approximately 5 s temporal resolution and a total scan time of about 3 min. DCE curves from all voxels of the 45 brain metastases were normalized and then temporally aligned. A DCE matrix that is constructed from the aligned DCE curves of all voxels of the 45 lesions obtained prior to WBRT is processed by principal component analysis to generate the principal components (PCs). Then, the projection coefficient maps prior to and at the end of WBRT are created for each lesion. Next, a pattern recognition technique, based upon fuzzy-c-means clustering, is used to delineate the tumor subvolumes relating to the value of the significant projection coefficients. The relationship between changes in different tumor subvolumes and treatment response was evaluated to differentiate responsive from stable and progressive tumors. Performance of the PC-defined tumor subvolume was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in prediction of nonresponsive lesions and compared with physiological-defined tumor subvolumes. Results: The projection coefficient maps of the first three PCs contain almost all response-related information in DCE curves of brain metastases. The first projection coefficient, related to the area under DCE curves, is the major component to determine response while the third one has a complimentary role. In ROC analysis, the area under curve of 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.86 ± 0.06 were achieved for the PC-defined and physiological-defined tumor subvolume in response assessment. Conclusions: The PC-defined subvolume of a brain metastasis could predict tumor response to therapy similar to the physiological-defined one, while the former is determined more rapidly for clinical decision-making support.

  2. Global and Regional Solutions Directorate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    at Pacific NW National Lab (PNNL) ­ Founding Director Joint Global Change Research Institute (PNNL/UMd) ­ ALD (PNNL) ­ Environmental and Health Sciences Directorate; Emerging Technologies ­ Chief Scientist ­ Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ­ Director ­ PNNL Global Studies Program ­ Other (PNNL): Center

  3. Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  5. Nonstatic global string in Brans-Dicke theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Sen; N. Banerjee

    2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational field of a nonstatic global string has been studied in the context of Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. Both the metric components and the BD scalar field are assumed to be nonseparable functions of time and space.The spacetime may or may not have any singularity at a finite distance from the string core but the singularity at a particular time always remains. It has been shown that the spacetime exhibits both outgoing and incoming gravitational radiation.

  6. Global Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, Ben D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996). Globalization in Question: International Economy andGlobalization; Justice; Poverty; Underground Economy; United

  7. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  8. LIFE Materials: Topical Assessment Report for LIFE Volume 1 TOPIC: Solid First Wall and Structural Components TASK: Radiation Effects on First Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro, A

    2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consists of the following chapters: CHAPTER A: LIFE Requirements for Materials. Part 1: The structure of the First Wall--Basic requirements; A qualitative view of the challenge; The candidate materials; and Base-line material's properties. CHAPTER B: Summary of Existing Knowledge--Brief historical introduction; Design window; The temperature window; Evolution of the design window with damage; Damage calculations; He and H production; Swelling resistance; Incubation dose for swelling; Design criterion No. 1, Strength; Design criterion No. 2, Corrosion resistance; Design criterion No. 3, Creep resistance; Design criterion No. 4, Radiation induced embrittlement; and Conclusions. CHAPTER C: Identification of Gaps in Knowledge & Vulnerabilities. CHAPTER D: Strategy and Future Work.

  9. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  10. Globalization Nationalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazlish, Bruce

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests ...

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  12. Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1 Atsumu Ohmura,1 and Knut February 2007. [1] Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming

  13. Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  14. Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Russell, Steven W. (Knoxville, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates of Second Key Atmospheric Component On May 1, 2013, in Analysis, Capabilities, Climate, CRF, Energy, Facilities, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling & Analysis, News, News &...

  16. GLOBAL TAXONOMY INITIATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Taran

    #12;THE GLOBAL TAXONOMY INITIATIVE: Using Systematic Inventories to Meet Country and Regional Needs International #12;Table of Contents Introduction 1 I. Using Inventories to Build Capacity and Advance the GTI 2 for systematic inventories. A major component of the workshop addressed how systematic inventories can serve

  17. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  18. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  19. Global Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Installation Market to be Propelled...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of humid climatic conditions and irregular intensities of solar radiations. The key companies operating in the global solar photovoltaic installation market are Trina Solar...

  20. System for inspecting large size structural components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birks, Albert S. (Columbus, OH); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a system for inspecting large scale structural components such as concrete walls or the like. The system includes a mobile gamma radiation source and a mobile gamma radiation detector. The source and detector are constructed and arranged for simultaneous movement along parallel paths in alignment with one another on opposite sides of a structural component being inspected. A control system provides signals which coordinate the movements of the source and detector and receives and records the radiation level data developed by the detector as a function of source and detector positions. The radiation level data is then analyzed to identify areas containing defects corresponding to unexpected variations in the radiation levels detected.

  1. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  2. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy.

  3. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.

    1992-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy. 4 figs.

  4. Sandia Energy - Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757 (1)Tara46EnergyPower Systems Glitter-SizedGlobal

  5. 8, 1129311320, 2008 Global CCN and AOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effects, aerosols also modulate cloud formation and convective behavior through their radiative effects. It also implies that, at least at20 large scales, the radiative and microphysical effects of aerosolsACPD 8, 11293­11320, 2008 Global CCN and AOT correlations M. O. Andreae Title Page Abstract

  6. Parameterization of contrail radiative properties for climate studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    the current and potential effect on global climate change. The line-shaped artificial clouds often visible radiation and absorb infrared radiation emitted from the Earth and atmosphere, and the effect on the global climate change requires a cloud model that statistically represents contrail radiative properties

  7. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  8. Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS --Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS -- Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis and global solar radiation, a knowledge of the diffuse or sky radiation is required. Diffuse solar radiation

  9. Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research Supporting researchers in low- and middle-income countries to carry out health- related research within their own countries. Gl bal Health #12;3 | Global Health Research #12;Global Health Research | 4 We are a global charitable foundation dedicated

  10. Understanding Global Capitalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, William I.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sociology; globalization; political economy; development;economy fueled through 700 billion dollars injected into globalizationGlobalization Studies, also called CGS. I would economy and

  11. Component-based car detection in street scene images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Brian, 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies in object detection have shown that a component-based approach is more resilient to partial occlusions of objects, and more robust to natural pose variations, than the traditional global holistic approach. ...

  12. Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat Pump Basics31/2007 TeppeiProgramsGlobal1

  13. Academy for Global Engagement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Academy for Global Engagement 2013-2014 Global Fellows #12;Meredith Gore and Wildlife #12;Global Research Interests · risk percepHon and public support and Agricultural Engineering #12;Global Research Interests · catalyHc conversion of biomass

  14. global warming's six indias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

  15. Critical pulse power components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

  16. Opportunities for Global Optimization: Breaking the Boundaries Across System Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morancho, Enric

    systems), therefore this approach does not produce a system that fits well the requirements for this kind optimizations can be applied. · Linux is a monolithic kernel which runs entirely in privileged mode

  17. Integrating Future Communication Technologies for the Downstream Component of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    Integrating Future Communication Technologies for the Downstream Component of Public Warning an alert system in case of coastal tsunami due to underwater landslides. Its downstream component combines of the alerting global system. This paper presents the RATCOM architecture, focusing mainly on its downstream

  18. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  19. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  20. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  1. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

    1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

  2. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  3. Transverse Component Acknowledgements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 232-237. Raw Data Radial Component Analysis of Treasure Island earthquake data using seismic by Treasure Island Geotechnical Array near San Francisco, California on 06/26/94. It was a magnitude 4

  4. Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional models. One fruitful strategy for evaluating advances in parameterizations has turned out to be using short-range numerical weather prediction as a test-bed within which to implement and improve parameterizations for modeling and predicting climate variability. The global models we have used to date are the CAM atmospheric component of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CCSM climate model as well as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) numerical weather prediction model, thus allowing testing in both climate simulation and numerical weather prediction modes. We present detailed results of these tests, demonstrating the sensitivity of model performance to changes in parameterizations.

  5. Radiation Shielding for Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, R.T.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel. Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel.

  6. Shortwave Radiative Impacts from Aerosol Effects on Marine Shallow Cumuli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    is because of the cloud radiation Bony & Dufresne, 2005 #12;ultimately we'll want global (satellite indirect effects, 1) what is the relative radiative importance of cloud microphysical versus macrophysical effects matter to the fluxes for small&thicker clouds) 3D ICA #12;what is the relative radiative

  7. Protection of lithographic components from particle contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that employs thermophoresis to protect lithographic surfaces from particle deposition and operates in an environment where the pressure is substantially constant and can be sub-atmospheric. The system (thermophoretic pellicle) comprises an enclosure that surrounds a lithographic component whose surface is being protected from particle deposition. The enclosure is provided with means for introducing a flow of gas into the chamber and at least one aperture that provides for access to the lithographic surface for the entry and exit of a beam of radiation, for example, and further controls gas flow into a surrounding low pressure environment such that a higher pressure is maintained within the enclosure and over the surface being protected. The lithographic component can be heated or, alternatively the walls of the enclosure can be cooled to establish a temperature gradient between the surface of the lithographic component and the walls of the enclosure, thereby enabling the thermophoretic force that resists particle deposition.

  8. QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND IS THIS CARBON DIOXIDE COMING FROM? Other sources are home heating and electric power production. WE ARE ALL

  9. Global Health Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Ophir

    Bay Area Global Health Seminar Series Moving beyond millennium targets in global health: The challenges of investing in health and universal health coverage Although targets can help to focus global health efforts, they can also detract attention from deeper underlying challenges in global health

  10. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  11. 1. THE RADIATION BELTS The outer zone radiation belts consist of energetic elec-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elkington, Scot R.

    1. THE RADIATION BELTS The outer zone radiation belts consist of energetic elec- trons trapped in the geomagnetic field. The dynamics of the belts are dictated by the global and local electric and mag- netic electrons in the outer zone and electric and magnetic field variations occurring on ULF time scales

  12. Components in the Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan (Jenny); Yin, Jian

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

  13. Dynamic Implicit 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Bobby [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL] [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multiphysics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent linear solver convergence.

  14. Decomposing global light transport using time of flight imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Di

    Global light transport is composed of direct and indirect components. In this paper, we take the first steps toward analyzing light transport using high temporal resolution information via time of flight (ToF) images. The ...

  15. Calibration method and apparatus for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, Michael D. (Castle Rock, CO); Sagan, Francis J. (Lakewood, CO); Burkhardt, Mark R. (Denver, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A calibration method and apparatus for use in measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid is provided. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The peak-to-trough calculations are simplified by compensating for radiation absorption by the apparatus. The invention also allows absorption characteristics of an interfering fluid component to be accurately determined and negated thereby facilitating analysis of the fluid.

  16. Calibration method and apparatus for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, M.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A calibration method and apparatus for use in measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid is provided. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The peak-to-trough calculations are simplified by compensating for radiation absorption by the apparatus. The invention also allows absorption characteristics of an interfering fluid component to be accurately determined and negated thereby facilitating analysis of the fluid. 7 figures.

  17. Global-local Structural Optimization Using Response Surfaces of Local Optimization Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    1 Global-local Structural Optimization Using Response Surfaces of Local Optimization Margins Boyang optimization problems. First, a large number of component optimizations for maximization of margins are performed. Response surface approximations (RSA) for maximum margins of component optimization

  18. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  19. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  20. PCB Radiation Mechanisms: Using Component-Level Measurements to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Entertainment Systems Communication System Airbag D l t Noise Cancellation Engine Ignition Fuel Injection

  1. SciTech Connect: Transient radiation effects in components and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    are described for transistors and capacitors and interpreted in terms of semiempirical models. These and other effects are then applied to the analysis of switching circuit...

  2. The global energy balance from a surface perspective Martin Wild Doris Folini Christoph Schar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    The global energy balance from a surface perspective Martin Wild · Doris Folini · Christoph Scha of the global energy balance, the radiative energy exchanges between Sun, Earth and space are now accurately to constrain the global energy balance not only from space, but also from the surface. We combine

  3. Instantaneous symmetrical components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salehfar, Hossein

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be traced to Evans and Monseth, who used tham in the detarminaCion of recovery volCages in 1937. Thi- was followed by Pipe's wor'x in 1940 [1]. No systematic approach oased on Che use of inscantaneous symm trical components was not d until Lyon [2...-, pasitive-, &Ojwt i aI(jet) i 2(jwt) = I/3 I a a and negative-sequence components of i (t) ars a 1 ib (t) i (t) (2. 3) The valu s or the phase currents in terms ot the symmacrrcal 10 i 1(jest) ~ l (jet) Zero-time axis i. b1(jm t) iC2(j t) (a...

  4. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  5. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  6. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  7. Injection molded component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Allister W; Arrell, Douglas J

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An intermediate component includes a first wall member, a leachable material layer, and a precursor wall member. The first wall member has an outer surface and first connecting structure. The leachable material layer is provided on the first wall member outer surface. The precursor wall member is formed adjacent to the leachable material layer from a metal powder mixed with a binder material, and includes second connecting structure.

  8. RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. OVERVIEW OF REGULATIONS, PROTECTION STANDARDS, AND RADIATION SAFETY ORGANIZATION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 V. BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION PRINCIPLES

  9. Fluid description of multi-component solar partially ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khomenko, E., E-mail: khomenko@iac.es; Collados, M.; Vitas, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Díaz, A. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive self-consistent formalism for the description of multi-component partially ionized solar plasma, by means of the coupled equations for the charged and neutral components for an arbitrary number of chemical species, and the radiation field. All approximations and assumptions are carefully considered. Generalized Ohm's law is derived for the single-fluid and two-fluid formalism. Our approach is analytical with some order-of-magnitude support calculations. After general equations are developed, we particularize to some frequently considered cases as for the interaction of matter and radiation.

  10. Reconciling Components and Services The Apam Component-Service Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reconciling Components and Services The Apam Component-Service Platform Jacky Estublier, German as with SOC. No platform today satisfies both needs. This paper presents the Component-Service model-service platform. Keywords-Service; CBSE, SOC, SOA, service platform, component platform, adaptability . I

  11. Globalization of biopharmaceutical manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Rachna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biomanufacturing industry is changing due to increasing globalization. However, it is changing differently from other high tech industries like software/ semiconductor/ automobiles. In this study we use global ...

  12. Global Environmental Course Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    : Environmental discourses, Environment and development in Africa, Environmental conservation and Ainu people Department Global Environmental Studies Room Course Title Frontier of Sustainability Science Instructor Akihisa MORI, Global Environmental Studies Satoshi KONISHI, Institute of Advanced

  13. Nonsingular static global string

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Sen; N. Banerjee

    2000-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A new solution for the spacetime outside the core of a U(1) static global string has been presented which is nonsingular. This is the first example of a nonsingular spacetime around a static global string.}}

  14. Review: Globalization of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennant, Matthew Aaron

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

  15. Cows Causing Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

  16. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (14316 Bauer Rd., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Reed, Scott (10308 Leymon Ct., NW., Albuquerque, NM 87114); Shepodd, Timothy J. (1838 Broadmore St., Livermore, CA 94550); Leonard, Leroy E. (4944 Ten Oaks Rd., Dayton, MD 21036); Ellefson, Robert E. (193 Elmwood Dr., Centerville, OH 45459); Gill, John T. (906 E. Linden Ave., Miamisburg, OH 45342); Walko, Robert J. (3215 Blume, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Renschler, Clifford L. (7 Lagarto Rd., Tijeras, NM 87059)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. In the composition, a composite is formed from a carrier material and at least one of the source of the exciting radiation or the component which is capable of interacting with the exciting radiation. The composite is then employed for loading a porous substrate, preferably an aerogel substrate.

  17. Geant4 applications in the heliospheric radiation environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Brogueira; Patrícia Gonçalves; Ana Keating; Dalmiro Maia; Mário Pimenta; Bernardo Tomé

    2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The high energy ionizing radiation environment in the solar system consists of three main sources: the radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. Geant4 is a Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation toolkit, with applications in areas as high energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics or medical physics research. In this poster, Geant4 applications to model and study the effects of the heliospheric radiation environment are presented. Specific applications are being developed to study the effect of the radiation environment on detector components, to describe the response and to optimise the design of radiation monitors for future space missions and to predict the radiation environment in Mars surface, orbits and moons.

  18. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation

  19. Automotive Component Measurements forAutomotive Component Measurements for Determining VehicleDetermining Vehicle--Level RadiatedLevel Radiated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Stability Control Seat and Pedal Position Tire Pressure Monitoring #12;2 Can we predict systemCan we predict of electromagnetic emissions kb h F d th d field-coupled near fields conducted h k hworkbench Faraday cage method IEC Automobiles are Complex Electronic SystemsAutomobiles are Complex Electronic Systems Cabin Environment

  20. RADIATION MEASUREMENTS BY BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY DURING THE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION INTERCOMPARISON STUDY, MAY-JUNE 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS, R.M.; BARTHOLOMEW, M.J.; MILLER, M.A.; SMITH, S.; EDWARDS, R.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The WHOI buoy radiometer intercomparison took place during May and June, 2000 at the WHOI facility. The WHOI IMET, JAMSTEC Triton, and NOAA TAO buoy systems were operated from a beach site and the Brookhaven National Laboratory set up two Portable Radiation Package systems (P01 and P02) alongside the WHOI instrumentation on the roof of the Clark Building, about 300 m away. The BNL instruments were named ''P01'' and ''P02'' and were identical. Buoy instruments were all leveled to {+-}1{degree} to horizontal. The purpose of the project was to compare the buoy systems with precision measurements so that any differences in data collection or processing would be evaluated. BNL was pleased to participate so the PRP system could be evaluated as a calibration tool. The Portable Radiation Package is an integral component of the BNL Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR) system. It is designed to make accurate downwelling radiation measurements, including the three solar irradiance components (direct normal, diffuse and global) at six narrowband channels, aerosol optical depth measurements, and broadband longwave and shortwave irradiance measurements.

  1. Global energy and water balance: Characteristics from finite-volume atmospheric model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Linjiong; Bao, Qing; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Wang, Xiaocong; He, Bian; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jiandong

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents version 1 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1), which has a flexible horizontal resolution up to a quarter of 1°. The model, currently running on the ‘‘Tianhe 1A’’ supercomputer, is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL1, this paper describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. The comparisons indicate that the model simulates well the seasonalmore »and geographical distributions of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. A major weakness in the energy balance is identified in the regions where extensive and persistent marine stratocumulus is present. Analysis of the global water balance also indicates realistic seasonal and geographical distributions with the global annual mean of evaporation minus precipitation being approximately 10?? mm d?¹. We also examine the connections between the global energy and water balance and discuss the possible link between the two within the context of the findings from the reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.« less

  2. Capacitive Behavior of HF Power Transformers: Global Approach to Draw Robust Equivalent Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    behavior of all components. Among these components, HF power transformers constitute a special case. EvenCapacitive Behavior of HF Power Transformers: Global Approach to Draw Robust Equivalent Circuits of n-windings HF power transformers. A global approach, mainly based on energy considerations about

  3. Design Editorial Globalization and Internationalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    ; especially, the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free tradeJournal of Mechanical Design Editorial Globalization and Internationalism There has always been and Strabo, but to Friedman's empirical observations of globalization. According to Wikipedia, "globalization

  4. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these experienced cladding failures as operational capabilities of the different designs were being established. In addition, numerous spills of heavy water occurred within the facility. Currently, radiation and radioactive contamination levels are low within HWCTR with most of the radioactivity contained within the reactor vessel. There are no known insults to the environment, however with the increasing deterioration of the facility, the possibility exists that contamination could spread outside the facility if it is not decommissioned. An interior panoramic view of the ground floor elevation taken in August 2009 is shown in Figure 2. The foreground shows the transfer coffin followed by the reactor vessel and control rod drive platform in the center. Behind the reactor vessel is the fuel pool. Above the ground level are the polar crane and the emergency deluge tank at the top of the dome. Note the considerable rust and degradation of the components and the interior of the containment building. Alternative studies have concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning is to remove the reactor vessel, steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. Characterization studies along with transport models have concluded that the remaining below grade equipment that is left in place including the transfer coffin will not contribute any significant contamination to the environment in the future. The below grade space will be grouted in place. A concrete cover will be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater will be monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. The schedule for completion of decommissioning is late FY2011. This paper describes the concepts planned in order to remove the major components including the dome, the reactor vessel (RV), the two steam generators (SG), and relocating the transfer coffin (TC).

  5. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  6. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  7. Gravitational Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard F Schutz

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and it is the dominant force in most astronomical systems. In common with all other phenomena, gravity must obey the principles of special relativity. In particular, gravitational forces must not be transmitted or communicated faster than light. This means that when the gravitational field of an object changes, the changes ripple outwards through space and take a finite time to reach other objects. These ripples are called gravitational radiation or gravitational waves. This article gives a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational radiation, including technical material suitable for non-specialist scientists.

  8. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  9. Precision Cleaning Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, T.E.; Bohnert, G.W.

    2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean bond surfaces are critical to the operation of diffusion bonded titanium engine components. These components can be contaminated with machining coolant, shop dirt, and fingerprints during normal processing and handling. These contaminants must be removed to achieve acceptable bond quality. As environmental concerns become more important in manufacturing, elimination of the use of hazardous materials is desired. For this reason, another process (not using nitric-hydrofluoric acid solution) to clean titanium parts before bonding was sought. Initial cleaning trials were conducted at Honeywell to screen potential cleaning techniques and chemistries. During the initial cleaning process screening phase, Pratt and Whitney provided Honeywell with machined 3 inch x 3 inch x 1 inch titanium test blocks. These test blocks were machined with a water-based machining coolant and exposed to a normal shop environment and handling. (Honeywell sectioned one of these blocks into smaller samples to be used for additional cleanliness verification analyses.) The sample test blocks were ultrasonically cleaned in alkaline solutions and AUGER analysis was used by Honeywell FM and T to validate their cleanliness. This information enabled selection of final cleaning techniques and solutions to be used for the bonding trials. To validate Honeywell's AUGER data and to verify the cleaning processes in actual situations, additional sample blocks were cleaned (using the chosen processes) and then bonded. The bond quality of the test blocks was analyzed according to Pratt and Whitney's requirements. The Charpy impact testing was performed according to ASTM procedure {number_sign}E-23. Bond quality was determined by examining metallographic samples of the bonded test blocks for porosity along the bondline.

  10. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS &INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS &INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS & THE GLOBAL ECONOMYTHE GLOBAL ECONOMYTHE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Anna I.

    GLOBAL ECONOMYTHE GLOBAL ECONOMY This major offers students rigorous interdisciplinary training 331: The Global Economy 2030 -- Examination of key ideas from economics, demography and technology. Guest lecturers illuminate possible conditions of the global economy in 2030. IR 454: International

  11. Sensitivity of photolysis frequencies and key tropospheric oxidants in a global model to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    in the tropical upper troposphere. We find that the radiative impact of clouds on global photolysis frequencies(O1 D), J(NO2)) due to the radiative effects of clouds in June are about 0.0% (0.4%, 0.9%), 0.8% (1Sensitivity of photolysis frequencies and key tropospheric oxidants in a global model to cloud

  12. Automotive Component Product Development Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Science in Engineering and Management February 2005 ABSTRACT Automotive industry is facing a tough periodAutomotive Component Product Development Enhancement Through Multi-Attribute System Design Engineering Systems Division #12;Automotive Component Product Development Enhancement Through Multi

  13. Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    radiative forcing. The global and annual mean model-simulated cloud feedback is dominated by contributions to a hypothetical cloudless but other- wise identical planet, the global and annual mean effect of clouds at the top is how cloud radiative effects will change as the planet warms because of long-lived greenhouse gases

  14. Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

  15. Engineering the global ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringfellow, William T.; Jain, Ravi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of humans deliberately engineering agricultural landscapes.010-0302-8 EDITORIAL Engineering the global ecosystemtale about human explorers engineering the ecosystem of Mars

  16. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  17. Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Rexford, NY)

    2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

  18. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page C.1 6/20/2011 Appendix C: Vocabulary The following cell or module Global Irradiance (GHI) Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface Direct Normal

  19. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg PV System Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    · Batteries required if (1) load profile solar radiation profile and (2) to mitigate effect of variability · PV System components: ­ PV Modules ­ Batteries ­ Power Conditioning ­ Loads ­ Balance of systems #12

  20. Globalization: Ecological Consequences of Global-Scale Connectivity in People,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    11 Globalization: Ecological Consequences of Global-Scale Connectivity in People, Resources of the global mineral aerosol load (Tanaka & Chiba, 2006). #12;The Systemic Dimension of Globalization212 of Agriculture ­ Agricultural Research Service, Las Cruces, New Mexico USA 1. Introduction Globalization

  1. global warming's six americas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Energy Sources 17 Subsidies for Fossil Fuel and Renewable Energy Industries 18 Support for a Carbon Tax and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming 8 The Alarmed 9 The Concerned 10 The Cautious 11 the spring and fall of 2012. Perceived Benefits and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming

  2. Global Change Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL

  3. Global Development Our Responsibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of expertise cover urgent global issues such as food production, energy supply, climate change, biodiversity e ort to address urgent global issues particularly a ecting developing countries e.g. climate change of Communication, 2012 · Project Leader: Karin Nilsson · Graphic Design: Viktor Wrange & Michael Kvick Cover Photo

  4. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    (millionsofsquarekilometers) 30 20 10 MELTING OF GREENLAND ICE CAP Satellite determination of maximum extent of glacial melt Complete melt of the Greenland ice sheet would raise the level of the global ocean 23 feet. ASAN Steffen IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al

  5. Global biosurveillance: enabling science and technology. Workshop background and motivation: international scientific engagement for global security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Helen H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Through discussion the conference aims to: (1) Identify core components of a comprehensive global biosurveillance capability; (2) Determine the scientific and technical bases to support such a program; (3) Explore the improvement in biosurveillance to enhance regional and global disease outbreak prediction; (4) Recommend an engagement approach to establishing an effective international community and regional or global network; (5) Propose implementation strategies and the measures of effectiveness; and (6) Identify the challenges that must be overcome in the next 3-5 years in order to establish an initial global biosurveillance capability that will have significant positive impact on BioNP as well as public health and/or agriculture. There is also a look back at the First Biothreat Nonproliferation Conference from December 2007. Whereas the first conference was an opportunity for problem solving to enhance and identify new paradigms for biothreat nonproliferation, this conference is moving towards integrated comprehensive global biosurveillance. Main reasons for global biosurveillance are: (1) Rapid assessment of unusual disease outbreak; (2) Early warning of emerging, re-emerging and engineered biothreat enabling reduced morbidity and mortality; (3) Enhanced crop and livestock management; (4) Increase understanding of host-pathogen interactions and epidemiology; (5) Enhanced international transparency for infectious disease research supporting BWC goals; and (6) Greater sharing of technology and knowledge to improve global health.

  6. Core-Collapse Supernovae Induced by Anisotropic Neutrino Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuko Motizuki; Hideki Madokoro; Tetsuya Shimizu

    2004-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the important role of anisotropic neutrino radiation on the mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions. Through a new parameter study with a fixed radiation field of neutrinos, we show that prolate explosions caused by globally anisotropic neutrino radiation is the most effective mechanism of increasing the explosion energy when the total neutrino luminosity is given. This is suggestive of the fact that the expanding materials of SN 1987A has a prolate geometry.

  7. Mathematical Extension in Event-B through the Rodin Theory Component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    . The theory component will also support the definition of rewrite rules and inference rules to be used (global to the theory), and an arbitrary number of definitions and rules: theory name type parameters T1Mathematical Extension in Event-B through the Rodin Theory Component Michael Butler, Issam Maamria

  8. Erosion Damage of Nearby Plasma-Facing Components during a Disruption on the Divertor Plate*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Erosion Damage of Nearby Plasma-Facing Components during a Disruption on the Divertor Plate* A those of the United States Governmentor any agency thereof. #12;Erosion Damage of Nearby Plasma radiation emitted by heating of the vapor cloud. This radiation energy can cause serious erosion damage

  9. Spallation Neutron Source Radiation Shielding Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.; Johnston, J.O.; Lillie, R.A.; McNeilly, G.S.; Santoro, R.T.

    1999-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes results of Spallation Neutron Source calculations to estimate radiation hazards and shielding requirements for activated Mercury, target components, target cooling water, and {sup 7}Be plateout. Dose rates in the accelerator tunnel from activation of magnets and concrete were investigated. The impact of gaps and other streaming paths on the radiation environment inside the test cell during operation and after shutdown were also assessed.

  10. Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

  11. Ceramic Component Development Process Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, D.; Sambasivan, S.; Kuehmann, C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Basic Industrial Research Lab.; Faber, K. [Northwestern University, MEAS Materials Science & Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of ceramic components and coatings is critical to the demonstration of advanced fossil energy systems. Ceramic components and coating will play critical role in hot-gas filtration, high- temperature heat exchangers, thermal barrier coatings, and the hot- section of turbines. Continuous-fiber composites (CFCC) are expected to play an increasing role in these applications. This program encompassed five technical areas related to ceramic component development for fossil energy systems.

  12. Durability of ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Accomplishments (continued) * Determine the mechanical properties of airfoils from TiAl turbo wheel. * Provide "real" component database for verification of design and life...

  13. Impacts of a New Solar Radiation Parameterization on the CPTEC AGCM Climatological Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Henrique

    Impacts of a New Solar Radiation Parameterization on the CPTEC AGCM Climatological Features H. M. J with a new solar radiation scheme are used. There is an 8% increase in the annual mean global average atmo%), which were not considered in the operational solar radiation scheme. Under clear-sky conditions

  14. Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks Christophe prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE ~ 21 t or at day d and year y d H0 Extraterrestrial solar radiation coefficient for day d [MJ/m²] xt, xd,y Time

  15. Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric aerosol forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric, the positive trend is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear-sky global solar radiation ratio of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption

  16. VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola Department of Physics ra- diation. This article examines at the variability of beam and global solar radiation over short solar radiation values with ground-based data. 1. INTRODUCTION It is difficult to evaluate solar

  17. Evaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, Pincus

    , and net cloud radiative effect, projected cloud fraction, and surface precipitation rate) over the globalEvaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models] This paper describes a set of metrics for evaluating the simulation of clouds, radiation, and precipitation

  18. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developoilfields. ” China Daily (27 August 2005) http://David and Bi Jianhai. “China’s Global Hunt for Energy. ”

  19. Global Cool Cities Alliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

  20. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

  1. Global warming elucidated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

  2. Systems integration for global sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Le, A. Z. Khan, Improving integration for integrated coastal347 ISSUE 6225 Systems integration for global sustainabilitySUSTAINABILITY Systems integration for global sustainability

  3. Global climatic catastrophes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budyko, M.I.; Golitsyn, G.S.; Izrael, A

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work inquires into global climatic catastrophes of the past, presenting data not easily available outside of the Socialist Countries, and applies these results to the study of future climatic developments, especially as they threaten in case of Nuclear Warfare - Nuclear Winter. The authors discuss probable after effects from the Soviet point of view on the basis of research, stressing the need to avoid all conflict which might lead to the next and final Global Climatic Catastrophy.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model. The land ice component is responsible for simulating the evolution of the Greenland and Antarctic ... Sandia, the Atlantic Council, and NM Water Resource Research...

  5. Bio-inspired optical components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walish, Joseph John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guiding electro-magnetic radiation is fundamental to optics. Lenses, mirrors, and photonic crystals all accomplish this task by different routes. Understanding the interaction of light with materials is fundamental to ...

  6. Conductivity Recovery from One Component of the Current Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Montalto

    2014-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove global injectivity and H\\"older stability in the reconstruction of an isotopic conductivity in the electrostatic approximation of Maxwell's equations, from the information of one voltage at the boundary and one (well chosen) component of the current density. We study the full and partial data problem. We work under the assumption that the voltage potential has no critical points inside the domain.

  7. Standards for Power Electronic Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standards for Power Electronic Components and Systems EPE 14 ECCE Europe Dr Peter R. Wilson #12;Session Outline · "Standards for Power Electronic Components and Systems" ­ Peter Wilson, IEEE PELS Electronics ­ where next? · Wide Band Gap Devices ­ SiC, GaN etc... · Transformers (ETTT) · Power Modules

  8. RADIATIVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, Thomas G., E-mail: moran@grace.nascom.nasa.gov [Physics Department, Catholic University of America, 200 Hannan Hall, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of solar visible and infrared radiation on electrons in the Sun's atmosphere using a Monte Carlo simulation of the wave-particle interaction and conclude that sunlight provides at least 40% and possibly all of the power required to heat the corona, with the exception of dense magnetic flux loops. The simulation uses a radiation waveform comprising 100 frequency components spanning the solar blackbody spectrum. Coronal electrons are heated in a stochastic manner by low coherence solar electromagnetic radiation. The wave 'coherence time' and 'coherence volume' for each component is determined from optical theory. The low coherence of solar radiation allows moving electrons to gain energy from the chaotic wave field which imparts multiple random velocity 'kicks' to these particles causing their velocity distribution to broaden or heat. Monte Carlo simulations of broadband solar radiative heating on ensembles of 1000 electrons show heating at per particle levels of 4.0 x 10{sup -21} to 4.0 x 10{sup -20} W, as compared with non-loop radiative loss rates of {approx}1 x 10{sup -20} W per electron. Since radiative losses comprise nearly all of the power losses in the corona, sunlight alone can explain the elevated temperatures in this region. The volume electron heating rate is proportional to density, and protons are assumed to be heated either by plasma waves or through collisions with electrons.

  9. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  10. The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), UA Huntsville (United States); Space Radiation Analysis Group, NASA Johnson Space Center (United States)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

  11. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  12. Modeling fabrication of nuclear components: An integrative approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hench, K.W.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the general downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex has presented challenges for Los Alamos. One is to design an optimized fabrication facility to manufacture nuclear weapon primary components in an environment of intense regulation and shrinking budgets. This dissertation presents an integrative two-stage approach to modeling the casting operation for fabrication of nuclear weapon primary components. The first stage optimizes personnel radiation exposure for the casting operation layout by modeling the operation as a facility layout problem formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. The solution procedure uses an evolutionary heuristic technique. The best solutions to the layout problem are used as input to the second stage - a simulation model that assesses the impact of competing layouts on operational performance. The focus of the simulation model is to determine the layout that minimizes personnel radiation exposures and nuclear material movement, and maximizes the utilization of capacity for finished units.

  13. Estimate of the global distribution of stratiform supercooled liquid water clouds using the LITE lidar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    them to generally have a greater effect on the net radiative fluxes than any ice clouds in the profileEstimate of the global distribution of stratiform supercooled liquid water clouds using the LITE layers that have a much larger radiative impact than ice clouds of the same water content because

  14. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Ronald P. (Peters Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  15. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koller, Josef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tokar, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Yue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friedel, Reiner H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  16. Computer modeling of the global warming effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, W.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

  17. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications.

  18. High Heat Flux Components Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitley, J.B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose is the development of the technologies necessary to design, build and operate high heat flux components such as actively cooled limiters, divertor collector plates, R.F. antennas, mirror end cells, mirror halo collectors, direct convertor collectors, and neutral beam dumps. These components require an integrated design that considers the plasma-materials interaction (PMI) issues, heat removal problems and materials issues (including possible low Z coatings and claddings). As a general definition, high heat flux components see heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 100 MW/m/sup 2/. Suitable materials include copper and copper alloys.

  19. GLOBAL LEADERSHIP PROGRAM MISSION STATEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saidak, Filip

    GLOBAL LEADERSHIP PROGRAM MISSION STATEMENT The Global Leadership Program at UNCG will afford. Leadership, citizenship and cross-cultural understanding have taken on new meanings and have become essential for the successful citizen of the new globalized world. The Global Leadership Program (GLP) is open to all domestic

  20. Original article Predicted global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Predicted global warming and Douglas-fir chilling requirements DD McCreary1 DP to predicted global warming. Douglas-fir / chilling / global warming / bud burst / reforestation Résumé offer evidence that mean global warming of 3-4 °C could occur within the next century, particularly

  1. Solar Radiation Modeling and Measurements for Renewable Energy Applications: Data and Model Quality; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software and for outdoor pyranometer calibrations is outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data.

  2. environmental management radiation protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    EHS environmental management biosafety radiation protection industrial hygiene safety Working: Biosafety, Environmental Management, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection and Safety. Each specialized Management Program, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection Program, and the Safety Program. (http

  3. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (NewSons, Inc. from "Radiation Detection and Measurement," G. F.

  4. A Radiation Tolerant Phase Locked Loop Design for Digital Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly to the chip level Soft Error Rate (SER). The on-chip Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is particularly vulnerable to radiation strikes. In this thesis, we present a radiation hardened PLL design. Each of the components of this design-the voltage controlled...

  5. Durability of ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Tensile creep database of commercial TiAl alloys was generated for probabilistic turbo rotor component design and life prediction Daido HIP TiAl Howmet TiAl 16 Managed by...

  6. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  7. Improving the Water Component of an Agricultural Climate Change Assessment : Issues from the Standpoint of Agricultural Economists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Improving the Water Component of an Agricultural Climate Change Assessment : Issues from The National Global Climate Change Research Program is supporting appraisals of water and agriculture among assessment. Key Terms; Economics, Climate Change Assessment, Agriculture, Irrigation, Water use tradeoffs

  8. LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON FUSION MAGNET COMPONENTS Harald W. Weber Vienna Stabilizer Insulation Conclusions ESS, 4th High Power Targetry Workshop, Malmö 5 May 2011 #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS Overview: ITER 300-500 s INTRODUCTION #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS ITER Magnet System (5 K / 6.5 K

  9. Global Scale Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asphaug, Erik; Jutzi, Martin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global scale impacts modify the physical or thermal state of a substantial fraction of a target asteroid. Specific effects include accretion, family formation, reshaping, mixing and layering, shock and frictional heating, fragmentation, material compaction, dilatation, stripping of mantle and crust, and seismic degradation. Deciphering the complicated record of global scale impacts, in asteroids and meteorites, will lead us to understand the original planet-forming process and its resultant populations, and their evolution in time as collisions became faster and fewer. We provide a brief overview of these ideas, and an introduction to models.

  10. Courses on Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

  11. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  12. Radiation Control (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

  13. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSINTERNATIONAL RELATIONSINTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (GLOBAL BUSINESS)(GLOBAL BUSINESS)(GLOBAL BUSINESS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Anna I.

    INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSINTERNATIONAL RELATIONSINTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (GLOBAL BUSINESS)(GLOBAL BUSINESS)(GLOBAL BUSINESS) Future leaders in business, government, and law need to understand how global, and internship opportunities, it is an ideal major for those interested in entering the realms of business

  14. A Case Study of Global Perspective Change From Selected Study Abroad Program Participation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cockerell, Lauren

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examined selected components of faculty-led study abroad programs and determined students’ changes in global perspectives after participating in faculty-led study abroad programs. A census of the population of interest (N=19), included...

  15. Global Compact for Higher Education Institutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Compact for Higher Education Institutions Communicating on Progress for Université Laval Guide to the United Nations Global Compact for Higher Education Institutions: Implementing the Global to the United Nations Global Compact for Higher Education Institutions: Implementing the Global Compact

  16. Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan M. Johnson

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.

  17. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors : comparison of long-term health effects and costs between proton therapy and IMRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, An T. (An Thien)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation therapy is an important component of pediatric brain tumor treatment. However, radiation-induced damage can lead to adverse long-term health effects. Proton therapy has the ability to reduce the dose delivered ...

  18. Plumbing the Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    ´bec a` Montre´al, Station Centre-Ville, P.O. Box 8888Montreal, H3C 3P8, Canada; 3 Department of Natural and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyv. 20, 75 236 Uppsala, Sweden; 5 United components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas

  19. GLOBAL PATTERN OF MESOSCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexey

    GLOBAL PATTERN OF MESOSCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHT AND ITS DYNAMICAL CAUSES Alexey separate the mesoscale variability of sea surface heights into its spatial and temporal components of mesoscale variability in different areas to dynamical causes. Major portion of it can be explained

  20. Global Vision Study Abroad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Finding a Global Vision Study Abroad Students Visit South Africa Philosophy in the Community arts sculpture of South Africa's late pop diva Brenda Fassie. More on Page 4 #12;At every post energy and passion for his work. At the same time, I would also like to express my sincere gratitude

  1. WORKPLACE GUIDES GLOBAL WORKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roelleke, Thomas

    of Stonewall good practice publications ­ profiles some of the employers paving the way for gay staff to work do arise. This guide provides clear, practical tips on how gay employees can access internationalWORKPLACE GUIDES GLOBAL WORKING Supporting lesbian, gay and bisexual staff on overseas assignments

  2. Global Health Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Ophir

    Bay Area Global Health Seminar Series Monday, January 27, 2014 2:30pm ­ 4:00pm (Reception to follow at the Center for Health Policy and the Woods Institute for the Environment. He studies how economic, political, and natural environments affect population health in developing countries using a mix of experimental

  3. Global Climate & Catastrophic Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Global Climate & Catastrophic Risk Forum 2012 A Joint Program with LA RIMS Education Day Rethinking Catastrophic Risk in Risk Management: Earthquake-Related Challenges Featuring: Keynote Speaker Dr. Frank Beuthin, Willis Group Holdings Plc. Yohei Miyamoto, Aon Risk Solutions Curtis deVera, Marsh

  4. Method for protection of lithographic components from particle contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Lafayette, CA)

    2001-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that employs thermophoresis to protect lithographic surfaces from particle deposition and operates in an environment where the pressure is substantially constant and can be sub-atmospheric. The system (thermophoretic pellicle) comprises an enclosure that surrounds a lithographic component whose surface is being protected from particle deposition. The enclosure is provided with means for introducing a flow of gas into the chamber and at least one aperture that provides for access to the lithographic surface for the entry and exit of a beam of radiation, for example, and further controls gas flow into a surrounding low pressure environment such that a higher pressure is maintained within the enclosure and over the surface being protected. The lithographic component can be heated or, alternatively the walls of the enclosure can be cooled to establish a temperature gradient between the surface of the lithographic component and the walls of the enclosure, thereby enabling the thermophoretic force that resists particle deposition.

  5. Failure Analysis of Ceramic Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.W. Morris

    2000-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramics are being considered for a wide range of structural applications due to their low density and their ability to retain strength at high temperatures. The inherent brittleness of monolithic ceramics requires a departure from the deterministic design philosophy utilized to analyze metallic structural components. The design program ''Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life'' (CARES/LIFE) developed by NASA Lewis Research Center uses a probabilistic approach to predict the reliability of monolithic components under operational loading. The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the theories used by CARES/LIFE to predict the reliability of ceramic components and to assess the ability of CARES/LIFE to accurately predict the fast fracture behavior of monolithic ceramic components. A finite element analysis was performed to determine the temperature and stress distribution of a silicon carbide O-ring under diametral compression. The results of the finite element analysis were supplied as input into CARES/LIFE to determine the fast fracture reliability of the O-ring. Statistical material strength parameters were calculated from four-point flexure bar test data. The predicted reliability showed excellent correlation with O-ring compression test data indicating that the CARES/LIFE program can be used to predict the reliability of ceramic components subjected to complicated stress states using material properties determined from simple uniaxial tensile tests.

  6. Primary Components of Binomial Ideals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eser, Zekiye

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2.4 A band graph with an infinite component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.5 The band graph G6pMq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.6 Slice graphs for IpBq #16; xx4z #1; y4, x7z #1; y7y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2... decomposition in charpkq #16; 0 and the primary components are Ii1,...,ir . The following example illustrates how the operations defined above work. All the computations are performed using the computer algebra system Singular, [16]. Example 1.45. Let D #16; #20...

  7. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  8. Gravitational radiation from dynamical black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward

    2005-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation is identified for uniformly expanding flows of the Hawking mass-energy. It appears in an energy conservation law expressing the change in mass due to the energy densities of matter and gravitational radiation, with respect to a Killing-like vector encoding a preferred flow of time outside a black hole. In a spin-coefficient formulation, the components of the effective energy tensor can be understood as the energy densities of ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal gravitational radiation. By anchoring the flow to the trapping horizon of a black hole in a given sequence of spatial hypersurfaces, there is a locally unique flow and a measure of gravitational radiation in the strong-field regime.

  9. Estimation of methane and carbon dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate global ...

  10. Multi-Decadal Solar Radiation Trends in the United States and Germany and Direct Tropospheric Aerosol Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multi-Decadal Solar Radiation Trends in the United States and Germany and Direct Tropospheric.S. the strengthening is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear sky global solar radiation of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption and declined light

  11. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  12. Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    Hot Topics Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change Green Building Hydraulic Fracturing Nuclear to global warming. The UKgovernment has just announced it is investing $1 billion in their development Green Living Industry Regulation Remediation Research and Technology Sustainability Waste Water Products

  13. Updated July 2014 PROGRAM COMPONENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantaleone, Jim

    with a Student Affairs administrator and meet at least three times per semester. Students learn from mentors what in various activities. Learning occurs in different ways and through different avenues, therefore it is important to complete all of the following components: RETREATS are all day interactive activities focused

  14. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  15. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

  16. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  17. Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

  18. 2, 921942, 2002 Global ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone forecasting H. J. Eskes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geophysical Society 2002 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Global ozone forecasting based on ERS-2 July 2002 Correspondence to: H. J. Eskes (eskes@knmi.nl) 921 #12;ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone

  19. Globalization, Labor, Transformation of Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in an Increasingly Global Economy Edited by Jonathan H. Westover THE ORGANISATION #12;First published in Australia in an increasingly global economy Jonathan H. Westover (editor) Bibliography. 978 1 86335 660 2 (pbk.) 978 1 86335 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Economic Globalization and Caribbean Economies, Syed H. Akhter, Paul Pounder

  20. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter about it.But nobody does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we

  1. Global Warming: Connecting the Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: Connecting the Dots from Causes to Solutions* Jim Hansen 26 February 2007 National://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/worldwatch_nov2006.pdf) 5. Communicating dangers and opportunities in global warming, Amer-16, 2006. (http://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/docs/2006/2006_Hansen.pdf) 8. Global warming: Connecting the dots from

  2. 4, 10591092, 2007 Global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger et al. Title Page Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger, B. Gabrielle, E. Larmanou, P. Laville Correspondence to: S. Lehuger (simon.lehuger@grignon.inra.fr) 1059 #12;BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming

  3. Metrology of reflection optics for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent years have seen an almost explosive growth in the number of beam lines on new and existing synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world. The need for optical components to utilize the unique characteristics of synchrotron radiation has increased accordingly. Unfortunately, the technology to manufacture and measure the large, smooth, exotic optical surfaces required to focus and steer the synchrotron radiation beam has not progressed as rapidly as the operational demands on these components. Most companies do not wish to become involved with a project that requires producing a single, very expensive, aspheric optic with surface roughness and figure tolerances that are beyond their capabilities to measure. This paper will review some of the experiences of the National Synchrotron Light Source in procuring grazing incidence optical components over the past several years. We will review the specification process - how it is related to the function of the optic, and how it relates to the metrology available during the manufacturing process and after delivery to the user's laboratory. We will also discuss practical aspects of our experience with new technologies, such as single point diamond turning of metal mirrors and the use of SiC as a mirror material. Recent advances in metrology instrumentation have the potential to move the measurement of surface figure and finish from the research laboratory into the optical shop, which should stimulate growth and interest in the manufacturing of optics to meet the needs of the synchrotron radiation user community.

  4. Visualizing Global Inequality on the Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Ian; Lodha, S K; Crow, Ben D; Fulfrost, Brian

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Mapping Global Inequality, University of California,Visualizing Global Inequality on the Web Ian Myers 1 ,for mapping global inequality by (i) creating a simple user

  5. Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ann E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

  6. Global Warming, endogenous risk and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony C.; Narain, Urvashi

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economics of global warming, Institute for InternationalEconomic Models of Global Warming, Cambridge, Mass. MITstochastic losses from global warming, Risk Analysis 16(2):

  7. Radiative heat transfer in a parallelogram shaped cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dez, V Le

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exact analytical description of the internal radiative field inside an emitting-absorbing gray semi-transparent medium enclosed in a two-dimensional parallelogram cavity is proposed. The expressions of the incident radiation and the radiative flux field are angularly and spatially discretized with a double Gauss quadrature, and the temperature field is obtained by using an iterative process. Some numerical solutions are tabulated and graphically presented as the benchmark solutions. Temperature and two components of the radiative flux are finally sketched on the whole domain. It is shown that the proposed method gives perfectly smooth results.

  8. SOFA Component Revision Identification 1 Premysl Brada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOFA Component Revision Identification 1 Premysl Brada Department of Computer Science versions, component revision numbers and change indications are derived as a well- founded version called "component revisions" and the basic fine-grained "type revisions", can subsequently be used

  9. Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Plan to complete the experiential component as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology to complete the experiential component for the Nanotechnology Concentration by: Research Experience in Lab

  10. Global nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, J.A.; Monlove, H.O.; Goulding, C.A.; Martinez, B.J.; Coulter, C.A.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project provided a detailed systems design for advanced integrated facility monitoring and identified the components and enabling technologies required to facilitate the development of the monitoring system of the future.

  11. Sandia Energy » Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitche Home About npitche This authorEnergy &EC, DHS's

  12. Spectrometer for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid stream and method for using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, Michael D. (Castle Rock, CO); Stedman, Donald H. (Englewood, CO); Ebner, Timothy G. (Westminster, CO); Burkhardt, Mark R. (Englewood, CO)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid stream. Preferably, the fluid stream is an in situ gas stream, such as a fossil fuel fired flue gas in a smoke stack. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The need for a reference intensity is eliminated.

  13. Spectrometer for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid stream and method for using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, M.D.; Stedman, D.H.; Ebner, T.G.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    1991-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method are described for measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid stream. Preferably, the fluid stream is an in-situ gas stream, such as a fossil fuel fired flue gas in a smoke stack. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The need for a reference intensity is eliminated. 15 figures.

  14. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  15. Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our History NNSA Timeline Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled Uranium Weapons Components Successfully...

  16. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Glenn J. (Lynchburg, VA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  17. Processing of Activated Core Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friske, A.; Gestermann, G.; Finkbeiner, R.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Used activated components from the core of a NPP like control elements, water channels from a BWR, and others like in-core measurement devices need to be processed into waste forms suitable for interim storage, and for the final waste repository. Processing of the activated materials can be undertaken by underwater cutting and packaging or by cutting and high-pressure compaction in a hot cell. A hot cell is available in Germany as a joint investment between GNS and the Karlsruhe Research Center at the latter's site. Special transport equipment is available to transport the components ''as-is'' to the hot cell. Newly designed underwater processing equipment has been designed, constructed, and operated for the special application of NPP decommissioning. This equipment integrates an underwater cutting device with an 80 ton force underwater in-drum compactor.

  18. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10], C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12], C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14], C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16] and C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, Diane J.

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10]), dodecafluoropentane (C[subscript ...

  19. Stack Components Nancy L. Garland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /manufacturing · Durability · Electrode performance · Thermal and water management #12;Stack Component Targets 500 @ 0.75 VmA/cm2Performance on O2 400 @ 0.8 VmA/cm2Performance on H2 10$/kWCostMEA 5000hoursDurability 1000ppm-) · In collaboration with LANL (K. Weisbrod) and NREL (H. Wang) · Initial testing at General Motors indicates nitrided

  20. Scattering of radiation in collisionless dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S. [Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44 (Sweden)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves in collisionless dusty plasmas is studied in the framework of a multi-component kinetic model. The investigation focuses on the spectral distribution of the scattered radiation. Pronounced dust signatures are identified in the coherent spectrum due to scattering from the shielding cloud around the dust grains, dust acoustic waves, and dust-ion acoustic waves. The magnitude and shape of the scattered signal near these spectral regions are determined with the aid of analytical expressions and its dependence on the dust parameters is investigated. The use of radiation scattering as a potential diagnostic tool for dust detection is discussed.

  1. Researchers Collaborate with Global Good To Improve Malaria Test | GE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s Overview ExperimentalAdministration PaulGlobal

  2. A study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite data sets of aerosol and cloud parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    regions consistent with the global mean statistics. However, the effective cloud particle radius showedA study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite data sets of aerosol between aerosol and cloud parameters derived from satellite remote sensing for evaluating the radiative

  3. CloudSat Overview CloudSat will provide, from space, the first global survey of cloud profiles and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the radiative and water budgets of clouds are broadly referred to as indirect aerosol effects. The aerosol processes and their accumulated effects on the global scale. 2. Mission Description CloudSat is plannedCloudSat Overview CloudSat will provide, from space, the first global survey of cloud profiles

  4. Dissecting Soft Radiation with Factorization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iain W. Stewart; Frank J. Tackmann; Wouter J. Waalewijn

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It includes soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization-violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in $Z$+jet and $H$+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects, and we use a QCD factorization theorem to predict its dependence on the jet radius $R$, jet $p_T$, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. We prove that the nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of $R$, and the linear $R$ term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event, but this degeneracy is broken by dependence on the jet $p_T$. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for $gg\\to Hg$ and $gq\\to Zq$, but a negative interference contribution for $q\\bar q\\to Z g$. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

  5. Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Philip; Z. Wang; M.A. Berrill; M. Birke; M. Pernice

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton–Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  6. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  7. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    George Crabtree

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  8. Global Threat Reduction Initiative

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FY 2011Talley,GENIIFY14 BudgetHollettGive UsDepartment ofGlobal

  9. Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford ..................................................................................................................... 17 The Basic Principles of Radiation Protection........................................................... 17 Protection against Radiation Exposure

  10. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shindell, Drew; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Chin, Mian; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, Leon; Mahowald, N. M.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W. J.; Conley, Andrew; Dalsoren, S.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, Xiaohong; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lo, Fiona

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980-2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects). The models’ all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range) ?0.26Wm?2; ?0.06 to ?0.49Wm?2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of ?0.42Wm?2; ?0.33 to ?0.50Wm?2, including adjustment for missing aerosol components in some models. Many ACCMIP and CMIP5 models appear to produce substantially smaller aerosol RF than this best estimate. Climate feedbacks contribute substantially (35 to ?58 %) to modeled historical aerosol RF. The 1850 to 2000 aerosol ERF is ?1.17Wm?2; ?0.71 to ?1.44Wm?2. Thus adjustments, including clouds, typically cause greater forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global aerosol RF peaks in most models around 1980, declining thereafter with only weak sensitivity to the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP). One model, however, projects approximately stable RF levels, while two show increasingly negative RF due to nitrate (not included in most models). Aerosol ERF, in contrast, becomes more negative during 1980 to 2000. During this period, increased Asian emissions appear to have a larger impact on aerosol ERF than European and North American decreases due to their being upwind of the large, relatively pristine Pacific Ocean. There is no clear relationship between historical aerosol ERF and climate sensitivity in the CMIP5 subset of ACCMIP models. In the ACCMIP/CMIP5 models, historical aerosol ERF of about ?0.8 to ?1.5Wm?2 is most consistent with observed historical warming. Aerosol ERF masks a large portion of greenhouse forcing during the late 20th and early 21st century at the global scale. Regionally, aerosol ERF is so large that net forcing is negative over most industrialized and biomass burning regions through 1980, but remains strongly negative only over east and southeast Asia by 2000. Net forcing is strongly positive by 1980 over most deserts, the Arctic, Australia, and most tropical oceans. Both the magnitude of and area covered by positive forcing expand steadily thereafter.

  11. The DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three-layered stratified media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for the solution in the case of horizontal electric dipole (HED) radiation source and the single-component HertzThe DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three- ponents of the static (DC) fields of horizontal electric dipoles ( HEDs) and vertical electric dipoles

  12. Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

  13. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  14. Ethics in collaborative global health researchhealth research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    in developing countries ­Global health inequalities­Global health inequalities ­Disproportionate burden

  15. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich; Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  16. Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data 1 . Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Quingyuan

    VOLUME 7 Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data 1 indicate the magnitude ofaerosol effects on clouds. A method, based on a complete radiative transfer model the radiative effects ofwater vapor and clouds and the hydrological cycle, and create several important cloud

  17. Radiation protection at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  18. A Global Optimisation Toolbox for Massively Parallel Engineering Optimisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biscani, Francesco; Yam, Chit Hong

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A software platform for global optimisation, called PaGMO, has been developed within the Advanced Concepts Team (ACT) at the European Space Agency, and was recently released as an open-source project. PaGMO is built to tackle high-dimensional global optimisation problems, and it has been successfully used to find solutions to real-life engineering problems among which the preliminary design of interplanetary spacecraft trajectories - both chemical (including multiple flybys and deep-space maneuvers) and low-thrust (limited, at the moment, to single phase trajectories), the inverse design of nano-structured radiators and the design of non-reactive controllers for planetary rovers. Featuring an arsenal of global and local optimisation algorithms (including genetic algorithms, differential evolution, simulated annealing, particle swarm optimisation, compass search, improved harmony search, and various interfaces to libraries for local optimisation such as SNOPT, IPOPT, GSL and NLopt), PaGMO is at its core a C++ ...

  19. Sandia Energy » Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitche Home About npitche This authorEnergy &EC, DHS's S&T

  20. RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2002 D. Delacroix* J. P. Guerre** P. Leblanc'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

  1. Radiation Processing -an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

  2. Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Rokjin

    Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during March 2002 Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb Model (CRM) of Community Climate Model 3 and the output of the fifth generation of meso-scale model (MM5 in the global climate system by changing atmospheric radiation balance (Tegen and Fung, 1994; Andreae, 1996; Li

  3. Global Studies Course List Fall 2010 (2111) COURSE LIST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    2111-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ...........................................................................5 2. Global Economy and Global Governance .................................................9 3 from one of six Global Concentrations (Sustainable Development; Global Economy and Global GovernanceGlobal Studies Course List ­ Fall 2010 (2111) Page 1 COURSE LIST Fall 2010 (2111) Global Studies

  4. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  5. Montena Components | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu anMicrogreen PolymersModularMontana-DakotaMontena Components

  6. Analysis and visualization of global magnetospheric processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winske, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mozer, F.S.; Roth, I. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Physics Dept.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project is to develop new computational and visualization tools to analyze particle dynamics in the Earth`s magnetosphere. These tools allow the construction of a global picture of particle fluxes, which requires only a small number of in situ spacecraft measurements as input parameters. The methods developed in this project have led to a better understanding of particle dynamics in the Earth`s magnetotail in the presence of turbulent wave fields. They have also been used to demonstrate how large electromagnetic pulses in the solar wind can interact with the magnetosphere to increase the population of energetic particles and even form new radiation belts.

  7. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  8. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  9. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  10. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Emily B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

  11. Sensitivity of Core-Collapse Supernovae to Neutrino Luminosity in Cases of Anisotropic Neutrino Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuko Motizuki; Hideki Madokoro; Tetsuya Shimizu

    2003-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the importance of anisotropic neutrino radiation in the mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions. Through a new parameter study with a fixed radiation field of neutrinos, we show that global anisotropy of the neutrino radiation is the most effective mechanism of increasing the explosion energy when the total neutrino luminosity is given. We discuss the reason why, and demonstrate how sensitively the success of a supernova explosion depends on the neutrino luminosity.

  12. Environmental Regulation, Globalization, and Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashford, Nicholas

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This essay explores the complex relationship between environmental regulation, innovation, and sustainable development within the context of an increasingly globalizing economy. It will be argued that industrial policy, ...

  13. Machine Learning for Global Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    schoen,,,

    Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor). Machine Learning for Global Optimization. A. Cassioli?. · D. Di Lorenzo. ?. · M. Locatelli. ??. · F. Schoen.

  14. Global Optimization via Slack Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaac Siwale

    2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    London. England e-mail: ike_siwale@hotmail.com. Abstract. This paper presents a method for finding global optima to constrained nonlinear programs via slack ...

  15. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  16. Basin patterns of global sea level changes for 20042007 You-Soon Chang , Anthony J. Rosati, Gabriel A. Vecchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basin patterns of global sea level changes for 2004­2007 You-Soon Chang , Anthony J. Rosati (density-related) components. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite was launched

  17. Global Ocean Circulation Modeling with an Isopycnic Coordinate Model. Final Report for May 1, 1998 - April 30, 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleck, R.

    2004-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall aim of this project was to continue development of a global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) with the intent of turning it into a full-fledged oceanic component of an earth system model.

  18. Electric Dipole Radiation from Spinning Dust Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Draine; A. Lazarian

    1998-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the rotational excitation of small interstellar grains and the resulting electric dipole radiation from spinning dust. Attention is given to excitation and damping of rotation by: collisions with neutrals; collisions with ions; plasma drag; emission of infrared radiation; emission of microwave radiation; photoelectric emission; and formation of H_2 on the grain surface. We introduce dimensionless functions F and G which allow direct comparison of the contributions of different mechanisms to rotational drag and excitation. Emissivities are estimated for dust in different phases of the interstellar medium, including diffuse HI, warm HI, low-density photoionized gas, and cold molecular gas. Spinning dust grains can explain much, and perhaps all, of the 14-50 GHz background component recently observed in CBR studies. It should be possible to detect rotational emission from small grains by ground-based observations of molecular clouds.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE · GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy Today's report on deep efforts of independent experts from 15 countries to find national pathways to making economies based-zero emissions sometime in the second half of this century. This deep cut should occur in a growing world economy

  20. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  2. 2007 Radiation & Climate GRC ( July 29-August 3, 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Collins

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theme of the fifth Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate is 'Integrating multiscale measurements and models for key climate questions'. The meeting will feature lectures, posters, and discussion regarding these issues. The meeting will focus on insights from new types of satellite and in situ data and from new approaches to modeling processes in the climate system. The program on measurements will highlight syntheses of new satellite data on cloud, aerosols, and chemistry and syntheses of satellite and sub-orbital observations from field programs. The program on modeling will address both the evaluation of cloud-resolving and regional aerosol models using new types of measurements and the evidence for processes and physics missing from global models. The Conference will focus on two key climate questions. First, what factors govern the radiative interactions of clouds and aerosols with regional and global climate? Second, how well do we understand the interaction of radiation with land surfaces and with the cryosphere?

  3. The observable effects of a photospheric component on GRB's and XRF's prompt emission spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peér, A; Rees, Martin J; Pe'er, Asaf; M\\'esz\\'aros, Peter; Rees, Martin J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal radiative component is likely to accompany the first stages of the prompt emission of Gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) and X-ray flashes (XRF's). We analyze the effect of such a component on the observable spectrum, assuming that the observable effects are due to a dissipation process occurring below or near the thermal photosphere. We consider both the internal shock model and a 'slow heating' model as possible dissipation mechanisms. For comparable energy densities in the thermal and the leptonic component, the dominant emission mechanism is Compton scattering. This leads to a nearly flat energy spectrum (\

  4. Residual activation of accelerator components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhno, I.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to calculate residual activation of accelerator components is presented. A model for residual dose estimation for thick objects made of arbitrary composite materials for arbitrary irradiation and cooling times is employed in this study. A scaling procedure is described to apply the model to thin objects with linear dimensions less than a fraction of a nuclear interaction length. The scaling has been performed for various materials and corresponding factors have been determined for objects of certain shapes (slab, solid and hollow cylinder) that can serve as models for beam pipes, magnets and collimators. Both contact residual dose and dose attenuation in the air outside irradiated objects are considered. A relation between continuous and impulse irradiation is accounted for as well.

  5. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the Solar Radiation Monitoring LaboratoryH:PVKitComponents© TableH.1:ContentsofPVKitandpartsrequiredforcomponents Quantity Item Quantity Item 1 Solar panel 1

  6. Ann. For. Sci. 64 (2007) 899909; DOI: 10.1051/forest:2007072 Multiscale computation of solar radiation for predictive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Solar radiation is a fundamental component of ecological processes, but is poorly used at this scale due to the lack of available data. Here we present a GIS program allowing to calculate solar radiation as well and cloudiness data. Solar radiation measured from 88 meteorological stations used for validation indicated a R

  7. Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures with increasing external electric field, with the radiative component exhibiting weaker field dependence. © 2009 applied electric field in Ref. 12, the electric field dependent radiative recombination in particular has

  8. Global Calibration Claudio Albanese 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albanese, Claudio

    Global Calibration Claudio Albanese 1 September 13, 2009 Abstract Current technology advances calibration strategies. Although the industry is largely based on local calibration, we argue that global calibration is nowadays emerging as technically feasible and represents a useful complement to existing method

  9. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something

  10. GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;#12;CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME 4 VICE: INNOVATIVE AND WORLD-CLASS 18 CONTACT 26 CONTENTS 3GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;Queen THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELANDGLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME

  11. Radiation Testing of Electronics for the CMS Endcap Muon System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Bylsma; D. Cady; A. Celik; L. S. Durkin; J. Gilmore; J. Haley; V. Khotilovich; S. Lakdawala; J. Liu; M. Matveev; B. P. Padley; J. Roberts; J. Roe; A. Safonov; I. Suarez; D. Wood; I. Zawisza

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronics used in the data readout and triggering system for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator at CERN are exposed to high radiation levels. This radiation can cause permanent damage to the electronic circuitry, as well as temporary effects such as data corruption induced by Single Event Upsets. Once the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) accelerator upgrades are completed it will have five times higher instantaneous luminosity than LHC, allowing for detection of rare physics processes, new particles and interactions. Tests have been performed to determine the effects of radiation on the electronic components to be used for the Endcap Muon electronics project currently being designed for installation in the CMS experiment in 2013. During these tests the digital components on the test boards were operating with active data readout while being irradiated with 55 MeV protons. In reactor tests, components were exposed to 30 years equivalent levels of neutron radiation expected at the HL-LHC. The highest total ionizing dose (TID) for the muon system is expected at the inner-most portion of the CMS detector, with 8900 rad over ten years. Our results show that Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components selected for the new electronics will operate reliably in the CMS radiation environment.

  12. Forest biomes are major reserves for terrestrial carbon, and major components of global primary productivity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    that encompasses land-use change processes such as forest regrowth resulting from abandon- ment of agricultural & Hall 1998), the sink is thought to be largely in the world's forests, which are large reservoirs

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  14. Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

  15. Global versus Nuclear Starbursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francoise Combes

    2001-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The strongest starbursts are observed towards galaxy nuclei, or circumnuclear regions. However in interacting galaxies, star formation is also triggered in overlap regions far from nuclei, in spiral arms and sometimes in tidal tails. What is the relative importance of these starbursts? What kind of starformation is dominating, as a function of redshift? These different starbursts occur in different dynamical conditions (global and local): gravitational instabilities, density waves, radial flows, shear, cloud collisions, density accumulations, and they have been investigated with the help of numerical simulations. Gravitational instabilities are necessary to initiate star formation, but they are not sufficient; galactic disks are self-regulated through these instabilities to have their Toomre Q parameter of the order of 1, and thus this criterium is in practice unable to predict the onset of intense star formation. Super star clusters are a characteristic SF mode in starbursts, and might be due to the rapid formation of large gas complexes. Star formation can propagate radially inwards, due to gravity torques and gas inflow, but also outwards, due to superwinds, and energy outflows: both expanding or collapsing waves are observed in circumnuclear regions. Mergers are more efficient in forming stars at high redshift, because of larger gas content, and shorter dynamical times. The relation between nuclear starbursts and nuclear activity is based on the same fueling mechanisms, but also on reciprocal triggering and regulations.

  16. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM); Odinek, Judy G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  17. Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials Increasing numbers on the structural integrity of embedded micro- electronic components and assemblies. Improved knowledge and modeling methods are critical for the reliable use of electronic packages. In particular, since the advent

  18. Predicting problems caused by component upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCamant, Stephen

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a new, automatic technique to assess whether replacing a component of a software system by a purportedly compatible component may change the behavior of the system. The technique operates before ...

  19. Solar radiation intensity calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

  20. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  1. Outsourcing the Design of Structural Building Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swearingin, Adam V.

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    component design work stateside. vi 1 Introduction The outsourcing of structural building component design has recently become available to component manufacturers in the United States. These manufacturers of metal plate connected (MPC) wood roof... of the effectiveness of outsourcing as a means of fulfilling the design requirements of MPC wood trusses. Although 1 this report does not evaluate other structural building components (i.e., i- joists, engineered wood beams and wall panels), the analysis provided...

  2. Tools to Implement MPDV Component Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pena, M; Daykin, E; Emmit, R; Garza, A; Gibo, M; Hutchins, M; Perez, C; Teel, M

    2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide show presents work on photonic Doppler velocimetry multiplexing techniques, particularly as regards measurements on components.

  3. Tensor Principal Component Analysis via Convex Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Jiang

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 11, 2012 ... Keywords: Tensor; Principal Component Analysis; Low Rank; Nuclear Norm; Semidefinite Programming Relaxation. Category 1: Convex and ...

  4. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  5. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upton, NY 11973, USA Abstract Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) effects in bunch compressors are analyzed. Schemes for reducing the CSR effects are presented. 1 INTRODUCTION...

  6. Atomic Radiation (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

  7. Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

  8. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  9. LIRMM UM II Component based Software Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 LIRMM UM II Component based Software Architecture of Robot Controllers R. Passama, D. Andreu, C component approaches and robot control architectures. This methodology defines a process that guides architecture, useful for analysis and integration, and a dedicated component-based language, focusing

  10. Manufacturing complex silica aerogel target components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Defriend Obrey, Kimberly Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Espinoza, Brent F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feng, Shihai [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogel is a material used in numerous components in High Energy Density Physics targets. In the past these components were molded into the proper shapes. Artifacts left in the parts from the molding process, such as contour irregularities from shrinkage and density gradients caused by the skin, have caused LANL to pursue machining as a way to make the components.

  11. Principal Components Analysis for Binary Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seokho

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Formulations of Principal Components Analysis . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Generalization of Sparse Principal Components Analysis to Binary Variables... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3 Review of Estimation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Overview of Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 II SPARSE PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS FOR BI- NARY DATA...

  12. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  14. Resisting globalization- ATTAC in France: local discourses, global terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, Marie des Neiges

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The debate over the "globalization" process has been influenced by the emergence of social movements who deplore this process. This research focuses on the French social movement ATTAC (Action for a Tobin Tax for the Aid of Citizens...

  15. Contemporary evolution, allelic recycling, and adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Windsor E.

    Contemporary evolution, allelic recycling, and adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback within ten generations. Rare freshwater-adapted alleles have been recycled from freshwater to oceanic evolve very slowly led him to study artificial selection, natural selection's component mechanisms (e

  16. Specific Examples of Global Activities Environmental assessment in Azerbaijan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park works syner- gistically with the Office competitiveness, global energy security, global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park worksSpecific Examples of Global Activities · Environmental assessment in Azerbaijan · Study abroad

  17. Classical Helium Atom with Radiation Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Camelio; A. Carati; L. Galgani

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a classical model of Helium atom in which, in addition to the Coulomb forces, the radiation reaction forces are taken into account. This modification brings in the model a new qualitative feature of a global character. Indeed, as pointed out by Dirac, in any model of classical electrodynamics of point particles involving radiation reaction one has to eliminate, from the a priori conceivable solutions of the problem, those corresponding to the emission of an infinite amount of energy. We show that the Dirac prescription solves a problem of inconsistency plaguing all available models which neglect radiation reaction, namely, the fact that in all such models most initial data lead to a spontaneous breakdown of the atom. A further modification is that the system thus acquires a peculiar form of dissipation. In particular, this makes attractive an invariant manifold of special physical interest, the zero--dipole manifold, that corresponds to motions in which no energy is radiated away (in the dipole approximation). We finally study numerically the invariant measure naturally induced by the time--evolution on such a manifold, and this corresponds to studying the formation process of the atom. Indications are given that such a measure may be singular with respect to that of Lebesgue.

  18. A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

  19. Radiative heat transfer in anisotropic many-body systems: Tuning and enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikbakht, Moladad, E-mail: mnik@znu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan 45371-38791 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A general formalism for calculating the radiative heat transfer in many body systems with anisotropic component is presented. Our scheme extends the theory of radiative heat transfer in isotropic many body systems to anisotropic cases. In addition, the radiative heating of the particles by the thermal bath is taken into account in our formula. It is shown that the radiative heat exchange (HE) between anisotropic particles and their radiative cooling/heating (RCH) could be enhanced several order of magnitude than that of isotropic particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the HE and RCH can be tuned dramatically by particles relative orientation in many body systems.

  20. A global 86 GHz VLBI survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Lee; A. P. Lobanov; T. P. Krichbaum; A. Witzel; J. A. Zensus; M. Bremer; A. Greve; M. Grewing

    2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a large global VLBI(Very Long Baseline Interferometry) survey of compact radio sources at 86 GHz which started in October 2001. The main goal of the survey is to increase the total number of objects accessible for future 3mm-VLBI imaging by factors of 3-5. The survey data reach the baseline sensitivity of 0.1 Jy, and image sensitivity of better than 10 mJy/beam. To date, a total of 127 compact radio sources have been observed. The observations have yielded images for 109 sources, and only 6 sources have not been detected. Flux densities and sizes of core and jet components of all detected sources have been measured using Gaussian model fitting. From these measurements, brightness temperatures have been estimated, taking into account resolution limits of the data. Here, we compare the brightness temperatures of the cores and secondary jet components with similar estimates obtained from surveys at longer wavelengths (e.g. 15 GHz). This approach can be used to study questions related to mechanisms of initial jet acceleration (accelerating or decelerating sub-pc jets?) and jet composition (electron-positron or electron-proton plasma?).

  1. Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe R. (Provo, UT)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

  2. The China-in-Global Energy Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, T.

    The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors – including five ...

  3. The Private Regulation of Global Corporate Conduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is a major goal of the UN Global Compact as well as severalindustry codes. The UN Global Compact has more than 2,300exploit. For the UN, the Global Compact provides a vehicle

  4. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation doseCOLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 regulations of the Rules of the City of New York, Article 175, Radiation Control, there is a requirement

  5. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  6. Nonclassicality of Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars M. Johansen

    2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that thermal radiation of small occupation number is strongly nonclassical. This includes most forms of naturally occurring radiation. Nonclassicality can be observed as a negative weak value of a positive observable. It is related to negative values of the Margenau-Hill quasi-probability distribution.

  7. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  8. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  9. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  10. The Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global Inequality By Jeffrey D. Sachs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    27 The Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic

  11. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  12. Global Scratch Upgrade in Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates, Connection to PDSF October 29, 2013 The most used file system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)-global scratch-just got an upgrade. As...

  13. Global Environment Facility Evaluation Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfaff, Alex

    Global Environment Facility Evaluation Office PROTECTED AREAS AND AVOIDED DEFORESTATION #12;Protected Areas and Avoided Deforestation: An Econometric Evaluation - i - TABLE OF CONTENTS 1................................................................................4 3.3 ESTIMATED EFFECTS OF PROTECTED AREAS ON DEFORESTATION

  14. Global optimization in reduced space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsung, Achim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimization is a key activity in any engineering discipline. Global optimization methods, in particular, strive to solve nonconvex problems, which often arise in chemical engineering, and deterministic algorithms such as ...

  15. Global observations of UV-absorbing aerosols from ERS-2/GOME Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Global observations of UV-absorbing aerosols from ERS-2/GOME Data Martin de Graaf Piet Stammes Absorbing Aerosol Index ­ Theory GOME AAI results Conclusions & Outlook #12; Absorbing Aerosol Index; Rayleigh (multiple) scattering clouds aerosols surface Top Of Atmosphere incoming radiation outgoing

  16. Global climate processes: Role of cirrus clouds for present and future PI: Ulrike Lohmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    26 P 2.2 CCC Global climate processes: Role of cirrus clouds for present and future climate PI nuclei affect cirrus clouds in the present and future climate? Does mineral dust lead to cirrus clouds the longwave radiation and could lead to a net cooling. Thus, it is important to better understand the role

  17. Conceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dommenget, Dietmar

    Conceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model Dietmar on the surface energy balance by very simple repre- sentations of solar and thermal radiation, the atmospheric and cold regions to warm more than other regions. Keywords Climate dynamics Á Climate change Á Climate

  18. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND THE GLOBAL CLIMATE SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF THE MAXIMUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    to absorption of solar radiation in the climate system is found to be irrelevant to the maximized prop- erties from hot to cold places, thereby producing the kinetic energy of the fluid itself. His generalTHE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND THE GLOBAL CLIMATE SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY

  19. Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols M. de (UV) absorbing aerosols, mainly desert dust and biomass burning aerosols. The AAI is not an aerosol quantity, but a radiation difference in the UV. Its main advantages are its insensitivity to scattering

  20. 24-hours ahead global irradiation forecasting using Multi-Layer Cyril Voyant1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; it is shown that the most relevant is based on a multi- output MLP using endogenous and exogenous input data ahead. In the case of solar plants, the driving factor is the global solar irradiation (sum of direct and diffuse solar radiation projected on a plane (Wh/m²)). This paper focuses on the 24-hours ahead forecast

  1. Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    555 Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction between the ICESat lidar in extinction-to-backscatter ratio and effective radius affect the forward modeled mean cloud fraction by no more than 10%. 1. Introduction Clouds play a major role in the Earth's radiation budget and predictions

  2. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9,...

  3. RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY................................................................................................................I-1 B. Radiation Protection Program...............................................................................I-3 D. Radiation Safety Management

  4. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

  5. MTBE -- A global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludlow, W.I.; Miller, K.D. Jr.; Liew, R.E. van [DeWitt and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a major and familiar component of Reformulated and Oxygenated gasoline in the US. As such, it is essential to the success of the Clean Air Act programs now reaching a crescendo in major urban areas. In less than ten years, US MTBE capacity has grown from about 4,000 B/D to more than 200,000 B/D. Outside of the USA, its role is less widely understood. Although MTBE markets elsewhere are much less driven by legislation, they have seen the same spectacular growth prospects. Overall, about as much MTBE is used today overseas as in the US. To date, this has to be one of the petrochemical industry`s major success stories. Yet today, the MTBE industry stands at a crossroads, with the direction of future development uncertain at best. DeWitt`s gasoline and oxygenates team has closely observed the ups and downs of this market during most of its turbulent history. In this paper, the authors shall try to set down the major developments and prospects, with the personal familiarity of having been there when things changed. The story begins with a brief historical sketch, leading up to the identification of four critical periods in which major changes took place. The causes of today`s uncertainty lie in all of these stages, and are in a very real sense an example of the ``Law of Unintended consequences.`` Having set the stage, a cautious set of predictions will be put forth. These are neither as promising as proponents would like, nor as unpromising as some would tend to believe.

  6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 Psychiatric Institute Radiation Safety Office (Please complete this form within 24 hours and send a copy to your supervisor and The Radiation Safety Office) Your Name

  7. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212: _______________ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Radiation Safety Office Approval: ______________________ Date: ________________________ Waste containers in place: Yes ___ No ___ Radiation signage on door: Yes ___ No ___ Room monitoring: Dates

  8. Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    to Workers; Inspections 27 10 CFR Part 20Standards for Protection Against Radiation 28 10 CFR Part 35Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated December 2012 Stanford University, Stanford California #12; #12; Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated

  9. Trends in the design and analysis of components fabricated from CFCCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, S.F.; Palko, J.L. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.; Sandifer, J.B.; DeBellis, C.L.; Edwards, M.J. [Babcock and Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Hindman, D.L. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States). Lynchburg Research Center

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous fiber ceramic composite materials (CFCCs) are being considered for an increasing number of commercial applications. They provide the potential for lighter, stronger, more corrosion-resistant components that can perform at higher temperature for long periods of time. Global competitiveness demands a shortening of the time for CFCC commercialization. Thus, considerable effort has been expended to develop and improve the materials, and to a lesser extent, to develop component design methods and data bases of engineering properties. To shorten the time to commercialization project efforts must be integrated, while balancing project resources between material development and engineering design. Currently a good balance does not exist for most materials development projects. To rectify this imbalance, improvements in engineering design and development technologies must be supported and accelerated, with a focus on component issues. This will require project managers to give increasing emphasis to component design needs in addition to their current focus on material development.

  10. A Module for Radiation Hydrodynamic Calculations With ZEUS-2D Using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Turner; J. M. Stone

    2001-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A module for the ZEUS-2D code is described which may be used to solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics to order unity in v/c, in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. In this approximation, the tensor Eddington factor f which closes the radiation moment equations is chosen to be an empirical function of radiation energy density. This is easier to implement and faster than full-transport techniques, in which f is computed by solving the transfer equation. However, FLD is less accurate when the flux has a component perpendicular to the gradient in radiation energy density, and in optically thin regions when the radiation field depends strongly on angle. The material component of the fluid is here assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy equations are operator-split, with transport terms, radiation diffusion term, and other source terms evolved separately. Transport terms are applied using the same consistent transport algorithm as in ZEUS-2D. The radiation diffusion term is updated using an alternating-direction implicit method with convergence checking. Remaining source terms are advanced together implicitly using numerical root-finding. However when absorption opacity is zero, accuracy is improved by treating compression and expansion source terms using time-centered differencing. Results are discussed for test problems including radiation-damped linear waves, radiation fronts propagating in optically-thin media, subcritical and supercritical radiating shocks, and an optically-thick shock in which radiation dominates downstream pressure.

  11. Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

  12. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  13. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  14. The Intense Radiation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

  15. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  16. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  17. NDE Development for ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ACERT ENGINE COMPONENTS J. G. Sun Argonne National Laboratory Collaborators: Jeff Jensen, Nate Phillips Caterpillar, Inc. HT Lin, Mike Kass, D. Ray Johnson Oak Ridge National...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: understanding hydrogen components

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen components Energy Department Awards 7M to Advance Hydrogen Storage Systems On June 12, 2014, in CRF, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Facilities,...

  19. Structural Automotive Components from Composite Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Focal Project 4: Structural Automotive Components from Composite Materials Libby Berger (General Motors) John Jaranson (Ford) Presented by Hamid Kia (General Motors) May 16, 2012...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Materials & Components Compatibility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Personnel Water Power in the News Geothermal Advanced Bit Development Geothermal Energy & Drilling Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Materials & Components...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Materials and Components Compatibilitiy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this is a protected post. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program On November 9, 2010, in Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Hydrogen...

  2. Observable dark radiation from cosmologically safe QCD axion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a QCD axion model that avoids the cosmological domain wall problem, introducing a global SU(3)_f family symmetry to which we embed the unwanted PQ discrete symmetry. The spontaneous breaking of SU(3)_f and PQ symmetry predicts eight NG bosons as well as axion, all of which contribute to dark radiation in the Universe. The derivation from the standard model prediction of dark radiation can be observed by future observations of CMB fluctuations. Our model also predicts a sizable exotic kaon decay rate, which is marginally consistent with the present collider data and would be tested by future collider experiments.

  3. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  4. Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

  5. PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

  6. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  7. The Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Ignatov

    2001-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An example of discontinuity of the energy-momentum tensor moving at superluminal velocity is discussed. It is shown that the gravitational Mach cone is formed. The power spectrum of the corresponding Cherenkov radiation is evaluated.

  8. Radiation from Accelerated Branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohab Abou-Zeid; Miguel S. Costa

    2000-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation emitted by accelerated fundamental strings and D-branes is studied within the linear approximation to the supergravity limit of string theory. We show that scalar, gauge field and gravitational radiation is generically emitted by such branes. In the case where an external scalar field accelerates the branes, we derive a Larmor-type formula for the emitted scalar radiation and study the angular distribution of the outgoing energy flux. The classical radii of the branes are calculated by means of the corresponding Thompson scattering cross sections. Within the linear approximation, the interaction of the external scalar field with the velocity fields of the branes gives a contribution to the observed gauge field and gravitational radiation.

  9. Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

  10. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  11. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  12. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  13. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of x-ray producing

  14. Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishok, Alla

    of External and Internal Doses E. Reports and Notices to Workers Chapter VII: Radiation ProtectionRadiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual

  15. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  16. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  17. Wavelet Denoising of Mobile Radiation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, D; Lanier, R

    2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation of wavelet analysis techniques as a means of filtering the gross-count signal obtained from radiation detectors has shown promise. These signals are contaminated with high frequency statistical noise and significantly varying background radiation levels. Wavelet transforms allow a signal to be split into its constituent frequency components without losing relative timing information. Initial simulations and an injection study have been performed. Additionally, acquisition and analysis software has been written which allowed the technique to be evaluated in real-time under more realistic operating conditions. The technique performed well when compared to more traditional triggering techniques with its performance primarily limited by false alarms due to prominent features in the signal. An initial investigation into the potential rejection and classification of these false alarms has also shown promise.

  18. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  19. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The form factors for the radiative transitions between charmonium mesons are investigated. We employ an anisotropic lattice using a Wilson gauge action, and domain-wall fermion action. We extrapolate the form factors to Q{sup 2} = 0, corresponding to a real photon, using quark-model-inspired functions. Finally, comparison is made with photocouplings extracted from the measured radiative widths, where known. Our preliminary results find photocouplings commensurate with these experimentally extracted values.

  20. Radiative Processes Working Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The

  1. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  2. Gravitational Tunneling Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2002-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The isolated black hole radiation of both Hawking and Zel'dovich are idealized abstractions as there is always another body to distort the potential. This is considered with respect to both gravitational tunneling, and black hole "no-hair" theorems. The effects of a second body are to lower the gravitational barrier of a black hole and to give the barrier a finite rather than infinite width so tha a particle can escape by tunneling (as in field emission) or over the top of the lowered barrier (as in Schottky emission). Thus radiation may be emitted from black holes in a process differing from that of Hawking radiation, P SH, which has been undetected for over 24 years. The radiated power from a black hole derived here is PR e ^2__ PSH, where e ^2__ is he ransmission probability for radiation through the barrier. This is similar to electric field emission of electrons from a metal in that the emission can in principle be modulated and beamed. The temperature and entropy of black holes are reexamined. Miniscule black holes herein may help explain the missing mass of the universe, accelerated expansion of the universe, and anomalous rotation of spiral galaxies. A gravitational interference effect for black hole radiation similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect is also examined.

  3. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  4. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  5. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  6. The origin of thermal component in the transverse momentum spectra in high energy hadronic processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander A. Bylinkin; Dmitri E. Kharzeev; Andrei A. Rostovtsev

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The transverse momentum spectra of hadrons produced in high energy collisions can be decomposed into two components: the exponential ("thermal") and the power ("hard") ones. Recently, the H1 Collaboration has discovered that the relative strength of these two components in Deep Inelastic Scattering depends drastically upon the global structure of the event - namely, the exponential component is absent in the diffractive events characterized by a rapidity gap. We discuss the possible origin of this effect, and speculate that it is linked to confinement. Specifically, we argue that the thermal component is due to the effective event horizon introduced by the confining string, in analogy to the Hawking-Unruh effect. In diffractive events, the $t$-channel exchange is color-singlet and there is no fragmenting string -- so the thermal component is absent. The slope of the soft component of the hadron spectrum in this picture is determined by the saturation momentum that drives the deceleration in the color field, and thus the Hawking-Unruh temperature. We analyze the data on non-diffractive $pp$ collisions and find that the slope of the thermal component of the hadron spectrum is indeed proportional to the saturation momentum.

  7. Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D

    2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting global and regional climate change requires the inclusion of carbon cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial carbon fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-carbon models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. Carbon-climate models are going to be complex, with the carbon cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled carbon-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation of biogeochemical processes.

  8. Planck 2015 results. X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Alves, M I R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planck has mapped the microwave sky in nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature and seven bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive a consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided with angular resolutions varying between 7.5 arcmin and 1 deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, wi...

  9. Hydrogenation of individual components isolated from Athabasca bitumen vacuum resid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, W.H. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Chornet, E.; Tiwari, P.; Heitz, M. (Sherbrooke Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to produce synthetic fuels from heavy oils and vacuum resids depends on a number of factors, among them being geological origin, thermal history and type of upgrading process. In general, the properties of resids are sufficiently different that for each a unique set of processing conditions can be found to optimize its conversion to distillate. Ideally, one would like to predict a resid's upgradability and the optimum processing conditions from a few simple analytical lab tests. Unfortunately, properties of vacuum resids determined by conventional analytical methods correlate only loosely with upgradability. The pitch conversion and distillate yield most commonly used to monitor processes provide little insight into the upgrading chemistry. The same can be said for global parameters such as sulfur and nitrogen conversions. At present there is no recourse but to process each feedstock on a suitable large scale. This is expensive and time consuming. The objective of the present study is to establish a good model of upgrading chemistry that explains which components in a feedstock cause problems, which are most reactive, which interact with catalysts, and which convert to distillate or residue. Such knowledge should lead to analytical methods sensitive to the chemical changes occurring during upgrading. This paper reports the modified chromatographic separation procedures and some initial results for the hydroprocessing of Athabasca bitumen vacuum resid (ABVB) and its maltene and asphaltene components using a newly designed bubbling microautoclave.

  10. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  11. PARTNER, GLOBAL PUBLIC SECTOR DIRECTOR OF GLOBAL SALES STRATEGY & EXECUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    as never before. It reveals everything from large and systemic patterns--of global markets, workflows are best positioned to outperform in the "Decade of Smart." And as centers of business, culture and life, over pizza and drinks, we discuss how to solve the problems of the GLOBE, and our only home - planet

  12. Working With Radiation For Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    working with radiation The radiation badge is not a protective device It cannot shield you from ­ Negative Exponential Protection From Radiation #12;18 Time Distance Shielding Basic Principles #121 Working With Radiation For Research Thomas Cummings Junior Physicist Environmental Health

  13. Radiation Safety Annual Refresher Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Radiation Safety Annual Refresher Training Radiation Protection Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety #12;Topics in Radiation Safety (applicable RPD Manual sections indicated) User;Topics in Radiation Safety (applicable RPD Manual sections indicated) User and Non-user topics Types

  14. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  15. Impact of conversion to mixed-oxide fuels on reactor structural components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yahr, G.T.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel to replace conventional uranium fuel in commercial light-water power reactors will result in an increase in the neutron flux. The impact of the higher flux on the structural integrity of reactor structural components must be evaluated. This report briefly reviews the effects of radiation on the mechanical properties of metals. Aging degradation studies and reactor operating experience provide a basis for determining the areas where conversion to MOX fuels has the potential to impact the structural integrity of reactor components.

  16. Making Globalization Work for Sustainable Human Development The Global Programme Paradigm : A Synthesis Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the best practices and strategies to manage their integration into the global economy and therefore bringMaking Globalization Work for Sustainable Human Development The Global Programme Paradigm-UNDP Global Programme on Globalization, Liberalization and Sustainable Human Development* Gabriela Tejada

  17. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  18. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  19. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Dali [ORNL] [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL] [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL] [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL] [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL] [ORNL; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  20. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiation EffectsProtection

  1. Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets David, Massachusetts 02139, USA bermel@mit.edu Abstract: Solar thermal, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV by selective solar absorbers and TPV selective emitters. To improve these critical components, we study a class

  2. Measuring the bioenergetic cost of fish activity in situ using a globally dispersed radiotracer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, Joseph

    Measuring the bioenergetic cost of fish activity in situ using a globally dispersed radiotracer is an important component of the bioenergetic budget of fish, yet this parameter has rarely been quantified for wild populations. Using a 137 Cs mass balance approach, we estimated the annual bioenergetic budgets

  3. X. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN DIFFUSE AND GLOBAL IRRADIANCE For numerous applications, particularly those

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    in the Pacific Northwest along with cor- responding data from the Solar Energy Mete- orological Research33 X. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN DIFFUSE AND GLOBAL IRRADIANCE For numerous applications, particularly the direct and diffuse components of the incident solar intensity. Because constant care is needed to measure

  4. Component Technologies: Java Beans, COM, CORBA, RMI, EJB and the CORBA Component Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Wolfgang

    Component Technologies: Java Beans, COM, CORBA, RMI, EJB and the CORBA Component Model Wolfgang, such as Java Beans and distributed object technolo- gies, such as the Common Object Request Broker Archi how these technologies matured into distributed component models, in partiuclar Enterprise Java Beans

  5. RENEWABLES 2007 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    RENEWABLES 2007 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT www.ren21.net #12;Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st renewable energy. It provides a forum for leadership and exchange in international policy processes. It bolsters appropriate policies that increase the wise use of renewable energies in developing

  6. Agricultural Sciences for Global Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agricultural Sciences for Global Development ­ SLU's contribution Research Capacity building Provision of expertise The mission of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) is "to develop in rural areas, and agriculture plays an essential role in their livelihoods. Nevertheless, FAO estimates

  7. RENEWABLES 2005 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    to renewable energy. The establishment of a global policy network was embraced in the Political Declaration Research Institute Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association China Susan McDade Energy Environment Institute Lead Author: Eric Martinotwww.ren21.net #12;Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century

  8. Satellite Radio: Its Global Impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    Satellite Radio: Its Global Impact TIFR Alumni Lecture By S.Rangarajan #12;1 A wonder called RADIO "No wonder so many physicists started as radio tinkers, and no wonder, before physicist became on Richard Feynmann We will stick to the definition of Radio as · Wireless Audio Delivery ·Listener cannot

  9. GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson Biomass and Resource Efficiency: the need for a supply led approach the wood come from? Western EU Deficit Eastern EU Deficit Rest of Eastern Europe Balanced Russia Rest of Eastern Europe Balanced Russia Is probably at production ceiling under current conditions Japan

  10. Conservation and Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

  11. 7, 38373857, 2007 Global transports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and 180 are still transporting into soil and water. It is found that lighter PCBs have more long range international concern with identifying and managing environmentally persistent substances that are bothACPD 7, 3837­3857, 2007 Global transports and budgets of PCBs P. Huang et al. Title Page Abstract

  12. Global and Koopman modes analysis of sound generation in mixing layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, G.; Robinet, J.-C.; Gloerfelt, X. [Laboratoire DynFluid, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, 151 Boulevard de l’Hopital, 75013 Paris (France)] [Laboratoire DynFluid, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, 151 Boulevard de l’Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Alizard, F. [Laboratoire DynFluid, CNAM, 151 Boulevard de l’Hopital, 75013 Paris (France)] [Laboratoire DynFluid, CNAM, 151 Boulevard de l’Hopital, 75013 Paris (France)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is now well established that linear and nonlinear instability waves play a significant role in the noise generation process for a wide variety of shear flows such as jets or mixing layers. In that context, the problem of acoustic radiation generated by spatially growing instability waves of two-dimensional subsonic and supersonic mixing layers are revisited in a global point of view, i.e., without any assumption about the base flow, in both a linear and a nonlinear framework by using global and Koopman mode decompositions. In that respect, a timestepping technique based on disturbance equations is employed to extract the most dynamically relevant coherent structures for both linear and nonlinear regimes. The present analysis proposes thus a general strategy for analysing the near-field coherent structures which are responsible for the acoustic noise in these configurations. In particular, we illustrate the failure of linear global modes to describe the noise generation mechanism associated with the vortex pairing for the subsonic regime whereas they appropriately explain the Mach wave radiation of instability waves in the supersonic regime. By contrast, the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) analysis captures both the near-field dynamics and the far-field acoustics with a few number of modes for both configurations. In addition, the combination of DMD and linear global modes analyses provides new insight about the influence on the radiated noise of nonlinear interactions and saturation of instability waves as well as their interaction with the mean flow.

  13. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  14. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  15. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven R. Sherman; Dane F. Wilson; Steven J. Pawel

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R&D decisions.

  16. ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Anthropogenic climate change studies: scenario experiments (96) : : : : : : : : : 7 2 following its creation, the ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' team had to make its proofs in order

  17. COLUMBIA ENGINEERING WINTER GLOBAL EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE: EXPLORING GLOBAL ENGINEERING WITH CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    COLUMBIA ENGINEERING WINTER GLOBAL EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE: EXPLORING GLOBAL ENGINEERING WITH CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG JANUARY 7th ­ 15TH , 2012 Program Features The Winter Global Educational Experience is open to Columbia Engineering

  18. SKIRT: the design of a suite of input models for Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baes, Maarten

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Monte Carlo method is the most popular technique to perform radiative transfer simulations in a general 3D geometry. The algorithms behind and acceleration techniques for Monte Carlo radiative transfer are discussed extensively in the literature, and many different Monte Carlo codes are publicly available. On the contrary, the design of a suite of components that can be used for the distribution of sources and sinks in radiative transfer codes has received very little attention. The availability of such models, with different degrees of complexity, has many benefits. For example, they can serve as toy models to test new physical ingredients, or as parameterised models for inverse radiative transfer fitting. For 3D Monte Carlo codes, this requires algorithms to efficiently generate random positions from 3D density distributions. We describe the design of a flexible suite of components for the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The design is based on a combination of basic building blocks (which can...

  19. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  20. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  1. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

  2. Ultraviolet radiation in the southern seas in early spring 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendler, G.; Quakenbush, T. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Science Foundation research vessel Nathaniel B. Palmer carried out a cruise to Antarctica in early spring of 1993. It left Punta Arenas, Chile, close to the tip of South America on 11 August 1993. sailed south for 3 days to the tip of The Antarctic Peninsula, stopping at O`Higgens and Palmer Stations, and from there went southwest and into the Bellingshausen sea. On 10 September, it reached the most southerly position, 71{degrees}S, some distance north of the Thurston Island. From there, it went as far as 110{degrees}W before returning to Punta Arenas. The main purpose of the cruise was to investigate the snow- and sea-ice thickness, properties, and structures in this part of the southern oceans. It also allowed us to carry out continuous radiation measurements. We measured the following fluxes: global radiation (Eppley PSP), infrared incoming radiation (Eppley Pyrgeometer PIR), ultraviolet-A radiation (Eppley UV meter), ultraviolet-B radiation (Yankee Environmental Systems), and pitch and roll of the ship (Lucas Sensing Systems, Inc.). All instruments were sampled twice per second (Campbell Scientific, Model 21 X), and a notebook computer (ASI Patriot) stored 1-minute averages of the radiation data and 1-minute standard deviation of the ship`s pitch and roll. Visual observations of cloud cover were also recorded. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Coherent Nuclear Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Yukalov; E. P. Yukalova

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of this review is devoted to the comprehensive description of coherent radiation by nuclear spins. The theory of nuclear spin superradiance is developed and the experimental observations of this phenomenon are considered. The intriguing problem of how coherence develops from initially incoherent quantum fluctuations is analysed. All main types of coherent radiation by nuclear spins are discussed, which are: free nuclear induction, collective induction, maser generation, pure superradiance, triggered superradiance, pulsing superradiance, punctuated superradiance, and induced emission. The influence of electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions and the role of magnetic anisotropy are studied. Conditions for realizing spin superradiance by magnetic molecules are investigated. The possibility of nuclear matter lasing, accompanied by pion or dibaryon radiation, is briefly touched.

  4. Pediatric radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

  5. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  6. Components for Face Recognition Bernd Heisele

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggio, Tomaso

    Components for Face Recognition Bernd Heisele Honda Research Institute USA, Inc. Boston, USA bheisele@honda-ri.com Takamasa Koshizen Honda Research Institute Japan, Co. Ltd. Wako-shi, Japan koshiz@jp.honda

  7. Big data : evolution, components, challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarate Santovena, Alejandro

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work reviews the evolution and current state of the "Big Data" industry, and to understand the key components, challenges and opportunities of Big Data and analytics face in today business environment, this is analyzed ...

  8. Symplectic Nonlinear Component Lucas C. Parra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Lucas C.

    Symplectic Nonlinear Component Analysis Lucas C. Parra Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 lucas@scr.siemens.com Abstract Statistically independent features can feed-forward, information conserving, nonlinear map - the explicit symplectic transformations. It also

  9. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  10. Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project (AMD 304)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    block, bore and journal strategies 2.2 Fasteners, gaskets, sealing 2.3 Coolant and corrosion 2.4 FEA design, integration and analysis 2.5 Component casting and casting analysis...

  11. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  12. Thermochemical nanolithography components, systems, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedo, Elisa; Marder, Seth R.; de Heer, Walt A.; Szoskiewicz, Robert J.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Jones, Simon C.; Okada, Takashi; Wang, Debin; Curtis, Jennifer E.; Henderson, Clifford L.; Hua, Yueming

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved nanolithography components, systems, and methods are described herein. The systems and methods generally employ a resistively heated atomic force microscope tip to thermally induce a chemical change in a surface. In addition, certain polymeric compositions are also disclosed.

  13. Components Interoperability through Mediating Connector Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spalazzese, Romina; 10.4204/EPTCS.37.3

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key objective for ubiquitous environments is to enable system interoperability between system's components that are highly heterogeneous. In particular, the challenge is to embed in the system architecture the necessary support to cope with behavioral diversity in order to allow components to coordinate and communicate. The continuously evolving environment further asks for an automated and on-the-fly approach. In this paper we present the design building blocks for the dynamic and on-the-fly interoperability between heterogeneous components. Specifically, we describe an Architectural Pattern called Mediating Connector, that is the key enabler for communication. In addition, we present a set of Basic Mediator Patterns, that describe the basic mismatches which can occur when components try to interact, and their corresponding solutions.

  14. COMPONENTS, PLATFORMS, AND ARCHITECTURES Subthreshold Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    as reducing resource consumption have become emerging trends in computing. As computers increase in speed Modeling the Energy Consumption of Distributed Applications A Comparative Study of Runtime Systems for COMPONENTS, PLATFORMS, AND ARCHITECTURES Subthreshold Computing Energy-Efficient Network

  15. Globalization of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swayne, Rick [Reedy Engineering, 3425 South Bascom Ave. Suite E, Campbell, CA 95008 (United States); Erler, Bryan A. [Erler Engineering, Ltd., North Vernon, Indiana (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the globalization of the nuclear industry, it is clear that the reactor suppliers are based in many countries around the world (such as United States, France, Japan, Canada, South Korea, South Africa) and they will be marketing their reactors to many countries around the world (such as US, China, South Korea, France, Canada, Finland, Taiwan). They will also be fabricating their components in many different countries around the world. With this situation, it is clear that the requirements of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards need to be adjusted to accommodate the regulations, fabricating processes, and technology of various countries around the world. It is also very important for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to be able to assure that products meeting the applicable ASME Code requirements will provide the same level of safety and quality assurance as those products currently fabricated under the ASME accreditation process. To do this, many countries are in the process of establishing or changing their regulations, and it is important for ASME to interface with the appropriate organizations in those countries, in order to ensure there is effective use of ASME Codes and standards around the world. (authors)

  16. Protection Strategy of Sensitive Body Organs in Radiation Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolfath, Ramin M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate protection strategies of sensitive body anatomy against the irradiation to the cancerous moving tumors in intensity modulated radiation therapy. Inspired by optimization techniques developed in statistical physics and dynamical systems, we deploy a method based on variational principles and formulate an efficient genetic algorithm which enable us to search for global minima in a complex landscape of irradiation dose delivered to the radiosensitive organs at risk. We take advantage of the internal motion of body anatomy during radiation therapy to reduce the unintentional delivery of the radiation to sensitive organs. We show that the accurate optimization of the control parameters, compare to the conventional IMRT and widely used delivery based on static anatomy assumption, leads to a significant reduction of the dose delivered to the organs at risk.

  17. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  18. Radiative Transfer Models for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vurm, Indrek

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present global radiative transfer models for heated relativistic jets. The simulations include all relevant radiative processes, starting deep in the opaque zone and following the evolution of radiation to and beyond the photosphere of the jet. The transfer models are compared with three gamma-ray bursts GRB 990123, GRB 090902B, and GRB 130427A, which have well-measured and different spectra. The models provide good fits to the observed spectra in all three cases. The fits give estimates for the jet magnetization parameter $\\varepsilon_{\\rm B}$ and the Lorentz factor $\\Gamma$. In the small sample of three bursts, $\\varepsilon_{\\rm B}$ varies between 0.01 and 0.1, and $\\Gamma$ varies between 340 and 1200.

  19. Investigations on Uniformity, Radiation Resistance and Calibration of ZEUS Calorimeter Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the high resolution sampling calorimeter. It consists of alternating layers of depleted uranium and plastic. As a matter of fact for the ZEUS uranium calorimeter there is no worsening expected due to the accumulated

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickens, Larry M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  2. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  3. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  4. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  5. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  6. Radiation.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiationRadiation Safety Work

  7. Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

  8. Radiation asymmetries during disruptions on DIII-D caused by massive gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commaux, N.; Baylor, L. R.; Jernigan, T. C.; Foust, C. R.; Combs, S.; Meitner, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Hollmann, E. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Moyer, R. A. [University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (United States); Humphreys, D. A.; Wesley, J. C.; Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major challenges that the ITER tokamak will have to face during its operations are disruptions. During the last few years, it has been proven that the global consequences of a disruption can be mitigated by the injection of large quantities of impurities. But one aspect that has been difficult to study was the possibility of local effects inside the torus during such injection that could damage a portion of the device despite the global heat losses and generated currents remaining below design parameter. 3D MHD simulations show that there is a potential for large toroidal asymmetries of the radiated power during impurity injection due to the interaction between the particle injection plume and a large n?=?1 mode. Another aspect of 3D effects is the potential occurrence of Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), which could induce large poloidal heat load asymmetries. This potential deleterious effect of 3D phenomena has been studied on the DIII-D tokamak, thanks to the implementation of a multi-location massive gas injection (MGI) system as well as new diagnostic capabilities. This study showed the existence of a correlation between the location of the n?=?1 mode and the local heat load on the plasma facing components but shows also that this effect is much smaller than anticipated (peaking factor of ?1.1 vs 3-4 according to the simulations). There seems to be no observable heat load on the first wall of DIII-D at the location of the impurity injection port as well as no significant radiation asymmetries whether one or 2 valves are fired. This study enabled the first attempt of mitigation of a VDE using impurity injection at different poloidal locations. The results showed a more favorable heat deposition when the VDE is mitigated early (right at the onset) by impurity injection. No significant improvement of the heat load mitigation efficiency has been observed for late particle injection whether the injection is done “in the way” of the VDE (upward VDE mitigated by injection from the upper part of the vessel vs the lower part) or not.

  9. The Ocean Lithosphere: A Fundamental Component of the Earth System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in controlling ocean chemistry. Better quantification of global

  10. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  11. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress reports for the first two years describe those year's achievements in detail. We discuss progress in the last project period in this document. Deployment of our work in CCA components, frameworks, and applications is an important metric of success. We also summarize the project's accomplishments in this regard at the end of the report. A list of project publications is also given.

  12. Performance of the AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. v. Doetinchem; S. Fopp; W. Karpinski; T. Kirn; K. Luebelsmeyer; J. Orboeck; S. Schael; A. Schultz von Dratzig; G. Schwering; T. Siedenburg; R. Siedling; W. Wallraff; U. Becker; J. Burger; R. Henning; A. Kounine; V. Koutsenko; J. Wyatt

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    For cosmic particle spectroscopy on the International Space Station the AMS experiment will be equipped with a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to improve particle identification. The TRD has 20 layers of fleece radiator with Xe/CO2 proportional mode straw tube chambers. They are supported in a conically shaped octagon structure made of CFC-Al-honeycomb. For low power consumption VA analog multiplexers are used as front-end readout. A 20 layer prototype built from final design components has achieved proton rejections from 100 to 2000 at 90% electron efficiency for proton beam energies up to 250 GeV with cluster counting, likelihood and neural net selection algorithms.

  13. Workforce Development in the Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    Workforce Development in the Global Economy: LINKING SKILLS AND CAPABILITIES Phil Psilos & Competitiveness Duke University INTRODUCTION NOVEMBER 2011 #12;Workforce Development in the Global Economy competitiveness, and innovation in the knowledge economy. Duke CGGC works with a network of researchers

  14. Electronic Communities: Global Village or Cyberbalkans?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electronic Communities: Global Village or Cyberbalkans? Marshall Van Alstyne Erik Brynjolfsson Tel KEYWORDS: Information Economy (AD02), Economic Theory (AM), Economic Impacts (BA01), Computerization of Society (BD0101), Organizational Structure (DA03), Information Flows (DD07), Globalization (AF1301

  15. Risk in the Global Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Shoumen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon footprints are not on the priority list of risk analysts in operations management for at least half or more of global businesses. What are the other risks in the global supply chain?

  16. Global Pollution: How Much Is Too Much?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevors, Jack T.; Saier, Milton H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    009-0252-0 Global Pollution: How Much Is Too Much? Jack T.1) How much global pollution can our planet tolerate andThere is already more pollution on our planet than we can

  17. Global vorticity shedding for a vanishing foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steele, Stephanie Chin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore several aspects of the phenomenon we call global vorticity shedding. Global vorticity shedding occurs when an object in viscous fluid suddenly vanishes, shedding the entire boundary layer vorticity into the wake ...

  18. Global Superdiffusion of Weak Chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itzhack Dana

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of kicked rotors is introduced, exhibiting accelerator-mode islands (AIs) and {\\em global} superdiffusion for {\\em arbitrarily weak} chaos. The corresponding standard maps are shown to be exactly related to generalized web maps taken modulo an ``oblique cylinder''. Then, in a case that the web-map orbit structure is periodic in the phase plane, the AIs are essentially {\\em normal} web islands folded back into the cylinder. As a consequence, chaotic orbits sticking around the AI boundary are accelerated {\\em only} when they traverse tiny {\\em ``acceleration spots''}. This leads to chaotic flights having a quasiregular {\\em steplike} structure. The global weak-chaos superdiffusion is thus basically different in nature from the strong-chaos one in the usual standard and web maps.

  19. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  20. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  1. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, Eric [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  2. Three Dimensional Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative Transfer (RT) effects play a crucial role in the thermal history of the intergalactic medium. Here I discuss recent advances in the development of numerical methods that introduce RT to cosmological hydrodynamics. These methods can also readily be applied to time dependent problems on interstellar and galactic scales.

  3. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  4. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  5. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat Pump Basics

  6. Bremsstrahlung radiation in the deuteron - proton collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Przerwa

    2005-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the fact that Bremsstrahlung radiation has been observed many years ago, it is still the subject of interest of many theoretical and experimental groups. Due to the high sensitivity of the NN --> NNgamma reaction to the nucleon-nucleon potential, Bremsstrahlung radiation is used as a tool to investigate details of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Such investigations can be performed at the cooler synchrotron COSY in the Research Centre Juelich, by dint of the COSY-11 detection system. For the first time at the COSY--11 experiment signals from gamma - quanta were observed in the time-of-flight distribution of neutral particles measured with the neutral particle detector. In this thesis the results of the identification of Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted via the dp --> dpgamma reaction in data taken with a proton target and a deuteron beam are presented and discussed. The time resolution of the neutral particle detector and its timing calibration are crucial for the identification of the dp --> dpgamma reaction. Therefore, methods of determining the relative timing between individual modules - constituting the neutron detector - and of the general time offset with respect to the other detector components are described. Furthermore the accuracy of the momentum determination of the registered neutron which defines the precision of the event reconstruction was extracted from the data.

  7. 4, 40694124, 2007 Global-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - water resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology

  8. Global Sustainability: Toward Definition BECKY J. BROWN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,Madison,Wisconsin53705,USA. Science Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Global

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Energy Efficiency, Facilities, Global Climate & Energy, Materials Science, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, Partnership, Research &...

  10. Optimization Online - Machine Learning for Global Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Cassioli

    2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 23, 2009 ... We propose to use a Support Vector Machine (although different machine ... Citation: Technical report - Global Optimization Laboratory, ...

  11. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grob, G.R. [CMDC, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  12. Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Viskanta, Raymond

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. L. Drolen, “Thermal radiation in particulate media withRadiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubblesthermophysical properties and radiation characteristics of

  13. Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. Abstract: A review is presented of recent results on radiation damage production, defect...

  14. Preliminary radiation shielding design for BOOMERANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary Radiation Shielding Design for BOOMERANG R. J.2003 Abstract Preliminary radiation shielding speci?cationsElectron Photon Stray Radiation from a High Energy Electron

  15. Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NUMBER 5 MAY 2004 Terahertz radiation from laser acceleratedand millimeter wave radiation from laser acceleratedNo. 5, May 2004 Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated

  16. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straume, Tore

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ionizing radiation. In: Advances in Medical Physics (A. B.for medical management of radiation casualties. ADVANCES INMedical Center presented the radiation oncology perspective on biomarkers. Advances

  17. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

  18. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 Protocol Title: Training for Sealed Source Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

  19. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval.

  20. The Emerging Chinese economy & its Global Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    The Emerging Chinese economy & its Global Impacts Department of Geography & IDS University of Sussex 5 February: The Emerging Chinese Economy & its Global Impacts + Decoding the Harmonious Socialist of Leicester 19 February: Global Production Network & the Chinese Economy Prof. John Humphrey, IDS 26 February